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Sample records for generalized repairing cost

  1. A general approach to total repair cost limit replacement policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beichelt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A common replacement policy for technical systems consists in replacing a system by a new one after its economic lifetime, i.e. at that moment when its long-run maintenance cost rate is minimal. However, the strict application of the economic lifetime does not take into account the individual deviations of maintenance cost rates of single systems from the average cost development. Hence, Beichet proposed the total repair cost limit replacement policy: the system is replaced by a new one as soon as its total repair cost reaches or exceeds a given level. He modelled the repair cost development by functions of the Wiener process with drift. Here the same policy is considered under the assumption that the one-dimensional probability distribution of the process describing the repair cost development is given. In the examples analysed, applying the total repair cost limit replacement policy instead of the economic life-time leads to cost savings of between 4% and 30%. Finally, it is illustrated how to include the reliability aspect into the policy.

  2. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  3. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  4. VEHICLE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE COSTS IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standard model was established for the prediction of repair and maintenance costs of vehicles in a non-profit making government parastatal. The model was derived based on data collected over a ten year period from a non-profit making government parastatal, and it predicts repair and maintenance costs as a linear ...

  5. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    Shock model; cumulative damage model; cumulative repair cost limit; preventive maintenance model. 1. Introduction. Most production systems are repaired or replaced when they have already failed. However, they may require much time and high expenses to repair a failed system, so maintaining a system to prevent ...

  6. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first.

  7. BMCloud: Minimizing Repair Bandwidth and Maintenance Cost in Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect data in cloud storage, fault tolerance and efficient recovery become very important. Recent studies have developed numerous solutions based on erasure code techniques to solve this problem using functional repairs. However, there are two limitations to address. The first one is consistency since the Encoding Matrix (EM is different among clouds. The other one is repairing bandwidth, which is a concern for most of us. We addressed these two problems from both theoretical and practical perspectives. We developed BMCloud, a new low repair bandwidth, low maintenance cost cloud storage system, which aims to reduce repair bandwidth and maintenance cost. The system employs both functional repair and exact repair while it inherits advantages from the both. We propose the JUDGE_STYLE algorithm, which can judge whether the system should adopt exact repair or functional repair. We implemented a networked storage system prototype and demonstrated our findings. Compared with existing solutions, BMCloud can be used in engineering to save repair bandwidth and degrade maintenance significantly.

  8. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Curriculum Guide and Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document contains a curriculum guide and lesson plans for a general mechanical repair course with three sections: minor automotive maintenance, small engine repair, and welding. The curriculum guide begins with a matrix that relates the lesson plans to essential elements of math, science, language arts, and social studies and to Texas…

  9. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

  10. Revision Arthroscopic Repair Versus Latarjet Procedure in Patients With Recurrent Instability After Initial Repair Attempt: A Cost-Effectiveness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Lamba, Nayan; Swart, Eric; Steinhaus, Michael E; Ahmad, Christopher S; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-09-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic revision instability repair and Latarjet procedure in treating patients with recurrent instability after initial arthroscopic instability repair. An expected-value decision analysis of revision arthroscopic instability repair compared with Latarjet procedure for recurrent instability followed by failed repair attempt was modeled. Inputs regarding procedure cost, clinical outcomes, and health utilities were derived from the literature. Compared with revision arthroscopic repair, Latarjet was less expensive ($13,672 v $15,287) with improved clinical outcomes (43.78 v 36.76 quality-adjusted life-years). Both arthroscopic repair and Latarjet were cost-effective compared with nonoperative treatment (incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 3,082 and 1,141, respectively). Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that under scenarios of high rates of stability postoperatively, along with improved clinical outcome scores, revision arthroscopic repair becomes increasingly cost-effective. Latarjet procedure for failed instability repair is a cost-effective treatment option, with lower costs and improved clinical outcomes compared with revision arthroscopic instability repair. However, surgeons must still incorporate clinical judgment into treatment algorithm formation. Level IV, expected value decision analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Competency Test Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document contains the competency test package for three sections of a general mechanical repair course: minor automotive maintenance, small engine mechanics, and welding. Following a list of the common essential elements for trade and industrial education, competency tests for the three sections are provided. Each test includes unit name,…

  12. General Mechanical Repair 2. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a 1-year course in general mechanical repair as part of the trade and industrial education curriculum. The guide contains the following: (1) essential elements common to all trade and industrial courses; (2) an instructional delivery outline (teaching sequence) for the…

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Emissions Reduction through Vehicle Repair Compared to CNG Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Paul L; Lesko, Jon M; Stedman, Donald H

    1996-10-01

    In return for a temporary waiver from converting five vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the Denver Clean Fuels program, the University of Denver identified, tested, repaired, and retested nine employee commuter vehicles. The results of the study validated the concept that employer-based identification and repair programs can be carried out in a cost-effective way. On average, each repaired vehicle removed fifty times more carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from Denver air than each CNG conversion. The average cost of each repair was eight times less than the average cost of each conversion. The average fuel economy benefit from the repairs was enough to pay for the average cost of repairs in less than three years of normal driving. When the expected lifetimes of repairs and conversions are included, the targeted repair program appears to be over sixty times more cost-effective as a CO emissions reduction strategy than CNG conversion.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of repairing versus replacing composite or amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzow, Philipp; Wiegand, Annette; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-11-01

    Repairing instead of replacing partially defective composite or amalgam restorations might reduce the initial treatment risks and costs, but could be less advantageous long-term due to repeated re-interventions being required. This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of repairing versus replacing composite or amalgam restorations. A mixed public-private-payer perspective from the German healthcare setting was adopted. A permanent molar with a three-surfaced partially defective composite or amalgam restoration in need of repair or replacement was modelled. Risks of complications after repair or complete replacement were derived by a rapid systematic literature review. The health outcome measure was tooth retention years. Costs were estimated from the German public and private fee catalogues. Monte-Carlo microsimulations were performed and incremental-cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were used to express cost differences per gain or loss of effectiveness. Compared with complete composite replacement, composite repairs were marginally more costly and more effective (€326 versus €321; 24.7 versus 24.0 years; ICER: €7.14). Amalgam repairs were more costly and more effective than complete replacement (€467 versus €326; 24.3 versus 23.7 years; ICER: €235). If composite repair costs were €166, composite repair was always cost-effective. This was not the case for amalgam repair. The size of the restoration, the reason for repair/replacement, and patients' age were found to influence the cost-effectiveness. Repair was found to be more effective, but not necessarily less costly than complete replacement of restorations. Repairing instead of replacing partially defective restorations is likely to retain teeth for longer compared with complete replacement. When considering cost-effectiveness, repairing composite can be recommended more strongly than repairing amalgam restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A minimum cost flow model for level of repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be

  16. A Minimum Cost Flow model for Level of Repair Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2008-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be

  17. Repair of Composites : Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassapoglou, C.; Rangelov, K.; Rangelov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or

  18. Repair of Composites: Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Rangelov, Konstantin; Rangelov, Svilen

    2017-08-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or wing panels under compression is analysed in detail and the fabrication cost of the panel made as a single piece or as an assembly of smaller identical components or modules is determined. The cost of special purpose repairs for two different damage sizes is compared to removing and replacing damaged modules. Hand layup and automated processing are compared. It is found that for certain repair sizes removing and replacing modules leads to lower overall cost as compared to applying a special purpose repair.

  19. Prediction of Combine Economic Life Based on Repair and Maintenance Costs Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Farm machinery managers often need to make complex economic decisions on machinery replacement. Repair and maintenance costs can have significant impacts on this economic decision. The farm manager must be able to predict farm machinery repair and maintenance costs. This study aimed to identify a regression model that can adequately represent the repair and maintenance costs in terms of machine age in cumulative hours of use. The regression model has the ability to predict the repair and maintenance costs for longer time periods. Therefore, it can be used for the estimation of the economic life. The study was conducted using field data collected from 11 John-Deer 955 combine harvesters used in several western provinces of Iran. It was found that power model has a better performance for the prediction of combine repair and maintenance costs. The results showed that the optimum replacement age of John-Deer 955 combine was 54300 cumulative hours.

  20. Maintenance & Repair Cost Calculation and Assessment of Resale Value for Different Alternative Commercial Vehicle Powertrain Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Florian; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2017-01-01

    For detailed evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership, expenditures for Maintenance & Repair as well as the resale value are important to consider and should not be neglected. However, information on Maintenance & Repair costs as well as residual values for commercial vehicles with alternative powertrains is missing and data on this issue is rare. There is a lack of information and consolidated knowledge. In order to enable a holistic cost assessment for commercial vehicles, a comprehensive ...

  1. Internal audit of costs on fixed assets repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Samchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the approaches to the process and methods of expenditure audit on repair and modernization of fixed assets and the author considers that there is no single approach to understanding the issue. The author improves the organizational and methodological support of internal audit of expenditures on the fixed assets repair and modernization that forms the accurate information for management repair and modernization of fixed assets. The paper specifies the goals and objectives of internal expenditures on repair and modernization of fixed assets, depending on the sources of such facilities to the company, allowing the author to determine the documentary control methods to be applied by an auditor to perform each task. The article determines the areas of risk components of internal control that can lead to ineffective implementation of authority by officials of an enterprise in the process of fixed assets repair, which can cause inefficient use of resources and, consequently, decrease in the efficiency of the work of fixed assets repair and modernization. The author proposes the list of auditor’s questions to assess the internal control system in the repair of fixed assets and these questions will help identify the significant drawbacks of control means.

  2. Decision making based on analysis of benefit versus costs of preventive retrofit versus costs of repair after earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2012-04-01

    dissipaters) to different amount and location in the building was considered. Device computations, a civil engineering method for building economics (and which was, before statistics existed, also the method for computing the costs of general upgrade of buildings), were done for the retrofit and for the repair measures, being able to be applied for different countries, also ones where there is no database on existing projects in seismic retrofit. The building elements for which the device computations were done are named "retrofit elements" and they can be new elements, modified elements or replaced elements of the initial building. The addition of the devices is simple, as the row in project management was, but, for the sake of comparison, also complex project management computed in other works was compared for innovative measures such as FRP (with glass and fibre). The theoretical costs for model measures were compared to the way costs of real retrofit for this building type (with reinforced concrete jacketing and FRP) are computed in Greece. The theoretical proposed measures were generally compared to those applied in practice, in Romania and Italy as well. A further study will include these, as in Italy diagonal braces with dissipation had been used. The typology of braces is relevant also for the local seismic culture, maybe outgoing for another type of skeleton structures the distribution of which has been studied: the timber skeleton. A subtype of Romanian reinforced concrete skeleton buildings includes diagonal braces. In order to assess the costs of rebuilding or general upgrade without retrofit, architecture methods for building economics are considered based on floor surface. Diagrams have been built to see how the total costs vary as addition between the preventive retrofit and the post-earthquake repair, and tables to compare to the costs of rebuilding, outgoing from a the model of addition of day-lighting in atria of buildings. The moment when a repair measure

  3. Repair and maintenance costs of 4WD tractors and self propelled combine harvesters in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Calcante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purchasing and maintaining tractors and operating machines are two of the most considerable costs of the agricultural sector, which includes farm equipment manufacturers, farm contractors and farms. In this context, repair and maintenance costs (R&M costs generally constitute 10-15% of the total costs related to agricultural equipment and tend to increase with the age of the equipment; hence, an important consideration in farm management is the optimal time for equipment replacement. Classical, R&M cost estimation models, calculated as a function of accumulated working hours, are usually developed by ASAE/ASABE for the United States operating conditions. However, R&M costs are strongly influenced by farming practices, operative conditions, crop and soil type, climatic conditions, etc. which can be specific for individual countries. In this study, R&M cost model parameters were recalculated for the current Italian situation. For this purpose, data related to the R&M costs of 100 4WD tractors with engine power ranging from 59 to 198 kW, and of 20 SP combine harvesters (10 straw walkers combines and 10 axial flow combines with engine power ranging from 159 to 368 kW working in Italy were collected. According to the model, which was obtained by interpolating the data through a two-parameter power function (proposed by ASAE/ASABE, the R&M cost incidence on the list price of Italian tractors at 12,000 working hours (estimated life of the machines was 48.6%, as compared with 43.2% calculated through the most recent U.S. model while, for self propelled combine harvesters, the R&M cost incidence at 3,000 working hours was 23.1 % as compared with 40.2% calculated through the same U.S. model.

  4. Army Corps of Engineers: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Sharing for Dam Safety Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reviewed for repairs associated with typical degradation of dams, such as embankment or foundation erosion through seepage. Under this authority...23The four PMAs are: The Bonneville Power Administration ( BPA ), the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA), the Southeastern Power...repairs associated with typical degradation of dams over time. Under this authority, sponsors are to pay their full cost share. For example, if a

  5. Cost-effective and rapid concrete repair techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Concrete is a principal component of many transportation structures. While highly durable, a : variety of processes degrade and damage concrete. Replacement is expensive. Many cases : warrant repair instead of replacement. Since many damage processes...

  6. Laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia repair: longitudinal outcomes and cost analysis using statewide claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Brett L; Kuo, Lindsay E Y; Simmons, Kristina D; Fischer, John P; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-03-01

    There is still considerable debate regarding the best operative approach to ventral hernia repair. Using two large statewide databases, this study sought to evaluate the longitudinal outcomes and associated costs of laparoscopic and open ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing elective ventral hernia repair from 2007-2011 were identified from inpatient discharge data from California and New York. In-hospital morbidity, in-hospital mortality, incidence of readmission, and incidence of revisional ventral hernia repair were evaluated as a function of surgical technique. The associated costs of medical care for laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia repair were evaluate for both the index procedure and all subsequent admissions and procedures within the study period. A total of 13,567 patients underwent elective ventral hernia repair with mesh; 9228 (69%) underwent OVHR and 4339 (31%) underwent LVHR. At time of the index procedure, LVHR was associated with a lower incidence of reoperation (OR 0.29, CI 0.12-0.58, p = 0.001), wound disruption (OR 0.35, CI 0.16-0.78, p = 0.01), wound infection (OR 0.50, CI 0.25-0.70, p Open ventral hernia repair was associated with a higher incidence of perioperative complications, postoperative readmissions and need for revisional hernia repair when compared to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, even when controlling for patient sociodemographics. In congruence, open ventral hernia repair was associated with higher costs for both the index hernia repair and tallied over the length of follow-up for readmissions and revisional hernia repair.

  7. Current Conditions and Development of Cost Accounting for Repairs and Improvement of Fixed Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Borys Zanko

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates theoretical and methodological aspects of cost accounting for repairs and improvement (upgrade, modification, finishing, retrofit, renovation) of fixed assets. The purpose of the article is to highlight the existing procedure of cost accounting for repairs and improvement of fixed assets and to develop recommendations for enhancement of legislation concerning such expenses in accounting. The object of the study is the set of theoretical and methodological issues of op...

  8. 78 FR 7718 - Review of the General Purpose Costing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    .... EP 431 (Sub-No. 4)] Review of the General Purpose Costing System AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... Transportation Board (Board) is proposing certain changes to its general purpose costing system, the Uniform... general purpose costing system. Adoption of the Unif. R.R. Costing Sys. as a Gen. Purpose Costing Sys. for...

  9. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  10. 34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 76.530 Section 76.530... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants and...

  11. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  12. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  13. Increasing Air Compressor Productivity While Reducing Maintenance and Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foss, R. S

    1993-01-01

    .... When this vital utility is put into this perspective we can start to deal with the considerations of systems engineering, planning, performance evaluation, cost control and preventive maintenance...

  14. General Versus Spinal Anesthesia: Which is a Risk Factor for Octogenarian Hip Fracture Repair Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Shih

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: General anesthesia increased the risk of postoperative morbidity in octogenarian patients after hip fracture repair, and patients with preexisting respiratory diseases were especially vulnerable. Spinal anesthesia is strongly recommended in such individuals.

  15. Availability estimation of repairable systems using reliability graph with general gates (RGGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Gyoung Tae

    2009-02-01

    By performing risk analysis, we may obtain sufficient information about the system to redesign it and lower the probability of the occurrence of an accident or mitigate the ensuing consequences. The concept of reliability is widely used to express risk of systems. The reliability is used for non-repairable systems. But nuclear power plant systems are repairable systems. With repairable systems, repairable components can improve the availability of a system because faults that are generated in components can be recovered. Hence, the availability of the system is more proper concept in case of repairable systems. Reliability graph with general gate (RGGG) is one of the system reliability analysis methods. The RGGG is a very intuitiveness method as compared with other methods. But the RGGG has not been applied to repairable systems yet. The objective of this study is to extend the RGGG in order to enable one to analyze repairable system. Determining the probability table for each node is a critical process to calculate the system availability in the RGGG method. Therefore finding the proper algorithms and making probability tables in various situations are the major a part of this study. The other part is an example of applying RGGG method to a real system. We find the proper algorithms and probability tables for independent repairable systems, dependent series repairable systems, and k-out-of-m (K/M) redundant parallel repairable systems in this study. We can evaluate the availability of real system using these probability tables. An example for a real system is shown in the latter part of this study. For the purpose of this analysis, the charging pumps subsystem of the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) was selected. The RGGG method extended for repairable systems has the same characteristic of intuitiveness as the original RGGG method and we can confirm that the availability analysis result from the repairable RGGG method is exact

  16. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A.; Lo, Simon S.; Wang, Jian Z.; Jia Guang; Yuh, William T. C.; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. Methods: The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T r as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. Results: A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ 2 min of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T r = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T r = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. Conclusions: These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  17. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A; Lo, Simon S; Wang, Jian Z; Jia, Guang; Yuh, William T C; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T(r) as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ(2) (min) of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T(r) = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T(r) = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  18. 34 CFR 75.530 - General cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 75.530 Section 75.530 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.530 General cost principles. The general principles to be used in...

  19. Repair costs and the intensity of vehicle use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł DROŹDZIEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents correlation analyses of real-life data associated with the intensity of use of vehicles and the costs of replacement of operating materials and components performed in a three-year period for delivery vans, which was operated by the Poczta Polska (Polish Mail delivery office in Lublin.

  20. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy : Mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapma, Marten R.; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I.; van der Hilst, Christian S.; Tielliu, Ignace F.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Prins, Ted R.; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Verhoeven, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods: From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with

  1. Adoption of robotics in a general surgery residency program: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffey, J Hunter; Michaels, Alex D; Mullen, Matthew G; Yount, Kenan W; Meneveau, Max O; Smith, Philip W; Friel, Charles M; Schirmer, Bruce D

    2017-06-01

    Robotic technology is increasingly being utilized by general surgeons. However, the impact of introducing robotics to surgical residency has not been examined. This study aims to assess the financial costs and training impact of introducing robotics at an academic general surgery residency program. All patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic cholecystectomy, ventral hernia repair (VHR), and inguinal hernia repair (IHR) at our institution from 2011-2015 were identified. The effect of robotic surgery on laparoscopic case volume was assessed with linear regression analysis. Resident participation, operative time, hospital costs, and patient charges were also evaluated. We identified 2260 laparoscopic and 139 robotic operations. As the volume of robotic cases increased, the number of laparoscopic cases steadily decreased. Residents participated in all laparoscopic cases and 70% of robotic cases but operated from the robot console in only 21% of cases. Mean operative time was increased for robotic cholecystectomy (+22%), IHR (+55%), and VHR (+61%). Financial analysis revealed higher median hospital costs per case for robotic cholecystectomy (+$411), IHR (+$887), and VHR (+$1124) as well as substantial associated fixed costs. Introduction of robotic surgery had considerable negative impact on laparoscopic case volume and significantly decreased resident participation. Increased operative time and hospital costs are substantial. An institution must be cognizant of these effects when considering implementing robotics in departments with a general surgery residency program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamiz, M.L.; Roman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform

  3. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz, M.L. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)], E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.es; Roman, Y. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform.

  4. General Mechanical Repair. Welding. Volume 2. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Five units on welding are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to oxyacetylene welding, oxyacetylene welding positions and applications, use of the cutting torch, introduction to shielded metal arc welding, and welding joints and positions. Each instructional unit generally contains eight components:…

  5. A systematic review of cost-effective treatment of postoperative rotator cuff repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Rebecca N; Kuhn, John E; Bergner, Jamie L; Rizzone, Katherine H

    2017-05-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative combines payment of multiple services for episodes of care into 1 bundle. Rotator cuff repair is a likely candidate for future inclusion. The objective of this study was to determine cost-effective, high-quality postoperative rehabilitation dosing and cryotherapy for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair based on systematic review of the literature. Systematic review of level I and level II articles was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Databases, and PEDro. Conference references and bibliographies were also reviewed. For postoperative therapy, keywords included rotator cuff, rotator cuff repair, exercise therapy, exercise, unsupervised, self-care, postoperative period, physical therapy, and physiotherapy; for cryotherapy, keywords included rotator cuff repair, shoulder, cryotherapy, and ice. Five studies compared postoperative outcomes in participants assigned to supervised therapy vs. unsupervised therapy. Three found no difference between groups. One found improved outcomes in supervised therapy. Limitations included that therapies were not consistently defined and significant methodologic issues were present, decreasing the applicability and validity of the results. Five articles examined cryotherapy outcomes in the postoperative shoulder. Two studies showed improved patient outcomes with cryotherapy vs. no cryotherapy; 2 studies showed no decrease in joint space temperatures at 90 minutes but decrease in temperature at 4 to 23 hours postoperatively. One study indicated that an ice bag and Ace bandage might be as effective as continuous, compressive cryotherapy units using patient-reported outcomes. Further studies are needed to determine effective dosing of physical therapy after rotator cuff repair. Cryotherapy is favorable and cost-effective using simple methods for delivery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generalized renewal process for analysis of repairable systems with limited failure experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez, Medardo; Joglar, Francisco; Modarres, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old', 'better than old but worse than new', 'better than new', and 'worse than old'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last three, which are more realistic in practice. In this paper, a robust solution to a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the five after repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is presented. This research demonstrates that the GRP offers a general approach to modeling repairable systems and discusses application of the classical maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches to estimation of the GRP parameters. This paper also presents a review of the traditional approaches to the analysis of repairable systems as well as some applications of the GRP and shows that they are subsets of the GRP approach. It is shown that the proposed GRP solution accurately describes the failure data, even when a small amount of failure data is available. Recent emphasis in the use of performance-based analysis in operation and regulation of complex engineering systems (such as those in space and process industries) require use of sound models for predicting failures based on the past performance of the systems. The GRP solution in this paper is a promising and efficient approach for such performance-based applications

  7. The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David H; Horvath, Alexander J; Goodney, Philip P; Rzucidlo, Eva M; Nolan, Brian W; Walsh, Daniel B; Zwolak, Robert M; Powell, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were -$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR market share. EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular

  8. The entropic cost of quantum generalized measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Luca; Sbroscia, Marco; Roccia, Emanuele; Gianani, Ilaria; Somma, Fabrizia; Mataloni, Paolo; Paternostro, Mauro; Barbieri, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Landauer's principle introduces a symmetry between computational and physical processes: erasure of information, a logically irreversible operation, must be underlain by an irreversible transformation dissipating energy. Monitoring micro- and nano-systems needs to enter into the energetic balance of their control; hence, finding the ultimate limits is instrumental to the development of future thermal machines operating at the quantum level. We report on the experimental investigation of a lower bound to the irreversible entropy associated to generalized quantum measurements on a quantum bit. We adopted a quantum photonics gate to implement a device interpolating from the weakly disturbing to the fully invasive and maximally informative regime. Our experiment prompted us to introduce a bound taking into account both the classical result of the measurement and the outcoming quantum state; unlike previous investigation, our entropic bound is based uniquely on measurable quantities. Our results highlight what insights the information-theoretic approach provides on building blocks of quantum information processors.

  9. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair under spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia: a randomized prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donmez T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Turgut Donmez,1 Vuslat Muslu Erdem,2 Oguzhan Sunamak,3 Duygu Ayfer Erdem,2 Huseyin Imam Avaroglu1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Lutfiye Nuri Burat State Hospital, 3Department of General Surgery, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP inguinal hernia repair is a well-known approach to inguinal hernia repair that is usually performed under general anesthesia (GA. To date, no reports compare the efficacy of spinal anesthesia (SA with that of GA for laparoscopic hernia repairs. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcome of TEP inguinal hernia repair performed when the patient was treated under SA with that performed under GA. Materials and methods: Between July 2015 and July 2016, 50 patients were prospectively randomized to either the GA TEP group (Group I or the SA TEP group (Group II. Propofol, fentanyl, rocuronium, sevoflurane, and tracheal intubation were used for GA. Hyperbaric bupivacaine (15 mg and fentanyl (10 µg were used for SA to achieve a sensorial level of T3. Intraoperative events related to SA, operative and anesthesia times, postoperative complications, and pain scores were recorded. Each patient was asked to evaluate the anesthetic technique by using a direct questionnaire filled in 3 months after the operation. Results: All the procedures were completed by the allocated method of anesthesia as there were no conversions from SA to GA. Pain was significantly less for 1 h (P<0.0001 and 4 h (P=0.002 after the procedure for the SA and GA groups, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups regarding complications, hospital stay, recovery, or surgery time. Generally, patients were more satisfied with SA than GA (P<0.020. Conclusion: TEP inguinal hernia repair can be safely performed under SA, and SA was associated with less postoperative pain, better recovery, and better

  10. Hospital costs associated with smoking in veterans undergoing general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Aparna S; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary; Vander Weg, Mark W; Cai, Xueya; Cullen, Joseph; Katz, David A

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 30% of patients undergoing elective general surgery smoke cigarettes. The association between smoking status and hospital costs in general surgery patients is unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare total inpatient costs in current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers undergoing general surgical procedures in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals; and to determine whether the relationship between smoking and cost is mediated by postoperative complications. Patients undergoing general surgery during the period of October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006 were identified in the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) data set. Inpatient costs were extracted from the VA Decision Support System (DSS). Relative surgical costs (incurred during index hospitalization and within 30 days of operation) for current and former smokers relative to never smokers, and possible mediators of the association between smoking status and cost were estimated using generalized linear regression models. Models were adjusted for preoperative and operative variables, accounting for clustering of costs at the hospital level. Of the 14,853 general surgical patients, 34% were current smokers, 39% were former smokers, and 27% were never smokers. After controlling for patient covariates, current smokers had significantly higher costs compared with never smokers: relative cost was 1.04 (95% Cl 1.00 to 1.07; p = 0.04); relative costs for former smokers did not differ significantly from those of never smokers: 1.02 (95% Cl 0.99 to 1.06; p = 0.14). The relationship between smoking and hospital costs for current smokers was partially mediated by postoperative respiratory complications. These findings complement emerging evidence recommending effective smoking cessation programs in general surgical patients and provide an estimate of the potential savings that could be accrued during the preoperative period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cost comparison of aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion versus open surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwert, A J; Wolfe, J; Whalen, R C; Pigott, J P; Kritpracha, B; Beebe, H G

    1999-08-01

    Shrinking health care resources impose a requirement to evaluate new technology for cost as well as clinical effectiveness. We studied an initial clinical experience with endograft treatment (EAG) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) at the beginning of an endovascular program in comparison with open surgical repair (OSR), which had been in use for decades. From March 1997 to April 1998, the utilization of hospital resources, actual cost, clinical descriptors, and treatment outcomes were recorded for two contemporaneous groups, each having 16 consecutive patients with AAA, treated with either EAG or OSR. Subjects were not randomized; EAG treatment was based on predetermined exclusion/inclusion criteria. Statistical comparison was by either Fisher's exact test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test. There were no differences between OSR and EAG in age, gender, AAA size, smoking status, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, history of coronary artery bypass grafts, previous vascular surgery, or other comorbidity. There were no deaths in either group. Patients treated by EAG procedure had significantly lower length of hospital stay, length of stay in intensive care unit, time in operating room, and cost of operating room without graft (P use. Endograft treatment utilizes significantly less hospital resources than open surgical repair. The endograft prosthesis contributes a significant cost increment that may decline with expanded use.

  12. [Spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia. Cost-effectiveness analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ordóñez, M; Tenías, J M; Picazo-Yeste, J

    2014-05-01

    To compare the costs related to the clinical effectiveness of general anesthesia versus spinal anesthesia in inguinal hernioplasty ambulatory surgery. An observational, retrospective cohort study measurement and analysis of cost-effectiveness, in the ambulatory surgery unit of a general hospital. All patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with primary inguinal hernia and scheduled for unilateral hernioplasty between January 2010 and December 2011 were included. Duration of anesthetic induction, length of stay in both the operating room, and in the post-anesthesia care unit, the anesthetic effectiveness (the incidence of adverse effects and the patient's comfort level), and variable economic costs associated with the use of drugs, as well as the use of human resources, were compared. The final analysis included 218 patients, 87.2% male, with a mean age of 53 years (range: 18-85 years). Of these, 139 (63.76%) received subarachnoid anesthesia and 79,(36.2%) general anesthesia. The length of time a patient remained in the post-anesthesia care unit was 337.6±160.2min in the subarachnoid anesthesia group, and 210.0±97.5min for the general anesthesia group (P<.001). Costs of drugs for general anesthesia were higher than that for subarachnoid anesthesia (86.2±8.3 vs. 18.7±7.2). The total cost difference between the 2 techniques was €115.8 more for subarachnoid anesthesia (P<.001). Both techniques showed similar effectiveness. The overall costs for subarachnoid anesthesia were greater than for the general. The cost-effectiveness of general anesthesia is better for outpatient inguinal hernia repair surgery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Endovascular aneurysm repair delivery redesign leads to quality improvement and cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Courtney J; Horvath, Alexander J; Powell, Richard J; Columbo, Jesse A; Walsh, Teri R; Goodney, Philip P; Walsh, Daniel B; Stone, David H

    2015-08-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is now a mainstay of therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysm, although it remains associated with significant expense. We performed a comprehensive analysis of EVAR delivery at an academic medical center to identify targets for quality improvement and cost reduction in light of impending health care reform. All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (N = 127). Procedures were included if they met standard commercial instructions for use guidelines, used a single manufacturer, and were billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group 238 (n = 49). By use of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) quality improvement methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, control), targets for EVAR quality improvement were identified and high-yield changes were implemented. Procedure technical costs were calculated before and after process redesign. Perioperative services and clinic visits were identified as targets for quality improvement efforts and cost reduction. Mean technical costs before the intervention were $31,672, with endograft implants accounting for 52%. Pricing redesign in collaboration with hospital purchasing reduced mean EVAR technical costs to $28,607, a 10% reduction in overall cost, with endograft implants now accounting for 46%. Perioperative implementation of instrument tray redesign reduced instrument use by 32% (184 vs 132 instruments), saving $50,000 annually. Unnecessary clinic visits were reduced by 39% (1.6 vs 1.1 clinic visits per patient) through implementation of a preclinic imaging protocol. There was no difference in mean length of stay after the intervention. Comprehensive EVAR delivery redesign leads to cost reduction and waste elimination while preserving quality. Future efforts to achieve more competitive and transparent device pricing will make EVAR more cost neutral and enhance its financial sustainability for health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Society for

  14. Variation in hospital costs and reimbursement for endovascular aneurysm repair: A Vascular Quality Initiative pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Gary W; Neal, Dan; DeMartino, Randall R; Schneider, Joseph R; Singh, Tej; Kraiss, Larry; Scali, Salvatore; Tassiopoulos, Apostolos; Hoel, Andrew; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2017-10-01

    Comparing costs between centers is difficult because of the heterogeneity of vascular procedures contained in broad diagnosis-related group (DRG) billing categories. The purpose of this pilot project was to develop a mechanism to merge Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) clinical data with hospital billing data to allow more accurate cost and reimbursement comparison for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures across centers. Eighteen VQI centers volunteered to submit UB04 billing data for 782 primary, elective infrarenal EVAR procedures performed by 108 surgeons in 2014. Procedures were categorized as standard or complex (with femoral-femoral bypass or additional arterial treatment) and without or with complications (arterial injury or embolectomy; bowel or leg ischemia; wound infection; reoperation; or cardiac, pulmonary, or renal complications), yielding four clinical groups for comparison. MedAssets, Inc, using cost to charge ratios, calculated total hospital costs and cost categories. Cost variation analyzed across centers was compared with DRG 237 (with major complication or comorbidity) and 238 (without major complication or comorbidity) coding. A multivariable model to predict DRG 237 coding was developed using VQI clinical data. Of the 782 EVAR procedures, 56% were standard and 15% had complications, with wide variation between centers. Mean total costs ranged from $31,100 for standard EVAR without complications to $47,400 for complex EVAR with complications and varied twofold to threefold among centers. Implant costs for standard EVAR without complications varied from $8100 to $28,200 across centers. Average Medicare reimbursement was less than total cost except for standard EVAR without complications. Only 9% of all procedures with complications in the VQI were reported in the higher reimbursed DRG 237 category (center range, 0%-21%). There was significant variation in hospitals' coding of DRG 237 compared with their expected rates. VQI clinical

  15. Cost analysis of robotic versus laparoscopic general surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Rana M; Frelich, Matthew J; Bosler, Matthew E; Gould, Jon C

    2017-01-01

    Robotic surgical systems have been used at a rapidly increasing rate in general surgery. Many of these procedures have been performed laparoscopically for years. In a surgical encounter, a significant portion of the total costs is associated with consumable supplies. Our hospital system has invested in a software program that can track the costs of consumable surgical supplies. We sought to determine the differences in cost of consumables with elective laparoscopic and robotic procedures for our health care organization. De-identified procedural cost and equipment utilization data were collected from the Surgical Profitability Compass Procedure Cost Manager System (The Advisory Board Company, Washington, DC) for our health care system for laparoscopic and robotic cholecystectomy, fundoplication, and inguinal hernia between the years 2013 and 2015. Outcomes were length of stay, case duration, and supply cost. Statistical analysis was performed using a t-test for continuous variables, and statistical significance was defined as p general surgery procedures for our health care system when cases commonly performed laparoscopically are instead performed robotically. Our analysis is limited by the fact that we only included costs associated with consumable surgical supplies. The initial acquisition cost (over $1 million for robotic surgical system), depreciation, and service contract for the robotic and laparoscopic systems were not included in this analysis.

  16. Application of Life Support Cost, Provisioning, and Repair/Discard Models to Weapon System Procurement Decisions by Small Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    state of conflict. d) Limited control of sales of co-produced systems to a third party. In addition, a small customer normally buys small quantities of...to minimize this cost element. For example, suppose that the choise is among the following repair policies: (a) all modules are repaired at... buy spares for one year if the item is discarded at failure. To obtain a high probability that a spare is available when a demand occurs, a more expen

  17. Cost of specific emergency general surgery diseases and factors associated with high-cost patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogola, Gerald O; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that overall cost of hospitalization for emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases is more than $28 billion annually and rising. The purposes of this study were to estimate the costs associated with specific EGS diseases and to identify factors associated with high-cost hospitalizations. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma definition was used to identify hospitalizations of adult EGS patients in the 2010 National Inpatient Sample data. Cost of each hospitalization was obtained using cost-to-charge ratio in National Inpatient Sample. Regression analysis was used to estimate the cost for each EGS disease adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Hospitalizations with cost exceeding 75th percentile for each EGS disease were compared with lower-cost hospitalizations to identify factors associated with high cost. Thirty-one EGS diseases resulted in 2,602,074 hospitalizations nationwide in 2010 at an average adjusted cost of $10,110 (95% confidence interval, $10,086-$10,134) per hospitalization. Of these, only nine diseases constituted 80% of the total volume and 74% of the total cost. Empyema chest, colorectal cancer, and small intestine cancer were the most expensive EGS diseases with adjusted mean cost per hospitalization exceeding $20,000, while breast infection, abdominal pain, and soft tissue infection were the least expensive, with mean adjusted costs of less than $7,000 per hospitalization. The most important factors associated with high-cost hospitalizations were the number and type of procedures performed (76.2% of variance), but a region in Western United States (11.3%), Medicare and Medicaid payors (2.6%), and hospital ownership by public or not-for-profit entities (5.6%) were also associated with high-cost hospitalizations. A small number of diseases constitute a vast majority of EGS hospitalizations and their cost. Attempts at reducing the cost of EGS hospitalization will require controlling the cost of

  18. Practical extensions to a minimum cost flow model for level of repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of repair analysis (LORA) gives answers to three questions that are posed when deciding on how to maintain capital goods: (1) which components to repair upon failure and which to discard, (2) at which locations in the repair network to perform each type of repairs, and (3) at which

  19. A Deterministic Inventory/Production Model with General Inventory Cost Rate Function and Concave Production Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Birbil (Ilker); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); Z.P. Bayindir (Pelin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe present a thorough analysis of the economic order quantity model with shortages under a general inventory cost rate function and concave production costs. By using some standard results from convex analysis, we show that the model exhibits a composite concave-convex structure.

  20. Hanford general employee training - A million dollar cost beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-02-01

    In January 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training. Covering all Institute of Nuclear Power Operations general employee training objectives, training mandated by US Department of Energy orders, and training prescribed by internal Westinghouse Hanford Company policies, Hanford General Employee Training presents and manages engaging training programs individually tailored to each of the 9,000 employees. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as Hanford General Employee Training were high compared to similar costs for developing ''equivalent'' traditional training. Hardware ($500,000) and labor costs ($400,000) totaled $900,000. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, are totalling about $200,000. On the benefit side, by consolidating some 17 previous Westinghouse Hanford Company courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, Hanford General Employee Training reduced the average student training time from over 11 hours to just under 4 hours. For 9,000 employees, the computed net annual savings exceeds $1.3 million. 2 refs

  1. 43 CFR 7.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions of a permit issued pursuant to this part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the... commercial value and cost of restoration and repair. 7.14 Section 7.14 Public Lands: Interior Office of the...

  2. 32 CFR 229.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... value and cost of restoration and repair. 229.14 Section 229.14 National Defense Department of Defense...

  3. 36 CFR 296.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair. 296.14 Section 296.14 Parks, Forests, and...

  4. 22 CFR 1104.13 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... value and cost of restoration and repair. 1104.13 Section 1104.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL...

  5. 18 CFR 1312.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair. 1312.14 Section 1312.14 Conservation of...

  6. Value engineering and cost effectiveness of various fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) repair systems : final report, June 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This report is an extension to the final report for NCDOT project 2004-15 Value Engineering and Cost-Effectiveness of : Various Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Repair Systems, submitted in June 2005. In that report, seventeen 30-ft long : prest...

  7. Optimum repair-level analysis (ORLA) and life cycle cost (LCC) models for the base and installation security system (BISS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, A.A.; Chipchak, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Models for Optimum Repair-Level Analysis (ORLA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis for Base and Installation Security System (BISS) equipment are described. The ORLA model determines the costs of alternative maintenance approaches for selection of the most economic maintenance approach. The LCC model determines the total cost to the Government for the development, acquisition, initial logistics support, and recurring support of a system over the projected inventory usage period. A unique feature of these models is the marriage of ORLA and ICC which enables LCC to utilize completely the most economic ORLA decision costs. This significantly reduces the overall LCC effort.

  8. Complex ventral hernia repair using components separation with or without biologic mesh: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Krishnan, Naveen M; Rosen, Joseph M

    2015-04-01

    A complex ventral hernia requiring abdominal wall reconstruction presents a challenging scenario to the surgeon. The use of biologic mesh in addition to performing a components separation (CS) is controversial. Our goal was to perform the first cost-utility analysis on the use of biologic mesh in addition to performing CS when performing complex ventral hernia repair. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify published complication and recurrence rates for ventral hernia repairs requiring CS with or without biologic mesh. The probabilities of the most common complications were combined with Medicare Current Procedural Terminology reimbursement codes, diagnosis related group reimbursement codes, and expert utility estimates to fit into a decision model to evaluate the cost utility of CS with and without biologic mesh in reconstructing ventral hernias. The decision model revealed a baseline cost increase of $775.65 and a 0.0517 increase in the quality-adjusted life-years when using biologic mesh yielding an incremental cost-utility ratio of $15,002.90/quality-adjusted life-year. One-way sensitivity analysis revealed that using biologic mesh was cost-effective using Medicare reimbursement rates but not at retail costs. The maximum price of biologic mesh to be cost-effective was $1813.53. The cost utility of biologic mesh when used with CS in ventral hernia repair is dependent on the financial perspective. It is cost-ineffective for hospitals and physicians paying retail costs but cost-effective for third-party payers providing Medicare reimbursement.

  9. Inventory of past DOE land disturbance, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and estimated general reclamation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Since 1976, DOE preliminary investigations for a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have caused widespread disturbances of the landscape. This report addresses the areal extent of those disturbances that have accrued up to June 1988, and identifies expected associated reclamation costs. It was first necessary to identify disturbances, next to classify them for reclamation purposes, and, then, to assign general reclamation costs. The purposes of the analysis were: (1) to establish the amount of disturbance that already exists in the area of Yucca Mountain in order to identify alterations of the landscape that comprise the existing baseline conditions; (2) to identify estimated general reclamation costs for repair of the disturbances; (3) to provide information needed to establish disturbance models, and eventually environmental impact models, that can be applied to future DOE activities during Site Characterization and later phases of repository development, if they occur, and (4) to provide indicators of the needs for reclamation of future disturbances created by DOE's Site Characterization program. Disturbances were estimated using measurements from June 1988, large scale color aerial photography. Two reconnaissance site visits were also conducted. The identified disturbance totals by type are displayed in tabular form in the appendices. 84 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Determination of repair and maintenance cost for MF375 tractor: a case study in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural tractor is at the center point of agricultural mechanization. Tractor costs have great influence on farm business profit. Knowledge of tractor costs for farm operations has a prime importance in making management plans and decisions especially in comparing different tractor types and models thereby assisting in the selection of a more appropriate farm tractor. This study reports the repair and maintenance cost for MF375 tractors with a view to providing such decision making aids as machine’s replacement and overall farm budgeting for machinery managers. Information on 75 MF375 tractors was obtained through a structured questionnaire. Data collected was sought on tractor characteristics and economic costs such as use of tractor each year, fuel consumption cost, lubrication oil cost, oil and fuel filters replacement cost and workmanship cost. Result showed that the cost of tractor spare parts replacement had the highest percentage share (54.2% from the total percentage cost followed by cost of fuel (20.4%, workmanship cost (13.0%, and then cost of lubrication oil (10.3% while cost of oil and fuel filter replacement had the least (2.1% percentage share.

  11. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... time of discovery. (b) Permanent repairs. An operator must make permanent repairs on its pipeline... repair procedures. 192.711 Section 192.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...

  12. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring methods to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved mitigation of fugitive emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is an important emerging topic in many industrial sectors. Efficacious leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs of the future yiel...

  13. Recovering full repair costs of INDOT infrastructure damaged by motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There are approximately 4,000 instances per year where state property located along Indiana Department of Transportation : (INDOT) maintained right-of-way needs to be replaced or repaired due to motor vehicle crashes. INDOT incurs significant financi...

  14. Recovering full repair costs of INDOT infrastructure damaged by motor vehicle crashes : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    There are approximately 4,000 instances per year that require infrastructure located along right-of-way maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) to be replaced or repaired due to motor vehicle crashes. This infrastructure includ...

  15. Developing a Predictive Model for Facility Repair Costs on United States Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    what impact making the decision to defer maintenance will have for future facility repairs. Therefore, one of the independent variables for this...DoD budgetary resources. This predictive model is relevant to making sound financial decisions at the corporate Air Force level. Making resource...July/August). Budgeting for facility maintenance and repair II: Multicriteria process for model selection. Journal of Management in Engineering , 71

  16. A General Model for Cost Estimation in an Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzion Barlev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP state that the cost of an asset acquired for cash is the fair value (FV of the amount surrendered, and that of an asset acquired in a non-monetary exchange is the FV of the asset surrendered or, if it is more “clearly evident,” the FV of the acquired asset. The measurement method prescribed for a non-monetary exchange ignores valuable information about the “less clearly evident” asset. Thus, we suggest that the FV in any exchange be measured by the weighted average of the exchanged assets’ FV estimations, where the weights are the inverse of the variances’ estimations. This alternative valuation process accounts for the uncertainty involved in estimating the FV of each of the asset in the exchange. The proposed method suits all types of exchanges: monetary and non-monetary. In a monetary transaction, the weighted average equals the cash paid because the variance of its FV is nil.

  17. Incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems under random conditions: The effect on the maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems that operates under random environmental conditions on the costs of a periodic replacement maintenance. The motivation of this paper is given by a recently published paper, where a wrong formulation of the expected cost for unit time under a periodic replacement policy is obtained. This wrong formulation is due to the incorrect assumption that the intensity function of minimally repaired systems that operate under random conditions has the same functional form as the failure rate of the first failure time. This produced an incorrect optimization of the replacement maintenance. Thus, in this note the conceptual differences between the intensity function and the failure rate of the first failure time are first highlighted. Then, the correct expressions of the expected cost and of the optimal replacement period are provided. Finally, a real application is used to measure how severe can be the economical consequences caused by the incorrect modeling of the failure process.

  18. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost structure of radiological procedures in the intermediary referral hospitals and general practice and to develop a cost accounting system for radiological examinations that takes into consideration all relevant cost factors and is suitable for management of radiology departments and regional planning of radiological resources. The material comprised 174,560 basic radiological examinations performed in 1991 at 5 intermediate referral hospitals and 13 public health centres in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Finland. All radiological departments in the hospitals were managed by a specialist in radiology. The radiology departments at the public health care centres operated on a self-referral basis by general practitioners. The data were extracted from examination lists, inventories and balance sheets; parts of the data were estimated or calculated. The radiological examinations were compiled according to the type of examination and equipment used: conventional, contrast medium, ultrasound, mammography and roentgen examinations with mobile equipment. The majority of the examinations (87%) comprised conventional radiography. For cost analysis the cost items were grouped into 5 cost factors: personnel, equipment, material, real estate and administration costs. The depreciation time used was 10 years for roentgen equipment, 5 years for ultrasound equipment and 5 to 10 years for other capital goods. An annual interest rate of 10% was applied. Standard average values based on a sample at 2 hospitals were used for the examination-specific radiologist time, radiographer time and material costs. Four cost accounting versions with varying allocation of the major cost items were designed. Two-way analysis of variance of the effect of different allocation methods on the costs and cost structure of the examination groups was performed. On the basis of the cost analysis a cost accounting program containing both monetary and

  19. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  20. On the optimal degree of imperfect repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    A simple cost-wise comparison between the minimal and perfect repair of a system is discussed first using a relevant example. The main focus of this note, however, is on imperfect (general) repair. The best repair for our system in this case is defined as the one that corresponds to the optimal level (extent) of repair actions that minimize the long-run expected cost per unit of time. This complex optimization problem is considered for a specific imperfect repair model (Kijima II), using the developed earlier asymptotic approach to the corresponding virtual age modelling. It is shown that the optimal solution exists when the failure rate of a system tends to infinity as t tends to infinity and the corresponding cost function decreases sufficiently fast. An example illustrating the optimization procedure is considered

  1. Value engineering and cost effectiveness of various fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) repair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Seventeen 40 year old C-Channel type prestressed concrete bridge girders and one impact damaged AASHTO : Type II prestressed concrete girder were tested under static and fatigue loading to determine the cost-effectiveness : and value engineering aspe...

  2. Generalized speed and cost rate in transitionless quantum driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen-Yu; You, Wen-Long; Dong, Yu-Li; Zhang, Chengjie; Yang, W. L.

    2018-03-01

    Transitionless quantum driving, also known as counterdiabatic driving, is a unique shortcut technique to adiabaticity, enabling a fast-forward evolution to the same target quantum states as those in the adiabatic case. However, as nothing is free, the fast evolution is obtained at the cost of stronger driving fields. Here, given the system initially gets prepared in equilibrium states, we construct relations between the dynamical evolution speed and the cost rate of transitionless quantum driving in two scenarios: one that preserves the transitionless evolution for a single energy eigenstate (individual driving), and the other that maintains all energy eigenstates evolving transitionlessly (collective driving). Remarkably, we find that individual driving may cost as much as collective driving, in contrast to the common belief that individual driving is more economical than collective driving in multilevel systems. We then present a potentially practical proposal to demonstrate the above phenomena in a three-level Landau-Zener model using the electronic spin system of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond.

  3. Building Maintenance and Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    labeled "Present Worth of All 25-Year Maint,.nance and Repair Costs," ,ere developed by multipl)ing the resources in Table 2 by the 7 or 10 percent...00 m 30 c 000 CD OMOO CC m *~ O mO co 0 c~ m n 0mc c. co 0 m00mm o mo cU m m Dm M .N.Q mcn, In N m g -t C𔄃’ m’ g. 0 .0 .O 0 c gmO mOo gg 2 0 ! NOO O...9JJ CLUCLCU UUIJLL w-- U ~ U .. u., U CUJ.l UUUILII uC. x.0* gMO MW a-- . C CA4"= ""r O- lw *-*-*-fl . . EMCCJU M"- 0 n .... .... .... .... .2 .. fl== W

  4. A cost study of a general practitioner hospital in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkart-van Roijen, L.; Moll van Charante, E.P.; Bindels, P.J.E.; Yzermans, C.J.; Rutten, F.F.H.

    2004-01-01

    To perform a cost study of the first general practitioner (GP) hospital in the Netherlands. We conducted a cost study in a GP hospital in the Netherlands. Data on healthcare utilisation from 218 patients were collected for a period of one year. The costs of admission to the GP hosptial were compared

  5. A cost study of a general practitioner hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Moll van Charante, E. P.; Bindels, P. J. E.; Yzermans, C. J.; Rutten, F. F. H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost study of the first general practitioner (GP) hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS: We conducted a cost study in a GP hospital in the Netherlands. Data on healthcare utilisation from 218 patients were collected for a period of one year. The costs of admission to the GP

  6. A Comparison of Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness of Radiac Repair Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Department of Defense, effectiveness cannot be measured in terms of financial data alone as there is no balance sheet or bottom line. If reliable measures of...labor are paid from a different appropriation acocunt : Military Personnel, Navy (MPN). All costs for the civilian-manned facilities are reported

  7. The feasibility, safety and cost of infiltration anaesthesia for hernia repair. Hvidovre Hospital Hernia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    week postoperative morbidity was low with one case of transient cerebral ischaemia and one case of pneumonia, but no case of urinary retention. On follow-up, 88% were satisfied with the procedure, including unmonitored local anaesthesia. The cost reduction was at least 160 Pounds per patient compared...

  8. Lifetime Costs and Outcomes of Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot Compared to Natural Progression of the Disease: Great Ormond Street Hospital Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rachael Maree; Isaac, Mark; Frigiola, Alessandra; Blundell, David; Brown, Kate; Bull, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease that requires surgical repair without which survival through childhood is extremely rare. The aim of this paper is to use data from the mandatory follow-up of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot to model the health-related costs and outcomes over the first 55-years of life. Method A decision analytical model was developed to establish costs and outcomes for patients up to 55 years after diagnosis and first repair of Tetralogy of Fallot compared to natural progression. Data from Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) centres that follow up Tetralogy of Fallot patients and Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), London, United Kingdom (UK) medical records was used to establish the cost and effectiveness of current interventions. Data from a Czech cohort was used for the natural, no intervention condition. Results The average cost per patient of a repair for Tetralogy of Fallot was £26,938 (SE = £4,140). The full life time cost per patient, with no discount rate, was £65,310 (95% CI £64,981–£65,729); £56,559 discounted (95% CI £56,159–£56,960). Patients with a repair had an average of 35 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per patient over 55 years undiscounted and 20.16 QALYs discounted. If the disorder was left to take its natural course, patients on average had a total of 3 QALYs per patient with no discount rate and 2.30 QALYs discounted. Conclusion A model has been developed that provides an estimate of the value for money of an expensive repair of a congenital heart disease. The model could be used to test the cost-effectiveness of making amendments to the care pathway. PMID:23533645

  9. The Stickiness of Selling, General, and Administrative Costs in the Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Armanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selling, general and administration costs are the main components in the Income Statement. A large number of permanent staff in sales and marketing department will make the company dominated by the fixed costs. This fact could lead to sticky cost behavior. In addition, role of the manager can also cause the cost stickiness. When the company’s revenue decreases, manager may delay to decrease the cost or not even decrease cost at all. The objective of the study is to determine whether cost stickiness of selling, general and administrative in the Indonesian listed companies. This study applied log-linear data panel regression with 3605 firm years that is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI from 1993 – 2013. This study finds that selling, general, and administrative costs are sticky only for the manufacturing companies. Furthermore, the results show that adjustment of sales, general, and administrative costs delayed by the manager when revenue decreases, yet the cost stickiness will be reduced in the next period.

  10. Architecture of the human and yeast general transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cimermancic, Peter; Viswanath, Shruthi; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Kim, Bong; Dehecq, Marine; Raman, Vishnu; Greenberg, Charles H.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Hahn, Steven; Ranish, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary TFIIH is essential for both RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA repair, and mutations in TFIIH can result in human disease. Here, we determine the molecular architecture of human and yeast TFIIH by an integrative approach using chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry (CXMS) data, biochemical analyses, and previously published electron microscopy maps. We identified four new conserved “topological regions” that function as hubs for TFIIH assembly and more than 35 conserved topological features within TFIIH, illuminating a network of interactions involved in TFIIH assembly and regulation of its activities. We show that one of these conserved regions, the p62/Tfb1 Anchor region, directly interacts with the DNA helicase subunit XPD/Rad3 in native TFIIH and is required for the integrity and function of TFIIH. We also reveal the structural basis for defects in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosum and Trichothiodystrophy, with mutations found at the interface between the p62 Anchor region and the XPD subunit. PMID:26340423

  11. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four pos......-related cancers and of all cancers combined in the general population. These findings are novel and important in the counseling of HNPCC patients and their relatives.......We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...

  12. Hospital costs associated with surgical site infections in general and vascular surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Melissa M; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Julian, Kathleen G; Ortenzi, Gail; Dillon, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    Although much has been written about excess cost and duration of stay (DOS) associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiothoracic surgery, less has been reported after vascular and general surgery. We used data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to estimate the total cost and DOS associated with SSIs in patients undergoing general and vascular surgery. Using standard NSQIP practices, data were collected on patients undergoing general and vascular surgery at a single academic center between 2007 and 2009 and were merged with fully loaded operating costs obtained from the hospital accounting database. Logistic regression was used to determine which patient and preoperative variables influenced the occurrence of SSIs. After adjusting for patient characteristics, costs and DOS were fit to linear regression models to determine the effect of SSIs. Of the 2,250 general and vascular surgery patients sampled, SSIs were observed in 186 inpatients. Predisposing factors of SSIs were male sex, insulin-dependent diabetes, steroid use, wound classification, and operative time (P general and vascular surgical procedures share many risk factors with SSIs after cardiothoracic surgery. Although the excess costs and DOS associated with SSIs after general and vascular surgery are somewhat less, they still represent substantial financial and opportunity costs to hospitals and suggest, along with the implications for patient care, a continuing need for cost-effective quality improvement and programs of infection prevention. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of endovascular strategy v open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: three year results of the IMPROVE randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    Objective  To assess the three year clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Design  Randomised controlled trial. Setting  30 vascular centres (29 in UK, one in Canada), 2009-16. Participants  613 eligible patients (480 men) with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm, of whom 502 underwent emergency repair for rupture. Interventions  316 patients were randomised to an endovascular strategy (275 with confirmed rupture) and 297 to open repair (261 with confirmed rupture). Main outcome measures  Mortality, with reinterventions after aneurysm repair, quality of life, and hospital costs to three years as secondary measures. Results  The maximum follow-up for mortality was 7.1 years, with two patients in each group lost to follow-up by three years. After similar mortality by 90 days, in the mid-term (three months to three years) there were fewer deaths in the endovascular than the open repair group (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.90), leading to lower mortality at three years (48% v 56%), but by seven years mortality was about 60% in each group (hazard ratio 0.92, 0.75 to 1.13). Results for the 502 patients with repaired ruptures were more pronounced: three year mortality was lower in the endovascular strategy group (42% v 54%; odds ratio 0.62, 0.43 to 0.88), but after seven years there was no clear difference between the groups (hazard ratio 0.86, 0.68 to 1.08). Reintervention rates up to three years were not significantly different between the randomised groups (hazard ratio 1.02, 0.79 to 1.32); the initial rapid rate of reinterventions was followed by a much slower mid-term reintervention rate in both groups. The early higher average quality of life in the endovascular strategy versus open repair group, coupled with the lower mortality at three years, led to a

  14. Eliminating blurry bands in gels with a simple cost-effective repair to the gel cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, Jamie L; Frankel, Erica A; Hull, Chelsea M; Leamy, Kathleen A; Messina, Kyle J; Mitchell, David; Park, Hongmarn; Ritchey, Laura E; Babitzke, Paul; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-12-01

    Gel electrophoresis and subsequent imaging using phosphorimagers is one of the most important and widely used techniques in RNA and DNA analysis. Radiolabeling nucleic acids with 32 P and detecting bands using a phoshorimager are useful both in a qualitative sense for nucleic acid detection and in a quantitative sense for structural, kinetic, or binding-based assays. Because of this, good resolution of gel bands based on molecular weight and size of RNA or DNA is essential for analysis. The appearance of blurry gel bands of 32 P-labeled RNA and DNA thus represents a serious problem in the laboratory. A quick search on the Internet uncovers numerous reports begrudging the appearance of blurry bands, as well as attempts to fix them without success. Indeed, our laboratories were beset by the intermittent problem of blurry gels for over one year before we found a solution. Herein we describe a simple and cost-effective solution to a problem that we show originates from the phosphorimager cassettes rather than the integrity of the gel itself. We hope that the information provided here will lead to immediate help for other laboratories experiencing similar issues with labeled nucleic acid gel-based assays. The improvement in the clarity of the gels is nothing short of astonishing in many instances and will lead to higher resolution images for analysis and publications. © 2016 Bingaman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  16. Analysis of postdischarge costs following emergent general surgery in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Gilgamesh J; Clement, Fiona; Pederson, Jenelle L; Churchill, Thomas A; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2018-02-01

    As populations age, more elderly patients will undergo surgery. Frailty and complications are considered to increase in-hospital cost in older adults, but little is known on costs following discharge, particularly those borne by the patient. We examined risk factors for increased cost and the type of costs accrued following discharge in elderly surgical patients. Acute abdominal surgery patients aged 65 years and older were prospectively enrolled. We assessed baseline clinical characteristics, including Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) scores. We calculated 6-month cost (in Canadian dollars) from patient-reported use following discharge according to the validated Health Resource Utilization Inventory. Primary outcomes were 6-month overall cost and cost for health care services, medical products and lost productive hours. Outcomes were log-transformed and assessed in multivariable generalized linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions and can be interpreted as adjusted ratios (AR). Complications were assessed according to Clavien-Dindo classification. We included 150 patients (mean age 75.5 ± 7.6 yr; 54.1% men) in our analysis; 10.8% had major and 43.2% had minor complications postoperatively. The median 6-month overall cost was $496 (interquartile range $140-$1948). Disaggregated by cost type, frailty independently predicted increasing costs of health care services (AR 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-2.18, p < 0.001) and medical products (AR 1.61, 95% CI 1.15-2.25, p = 0.005), but decreasing costs in lost productive hours (AR 0.39, p = 0.002). Complications did not predict increased cost. Frail patients accrued higher health care services and product costs, but lower costs from lost productive hours. Interventions in elderly surgical patients should consider patient-borne cost in older adults and lost productivity in less frail patients. NCT02233153 (clinicaltrials.gov).

  17. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  18. Prevention, screening and treatment of colorectal cancer: a global and regional generalized cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Benjamin P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of prevention, screening and treatment interventions for colorectal cancer are presented. Methods Standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology was used. A colorectal cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. Results In regions characterised by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of screening to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective, although no particular intervention stands out in cost-effectiveness terms relative to the others. In regions characterised by low income, low mortality with existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without screening is cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening (no treatment scenario would not be cost effective. In regions characterised by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, the most cost-effective intervention is expanding treatment. Conclusions From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, screening programmes should be expanded in developed regions and treatment programmes should be established for colorectal cancer in regions with low treatment coverage.

  19. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  20. Cost analysis of spinal and general anesthesia for the surgical treatment of lumbar spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Brian P; Khanna, Arjun; Yanamadala, Vijay; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Lumbar spine surgery is typically performed under general anesthesia, although spinal anesthesia can also be used. Given the prevalence of lumbar spine surgery, small differences in cost between the two anesthetic techniques have the potential to make a large impact on overall healthcare costs. We sought to perform a cost comparison analysis of spinal versus general anesthesia for lumbar spine operations. Following Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective cohort study was performed from 2009-2012 on consecutive patients undergoing non-instrumented, elective lumbar spine surgery for spondylosis by a single surgeon. Each patient was evaluated for both types of anesthesia, with the decision for anesthetic method being made based on a combination of physical status, anatomical considerations, and ultimately a consensus agreement between patient, surgeon, and anesthesiologist. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups. Operating room costs were calculated whilst blinded to clinical outcomes and reported in percentage difference. General anesthesia (n=319) and spinal anesthesia (n=81) patients had significantly different median operative times of 175 ± 39.08 and 158 ± 32.75 minutes, respectively (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Operating room costs were 10.33% higher for general anesthesia compared to spinal anesthesia (p=0.003, Mann-Whitney U test). Complications of spinal anesthesia included excessive movement (n=1), failed spinal attempt (n=3), intraoperative conversion to general anesthesia (n=2), and a high spinal level (n=1). In conclusion, spinal anesthesia can be performed safely in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. It has the potential to reduce operative times, costs, and possibly, complications. Further prospective evaluation will help to validate these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Sensinger

    Full Text Available Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise, a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity, and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial. Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05. Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53-1.78 interquartile range. This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user's error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks.

  2. A general theory to explain the relatively high cost of environmental restoration at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Restoration costs for Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have been the subject of much scrutiny and concern for several years. General opinion is that DOE clean-up costs are as much as three times higher than costs for similar clean-up projects in the private sector. Consequently, DOE Environmental Restoration professionals are continually under pressure to do more with less, which, ironically, can lead to additional inefficiencies in the system. This paper proposes a general theory as to why DOE costs are higher, explains the reasons why current conditions will make it difficult to realize any pervasive or significant decreases in clean-up costs, and presents some general changes that need to take place in the DOE system in order to bring about conditions that will allow more efficient clean-up to occur. The theory is based on a simple economic model that describes the balance between the resources spent for risk avoidance and the corresponding changes in overall productivity as a function of risk. The elementary concepts illustrated with the economic model, when refined and specifically applied, have the potential to become the catalyst for significant change-change that is absolutely necessary if we truly intend to conduct environmental clean-up with the same efficiencies as private industry

  3. 26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liable under Federal or State law for decommissioning such portion of the nuclear power plant; and (B) No... the furnishing or sale of electric energy. Each unit (that is, nuclear reactor) located on a multi... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules...

  4. Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensinger, Jonathon; Aleman-Zapata, Adrian; Englehart, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise), a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity), and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial). Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (ppower function (cost ∝ errorα) with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53-1.78 interquartile range). This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user's error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks.

  5. Reduction in Costs after Treating Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikic, Vedrana; Belanger, Claude; Bouchard, Stephane; Gosselin, Patrick; Langlois, Frederic; Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J; Marchand, Andre

    2017-03-01

    Panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are impairing and costly disorders that are often misdiagnosed and left untreated despite multiple consultations. These disorders frequently co-occur, but little is known about the costs associated with their comorbidity and the impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on cost reduction. The first objective of this study was to assess the mental health-related costs associated with the specific concomitance of PDA and GAD. The second aim was to determine whether there is a reduction in direct and indirect mental health-related costs following conventional CBT for the primary disorder only (PDA or GAD) or combined CBT adapted to the comorbidity (PDA and GAD). A total of 123 participants with a double diagnosis of PDA and GAD participated in this study. Direct and indirect mental health-related costs were assessed and calculated from a societal perspective at the pre-test, the post-test, and the three-month, six-month and one-year follow-ups. At the pre-test, PDA-GAD comorbidity was found to generate a mean total cost of CADUSD 2,000.48 (SD = USD 2,069.62) per participant over a three-month period. The indirect costs were much higher than the direct costs. Both treatment modalities led to significant and similar decreases in all cost categories from the pre-test to the post-test. This reduction was maintained until the one-year follow-up. Methodological choices may have underestimated cost evaluations. Nonetheless, this study supports the cost offset effects of both conventional CBT for primary PDA or GAD and combined CBT for PDA-GAD comorbidity. Treatment of comorbid and costly disorders with evidence-based treatments such as CBT may lead to considerable economic benefits for society. Considering the limited resources of healthcare systems, it is important to make choices that will lead to better accessibility of quality services. The application of CBT for PDA, GAD or both disorders

  6. The effect of TISSEEL fibrin sealant on seroma formation following complex abdominal wall hernia repair: a single institutional review and derived cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoury, S C; Rodriguez-Unda, N; Soares, K C; Hicks, C W; Baltodano, P A; Poruk, K E; Hu, Q L; Cooney, C M; Cornell, P; Burce, K; Eckhauser, F E

    2015-12-01

    The authors evaluated the ability of a fibrin sealant (TISSEEL™: Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL, USA) to reduce the incidence of post-operative seroma following abdominal wall hernia repair. We performed a 4-year retrospective review of patients undergoing abdominal wall hernia repair, with and without TISSEEL, by a single surgeon (FEE) at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Demographics, surgical risk factors, operative data and 30-day outcomes, including wound complications and related interventions, were compared. The quantity and cost of Tisseel per case was reviewed. A total of 250 patients were evaluated: 127 in the TISSEEL group and 123 in the non-TISSEEL control group. The average age for both groups was 56.6 years (P = 0.97). The majority of patients were female (TISSEEL 52.8%, non-TISSEEL 56.1%, P = 0.59) and ASA Class III (TISSEEL 56.7%, non-TISSEEL 58.5%, P = 0.40). There was no difference in the average defect size for both groups (TISSEEL 217 ± 187.6 cm(2), non-TISSEEL 161.3 ± 141.5 cm(2), P = 0.36). Surgical site occurrences occurred in 18.1% of the TISSEEL and 13% of the non-TISSEEL group (P = 0.27). There was a trend towards an increased incidence of seroma in the TISSEEL group (TISSEEL 11%, non-TISSEEL 4.9%, P = 0.07). A total of $124,472.50 was spent on TISSEEL, at an average cost of $995.78 per case. In the largest study to date, TISSEEL™ application offered no advantage for the reduction of post-operative seroma formation following complex abdominal hernia repair. Moreover, the use of this sealant was associated with significant costs.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological interventions for generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzenroeder, Louise; Donnelly, Marie; Haby, Michelle M; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Rossell, Ruth; Carter, Rob; Andrews, Gavin; Vos, Theo

    2004-08-01

    To assess from a health sector perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of interventions for generalized anxiety disorder (cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) and panic disorder (CBT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs]). The health benefit is measured as a reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on effect size calculations from meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. An assessment on second stage filter criteria ("equity", "strength of evidence", "feasibility" and "acceptability to stakeholders") is also undertaken to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. Costs and benefits are calculated for a period of one year for the eligible population (prevalent cases of generalized anxiety disorder/panic disorder identified in the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, extrapolated to the Australian population in the year 2000 for those aged 18 years and older). Simulation modelling techniques are used to present 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) around the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Compared to current practice, CBT by a psychologist on a public salary is the most cost-effective intervention for both generalized anxiety disorder (A$6900/DALY saved; 95% UI A$4000 to A$12 000) and panic disorder (A$6800/DALY saved; 95% UI A$2900 to A$15 000). Cognitive behavioural therapy results in a greater total health benefit than the drug interventions for both anxiety disorders, although equity and feasibility concerns for CBT interventions are also greater. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the most effective and cost-effective intervention for generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. However, its implementation would require policy change to enable more widespread access to a sufficient number of trained therapists for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  8. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS, cost per day (CPD, inpatient mortality rate (IMR, and length of stay (LOS, using a generalized additive model. FINDINGS: There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001, from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. INTERPRETATIONS: These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role

  9. Low-Cost Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies for General Aviation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Gavinsky, Bob; Semanskee, Grant

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) Program has as a goal to reduce the overall cost of producing private aviation aircraft while maintaining the safety of these aircraft. In order to successfully meet this goal, it is necessary to develop nondestructive inspection techniques which will facilitate the production of the materials used in these aircraft and assure the quality necessary to maintain airworthiness. This paper will discuss a particular class of general aviation materials and several nondestructive inspection techniques that have proven effective for making these inspections. Additionally, this paper will discuss the investigation and application of other commercially available quality control techniques applicable to these structures.

  10. Historical Cost Dan General Price Level Accounting: Analisis Relevansi Indikator Keuangan

    OpenAIRE

    -, Meythi; Teresa, Sheffie

    2012-01-01

    In conventional accounting, financial statements are based on the historical cost principle that assumes that prices (monetary unit) are stable. Conventional accounting recognizes neither changes in the general price level nor changes in the specific price level. Consequently, if there are any changes in purchasing power such as in inflation period, the historical financial statement are not economically relevant and also income is usually overstated, and the fixed assets are usually understa...

  11. Mobile and traditional cognitive behavioral therapy programs for generalized anxiety disorder: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shefali; Jones Bell, Megan; Juusola, Jessie L

    2018-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a debilitating mental health illness that affects approximately 3.1% of U.S. adults and can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). With the emergence of digital health technologies, mobile CBT may be a cost-effective way to deliver care. We developed an analysis framework to quantify the cost-effectiveness of internet-based CBT for individuals with GAD. As a case study, we examined the potential value of a new mobile-delivered CBT program for GAD. We developed a Markov model of GAD health states combined with a detailed economic analysis for a cohort of adults with GAD in the U.S. In our case study, we used pilot program efficacy data to evaluate a mobile CBT program as either prevention or treatment only and compared the strategies to traditional CBT and no CBT. Traditional CBT efficacy was estimated from clinical trial results. We calculated discounted incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over the cohort lifetime. In the base case, for a cohort of 100,000 persons with GAD, we found that mobile CBT is cost-saving. It leads to a gain of 34,108 QALYs and 81,492 QALYs and a cost reduction of $2.23 billion and $4.54 billion when compared to traditional CBT and no CBT respectively. Results were insensitive to most model inputs and mobile CBT remained cost-saving in almost all scenarios. The case study was conducted for illustrative purposes and used mobile CBT efficacy data from a small pilot program; the analysis should be re-conducted once robust efficacy data is available. The model was limited in its ability to measure the effectiveness of CBT in combination with pharmacotherapy. Mobile CBT may lead to improved health outcomes at lower costs than traditional CBT or no intervention and may be effective as either prevention or treatment.

  12. A markov model approach assessing the cost of illness of generalized anxiety disorder in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, Basil G; Machado, Márcio; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Sproule, Beth; Ravindran, Arun V; Einarson, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic disease with waxing and waning of symptoms. This is the first comprehensive economic model developed to reflect the nature and course of GAD. An incidence-based probabilistic Markov model was developed reflecting nine GAD health states (HS): clinical assessments (three HS), maintenance therapies (four HS), discontinuation (one HS), and death (one HS). A probability curve of the GAD onset (ages 18-80) determined entry into the model and assumed patients retained the diagnoses until death. Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) guidelines determined pharmacotherapy, with revisions/validation by an expert panel. Direct costs (clinician, pharmacotherapy, hospitalization) were retrieved from government publications. Remission was based on pooled-analysis of CPA-cited evidence. Remaining clinical rates, absenteeism, and hospitalization were retrieved from the literature. Direct costs were attributed throughout the model except for the discontinuation and death HS. Indirect costs (wage rate) were retrieved from government publications and the literature (absenteeism), and were attributed to patients with GAD ≤65 years of age. Results were discounted at 5% and results expressed in 2008 Canadian dollars. The mean lifetime cost of illness (COI) was estimated to be $31,213 (SD $9,100) per patient. The cost of absenteeism accounted for 96% of the mean COI. The mean age of onset was 31 years and approximately 19% did not respond to pharmacotherapy. Over 85% of patients discontinued treatment by the fourth cycle (2nd year of therapy). Over the course of the model, a mean of 53% of patients relapsed, with an average rate of 0.79 relapses per patient. On average and over a lifetime, the disorder went unmanaged over a period of 14 (SD 9) years. The model was most sensitive to absenteeism. GAD is a costly disease with a lifetime COI <$32k/patient, with absenteeism exerting a significant impact.

  13. Costs, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic and open repair for rotator cuff tears: an economic evaluation alongside the UKUFF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Gray, A; Cooper, C; Cooper, D; Ramsay, C; Carr, A

    2016-12-01

    A trial-based comparison of the use of resources, costs and quality of life outcomes of arthroscopic and open surgical management for rotator cuff tears in the United Kingdom NHS was performed using data from the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Study (UKUFF) randomised controlled trial. Using data from 273 patients, healthcare-related use of resources, costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated at 12 months and 24 months after surgery on an intention-to-treat basis with adjustment for covariates. Uncertainty about the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for arthroscopic versus open management at 24 months of follow-up was incorporated using bootstrapping. Multiple imputation methods were used to deal with missing data. There were no significant differences between the arthroscopic and open groups in terms of total mean use and cost of resources or QALYs at any time post-operatively. Open management dominated arthroscopic management in 59.8% of bootstrapped cost and effect differences. The probability that arthroscopic management was cost-effective compared with open management at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained was 20.9%. There was no significant overall difference in the use or cost of resources or quality of life between arthroscopic and open management in the trial. There was uncertainty about which strategy was most cost-effective. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1648-55. ©2016 Gray et al.

  14. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS 9904.410 Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal...

  15. Studi Banding Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan Dengan Metode Historical Cost Accounting Dan General Price Level Accounting Pada Masa Inflasi

    OpenAIRE

    Kodrat, David Sukardi

    2006-01-01

    Generally, Financial Statements are based on Historical Cost Accounting (HCA) that assumes that prices are stable. Actually, there are several methods on accounting for the effect of changing prices, such as Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting) and Constant Dollar Accounting or General Price Level Accounting (GPLA)). GPLA will do restatement the components of financial statement to be a rupiah on a similar level of purchasing power, but without changes in accounting principle...

  16. STUDI BANDING PENYUSUNAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN DENGAN METODE HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING DAN GENERAL PRICE LEVEL ACCOUNTING PADA MASA INFLASI

    OpenAIRE

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Generally, Financial Statements are based on Historical Cost Accounting (HCA) that assumes that prices are stable. Actually, there are several methods on accounting for the effect of changing prices, such as Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting) and Constant Dollar Accounting or General Price Level Accounting (GPLA)). GPLA will do restatement the components of financial statement to be a rupiah on a similar level of purchasing power, but without changes in accounting principle...

  17. A low cost general purpose portable programmable master/slave manipulative appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRIUMF 100 μA 500 MeV cyclotron, located at the University of British Columbia, required a low cost, portable master/slave manipulative capability for experimental beam line servicing. A programmable capability was also required for the hot cell manipulators. A general purpose unit was developed that might also have applications in light manufacturing and medical rehabilitation. The project now in prototype testing represents a modular portable robot costing less than $5000 that is lead-through-teach programmable by either a master controller or hands-on lead-through. Task programs are stored and retrieved on any 32 k personal computer. An on-board proportional integral derivative controller (Motorola 6809 based) gives discrete positioning of the six degrees of freedom 2 kg capacity end effector

  18. A Cost Estimation Model for Commander Naval Air Forces Paicifc's TACAIR F/A-18S Aviation Depot Level Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duma, David

    2001-01-01

    .... The first section discusses the methodology used to create a cost estimation model. The second and third sections provide the results of the model's outcomes and compares and analyzes those results to the actual results...

  19. Prevalence and cost of full-time research fellowships during general surgery residency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Klingensmith, Mary E; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1 to 3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Response rate was 200 of 239 (84%). A total of 381 of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and postresidency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (P < 0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour regulations for clinical residents, whereas a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. Although performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after postgraduate training.

  20. Repairing fuel for reinsertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukshenk, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eqiupment for nuclear reactor fuel assembly repairing produced by Westinghouse and Brawn Bovery companies is described. Repair of failed fuel assemblies replacement of defect fuel elements gives a noticeable economical effect. Thus if the cost of a new fuel assembly is 450-500 thousand dollars, the replacement of one fuel element in it costs approximately 40-60 thousand dollars. In simple cases repairing includes either removal of failed fuel elements from a fuel assembly and its reinsertion with the rest of fuel elements into the reactor core (reactor refueling), or replacement of unfailed fuel elements from one fuel assembly to a new one (fuel assembly overhaul and reconditioning)

  1. Determination of chest x-ray cost using activity based costing approach at Penang General Hospital, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Ahmad, Nafees

    2012-01-01

    Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent by employees doing specific activity to their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables and clinical equipments were obtained from the procurement section of the Radiology Department. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the chest X-ray facility with the unit cost of public building department. Moreover, straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for calculation of equivalent annual costs for building and machines. Cost of electricity was calculated by multiplying number of kilo watts used by electrical appliance in the year 2010 with electricity tariff for Malaysian commercial consumers (MYR 0.31 per kWh). Five activities were identified which were required to develop one chest X-ray film. Human resource, capital, consumable and electricity cost was MYR 1.48, MYR 1.98, MYR 2.15 and MYR 0.04, respectively. Total cost of single chest X-ray was MYR 5.65 (USD 1.75). By applying ABC approach, we can have more detailed and precise estimate of cost for specific activity or service. Choice of repeating a chest X-ray can be based on our findings, when cost is a limiting factor.

  2. Prescription Patterns and the Cost of Migraine Treatments in German General and Neurological Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prescription patterns and the cost of migraine treatments in general practices (GPs) and neurological practices (NPs) in Germany. This study included 43,149 patients treated in GPs and 13,674 patients treated in NPs who were diagnosed with migraine in 2015. Ten different families of migraine therapy were included in the analysis: triptans, analgesics, anti-emetics, beta-blockers, antivertigo products, gastroprokinetics, anti-epileptics, calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and other medications (all other classes used in the treatment of migraine including homeopathic medications). The share of migraine therapies and their costs were estimated for GPs and NPs. The mean age was 44.4 years in GPs and 44.1 years in NPs. Triptans and analgesics were the 2 most commonly prescribed families of drugs in all patients and in the 9 specific subgroups. Interestingly, triptans were more commonly prescribed in NPs than in GPs (30.9% to 55.0% vs. 30.0% to 44.7%), whereas analgesics were less frequently given in NPs than in GPs (11.5% to 17.2% vs. 35.3% to 42.4%). Finally, the share of patients who received no therapy was higher in NPs than in GPs (33.9% to 58.4% vs. 27.5% to 37.9%). The annual cost per patient was €66.04 in GPs and €94.71 in NPs. Finally, the annual cost per patient increased with age and was higher in women and in individuals with private health insurance coverage than in men and individuals with public health insurance coverage. Triptans and analgesics were the 2 most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of migraine. Furthermore, approximately 30% to 40% of patients did not receive any therapy. Finally, the annual cost per patient was higher in NPs than in GPs. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  3. Healthcare utilization and costs in patients beginning pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of healthcare utilization and costs in patients beginning pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD have not been well characterized. Methods Using a large US health insurance database, we identified all patients with evidence of GAD (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 300.02 who initiated pharmacotherapy with medications commonly used to treat GAD (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs], venlafaxine, benzodiazepines between 1/1/2003 and 12/31/2007. We examined healthcare utilization and costs over the 12-month periods preceding and following date of initial receipt of such therapy ("pretreatment" and "follow-up", respectively. Patients with incomplete data were excluded. Results A total of 10,275 patients met all study inclusion criteria. Forty-eight percent of patients received SSRIs; 34%, benzodiazepines; and 6%, venlafaxine. SSRIs and venlafaxine were about three times more likely to be used on a long-term basis (> 90 days than benzodiazepines (p Conclusions More than one-half of patients initiating pharmacotherapy for GAD receive either SSRIs or venlafaxine. Levels of healthcare utilization and costs are greater in the year following initiation of therapy than in the immediately preceding one.

  4. A Generalized Minimum Cost Flow Model for Multiple Emergency Flow Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During real-life disasters, that is, earthquakes, floods, terrorist attacks, and other unexpected events, emergency evacuation and rescue are two primary operations that can save the lives and property of the affected population. It is unavoidable that evacuation flow and rescue flow will conflict with each other on the same spatial road network and within the same time window. Therefore, we propose a novel generalized minimum cost flow model to optimize the distribution pattern of these two types of flow on the same network by introducing the conflict cost. The travel time on each link is assumed to be subject to a bureau of public road (BPR function rather than a fixed cost. Additionally, we integrate contraflow operations into this model to redesign the network shared by those two types of flow. A nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear programming model with bilinear, fractional, and power components is constructed, and GAMS/BARON is used to solve this programming model. A case study is conducted in the downtown area of Harbin city in China to verify the efficiency of proposed model, and several helpful findings and managerial insights are also presented.

  5. Message from the Director General Final costs to completion of LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Luciano Maiani

    2001-01-01

    In March this year a review of the costs for the LHC machine was started, which was completed by the end of August. This was a bottom-up review with each group concerned making a projection of the cost to completion of the project. Figures presented were worryingly high. In conjunction, the responses from industries to the calls for tender for essential machine components, especially the superconducting magnet assembly, were also higher than originally anticipated. A summary of this situation was presented to the Finance Committee last week and then to the Committee of Council. After the meetings a summary was prepared by the chairman of Committee of Council which I reprint below. CHAIRMAN'S SUMMARY In the 248th Meeting of the Committee of Council, the Director-General presented a preliminary estimate of the cost to completion of the LHC Project, approved in 1994 and scheduled for commissioning and operation in 2006. Repeating that the project is well advanced and technically sound, the figures presented, s...

  6. Hanford general employee training: A million dollar cost-beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In January, 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training (HGET). Following an introduction by the course instructor, students begin the interactive video segment of the course by taking a tour of an office building. In fact, this tour is simply a setting in which to give the student a checkout on safety, security, and quality issues. For example, at one point the guide leaves the room and the phone suddenly begins a steady ring. This is a particular alarm at WHC, and the student is challenged to respond correctly. Missed questions flag corresponding tutorials to be delivered either immediately or on completion of the tour. Instructors receive notification of weakoesses left unremedied. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as HGET were high compared to similar costs for developing equivalent traditional training. Hardware and labor totaled $900K. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, appear to be running about $200K. On the benefit side, by consolidating some seventeen previous WHC courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, HGET reduced the average student training time from over eleven hours to just under four hours. In the development and implementation of HGET a number of issues were resolved, some more successfully than others: (1) what about job security for former instructors? (2) how should the course be run on a daily basis? (we envisioned a combination of instructor and videodisc); (3) how high will the maintenance costs be? (higher than projected); etc. Many obstacles arise, most in connection with the large number of groups and personnel whose efforts had to be coordinated

  7. Preliminary study of life cycle cost of preventive measures and repair options for corrosion in concrete infrastructurecorrosion in concrete infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Pan, Yifan; Courage, Wim; Peelen, Willy H A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance costs of reinforced concrete infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, harbours, parking structures) are increasing due to aging of structures under aggressive exposure. Corrosion of reinforcement due to chloride ingress is the main problem for existing structures in marine and de-icing salt

  8. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lauren A.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania’s rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development—from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013—has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county’s road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m3 and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1–6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3–1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development’s spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste.

  9. Intensive care unit admission after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is primarily determined by hospital factors, adds significant cost, and is often unnecessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Alshaikh, Husain N; Zarkowsky, Devin; Bostock, Ian C; Nejim, Besma; Malas, Mahmoud B

    2018-04-01

    A large proportion of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) patients are routinely admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for postoperative observation. In this study, we aimed to describe the factors associated with ICU admission after EVAR and to compare the outcomes and costs associated with ICU vs non-ICU observation. All patients undergoing elective infrarenal EVAR in the Premier database (2009-2015) were included. Patients were stratified as ICU vs non-ICU admission according to location on postoperative day 0. Both patient-level (sociodemographics, comorbidities) and hospital-level (teaching status, hospital size, geographic location) factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with ICU vs non-ICU admission. Overall outcomes and hospital costs were compared between groups. Overall, 8359 patients underwent elective EVAR during the study period, including 4791 (57.3%) ICU and 3568 (42.7%) non-ICU admissions. Patients admitted to ICU were more frequently nonwhite and had more comorbidities, including congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and hypertension, than non-ICU patients (all, P postoperative adverse events, ICU admission after EVAR cost $1475 (95% confidence interval, $768-2183) more than non-ICU admission (P postoperative ICU admission is more closely associated with hospital practice patterns than with individual patient risk. Routine ICU admission after EVAR adds significant cost without reducing failure to rescue or in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  11. The cost of quality: Implementing generalization and suppression for anonymizing biomedical data with minimal information loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2015-12-01

    With the ARX data anonymization tool structured biomedical data can be de-identified using syntactic privacy models, such as k-anonymity. Data is transformed with two methods: (a) generalization of attribute values, followed by (b) suppression of data records. The former method results in data that is well suited for analyses by epidemiologists, while the latter method significantly reduces loss of information. Our tool uses an optimal anonymization algorithm that maximizes output utility according to a given measure. To achieve scalability, existing optimal anonymization algorithms exclude parts of the search space by predicting the outcome of data transformations regarding privacy and utility without explicitly applying them to the input dataset. These optimizations cannot be used if data is transformed with generalization and suppression. As optimal data utility and scalability are important for anonymizing biomedical data, we had to develop a novel method. In this article, we first confirm experimentally that combining generalization with suppression significantly increases data utility. Next, we proof that, within this coding model, the outcome of data transformations regarding privacy and utility cannot be predicted. As a consequence, existing algorithms fail to deliver optimal data utility. We confirm this finding experimentally. The limitation of previous work can be overcome at the cost of increased computational complexity. However, scalability is important for anonymizing data with user feedback. Consequently, we identify properties of datasets that may be predicted in our context and propose a novel and efficient algorithm. Finally, we evaluate our solution with multiple datasets and privacy models. This work presents the first thorough investigation of which properties of datasets can be predicted when data is anonymized with generalization and suppression. Our novel approach adopts existing optimization strategies to our context and combines different

  12. STUDI BANDING PENYUSUNAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN DENGAN METODE HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING DAN GENERAL PRICE LEVEL ACCOUNTING PADA MASA INFLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Financial Statements are based on Historical Cost Accounting (HCA that assumes that prices are stable. Actually, there are several methods on accounting for the effect of changing prices, such as Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting and Constant Dollar Accounting or General Price Level Accounting (GPLA. GPLA will do restatement the components of financial statement to be a rupiah on a similar level of purchasing power, but without changes in accounting principles which using on conventional accounting. Financial statements made by GPLA are comparing to financial statements made by HCA. Both of financial statements are analysis with NOD (Number of Dollar attribute to know that financial statements are interpretative and analysis with COG (Command of Good attribute to know that financial statements are relevant. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Laporan keuangan disusun berdasarkan metode Historical Cost Accounting (HCA yang menggunakan asumsi nilai tukar stabil. Beberapa metode akuntansi yang memperhitungkan perubahan nilai tukar seperti Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting dan Constant Dollar Accounting atau General Price Level Accounting (GPLA. GPLA menyajikan komponen laporan keuangan berdasarkan penyesuaian rupiah dengan daya beli tanpa mengubah prinsip-prinsip akuntasi konvensional. Laporan keuangan yang disusun dengan GPLA dapat diperbandingkan dengan laporan keuangan berdasarkan HCA. Dengan analisa NOD (Number of Dollar dan COG (Command Over Good attribute menunjukkan bahwa laporan keuangan berdasarkan GPLA lebih interpretatif dan lebih relevan. Kata Kunci: Laporan Keuangan, Historical Cost Accounting, General Price Level Accounting, NOD attribute, COG attribute.

  13. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003000.htm Hypospadias repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypospadias repair is surgery to correct a defect in ...

  14. Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes: A powerful modeling framework for Model-Based Safety Analysis of dynamic repairable and reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.

  15. A low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. Commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  16. Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1985-10-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  17. A General Catalytic Method for Nucleophilic Substitutions in High Cost- and Atom-Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Peter; Filbrich, Isabel

    2018-03-05

    Herein, a general formamide catalyzed protocol for the efficient transformation of alcohols into alkyl chlorides, which is promoted by substoichiometric amounts (down to 34 mol%) of inexpensive trichlorotriazine (TCT), is introduced. Importantly, the present work is the first example of a TCT mediated dehydroxychlorination of an OH-group containing substrate (e. g. alcohols and carboxylic acid), in which all three chlorine atoms of TCT are transferred onto the starting material. The consequently enhanced atom-economy facilitates a significantly improved waste balance (E-factors down to 4), cost-efficiency and scalability (>50 g). Furthermore, the current procedure is distinguished by high levels of functional group compatibility and stereoselectivity, as only weakly acidic cyanuric acid is released as exclusive by-product. Finally, a one-pot protocol for the preparation of amines, azides, ethers and sulfides enabled the synthesis of the drug Rivastigmine under twofold SN2-inversion, which demonstrates the high practical value of the presented method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  1. Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals-de Bos, Ingeborg B. C.; Hoving, Jan L.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Adèr, Herman J.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Koes, Bart W.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Bouter, Lex M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 183 patients with neck pain for at least two weeks

  2. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer Design for Singular Markovian Jump Time-Delay Systems with Generally Incomplete Transition Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.

  3. Economic Cost Analysis Related to Complications in General and Digestive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rosado, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Turrens, Jose; Olry-de-Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2018-04-21

    The aim was to assess the impact on economic costs and length of stay (LOS) of postoperative complications. 5,822 records from BMDS (2014-2015) are included. A descriptive, univariate and multivariate study evaluated the correlation between complications, Clavien-Dindo grade and vacation periods with LOS and economic costs, based on a full-cost model, aggregated by DRG. Mean cost per stay was €676.71, and €4,309.02 per episode. Complications appeared in 639 patients (11%). Admission to ICU was required in 203 patients, re-operation in 134 and re-admission in 243, while 66 patients died (1.1%). Complications caused significantly longer LOS (20.08 vs 5.48 days) and higher economic cost (€11,670.31 vs €3,354.12); infectious complications were the most frequent and respiratory the most expensive (€20,428.53), together with ICU admission (€20,242.66). Clavien-Dindo grade correlated with greater LOS and costs (except gradev). During vacation periods, complications and LOS are increased, but costs of these complications and LOS did not differ significantly from complications detected in non-vacation periods. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. On the regularity of the free boundary in the optimal partial transport problem for general cost functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Indrei, E.

    2015-04-01

    This paper concerns the regularity and geometry of the free boundary in the optimal partial transport problem for general cost functions. More specifically, we prove that a C1 cost implies a locally Lipschitz free boundary. As an application, we address a problem discussed by Caffarelli and McCann [1] regarding cost functions satisfying the Ma-Trudinger-Wang condition (A3): if the non-negative source density is in some Lp (Rn) space for p ∈ (n + 1/2, ∞ ] and the positive target density is bounded away from zero, then the free boundary is a semiconvex Cloc1,α hypersurface. Furthermore, we show that a locally Lipschitz cost implies a rectifiable free boundary and initiate a corresponding regularity theory in the Riemannian setting.

  5. Meningocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is surgery to repair birth defects of the spine and spinal membranes. Meningocele and myelomeningocele are types of spina bifida . Description For both meningoceles and myelomeningoceles, the surgeon ...

  6. Does a computerized price comparison module reduce prescribing costs in general practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Nørskov; Olesen, Frede

    1997-01-01

    , as a normal routine for accounting. The GPs were not aware of the ongoing cost supervision study. Additional cost information software was introduced on 1 January 1993 to 20 practices with 28 GPs. The software assisted the GPs in a semiautomatic way to identify and prescribe the cheapest drugs. The subjects......OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the trends in prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and drug expenses before and after the introduction of a computerized cost containment module into the computer record system of a defined group of GPs. The GPs' expectations for and experiences with the module were...... expenditure per DDD. Cost containment procedures should be more intensive than just giving the doctors a computer-assisted decision aid...

  7. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor copyright containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 μm also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK demonstration

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  9. COMPARISON OF POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC EFFECT OF US-GUIDED TRANSVERSES ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK WITH PARAVERTEBRAL BLOCK FOR UNILATERAL INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR IN ADULT PATIENTS UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Both Transverse Abdominis Plane (TAP block and Paravertebral Block (PVB can be used to provide postoperative analgesia in inguinal hernia surgeries. Present study was done to evaluate the postoperative analgesic effect of USG-guided TAP block with USG-guided PVB for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under general anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA grade 1 and 2 adult patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to TAP (Gp I and PVB (Gp II group of 30 each. In Gp I patients received local anaesthetic mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine (15 mL and 2% Xylocaine with adrenaline (15 mL in TAP plane under real time USG. In Gp II, the same anaesthetic mixture was injected 1 cm deep to superior surface of transverse process of T10,12 and L2 vertebra under ultrasound guidance. The postoperative pain using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the number of analgesic doses and total drug requirement in the first 24 hours of postoperative period was noted. Statistical Analysis Used- SPSS version 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, Chi-square test, Student’s t-test. P ˂0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS VAS scores were statistically significantly lower in Gp II as compared to Gp1 at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours postoperative time interval (p value <0.05. The difference in VAS scores became insignificant at 12 and 24 hours of postoperative period. Mean time to first analgesic in postoperative period in Gp I was 5:06 hrs. (range 2-10 hrs. and in Gp II was 7.7 hrs. (range 5-10 hrs. (p value ˂0.001. Twenty two patients in Gp I and ten patients in Gp II required analgesic in postoperative period (p ˂0.001. Total number of diclofenac doses required in postoperative period was significantly lower in Gp II than in Gp I (10 v/s 25. Total dose of diclofenac consumed in first 24 hrs. was significantly lower in Gp II (750 mg than in Gp I (1875 mg (p value ˂0

  10. The Optimal Insurance Policy for the General Fixed Cost of Handling an Indemnity under Rank-Dependent Expected Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liurui Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Bernard et al.’s research, we focus on the Pareto optimal insurance design with the insured’s Rank-Dependent Expected Utility (RDEU. Compared with their previous work, our novelties are the more general fixed cost function of the insurer and the discussion of adverse selection and moral hazard. In particular, Bernard et al. only consider the case in which the fixed cost function of handling an indemnity is the linear function. However, the fixed cost function is not just linear functions in real insurance market. So, we explore the more general fixed cost function including both the linear and nonlinear functions. On the other hand, we consider adverse selection and moral hazard which are involved by Bernard et al. Leading adverse selection and moral hazard into our research makes our results more practical and meaningful. Moreover, we provide an insight into the sensitivity of an optimal solution for the insured’s initial wealth and the parameters related to the fixed cost function of handling an indemnity. We further compare the two different utility functions of the insured in terms of influence of optimal policy analysis.

  11. [Study of the incidence and cost of nosocomial infections in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennigrou, S; Mokhtar, L; Ben Alaya, N; Dziri, C; Cherif, A; Najah, N; Ben Redjeb, S; Zouari, B

    2000-11-01

    Nosocomial infection incidence and its cost were study. We have identified 61 infected patients and 75 infectious episodes, is an incidence of 9.4% infected for 100 hospitalized by trimester. Operative site infections are the most frequent (60%), operative site infection (9.1%), inferior respiratory ways infections (2.2%). Incriminated germs are represented essentially by negative gram Bacillus (77.3%) with predominance of enterobacterias (59%). Invasive technique usage, surgery types and contamination classes have been identified as risk factors of nosocomial infection occurrence. The supplementary stay duration estimated by simple comparison between infected group and no-infected one is 9.3% days, responsible of an over cost of 336 TD by infected patient and 273 TD by infectious episode. The curative antibiotic costs have been estimated at 70 TD by infected patient being equivalent to two hospitalization days and to 57 TD by infectious episode.

  12. Discrete time analysis of a repairable machine

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Castro, I. T.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, in discrete time, a single machine system that operates for a period of time represented by a general distribution. This machine is subject to failures during operations and the occurrence of these failures depends on how many times the machine has previously failed. Some failures are repairable and the repair times may or may not depend on the number of times the machine was previously repaired. Repair times also have a general distribution. The operating times...

  13. Cost of hospital care for HIV/AIDS infected patients in three general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed using the SPSS 19.0 software. The significance threshold was set at 5% and the CI (Confidence Interval) at ... The analysis allows us to extend the study by using different analytical accounting approaches such as by case and by pathology. Key words: Healthcare costs, HIV AIDS, Predictive factors for ...

  14. 29 CFR 531.3 - General determinations of “reasonable cost.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employer: Provided, That if the total so computed is more than the fair rental value (or the fair price of the commodities or facilities offered for sale), the fair rental value (or the fair price of the... REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Determinations of âReasonable Costâ and â...

  15. Coste del cuidado informal del ictus en una población general no institucionalizada Cost of informal care for stroke victims in a non-institutionalized general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Hervás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El impacto social del ictus es importante por tratarse de una enfermedad invalidante, que causa dependencia y necesidad de cuidados informales. La importancia de la dependencia cada vez es mayor en la sociedad, pero no hay registros de los costes del cuidado informal, y se desconoce cómo valorarla. Objetivos: Calcular el coste del cuidado informal del ictus en una población general y analizarlo en función del grado de dependencia. Realizar un análisis de sensibilidad con la variable costes unitarios a partir de fuentes diversas. Material y métodos: Se estudian todos los casos diagnosticados de ictus a 31 de diciembre de 2004 (n = 95 pertenecientes a una zona básica de salud de Navarra, de los que 40 (44,4% precisan cuidados informales. Se valora la dependencia para las actividades de la vida diaria mediante los índices de Barthel (actividades básicas [ABVD] y Lawton-Brody (actividades instrumentales [AIVD]. La valoración del tiempo del cuidado informal se realiza con una aproximación de abajo a arriba (bottom-up, mediante un cuestionario de recogida de actividades diarias. Resultados: El coste del cuidado informal de los pacientes con ictus es de 21.551,28 €/año, con un rango, según el análisis de sensibilidad, entre 6.490,80 y 31.436,72 €/año. Hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el coste del cuidado informal según el grado de dependencia (ABVD: 24.865,2 €/año; AIVD: 10.442,9 €/año. Conclusiones: El coste del cuidado informal en la atención al ictus es elevado y crece con el nivel de dependencia.Background: Stroke has a strong social impact since it causes disability, leading to dependency and the need for informal care. Although awareness of the importance of dependency is increasing, registries of the cost of informal care are lacking and consequently the real value of this activity to society is still unknown. Objectives: To calculate the cost of informal care of stroke victims in a

  16. THE COST OF CREDIBILITY: THE COMPANY OF GENERAL FARMS AND FISCAL STAGNATION IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel D. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Company of General Farms, a quasi-private collector of about half the French taxes in the eighteenth century, was one of the largest lenders to the Crown. The relationship between the Crown and General Farms fits the model of sovereign debt as a contingent claim. Lending is sustained in contingent claims models if the lender credibly commits to withhold funds from the sovereign if he defaults. The General Farms maintained this commitment with amonopsony of the Crown's access to taxes and borrowed funds. When revolution threatened, the monopsony stood between the Crown and reform of the fiscal system. The history of the Company of General Farms shows how a contingent claims equilibrium can raise the cost of legitimate reform.

  17. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  18. Metabolic Compensation of Fitness Costs Is a General Outcome for Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mutants Overexpressing Efflux Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Pacheco, Jorge; Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Alcalde Rico, Manuel; Martínez, José Luis

    2017-07-25

    It is generally assumed that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is associated with a fitness cost. We have shown that overexpression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump does not decrease the fitness of a resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain compared to its wild-type counterpart. This lack of fitness cost was associated with a metabolic rewiring that includes increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain when cells are growing under fully aerobic conditions. It was not clear whether this metabolic compensation was exclusive to strains overexpressing MexEF-OprN or if it extended to other resistant strains that overexpress similar systems. To answer this question, we studied a set of P. aeruginosa mutants that independently overexpress the MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, or MexXY efflux pumps. We observed increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain in all cases, with a concomitant increase in NO 3 consumption and NO production. These efflux pumps are proton/substrate antiporters, and their overexpression may lead to intracellular H + accumulation, which may in turn offset the pH homeostasis. Indeed, all studied mutants showed a decrease in intracellular pH under anaerobic conditions. The fastest way to eliminate the excess of protons is by increasing oxygen consumption, a feature also displayed by all analyzed mutants. Taken together, our results support metabolic rewiring as a general mechanism to avoid the fitness costs derived from overexpression of P. aeruginosa multidrug efflux pumps. The development of drugs that block this metabolic "reaccommodation" might help in reducing the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance elements among bacterial populations. IMPORTANCE It is widely accepted that the acquisition of resistance confers a fitness cost in such a way that in the absence of antibiotics, resistant populations will be outcompeted by susceptible ones. Based on this assumption, antibiotic cycling regimes have been

  19. Use, cost, complications, and mortality of robotic versus nonrobotic general surgery procedures based on a nationwide database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Bell, Theodore; Martin, Jennifer; Bhuva, Kalpesh; Grim, Rod; Ahuja, Vanita

    2013-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1997, robotic surgery has overcome many limitations, including setup costs and surgeon training. The use of robotics in general surgery remains unknown. This study evaluates robotic-assisted procedures in general surgery by comparing characteristics with its nonrobotic (laparoscopic and open) counterparts. Weighted Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample data (2008, 2009) were used to identify the top 12 procedures for robotic general surgery. Robotic cases were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes 17.41 and 17.42. Procedures were grouped: esophagogastric, colorectal, adrenalectomy, lysis of adhesion, and cholecystectomy. Analyses were descriptive, t tests, χ(2)s, and logistic regression. Charges and length of stay were adjusted for gender, age, race, payer, hospital bed size, hospital location, hospital region, median household income, Charlson score, and procedure type. There were 1,389,235 (97.4%) nonrobotic and 37,270 (2.6%) robotic cases. Robotic cases increased from 0.8 per cent (2008) to 4.3 per cent (2009, P surgery had significantly shorter lengths of stay (4.9 days) than open surgery (6.1 days) and lower charges (median $30,540) than laparoscopic ($34,537) and open ($46,704) surgery. Fewer complications were seen in robotic-assisted colorectal, adrenalectomy and lysis of adhesion; however, robotic cholecystectomy and esophagogastric procedures had higher complications than nonrobotic surgery (P surgery had a lower mortality rate (0.097%) than nonrobotic surgeries per 10,000 procedures (laparoscopic 0.48%, open 0.92%; P surgery is generally considered a prohibitive factor. In the present study, when overall cost was considered, including length of stay, robotic surgery appeared to be cost-effective and as safe as nonrobotic surgery except in cholecystectomy and esophagogastric procedures. Further study is needed to fully understand the long-term implications of this new technology.

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  1. Achievement of cholesterol targets and prescribing of higher-cost statins: a cross-sectional study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetcroft, Robert; Schofield, Peter; Duerden, Martin; Ashworth, Mark

    2012-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether achievement of cholesterol targets at the population level is dependent on the choice and cost of statin. To investigate the practice-level relationship between cholesterol quality indicators in patients with heart disease, stroke, and diabetes and prescribing of low-cost statins. Correlations and linear regression modelling of retrospective cross-sectional practice-level data with potential explanatory variables in 7909 (96.4%) general practices in England in 2008-2009. Quality indicator data were obtained from the Information Centre and prescribing data from the NHS Business Authority. A 'cholesterol quality indicator' score was constructed by dividing the numbers of patients achieving the target for cholesterol control of ≤5 mmol/l in stroke, diabetes, and heart disease by the numbers on each register. A 'low-cost statin' ratio score was constructed by dividing the numbers of defined daily doses of simvastatin and pravastatin by the total numbers of defined daily doses of statins. Simvastatin accounted for 83.3% (standard deviation [SD] = 15.7%) of low-cost statins prescribed and atorvastatin accounted for 85.7% (SD = 14.8%) of high-cost statins prescribed. The mean cholesterol score was 73.7% (SD = 6.0%). Practices using a higher proportion of the low-cost statins were less successful in achieving cholesterol targets. An increase of 10% in the prescribing of low-cost statins was associated with a decrease of 0.46% in the cholesterol quality indicator score (95% confidence interval = -0.54% to -0.38%, Pcost statins was associated with a small reduction in cholesterol control.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Heather F; Lambley, Rosemary; West, Stephanie K; Ungar, Wendy J; Mireskandari, Kamiar

    2015-11-01

    The inability of some children to tolerate detailed eye examinations often necessitates general anaesthesia (GA). The objective was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of paediatric eye examinations carried out in an outpatient sedation unit compared with GA. An episode of care cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Model inputs were based on a retrospective cross-over cohort of Canadian children aged Costs ($CAN), adverse events and number of successful procedures were modelled in a decision analysis with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost per patient was $406 (95% CI $401 to $411) for EUS and $1135 (95% CI $1125 to $1145) for EUA. The mean number of successful procedures per patient was 1.39 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.42) for EUS and 2.06 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.11) for EUA. EUA was $729 more costly on average than EUS (95% CI $719 to $738) but resulted in an additional 0.68 successful procedures per child. The result was robust to varying the cost assumptions. Cross-over designs offer a powerful way to assess costs and effectiveness of two interventions because patients serve as their own control. This study demonstrated significant savings when ophthalmological exams were carried out in a hospital outpatient clinic, although with slightly fewer procedures completed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Hydrocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 4 to 7 days. Outlook (Prognosis) The success rate for hydrocele repair is very high. The ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  4. Craniosynostosis repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children having an open repair may need a transfusion) Reaction to medicines Risks for this surgery are: Infection in the brain Bones connect together again, and more surgery is needed Brain swelling Damage to brain tissue

  5. Ptosis repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, John; Hauck, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    Acquired blepharoptosis presents as both a functional and cosmetic problem commonly encountered by facial plastic surgeons. Ptosis repair can be both challenging and frustrating, especially given ever-increasing demands for an optimal cosmetic surgical result. The authors present a brief overview of key points to consider when attempting to achieve excellent blepharoptosis repair outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  7. Effectiveness of multidimensional cancer survivor rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation in general: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Janne C; Steuten, Lotte M G; Ijzerman, Maarten J; van Harten, Wim H

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer survivors suffer from a combination of disease- and treatment-related morbidities and complaints after primary treatment. There is a growing evidence base for the effectiveness of monodimensional rehabilitation interventions; in practice, however, patients often participate in multidimensional programs. This study systematically reviews evidence regarding effectiveness of multidimensional rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors and cost-effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation in general. The published literature was systematically reviewed. Data were extracted using standardized forms and were summarized narratively. Sixteen effectiveness and six cost-effectiveness studies were included. Multidimensional rehabilitation programs were found to be effective, but not more effective than monodimensional interventions, and not on all outcome measures. Effect sizes for quality of life were in the range of -0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.45-0.20) to 0.98 (95% CI, 0.69-1.29). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from -€16,976, indicating cost savings, to €11,057 per quality-adjusted life year. The evidence for multidimensional interventions and the economic impact of rehabilitation studies is scarce and dominated by breast cancer studies. Studies published so far report statistically significant benefits for multidimensional interventions over usual care, most notably for the outcomes fatigue and physical functioning. An additional benefit of multidimensional over monodimensional rehabilitation was not found, but this was also sparsely reported on. Available economic evaluations assessed very different rehabilitation interventions. Yet, despite low comparability, all showed favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Future studies should focus their designs on the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multidimensional programs.

  8. Time and cost analysis: pediatric dental rehabilitation with general anesthesia in the office and the hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashewsky, Stephanie; Parameswaran, Ashish; Sloane, Carole; Ferguson, Fred; Epstein, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric dental patients who cannot receive dental care in the clinic due to uncooperative behavior are often referred to receive dental care under general anesthesia (GA). At Stony Brook Medicine, dental patients requiring treatment with GA receive dental care in our outpatient facility at the Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine (SDM) or in the Stony Brook University Hospital ambulatory setting (SBUH). This study investigates the time and cost for ambulatory American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class I pediatric patients receiving full-mouth dental rehabilitation using GA in these 2 locations, along with a descriptive analysis of the patients and dental services provided. In this institutional review board-approved cross-sectional retrospective study, ICD-9 codes for dental caries (521.00) were used to collect patient records between July 2009 and May 2011. Participants were limited to ASA I patients aged 36-60 months. Complete records from 96 patients were reviewed. There were significant differences in cost, total anesthesia time, and recovery room time (P average total time (anesthesia end time minus anesthesia start time) to treat a child at SBUH under GA was 222 ± 62.7 minutes, and recovery time (time of discharge minus anesthesia end time) was 157 ± 97.2 minutes; the average total cost was $7,303. At the SDM, the average total time was 175 ± 36.8 minutes, and recovery time was 25 ± 12.7 minutes; the average total cost was $414. After controlling for anesthesia time and procedures, we found that SBUH cost 13.2 times more than SDM. This study provides evidence that ASA I pediatric patients can receive full-mouth dental rehabilitation utilizing GA under the direction of dentist anesthesiologists in an office-based dental setting more quickly and at a lower cost. This is very promising for patients with the least access to care, including patients with special needs and lack of insurance.

  9. Procedures for maintenance and repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.

    1981-01-01

    After a general review of the operation experience in the history of more than 12 operating years, the organization in the plant will be shown with special aspect to quality assurance, capacity of the workshops and connected groups as radiation protection, chemical laboratories etc. The number, time intervals and manpower effort for the repeating tests will be discussed. Reasons and examples for back-fitting activities in the plant are given. Besides special repair and maintenance procedures as repair of the steam generators, in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel, repair of a feed-water pipe and repair of the core structure in the pressure vessel, the general system to handle maintenance and repair-work in the KWO-plant will be shown. This includes also the detailed planning of the annual refueling and revision of the plant. (orig./RW)

  10. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  11. Prevalence and Cost of Full-Time Research Fellowships During General Surgery Residency – A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M.; Klingensmith, Mary E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. Summary Background Data General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1-3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Methods Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Results Response rate was 200/239 (84%). A total of 381 out of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and post-residency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (p<0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of ACGME work hour regulations for clinical residents, while a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Conclusions Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. While performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after post-graduate training. PMID:19106692

  12. Infraorbital Nerve Block for Isolated Orbital Floor Fractures Repair: Review of 135 Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spinelli, MD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: There are several advantages to surgically repairing isolated orbital floor fractures under regional and local anesthesia that include the following: surgeons can check the surgical outcome (enophthalmos and extrinsic ocular muscles function intraoperatively, thereby reducing the reoperation rate; patient discomfort due to general anesthesia is eliminated; and the hospital stay is reduced, thus decreasing overall healthcare costs.

  13. Joint optimization of level of repair analysis and spare parts stocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the field of service logistics for capital goods, generally, metric type methods are used to decide where to stock spare parts in a multi-echelon repair network such that a target availability of the capital goods is achieved. These methods generate a trade-off curve of spares investment costs

  14. A standardized resident training program in endoscopic surgery in general and in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair in particular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miserez, Marc; Arregui, Maurice; Bisgaard, Thue

    2009-01-01

    . A standardized preclinical resident training program in endoscopic surgery is described. Also, a standardized clinical training program is proposed with systematic dissection in 10 different consecutive steps for totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. Continuous mentoring by an expert is an absolute...

  15. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    2018-02-20

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  16. Multicenter review of robotic versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: is there a role for robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter A; May, Audriene C; Mo, Jiandi; Cherla, Deepa V; Santillan, Monica Rosales; Kim, Steven; Ryan, Heidi; Shah, Shinil K; Wilson, Erik B; Tsuda, Shawn

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of robotic platforms for general surgery procedures such as hernia repair is growing rapidly in the United States. A limited amount of data are available evaluating operative outcomes in comparison to standard laparoscopic surgery. We completed a retrospective review comparing robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair to provide safety and outcomes data to help design a future prospective trial design. A retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (142 robotic and 73 laparoscopic) was completed at two large academic centers. Primary outcome measure evaluated was recurrence. Secondary outcomes included incidence of primary fascial closure, and surgical site occurrences. Propensity for treatment match comparison demonstrated that robotic repair was associated with a decreased incidence of recurrence (2.1 versus 4.2%, p robotic repair was associated with increased incidence of primary fascial closure (77.1 versus 66.7%, p robotic repairs were completed on patients with lower body mass index (28.1 ± 3.6 versus 34.2 ± 6.4, p robotic repair was associated with decreased recurrence and surgical site occurrence. However, the differences noted in the patient populations limit the interpretability of these results. As adoption of robotic ventral hernia repair increases, prospective trials need to be designed in order to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this evolving technique.

  17. Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2014-04-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  18. Metabolic Compensation of Fitness Costs Is a General Outcome for Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mutants Overexpressing Efflux Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Pacheco, Jorge; Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Alcalde Rico, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is generally assumed that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is associated with a fitness cost. We have shown that overexpression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump does not decrease the fitness of a resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain compared to its wild-type counterpart. This lack of fitness cost was associated with a metabolic rewiring that includes increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain when cells are growing under fully aerobic conditions. It was not clear whether this metabolic compensation was exclusive to strains overexpressing MexEF-OprN or if it extended to other resistant strains that overexpress similar systems. To answer this question, we studied a set of P. aeruginosa mutants that independently overexpress the MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, or MexXY efflux pumps. We observed increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain in all cases, with a concomitant increase in NO3 consumption and NO production. These efflux pumps are proton/substrate antiporters, and their overexpression may lead to intracellular H+ accumulation, which may in turn offset the pH homeostasis. Indeed, all studied mutants showed a decrease in intracellular pH under anaerobic conditions. The fastest way to eliminate the excess of protons is by increasing oxygen consumption, a feature also displayed by all analyzed mutants. Taken together, our results support metabolic rewiring as a general mechanism to avoid the fitness costs derived from overexpression of P. aeruginosa multidrug efflux pumps. The development of drugs that block this metabolic “reaccommodation” might help in reducing the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance elements among bacterial populations. PMID:28743808

  19. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  20. A geometric process repair model for a repairable cold standby system with priority in use and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Wang Guanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. For each component, assume that the successive working times form a decreasing geometric process while the consecutive repair times constitute an increasing geometric process, and component 1 has priority in use and repair. Under these assumptions, we consider a replacement policy N based on the number of repairs of component 1 under which the system is replaced when the number of repairs of component 1 reaches N. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy N* such that the average cost rate (i.e. the long-run average cost per unit time) of the system is minimized. The explicit equation of the average cost rate of the system is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy N* can be determined analytically or numerically. Finally, a numerical example with Weibull distribution is given to illustrate some theoretical results in this paper.

  1. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  2. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  3. Tissue repair capacity and repair kinetics deduced from multifractionated or continuous irradiation regimens with incomplete repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.; Peters, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model is proposed for cell survival after multiple doses, when the interfraction interval is insufficient for complete Elkind repair. In the limit of ever-increasing number of ever-smaller fractional doses, the model transforms into the accumulation model of survival after continuous irradiation. When adapted to describe tissue responses to isoeffective multifractionated regimens, wherein repair is incomplete, a generalization of the usually linear plot of reciprocal total dose versus dose per fraction is obtained, in which downward curvature is evident. There is an advantage in studying tissue responses to multifractionated regimens with incomplete repair in the interfraction intervals, or continuous exposures at various dose rates since, in addition to determination of repair capacity, there is an estimate of repair kinetics. Results of analyses of previously published data are presented as illustration. Estimated from the response of three acutely responding normal tissues in the mouse (jejunum, colon and bone marrow), repair halftimes ranged from 0.3-0.9 h and values of β/delta were approximately 0.1 Gy -1 . From the response of mouse lung (LD50 for pneumonitis) to multifractionated regimens with incomplete repair, the repair halftime was estimated at 1.5 h and β/delta was 0.27 Gy -1 . In the rat spinal cord β/delta was 0.7 Gy -1 and Tsub(1/2) was 1.5 h. (U.K.)

  4. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souto Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years. To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod. Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$ per DALY for the different interventions were: (i less salt in bread $151; (ii mass media campaign $547; (iii combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv high blood pressure (HBP lowering therapy $7,716; (v tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv high-cholesterol lowering therapy

  5. 26 CFR 1.162-4 - Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of acquisition or production or the gain or loss basis of the taxpayer's plant, equipment, or other property, as the case may be, is not increased by the amount of such expenditures. Repairs in the... incidental repairs which neither materially add to the value of the property nor appreciably prolong its life...

  6. Complex networks under dynamic repair model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoqi, Fu; Ying, Wang; Kun, Zhao; Yangjun, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Invulnerability is not the only factor of importance when considering complex networks' security. It is also critical to have an effective and reasonable repair strategy. Existing research on network repair is confined to the static model. The dynamic model makes better use of the redundant capacity of repaired nodes and repairs the damaged network more efficiently than the static model; however, the dynamic repair model is complex and polytropic. In this paper, we construct a dynamic repair model and systematically describe the energy-transfer relationships between nodes in the repair process of the failure network. Nodes are divided into three types, corresponding to three structures. We find that the strong coupling structure is responsible for secondary failure of the repaired nodes and propose an algorithm that can select the most suitable targets (nodes or links) to repair the failure network with minimal cost. Two types of repair strategies are identified, with different effects under the two energy-transfer rules. The research results enable a more flexible approach to network repair.

  7. Diving costs as a component of daily energy budgets of aquatic birds and mammals : Generalizing the inclusion of dive-recovery costs demonstrated in tufted ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deLeeuw, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Metabolic studies on freely diving birds and mammals are reviewed and allometric relations of diving costs are presented. A distinction can be made between three different types of diving costs: (1) metabolic rate during submergence, relevant in estimating aerobic dive limits, (2) average metabolic

  8. Age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Qu, Jian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    In most of literatures of age replacement policy, failures before planned replacement age can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired based on the types of failures, cost for repairs and so on. In this paper, we propose age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability. The proposed policy incorporates the case that such intermittent failure can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired with random probabilities. The mathematical formulas of the expected cost rate per unit time are derived for both the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that the optimal replacement age exists and is finite. - Highlights: • We propose a new age replacement policy with random probability of perfect repair. • We develop the expected cost per unit time. • We discuss the optimal age for replacement minimizing the expected cost rate.

  9. Water-only hydrothermal method: a generalized route for environmentally-benign and cost-effective construction of superhydrophilic surfaces with biomimetic micronanostructures on metals and alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Zhang, Yuezhong; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Lv, Rong; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2014-07-18

    The present work demonstrates a generalized strategy using water-only hydrothermal oxidation to construct complex biomimetic micronanostructures on a series of metals and alloys, resulting in superhydrophilic surfaces. This general approach is environmentally-benign and cost-effective, which offers a unique clue for the rational fabrication of micronanoscale architectures and superhydrophilic surfaces.

  10. Strategic Inventory Positioning of Navy Depot Level Repairable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... the benefits in modifying their current inventory positioning policy for repairable items. NAVICP wishes to incorporate a strategic inventory positioning policy that reduces transportation costs...

  11. Meniscal repair: Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2018-02-01

    Meniscal repair aims to achieve meniscal healing, avoiding the adverse effects of meniscectomy. Longitudinal vertical tears in a vascularized area are the reference indication. The technique generally uses hybrid all-inside implants. The outside-in technique has other indications in more anterior tears. Healing has been demonstrated on CT-arthrography and arthroscopy. Specific techniques have been developed for other pathological situations. Posterior meniscosynovial lesions in a context of chronic anterior laxity are identified by exploration of the posterior compartment, and fixed by all-inside hook suture. Horizontal lesions in young athletes can be treated by open meniscal suture. Radial tears, when deep, can be repaired. Root tears, when traumatic, can be treated by transosseous pullout reinsertion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chronic kidney disease and comorbid conditions on health care costs: A 10-year observational study in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Böger, Carsten A; Krämer, Bernhard K; Döring, Angela; Eheberg, Dirk; Fischer, Beate; John, Jürgen; Koenig, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, but the longitudinal effects of CKD and associated comorbidities on health care costs in the general population are unknown. Population-based cohort study of 2,988 subjects in Germany, aged 25-74 years at baseline, who participated both in the baseline and 10-year follow-up examination (1994/95-2004/05). Presence of CKD was based on serum creatinine and defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of socio-economics, lifestyle factors and comorbid conditions, subjects with baseline CKD, in comparison to those without, exhibited 65% higher total costs 10 years after baseline examination, corresponding to a difference in adjusted costs of EUR 743. Incident CKD was related to 38% higher total costs. Costs for inpatient treatment and drug costs were the major costs components, while CKD revealed no effect on outpatient costs. The effect of CKD was strongly modified by angina, myocardial infarction, diabetes, and anemia. The direct effect of CKD on costs is modified by comorbid conditions. Therefore, early treatment of CKD and its precipitous factors may save future health care costs. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. Traditional methods relying on predefined quality rules to detect the conflict between data may fail to choose the right way to fix the detected conflict. Recent efforts turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes the advantages of both rule-based method and crowd-based method. Particularly, we investigate the interaction between crowd-based repairing and rule-based repairing, and show that by doing crowd-based repairing to a small portion of values, we can greatly improve the repairing quality of the rule-based repairing method. Although we prove that the optimal interaction scheme using the least number of values for crowd-based repairing to maximize the imputation recall is not feasible to be achieved, still, our proposed solution identifies an efficient scheme through investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Our empirical study on three data collections demonstrates the high repairing quality of CrowdAidRepair, as well as the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over baselines.

  14. A general model for the estimation of societal costs of lost production and informal care in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2017-02-01

    reported HRQoL data with demographically matched Italian norms. Our results will be useful for cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses conducted from the perspective of the Italian society and we encourage the inclusion of these costs in economic evaluations to allow decision makers to be fully informed about the costs and consequences of their decisions on healthcare interventions.

  15. Resource consumption and costs in Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from 29 general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redekop, WK; Koopmanschap, MA; Rutten, GEHM; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Stolk, RP; Niessen, LW

    Aims The aims of this study were to estimate the costs incurred by Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes, examine which patient and/or treatment characteristics are associated with costs, and estimate the medical and non-medical costs of patients with Type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Methods

  16. Secant generalized method minimizing the fuel and emissions costs in a power station of small cogeneration multi-machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhalil, Firas; Colas, Frederic; ROBYNS, Benoit

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this paper consists in optimizing the fuel consumption of a power station of small cogeneration multi-machines while minimizing generated pollution (CO and NO x ). Firstly, a study carried out on the strategies of Economic Dispatch was used to solve the unit commitment problem, whose main goals is to determine the optimal schedule of online generating units so as to meet the power demand at minimum fuel and emission costs under various system and operating constraints. This work was carried out by Secant method combined with Improved Pre-prepared Power Demand (IPPD) table which determines the unit status information; the optimal solution is then achieved by Secant method at each power demand for 24 hours. The proposed algorithm was generalized to 10-100 units in a 24 hours unit commitment schedule. Finally, by comparing the results obtained by our suggested method with the results of the classical method, we find that the method suggested (Secant) provides at any hour the better solution. (authors)

  17. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  18. A comparison of the 'cost per child treated' at a primary care-based sedation referral service, compared to a general anaesthetic in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, K; Averley, P A; Shackley, P; Steele, J

    2007-09-22

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of dental sedation techniques used in the treatment of children, focusing on hospital-based dental general anaesthetic (DGA) and advanced conscious sedation in a controlled primary care environment. Data on fees, costs and treatment pathways were obtained from a primary care clinic specialising in advanced sedation techniques. For the hospital-based DGA cohort, data were gathered from hospital trusts in the same area. Comparison was via an average cost per child treated and subsequent sensitivity analysis. Analysing records spanning one year, the average cost per child treated via advanced conscious sedation was pound245.47. As some treatments fail (3.5% of cases attempted), and the technique is not deemed suitable for all patients (4-5%), DGA is still required and has been factored into this cost. DGA has an average cost per case treated of pound359.91, 46.6% more expensive than advanced conscious sedation. These cost savings were robust to plausible variation in all parameters. The costs of advanced conscious sedation techniques, applied in a controlled primary care environment, are substantially lower than the equivalent costs of hospital-based DGA, informing the debate about the optimum way of managing this patient group.

  19. Mismatch Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Highly conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS) are the fundamental components of mismatch repair (MMR). After decades of debate, it appears clear that the MSH proteins initiate MMR by recognizing a mismatch and forming multiple extremely stable ATP-bound sliding clamps that diffuse without hydrolysis along the adjacent DNA. The function(s) of MLH/PMS proteins is less clear, although they too bind ATP and are targeted to MMR by MSH sliding clamps. Structural analysis combined with recent real-time single molecule and cellular imaging technologies are providing new and detailed insight into the thermal-driven motions that animate the complete MMR mechanism. PMID:26354434

  20. DNA repair , cell repair and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data obtained in laboratory of radiation cytology and literature data testifying to a considerable role of DNA repair in cell sensitivity to radiation and chemical DNA-tropic agents have been considered. Data pointing to the probability of contribution of inducible repair of DNA into plant cells sensitivity to X-rays are obtained. Certain violations of DNA repair do not result in the increase of radiosensitivity. It is assumed that in the cases unknown mechanisms of DNA repair operate

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led case management intervention in general medical outpatients compared with usual care: An economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latour, C.H.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    of life, and psychological functioning. There was a substantial difference in total costs between the NHI group and the control group (€4286; 95% CI, -41; 8026), but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: NHI is not a cost-effective intervention. We do not recommend......Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led, home-based, case-management intervention (NHI) after hospital discharge in addition to usual care. Methods: Economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial after being discharged home with 24...... weeks of follow-up. Patients discharged to their home from a general hospital were randomly assigned to NHI or usual care. Clinical outcomes were frequency of emergency readmissions, quality of life, and psychological functioning. Direct costs were measured by means of cost diaries kept by the patients...

  2. The Distinction between Direct and General Costs with Regard to the Deduction of Input VAT - The Case of Acquisition, Holding and Sale of Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    is of general importance to all types of costs, but judged from the case law of the ECJ it has especially materialised itself when it comes to costs related to the acquisition, holding or sales of shares. The purpose of this article is therefore twofold. On the one hand it deals with the difficult question......In revealing the conditions for the deduction of input VAT, the essential questions concern the nature of the so-called ‘direct and immediate link’ test and thus also the criteria for the important distinction between direct costs and general costs. The ‘direct and immediate link’ test...... of distinguishing between direct and general costs. On the other hand the aim is to describe and analyse the law as it stands regarding the treatment of shares in the EU VAT system, with a special focus on the right to deduct input VAT on costs re-lating to transactions in shares. As a part of this analysis the aim...

  3. Experimental Control of Curing & Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Patch Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalkanis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unquestionably structural integrity of composite materials is of great importance and spans from production to service. The presented experimental investigation, supported initially by numerical analysis, addresses the capability of sensing during the curing cycle of Composite Patch Repair (CPR guaranteeing achievement of optimal cure levels. Results have exhibited identification and completion of cure leading to probable reduction of repair and downtime costs. The sensors were further used post curing for structural integrity where results proved that the optical fibres can render a general state of the strain field inside the patches and possible crack propagation (real time.

  4. DACC program cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated 201 configuration of the dedicated Aft Cargo Carrier (DACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the DACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the DACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/DACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering an orbital transfer vehicle to a 120 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  5. Incision Coordination in Nucleotide Excision Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.L. de Laat (Wouter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism that underlies one of the main DNA repair pathways in mammals, nucleotide excision rcpair. In chapter 1 the relevance of DNA repair in general is outlined. An overview of mammalian strategies to counteract DNA

  6. Survey of Active Structural Control and Repair Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric actuator has gained popularity over the last few years. Attention has been directed towards the study of their electromechanical response in active repair and the control of damaged structures. This has been made possible through the development of various numerical and analytical techniques for such studies. The shift of focus towards the piezoelectric based approaches has been due to their advantages, which include strategic cost benefits in maintenance, as well as an increase in the life cycle of the repaired structures. Furthermore, adhesively bonded joints are widely used in the manufacturing and repairing of structures in many industries, especially automotive and aerospace engineering. This is due to the requirement for lightweight materials as well as the potential adhesive used to join materials with different characteristics. The piezoelectric actuator has also shown the capacity in controlling and lowering the shear stress concentration and joint edge peel in adhesively bonded joint systems. The structure’s control of stress and repair can generally be viewed as a reinforcement that influences the structure’s damage tolerance. Therefore, the interest of this review is on the applications of the piezoelectric actuators in both structural damage and the bonded adhesive joint system. The specific goal is to recognize the contemporary scientific challenges, including future opportunities.

  7. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  8. Predictors of Failure of Awake Regional Anesthesia for Neonatal Hernia Repair : Data from the General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E; de Graaff, Jurgen C; Morton, Neil S; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J; Absalom, Anthony

    BACKGROUND: Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive

  9. The relevance of unrelated costs internal and external to the healthcare sector to the outcome of a cost-comparison analysis of secondary prevention: the case of general colorectal cancer screening in the German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheulin, Dieter K; Drevs, Florian

    2010-04-01

    The potential of secondary prevention measures, such as cancer screening, to produce cost savings in the healthcare sector is a controversial issue in healthcare economics. Potential savings are calculated by comparing treatment costs with the cost of a prevention program. When survivors' subsequent unrelated health care costs are included in the calculation, however, the overall cost of disease prevention rises. What have not been studied to date are the secondary effects of fatal disease prevention measures on social security systems. From the perspective of a policy maker responsible for a social security system budget, it is not only future healthcare costs that are relevant for budgeting, but also changes in the contributions to, and expenditures from, statutory pension insurance and health insurance systems. An examination of the effect of longer life expectancies on these insurance systems can be justified by the fact that European social security systems are regulated by the state, and there is no clear separation between the financing of individual insurance systems due to cross-subsidisation. This paper looks at how the results of cost-comparison analyses vary depending on the inclusion or exclusion of future healthcare and non-healthcare costs, using the example of colorectal cancer screening in the German general population. In contrast to previous studies, not only are future unrelated medical costs considered, but also the effects on the social security system. If a German colorectal cancer screening program were implemented, and unrelated future medical care were excluded from the cost-benefit analysis, savings of up to 548 million euros per year would be expected. The screening program would, at the same time, generate costs in the healthcare sector as well as in the social security system of 2,037 million euros per year. Because the amount of future contributions and expenditures in the social security system depends on the age and gender of the

  10. Photomask repair using low-energetic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Spies, P.; Luchs, T.; Schneider, H.; Auth, N.; Hermanns, Ch. F.; Waiblinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. We will demonstrate in this paper that low energetic electron-beam (e-beam)-based mask repair is a commercially viable solution. Therefore we developed a new repair platform called MeRiT® neXT to address the technical challenges of this new technology. We will analyze the limits of the existing as well as lower energetic electron induced repair technologies theoretically and experimentally and show performance data on photomask reticles. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair technology.

  11. An Examination of the Benefits and Costs of Sabbatical Leave for General Higher Education, Industry, and Professional-Technical/Community College Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Linda R.; Kroth, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine the differences in the use of sabbatical leave among the arenas of general higher education, industry, and professional-technical/community college. The purposes and policies applied to sabbatical leave, along with the cost of using sabbatical leave in these three environments are compared and…

  12. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R, s, nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, G.P

    2007-01-01

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is back-logged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed. For given values of Q and R we show how to comput...

  13. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, Gudrun P.

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is backlogged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed....

  14. SHARC: Space Habitat, Assembly and Repair Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Todd; Hoetger, Debora; Kuo, Addison; Lo, Michael; Marcus, Leland; Tran, Philip; Tutt, Chris; Wassmuth, Chad; Wildgrube, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Integrated Space Systems (ISS) has taken on the task of designing a Space Habitat, Assembly and Repair Center (SHARC) in Low Earth Orbit to meet the future needs of the space program. Our goal is to meet the general requirements given by the 1991/1992 AIAA/LORAL Team Space Design competition with an emphasis on minimizing the costs of such a design. A baseline structural configuration along with preliminary designs of the major subsystems was created. Our initial mission requirements, which were set by AIAA, were that the facility be able to: support simultaneous assembly of three major vehicles; conduct assembly operations and minimal extra vehicular activity (EVA); maintain orbit indefinitely; and assemble components 30 feet long with a 10 foot diameter in a shirtsleeve environment.

  15. General hospital costs in England of medical and psychiatric care for patients who self-harm: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; McDaid, David; Casey, Deborah; Brand, Fiona; Leal, Jose; Park, A-La; Geulayov, Galit; Hawton, Keith

    2017-10-01

    Self-harm is an extremely common reason for hospital presentation. However, few estimates have been made of the hospital costs of assessing and treating self-harm. Such information is essential for planning services and to help strengthen the case for investment in actions to reduce the frequency and effects of self-harm. In this study, we aimed to calculate the costs of hospital medical care associated with a self-harm episode and the costs of psychosocial assessment, together with identification of the key drivers of these costs. In a retrospective analysis, we estimated hospital resource use and care costs for all presentations for self-harm to the John Radcliffe Hospital (Oxford, UK), between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Episode-related data were provided by the Oxford Monitoring System for Self-harm and we linked these with financial hospital records to quantify costs. We assessed time and resources allocated to psychosocial assessments through discussion with clinical and managerial staff. We then used generalised linear models to investigate the associations between hospital costs and methods of self-harm. Between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, 1647 self-harm presentations by 1153 patients were recorded. Of these, 1623 (99%) presentations by 1140 patients could be linked with hospital finance records. 179 (16%) patients were younger than 18 years. 1150 (70%) presentations were for self-poisoning alone, 367 (22%) for self-injury alone, and 130 (8%) for a combination of methods. Psychosocial assessments were made in 75% (1234) of all episodes. The overall mean hospital cost per episode of self-harm was £809. Costs differed significantly between different types of self-harm: self-injury alone £753 (SD 2061), self-poisoning alone £806 (SD 1568), self-poisoning and self-injury £987 (SD 1823; phospital management of self-harm is £162 million per year. More use of psychosocial assessment and other preventive measures, especially for young people and

  16. Shouldice Versus Lichtenstein Hernia Repair Techniques: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichtenstein), and the 4-layer tissue repair (Shouldice) techniques of inguinal hernia surgery and to determine to what extent doctors in a general surgical unit were able to reproduce the excellent results reported from specialist hernia centres.

  17. Availability and cost functions for periodically inspected preventively maintained units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Unavailability and cost rate functions are developed for components whose failures can occur randomly but they are detected only by periodic testing or inspections. If a failure occurs between consecutive inspections, the unit remains failed until the next inspection. Components are renewed by preventive maintenance periodically, or by repair or replacement after a failure, whichever occurs first (age-replacement). The model takes into account finite repair and maintenance durations as well as costs due to testing, repair, maintenance and lost production or accidents. For normally operating units the time-related penalty is loss of production. For standby safety equipment it is the expected cost of an accident that can happen when the component is down due to a dormant failure, repair or maintenance. The objective of maintenance optimization is to minimize the total cost rate by proper selection of two intervals, one for inspections and one for replacements. General conditions and techniques are developed for solving optimal test and maintenance intervals, with and without constraints on the production loss or accident rate. Insights are gained into how the optimal intervals depend on various cost parameters and reliability characteristics

  18. Life satisfaction, general well-being and costs of treatment for severe fear of childbirth in nulliparous women by psychoeducative group or conventional care attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhe, Hanna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Toivanen, Riikka; Tokola, Maiju; Halmesmäki, Erja; Saisto, Terhi

    2015-05-01

    Fear of childbirth is a common reason for seeking cesarean section. It is important to consider outcomes and costs associated with alternative treatment and delivery mode. We compared well-being and costs of group psychoeducation and conventional care for fear of childbirth. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 371 nulliparous women scoring over the 95th centile in the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ) during the first trimester. Finland, data from obstetrical patient records and questionnaires. Randomization to group psychoeducation with relaxation (six sessions during pregnancy, one after childbirth, n = 131), or surveillance and referral on demand (n = 240). All costs in maternity care during pregnancy, delivery and postnatally according to Diagnoses Related Groups. Life satisfaction and general well-being 3 months after childbirth (by a Satisfaction with Life Scale and Well-being Visual Analogue Scale). The groups did not differ in total direct costs (€3786/woman in psychoeducative group and €3830/woman in control group), nor in life satisfaction or general well-being. Although only 76 (30%) of the women assigned to the surveillance were referred to special maternity care and 36 (15%) attended advanced prenatal classes, costs in the psychoeducation group did not exceed the costs of the controls, mostly because of the greater number of uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (63% vs. 47%, p = 0.005). Through an association with safer childbirth and equal well-being after delivery, psychoeducative group treatment for nulliparous women with fear of childbirth can be a recommended choice for the same overall costs as conventional treatment. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses for combinations of prevention strategies against human papillomavirus (HPV infection: a general trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gervais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the arrival of multi-valent HPV vaccines, it is more and more important to have a better understanding of the relationship between vaccination and screening programmes. This review aimed to: (1 collect published evidence on the cost-effectiveness profile of different HPV prevention strategies and, in particular, those combining vaccination with changes in screening practices; (2 explore the cost-effectiveness of alternative preventive strategies based on screening and vaccination. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify the relevant studies regarding the cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies against HPV infection. Analysis comparing the modelling approaches between studies was made along with an assessment of the magnitude of impact of several factors on the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. Results A total of 18 papers were quantitatively summarised within the narrative. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in terms of how HPV prevention strategies have been assessed in terms of their economic and epidemiological impact, with variation in screening practice and valence of HPV vaccination found to have large implications in terms of cost-effectiveness. Conclusions This review demonstrated synergies between screening and vaccination. New prevention strategies involving multi-valence vaccination, HPV DNA test screening, delayed commencement and frequency of screening could be implemented in the future. Strategies implemented in the future should be chosen with care, and informed knowledge of the potential impact of all possible prevention strategies. Highlighted in this review is the difficulty in assessing multiple strategies. Appropriate modelling techniques will need to be utilised to assess the most cost-effective strategies.

  20. DNA Mismatch Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  1. Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (≤1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P

  2. Association of mental distress with health care utilization and costs: a 5-year observation in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Baumeister, Sebastian E; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J; Völzke, Henry

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have associated mental distress and disorders with increased health care utilization and costs. However, most studies have selected subjects from treatment facilities or have applied retrospective designs. N = 3,300 subjects from the baseline cohort of the Study of Health in Pomerania were followed up 5 years later. Mental distress was assessed with the SF-12 Health Survey and the Composite Diagnostic Screener for mental disorders. Two-part econometric models were applied adjusting for medical confounders and baseline services use. At 5-year follow-up somatization at baseline predicted an increase of inpatient (+39.9%) and outpatient costs (+11.9%). Depression predicted an increase of inpatient (+24.1%) and outpatient costs (+8.9%). Comorbidity of somatization and depression and somatization and anxiety predicted an increase in overall health care costs of > or =50%. Simple and time-efficient screening procedures for mental disorders may help to identify subjects at risk for increased future health care utilization. Standardized therapeutic interventions should be evaluated in subjects at risk in primary care.

  3. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  4. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  5. The "cost" of treating to target: cross-sectional analysis of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furler, John; Hii, Justin W S; Liew, Danny; Blackberry, Irene; Best, James; Segal, Leonie; Young, Doris

    2013-03-08

    To describe the current treatment gap in management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in general practice as well as the associated financial and therapeutic burden of pharmacological treatment. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Patient Engagement and Coaching for Health trial. This totalled 473 patients from 59 general practices with participants eligible if they had HbA1c > 7.5%. Main outcome measures included proportions of patients not within target risk factor levels and weighted average mean annual cost for cardiometabolic medications and factors associated with costs. Medication costs were derived from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Schedule. Average age was 63 (range 27-89). Average HbA1c was 8.1% and average duration of diabetes was 10 years. 35% of patients had at least one micro or macrovascular complication and patients were taking a mean of 4 cardio-metabolic medications. The majority of participants on treatment for cardiovascular risk factors were not achieving clinical targets, with 74% and 75% of patients out of target range for blood pressure and lipids respectively. A significant proportion of those not meeting clinical targets were not on treatment at all. The weighted mean annual cost for cardiometabolic medications was AUD$1384.20 per patient (2006-07). Independent factors associated with cost included age, duration of diabetes, history of acute myocardial infarction, proteinuria, increased waist circumference and depression. Treatment rates for cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in our participants are higher than those identified in earlier studies. However, rates of achieving target levels remain low despite the large 'pill burden' and substantial associated fiscal costs to individuals and the community. The complexities of balancing the overall benefits of treatment intensification against potential disadvantages for patients and health care systems

  6. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000158.htm Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  7. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  8. Retinal detachment repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area (the macula). This can help prevent further detachment of the retina. It also will increase the chance of preserving ... buckling; Vitrectomy; Pneumatic retinopexy; Laser retinopexy; Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair Images ... detachment repair - series References Connolly BP, Regillo ...

  9. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  10. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Sapowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed body condition scores (BCS and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n=149 and a general practice (n=166. BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices. Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P<0.001 and education (P<0.001 compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P<0.001 and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P<0.001. Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P=0.083, with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P=0.046, but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P=0.230. Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P=0.004. Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  11. Optimal repair and reinforcement of plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojczuk, Dariusz; Szteleblak, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    This paper is devoted to optimal repair of bending plates and plates in plane state of stress by adding to the existing structure in the current state, some new elements like new elastic or rigid supports, new ribs or other substructures. It is assumed that the primary structure is weakened or damaged and it needs repair and reinforcement. The appropriate optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of increment of the kinematic fields functional induced by introduction of stiffeners, under the cost constraint. In particular, this functional can express the elastic energy or potential energy so the analyzed problem may also represent the maximization of the global structure stiffness. The cost constraint corresponds to condition imposed on the maximal cost of the repair. The method of initial localization of reinforcement is presented and the optimization algorithm is formulated. Numerical examples show usefulness of the applied approach.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of i-Sleep, a guided online CBT intervention, for patients with insomnia in general practice: protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zweerde, Tanja; Lancee, Jaap; Slottje, Pauline; Bosmans, Judith; Van Someren, Eus; Reynolds, Charles; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-04-02

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder causing clinically significant distress and impairment. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with high societal and individual costs. Although cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) is the preferred treatment, it is not used often. Offering CBT-I in an online format may increase access. Many studies have shown that online CBT for insomnia is effective. However, these studies have all been performed in general population samples recruited through media. This protocol article presents the design of a study aimed at establishing feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a guided online intervention (i-Sleep) for patients suffering from insomnia that seek help from their general practitioner as compared to care-as-usual. In a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, adult patients with insomnia disorder recruited through general practices are randomized to a 5-session guided online treatment, which is called "i-Sleep", or to care-as-usual. Patients in the care-as-usual condition will be offered i-Sleep 6 months after inclusion. An ancillary clinician, known as the psychological well-being practitioner who works in the GP practice (PWP; in Dutch: POH-GGZ), will offer online support after every session. Our aim is to recruit one hundred and sixty patients. Questionnaires, a sleep diary and wrist actigraphy will be administered at baseline, post intervention (at 8 weeks), and at 6 months and 12 months follow-up. Effectiveness will be established using insomnia severity as the main outcome. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility (using costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) as outcome) will be conducted from a societal perspective. Secondary measures are: sleep diary, daytime consequences, fatigue, work and social adjustment, anxiety, alcohol use, depression and quality of life. The results of this trial will help establish whether online CBT-I is (cost-) effective and feasible in general practice as compared

  13. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project; Schutz durch Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzschichten auf dickwandigen End- und Zwischenlagerbauteilen zur Reduktion von Reparaturen, Korrosion und Kosten 'SHARK'. Ein Ueberblick zum Abschluss des Projektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Unterwassertechnikum Hannover, Garbsen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Dyllong, Nobert; Tragsdorf, Inga Maren [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor {sup copyright} containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 {mu}m also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK

  14. Reparación general o restablecimiento a kilómetro cero. ¿Cuál es la diferencia? // General repair or reestablishment to zero kilometer. Which is the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baste González

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se ha presentado con gran énfasis el uso de los agregados y motores que han pasado un proceso derestablecimiento a kilómetro cero. El empleo de los procesos tecnológicos de reparación general de agregados ha sidosiempre un método que en la variante individual es de gran aplicación en los talleres que reparan modelos distintos y enpequeñas cantidades. En la presente nota técnica se hace un análisis de las diferencias y semejanzas entre la reparacióngeneral individual y el restablecimiento a kilómetro cero.Palabras claves: Reparación general, kilómetro cero, reparación de motores.______________________________________________________________________________En la actualidad se ha presentado con gran énfasis el uso de los agregados y motores que han pasado un proceso derestablecimiento a kilómetro cero. El empleo de los procesos tecnológicos de reparación general de agregados ha sidosiempre un método que en la variante individual es de gran aplicación en los talleres que reparan modelos distintos y enpequeñas cantidades. En la presente nota técnica se hace un análisis de las diferencias y semejanzas entre la reparacióngeneral individual y el restablecimiento a kilómetro cero.Palabras claves: Reparación general, kilómetro cero, reparación de motores.

  15. Laser cladding: repairing and manufacturing metal parts and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Laser cladding is presently used to repair high volume aerospace, automotive, marine, rail or general engineering components where excessive wear has occurred. It can also be used if a one-off high value component is either required or has been accidentally over-machined. The ultimate application of laser cladding is to build components up from nothing, using a laser cladding system and a 3D CAD drawing of the component. It is thus emerging that laser cladding can be classified as a special case of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Up to this point in time RP was seen, and is still seen, as in intermediately step between the design stage of a component and a finished working product. This can now be extended so that laser cladding makes RP a one-stop shop and the finished component is made from tool-steel or some alloy-base material. The marriage of laser cladding with RP is an interesting one and offers an alternative to traditional tool builders, re-manufacturers and injection mould design/repair industries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence of this new technology, along with the transference of the process out of the laboratory and into the industrial workplace and show it is finding its rightful place in the manufacturing/repair sector. It will be shown that it can be used as a cost cutting, strategic material saver and consequently a green technology.

  16. Understanding safety climate in small automobile collision repair shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Brosseau, Lisa M; Bejan, Anca; Skan, Maryellen; Xi, Min

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 236,000 people work in 37,600 auto collision-repair businesses. Workers in the collision-repair industry may be exposed to a wide range of physical and chemical hazards. This manuscript examines the relationship of safety climate as reported by collision repair shop workers and owners to: (1) an independent business safety assessment, and (2) employee self-reported work practices. The study was conducted in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A total of 199 workers from 49 collision shops completed a survey of self-reported work practices and safety climate. Surveys were completed by an owner or manager in all but three shops. In general, self-reported work practices were poor. Workers' scores on safety climate were uniformly lower than those of owners. For workers, there was no correlation between how well the business scored on an independent audit of business safety practices and the safety climate measures they reported. For owners, however, there was a positive correlation between safety climate scores and the business safety assessment. For workers, safety rules and procedures were associated with improved work practices for those engaged in both painting-related and body technician-related activities. The enforcement of safety rules and procedures emerged as a strong factor positively affecting self-reported work practices. These findings identify a simple, cost effective path to reducing hazards in small workplaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pregabalin versus SSRIs and SNRIs in benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder: a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis in usual medical practice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Salas-Cansado M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina De Salas-Cansado,1 José M Olivares,2 Enrique Álvarez,3 Jose L Carrasco,4 Andoni Barrueta,5 Javier Rejas,51Trial Form Support Spain, Madrid; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo; 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid; 5Health Outcomes Research Department, Medical Unit, Pfizer Spain, Alcobendas, Madrid, SpainBackground: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a prevalent health condition which seriously affects both patient quality of life and the National Health System. The aim of this research was to carry out a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis of the effect of pregabalin versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs in treated benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with GAD.Methods: This post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis used secondary data extracted from the 6-month cohort, prospective, noninterventional ADAN study, which was conducted to ascertain the cost of illness in GAD subjects diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Benzodiazepine-refractory subjects were those who claimed persistent symptoms of anxiety and showed a suboptimal response (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale ≥16 to benzodiazepines, alone or in combination, over 6 months. Patients could switch to pregabalin (as monotherapy or addon or to an SSRI or SNRI, alone or in combination. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years gained, and the perspective was that of the National Health System in the year 2008. A sensitivity analysis was performed using bootstrapping techniques (10,000 resamples were obtained in order to obtain a cost-effectiveness plane and a corresponding acceptability curve.Results: A total of 282 subjects (mean Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score 25.8 were

  18. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapowicz, Stephanie A; Linder, Deborah E; Freeman, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic ( n = 149) and a general practice ( n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income ( P dogs were less likely to be neutered ( P dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS ( P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  19. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the component may have a devastating effect on industrial or financial activity, jeopardise human safety, and have serious ... replacement cost, prolonged schedule disruption and, therefore, considerable financial burden. (3) Repair is ... sometimes accounts for a disproportionately large portion of the repair budget. Study of.

  20. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  1. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell is difficult to control, the damage can be possibly delayed and controlled by use of a suitable repair material. The lattice fracture model is used in this paper to investigate the performance of strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC in concrete repair systems exposed to ongoing corrosion. Numerical results were verified by experimental tests when SHCC, nonreinforced material (repair mortar, and commercial repair mortar are used as repair materials. In experiments, reinforcement bars (surrounded by a repair material were exposed to accelerated corrosion tests. The influence of the substrate surface preparation, the type of repair material, the interface, and the substrate strength on the resulting damage and failure mode of repair systems are discussed. In general, SHCC repair enables distributed cracking with small crack widths, up to several times smaller compared to repair mortar. Furthermore, more warning signs prior to the final failure are present in the SHCC repair system.

  2. Further Evolution of Composite Doubler Aircraft Repairs Through a Focus on Niche Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROACH,DENNIS P.

    2000-07-15

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safety extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC) is conducting a program with Boeing and Federal Express to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the US commercial aircraft industry. This project focuses on repair of DC-10 structure and builds on the foundation of the successful L-1011 door corner repair that was completed by the AANC, Lockheed-Martin, and Delta Air Lines. The L-1011 composite doubler repair was installed in 1997 and has not developed any flaws in over three years of service, As a follow-on effort, this DC-1O repair program investigated design, analysis, performance (durability, flaw containment, reliability), installation, and nondestructive inspection issues. Current activities are demonstrating regular use of composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft. The primary goal of this program is to move the technology into niche applications and to streamline the design-to-installation process. Using the data accumulated to date, the team has designed, analyzed, and developed inspection techniques for an array of composite doubler

  3. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  4. Risk-Cost Estimation of On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Failures Using Extreme Value Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Laura E; Silverstein, JoAnn; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2017-05-01

      Owner resistance to increasing regulation of on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), including obligatory inspections and upgrades, moratoriums and cease-and-desist orders in communities around the U.S. demonstrate the challenges associated with managing risks of inadequate performance of owner-operated wastewater treatment systems. As a result, determining appropriate and enforceable performance measures in an industry with little history of these requirements is challenging. To better support such measures, we develop a statistical method to predict lifetime failure risks, expressed as costs, in order to identify operational factors associated with costly repairs and replacement. A binomial logistic regression is used to fit data from public records of reported OWTS failures, in Boulder County, Colorado, which has 14 300 OWTS to determine the probability that an OWTS will be in a low- or high-risk category for lifetime repair and replacement costs. High-performing or low risk OWTS with repairs and replacements below the threshold of $9000 over a 40-year life are associated with more frequent inspections and upgrades following home additions. OWTS with a high risk of exceeding the repair cost threshold of $18 000 are further analyzed in a variation of extreme value analysis (EVA), Points Over Threshold (POT) where the distribution of risk-cost exceedance values are represented by a generalized Pareto distribution. The resulting threshold cost exceedance estimates for OWTS in the high-risk category over a 40-year expected life ranged from $18 000 to $44 000.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unsupported shall be forwarded by the District offices to the Chief, Operating Cost Control Branch, Office of..., purchase orders, price warehouse delivery tickets, property removal notices, WORKSMALREP Contracts, a... removed from a vessel, etc., shall be forwarded to the Chief, Division of Ship Repair and Maintenance...

  7. Targeting Endogenous Repair Pathways after AKI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphreys, B.D.; Cantaluppi, V.; Portilla, D.; Singbartl, K.; Yang, L.; Rosner, M.H.; Kellum, J.A.; Ronco, C.; Pickkers, P.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    AKI remains a highly prevalent disease associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes and high costs. Although significant advances in our understanding of repair after AKI have been made over the last 5 years, this knowledge has not yet been translated into new AKI therapies. A consensus

  8. Targeting Endogenous Repair Pathways after AKI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Portilla, Didier; Singbartl, Kai; Yang, Li; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio; Okusa, Mark; Agarwal, Anupam; Basile, David P.; Blantz, Roland; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Dong, Zheng; Griffin, Matthew; Harris, Raymond; Ince, Can; Matejovic, Martin; McKay, Dianne; Mehta, Ravindra; Molitoris, Bruce; Murray, Patrick; Nangaku, Masaomi; Pickkers, Peter; Rabb, Hamid; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Unwin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    AKI remains a highly prevalent disease associated with poor short and long term outcomes and high costs. Although significant advances in our understanding of repair after AKI have been made over the last 5 years, this knowledge has not yet been translated into new AKI therapies. A consensus

  9. 15 CFR 30.53 - Import of goods returned for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., except for the following data items: (a) Value. Report the value of the repairs, including parts and labor. Do not report the value of the original product. If goods are repaired under warranty, at no charge to the customer, report the cost to repair as if the customer were being charged. (b) Schedule B...

  10. A cost-minimization analysis of root canal treatment before and after education in nickel-titanium rotary technique in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M; Tegelberg, A; Eckerlund, I; Axelsson, S

    2012-07-01

    To compare root canal treatments performed before and after education in a nickel-titanium rotary technique (NiTiR) with respect to costs for instrumentation and number of instrumentation sessions in a County Public Dental Service in Sweden.   Following education, 77% of the general dental practitioners adopted completely the NiTiR. The randomly selected sample comprised 850 root canal treatments: 425 performed after the education, mainly using the NiTiR-technique (group A) and 425 performed before, using mainly stainless steel hand instrumentation (SSI) (group B). The number of instrumentation sessions in root canal treatments in group A and B was calculated. A CMA was undertaken on the assumption that treatment outcome was identical in group A and B. Direct costs associated with SSI and NiTiR were estimated and compared. Investment costs required for implementation of NiTiR were calculated, but not included in the CMA. Instrumentation sessions were counted in 418 (98%) root canal treatments performed in group A and 419 (99%) in group B. The number of instrumentation sessions in group A was significantly lower; 2.38, compared with 2.82 in group B (P session was saved. Root canal treatments in teeth with one canal, and three or more canals, were completed in significantly fewer instrumentation sessions after the education (P sessions were SEK 2587 (USD 411) for group A and SEK 2851 (USD 453) for group B, for teeth with one canal, and SEK 2946 (USD 468) for group A and SEK 3510 (USD 558) for group B, for teeth with three or more canals (year 2011). Root canal treatments of teeth with two canals showed no significant difference with respect to number of instrumentation sessions and costs. Significantly fewer instrumentation sessions were required in group A, and root canal instrumentation therefore costs less than in group B. On the assumption that treatment outcome is identical in group A and B, root canal instrumentation performed after the education was more

  11. Comparação dos gastos com material para reparação de perfurações de córnea com cola de cianoacrilato e sutura de córnea Comparative cost evaluation in corneal perforation repair with cyanoacrylate adhesive versus corneal suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lioji Ueda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação comparativa de custos de reparação de pequenas perfurações oculares utilizando a técnica da cola de cianoacrilato Super Bonder® (2-metil-cianoacrilato comparada à técnica de sutura de córnea. MÉTODOS: A fim de avaliar comparativamente os custos do uso da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato com a técnica de sutura de córnea, realizou-se análise dos materiais usados em ambas técnicas. RESULTADOS: A análise de custos comparativos entre o uso da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato em pequenas perfurações, versus a técnica de sutura de córnea demonstrou menor gasto com uso do adesivo. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato, para reparação de perfuração de córnea, apresentou custos menores quando comparada com a técnica de sutura de córnea.PURPOSE: The aim of this study was performing a comparative evaluation of cost in small ocular perforation repair using cyanoacrylate adhesive technique Super BonderTM (methyl-2-cyanoacrylate as compared with corneal suture technique. METHODS: In order to compare evaluations of cost a cost analysis in "reais" (R$ was conducted for both techniques according to the materials used in cyanoacrylate glue technique and the corneal suture. RESULTS: The analysis of comparative cost of the cyanoacrylate adhesive technique in small perforations versus corneal suture showed a lower cost of the former. CONCLUSION: Lower cost was found for the cyanoacrylate glue technique for corneal perforation repair when compared to the corneal suture technique.

  12. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  13. Repairing fuel for reinsertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshank, A.

    1985-01-01

    The tools and techniques developed in the United States and FR Germany to repair damaged fuels assemblies are examined. Two methods of repair are considered:- removal of damaged fuel rods and replacement with sound rods (reconstitution); and removal of sound rods from one assembly structure and placing them into a fresh assembly structure (reassembly). (UK)

  14. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Population-Based BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, RAD51D, BRIP1, PALB2 Mutation Testing in Unselected General Population Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Patel, Shreeya; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Antoniou, Antonis C; Smith, Shantel; Lee, Andrew; Hopper, John L; MacInnis, Robert J; Turnbull, Clare; Ramus, Susan J; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Legood, Rosa

    2018-01-18

    The cost-effectiveness of population-based panel testing for high- and moderate-penetrance ovarian cancer (OC)/breast cancer (BC) gene mutations is unknown. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of population-based BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 mutation testing compared with clinical criteria/family history (FH) testing in unselected general population women. A decision-analytic model comparing lifetime costs and effects of criteria/FH-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing is compared with BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 testing in those fulfilling clinical criteria/strong FH of cancer (≥10% BRCA1/BRCA2 probability) and all women age 30 years or older. Analyses are presented for UK and US populations. Identified carriers undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 carriers can opt for magnetic resonance imaging/mammography, chemoprevention, or risk-reducing mastectomy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) enabled model uncertainty evaluation. Outcomes include OC, BC, and additional heart disease deaths. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), OC incidence, BC incidence, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. The time horizon is lifetime and perspective is payer. Compared with clinical criteria/FH-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing, clinical criteria/FH-based BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 testing is cost-effective (ICER = £7629.65/QALY or $49 282.19/QALY; 0.04 days' life-expectancy gained). Population-based testing for BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 mutations is the most cost-effective strategy compared with current policy: ICER = £21 599.96/QALY or $54 769.78/QALY (9.34 or 7.57 days' life-expectancy gained). At £30 000/QALY and $100 000/QALY willingness-to-pay thresholds, population-based BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51C/RAD51D/BRIP1/PALB2 panel testing is the preferred strategy in 83.7% and 92.7% of PSA simulations; criteria/FH-based panel testing is preferred in 16.2% and 5.8% of simulations

  16. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicras-Mainar A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antoni Sicras-Mainar,1 Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez,2 Ruth Navarro-Artieda3 1Planning Directorate, Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain; 3Medical Documentation, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Objective: To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin®/Vandral® in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. Methods: A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio, health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. Results: A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969 and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471. Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, P<0.001; and 8.8 versus 8.1 months, P<0.05, respectively. Brand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, P<0.001; and 82.1% versus 79.0%, P<0.05, respectively. Adjusted average costs were higher with generic compared with brand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; P<0.001 for gabapentin; and €1,110 versus €928

  17. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin(®)/Vandral(®)) in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR) of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio), health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969) and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471). Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, PBrand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, Pbrand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; Pbrand-name was associated with higher reduction in pain (7.8%; Pbrand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine were more likely to adhere and persist on treatment of pNP or GAD, have lower health care costs, and show further reduction of pain and anxiety symptoms than with generic drugs in routine medical practice.

  18. Change in healthcare utilization and costs following initiation of benzodiazepine therapy for long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Ariel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepine anxiolytics are used in the US to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. While benzodiazepines typically provide rapid symptomatic relief, long-term use is not recommended due to risks of dependency, sedation, falls, and accidents. Methods Using a US health insurance database, we identified all persons with GAD (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 300.02 who began a long-term course of treatment (≥90 days with a benzodiazepine anxiolytic between 1/1/2003 and 12/31/2007, We compared healthcare utilization and costs over the six-month periods preceding and following the date of treatment initiation (“pretreatment” and “post-treatment”, respectively, and focused attention on accident-related encounters (e.g., for treatment of fractures and care received for other reasons possibly related benzodiazepine use (e.g., sedation, dizziness. Results A total of 866 patients met all study entry criteria; 25% of patients began treatment on an add-on basis (i.e., adjunctive to escitalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, or venlafaxine, while 75% of patients did not receive concomitant therapy. Mean total healthcare costs increased by $2334 between the pretreatment and post-treatment periods (from $4637 [SD=$9840] to $6971 [$17,002]; p Conclusions Healthcare costs increase in patients with GAD beginning long-term (≥90 days treatment with a benzodiazepine anxiolytic; a substantial proportion of this increase is attributable to care associated with accidents and other known sequelae of long-term benzodiazepine use.

  19. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  20. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  1. Schwann cells for spinal cord repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oudega

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of spinal cord injury appears to demand a multifactorial repair strategy. One of the components that will likely be included is an implant that will fill the area of lost nervous tissue and provide a growth substrate for injured axons. Here we will discuss the role of Schwann cells (SCs in cell-based, surgical repair strategies of the injured adult spinal cord. We will review key studies that showed that intraspinal SC grafts limit injury-induced tissue loss and promote axonal regeneration and myelination, and that this response can be improved by adding neurotrophic factors or anti-inflammatory agents. These results will be compared with several other approaches to the repair of the spinal cord. A general concern with repair strategies is the limited functional recovery, which is in large part due to the failure of axons to grow across the scar tissue at the distal graft-spinal cord interface. Consequently, new synaptic connections with spinal neurons involved in motor function are not formed. We will highlight repair approaches that did result in growth across the scar and discuss the necessity for more studies involving larger, clinically relevant types of injuries, addressing this specific issue. Finally, this review will reflect on the prospect of SCs for repair strategies in the clinic.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae does not fit theories of postreplication repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, J K; Notani, N K

    1980-01-01

    Studies with Escherichia coli have provided all the initial insights into the molecular bases of repair processes. It is the thesis of this article that especially if we believe that there are some general mechanisms in nature, it is important to consider more than one microorganism in arriving at an understanding of the biology of repair of DNA.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae does not fit theories of postreplication repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, J.K.; Notani, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    Studies with Escherichia coli have provided all the initial insights into the molecular bases of repair processes. It is the thesis of this article that especially if we believe that there are some general mechanisms in nature, it is important to consider more than one microorganism in arriving at an understanding of the biology of repair of DNA

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Submission of repair entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY GENERAL AGENT'S RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH FOREIGN REPAIR CUSTOM'S ENTRIES Sec. 2 Submission of repair entries. At the... with the District Director of Customs as defined in 19 CFR 1.1(d) an affidavit on Custom's Form 3417...

  5. Inguinal hernia repair at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the current hernia repair methods at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) and relate to the preferred method of choice for groin hernia repair among the practicing general surgeons. Design: An audit from retrospective practices. Setting: A tertiary referral hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, ...

  6. Dolor y costos hospitalarios en la reparación de la hernia inguinal primaria: Lichtenstein frente a Desarda Pain and hospital costs in primary inguinal hernia repair: Lichtensten versus Desarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro López Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La hernia inguinal tiene una alta incidencia en la población y representa un problema de salud por sus importantes implicaciones sociales y laborales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar los resultados del tratamiento de la hernia inguinal mediante dos técnicas quirúrgicas distintas: una protésica (técnica de Lichtenstein y otra anatómica (técnica de Desarda, haciendo hincapié en la valoración del dolor posoperatorio y los costos hospitalarios de dichos procedimientos, además de otros factores. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo aleatorizado de 625 pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente entre enero de 2003 y enero del 2009 en el Hospital General Docente «Dr. Enrique Cabrera» (La Habana. Fueron también estudiadas otras variables, como edad, localización y tipo de hernia, duración de la intervención y complicaciones. RESULTADOS. El tiempo quirúrgico fue menor en la hernioplastia de Lichtenstein y hubo un comportamiento similar en cuanto al dolor posoperatorio entre el primero y tercer día, y en la hernioplastia fue superior al quinto día. Se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en cuanto al costo hospitalario, que fue superior con la técnica protésica. CONCLUSIONES. Con la técnica de Desarda se obtienen los mismos resultados satisfactorios en las hernias no recidivadas que con la técnica de Lichtenstein, y el costo hospitalario es menor.INTRODUCTION. The inguinal hernia has a high incidence in population and represents a health problem due to its significant social and working implications. The objective of present paper was to compare the results of inguinal hernia treatment using two different techniques: a prosthetic one (Lichtenstein technique and other of anatomical type (Desarda's technique emphasizing on evaluation of postoperative pain and the hospital costs due to such procedures in addition to other factors. METHODS. A randomized and prospective study was conducted in

  7. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for chronically ill patients with comorbid depressive disorder in the general hospital setting, a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is one of the most common disorders, and is highly prevalent in chronically ill patients. The presence of comorbid depression has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Early diagnosis and well-organized treatment of depression has a positive influence on these aspects. Earlier research in the USA has reported good results with regard to the treatment of depression with a collaborative care approach and an antidepressant algorithm. In the UK 'Problem Solving Treatment' has proved to be feasible. However, in the general hospital setting this approach has not yet been evaluated. Methods/Design CC: DIM (Collaborative Care: Depression Initiative in the Medical setting is a two-armed randomised controlled trial with randomisation at patient level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in general hospitals in the Netherlands based on a collaborative care framework, including contracting, 'Problem Solving Treatment', antidepressant algorithm, and manual-guided self-help. 126 outpatients with diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiovascular diseases will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Patients will be included if they have been diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on the DSM-IV criteria in a two-step screening method. The intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach; the control group will receive 'care as usual'. Baseline and follow-up measurements (after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months will be performed by means of questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, as measured with the PHQ-9. The secondary outcome measure is the cost-effectiveness of these treatments according to the TiC-P, the EuroQol and the SF-36. Discussion Earlier research has indicated that depressive disorder is

  8. Valve Repair or Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Replacement Menu Topics Topics FAQs Valve Repair or Replacement Heart valves play a key role in this ... leaflets with a tissue patch. What is valve replacement? Severe valve damage means the valve must be ...

  9. MULTI-AGENT APPROACH TO BUILDING AN INTELLIGENT VEHICLE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavlenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of the car, early detection and prevention of the occurrence and development of failures is required in order to reduce the costs of maintenance and repair. Multi-agent technologies make it possible to raise the level of technical reliability of cars and minimize the costs of performing repair and maintenance operations.

  10. A review of varicocele repair for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Ryan C; McCormick, Benjamin J; Figler, Bradley D; Coward, Robert M

    2017-05-01

    A dilation of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum above the testicle, called a varicocele, affects approximately 15% of the general male population. While the majority is asymptomatic, pain results in up to 10% of cases of varicoceles. The pain associated with varicoceles is typically mild and is described as heavy, achy, or dull-and is usually isolated to the testicle or spermatic cord. Guidelines clearly recommend varicocele repair in males with varicoceles, infertility, and an abnormal semen analysis. While chronic, severe pain is an additional indication for repair, a careful evaluation to rule out other etiologies in addition to a period of conservative management are necessary prior to surgical treatment because of the high incidental prevalence of varicoceles in the general population. Several techniques for varicocele repair have been described, including retroperitoneal, laparoscopic, inguinal, and subinguinal. Additionally, recent adjuncts to improve visualization and identification of critical structures including the operating microscope and microvascular Doppler ultrasound have improved success and complication rates. With careful patient selection, outcomes of varicocele repair with regard to pain are excellent, with over 90% of patients experiencing symptomatic relief. After failure of conservative treatments, a varicocele associated with pain should be considered for repair, and the microsurgical subinguinal approach is the gold standard surgical treatment, offering excellent outcomes while minimizing risk of complications.

  11. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  13. Defective amalgams - repair or replace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, David; Keenan, Analia V

    2010-01-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science, ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings, BIOSIS, OpenSIGLE. Reference lists of all eligible trials and review articles, and their reference lists were searched. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial, involving replacement and repair of amalgam restorations. Titles and abstracts were assessed independently by two authors. Full papers were obtained for relevant articles. Data synthesis was to follow Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines. 145 potentially eligible studies were identified. Only three studies were analysed further but none of these met the inclusion criteria and all were excluded from this review. There are no published randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) relevant to this review question. There is a need for methodologically sound RCTs reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement (www.consort-statement.org/). Further research needs to explore qualitatively the views of patients on repairing versus replacement and investigate themes around pain, distress and anxiety, time and costs.

  14. Features of scheduled repair work of road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudova F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the developed mathematical optimization model for the scheduled repair periodicity of the motor vehicle aggregates that provide traffic safety allows to increase the level of fail-safety, acceptable costs and any laws of their resources distribution. The article describes the possibilities of the model expansion taking into account the cost of the restored spare part.

  15. Comparative biomechanic study of flexor tendon repair using FiberWire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitayawinyu, Thanapong; Martineau, Paul A; Luria, Shai; Hanel, Douglas P; Trumble, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    FiberWire, an increasingly popular suture material, allows for strong flexor tendon repair that may allow early mobilization. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of FiberWire for flexor tendon repair and to identify the most effective repair technique using this material. Forty-nine human cadaver flexor tendons were randomized and tested biomechanically using one of the following techniques of flexor tendon repair performed with 3-0 FiberWire: (1) modified Kessler, (2) modified Pennington, (3) 2-strand multiple grasping, (4) 2-strand multiple locking, (5) 2-strand double cross-locks, (6) Massachusetts General Hospital, and (7) 4-strand locked cruciate. The ultimate tensile strength, 2-mm gap resistance, and failure mode of the repairs were evaluated. Knot unraveling was the most common failure mode of FiberWire repair in 4 of the 7 techniques. Four-strand repairs and locking repairs provided significantly more strength than 2-strand repairs and grasping repairs. Multiple grasping and multiple locking repairs with 2 knots were significantly weaker than single grasping and locking repairs with a single knot. Four-strand locked cruciate repairs were significantly stronger than the other techniques (mean ultimate tensile strength 107 N, 2-mm gap force 96 N). Two-strand double cross-locks repairs were stronger than the other 2-strand repairs (mean ultimate tensile strength 69 N, 2-mm gap force 53 N). The strength of the FiberWire repairs increased with locking repair and with increased number of strands but was not influenced by increased number of locking and grasping stitches. Four-strand locked cruciate and 2-strand double cross-locks provided the greatest strength and likely are appropriate for future clinical use in, respectively, 4-strand and 2-strand repairs. However, the poor knot-holding characteristics of FiberWire with the need of a greater number of knot throws may be of concern for surgeons using this product for flexor tendon

  16. Postreplicative Mismatch Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiricny, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system detects non-Watson–Crick base pairs and strand misalignments arising during DNA replication and mediates their removal by catalyzing excision of the mispair-containing tract of nascent DNA and its error-free resynthesis. In this way, MMR improves the fidelity of replication by several orders of magnitude. It also addresses mispairs and strand misalignments arising during recombination and prevents synapses between nonidentical DNA sequences. Unsurprisingly, MMR malfunction brings about genomic instability that leads to cancer in mammals. But MMR proteins have recently been implicated also in other processes of DNA metabolism, such as DNA damage signaling, antibody diversification, and repair of interstrand cross-links and oxidative DNA damage, in which their functions remain to be elucidated. This article reviews the progress in our understanding of the mechanism of replication error repair made during the past decade. PMID:23545421

  17. A review of available prosthetics for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Vidya; Weber, Daniel J; Reed, R Lawrence; Luchette, Fred A

    2011-01-01

    To review mesh products currently available for ventral hernia repair and to evaluate their efficacy in complex repair, including contaminated and reoperative fields. Although commonly referenced, the concept of the ideal prosthetic has never been fully realized. With the development of newer prosthetics and approaches to the ventral hernia repair, many surgeons do not fully understand the properties of the available prosthetics or the circumstances that warrant the use of a specific mesh. A systematic review of published literature from 1951 to June of 2009 was conducted to identify articles relating to ventral hernia repairs and the use of prosthetics in herniorrhaphy. Important differences exist between the synthetics, composites, and biologic prosthetics used for ventral hernia repair in terms of mechanics, cost, and the ideal situation in which each should be used. The use of synthetic mesh remains an appropriate solution for most ventral hernia repairs. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has created a niche for both expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and composite mesh, as they are suited to intraperitoneal placement. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that the newer biologic prosthetics are reasonable options for hernia repair in contaminated fields and for large abdominal wall defects; however, more studies need to be done before advocating the use of these biologics in other settings.

  18. DNA repair and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Shakuntla; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Gaur, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecule that encode it's genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many one million individual molecular lesions per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions include potentially harmful mutation in cell's genome which affect the survival of it's daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. Inherited mutation that affect DNA repair genes are strongly associated with high cancer risks in humans. Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is strongly associated with specific mutation in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. BRCA1, BRCA2 two famous mutation conferring a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carrier, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathway, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination. Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing most typically cancer cells are preferentially affected. The side effect is that other non-cancerous but rapidly dividing cells such as stem cells in the bone marrow are also affected. Modern cancer treatment attempt to localize the DNA damage to cells and tissue only associated with cancer, either by physical means (concentrating the therapeutic agent in the region of the tumor) or by biochemical means (exploiting a feature unique to cancer cells in the body). (author)

  19. Meniscal repair devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  20. Nuclear fuel assembly repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassler, E.A.; Stavsky, R.

    1986-01-01

    In response to utility needs to recover investment in nuclear fuel assemblies, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed tools and equipment to repair damaged fuel assemblies in an economical and safe manner, to enable utilities to reinsert these assemblies in the core. There are two possible repair techniques - bottom nozzle reconstitution and top nozzle reconstitution. Both techniques have been approved through formal design review; prototype tools have been built and successfully tested. The tools are modular in nature, easily transportable, and designed to fit the spent fuel pool at a reactor site. (author)

  1. Biological radiolesions and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In 7 chapters, the book answers the following questions: 1) What reactions are induced in biological matter by absorption of radiation energy. 2) In what parts of the cell do the radiation-induced reactions with detectable biological effects occur. 3) In which way are these cell components changed by different qualities of radiation. 4) What are the cell mechanisms by which radiation-induced changes can be repaired. 5) What is the importance of these repair processes for man, his life and evolution. At the end of each chapter, there is a bibliography of relevant publications in this field. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  3. Electro active repair of concrete: innovation for increased repair durability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Geiker, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Many repairs of chloride induced corrosion in practice fail within 10 years due to chloride remaining after cleaning the steel, causing corrosion re-activation. An improvement of conventional repair was invented, Electro Active Repair, that electrochemically removes chlorides. After concrete

  4. Composite Repair System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the...

  5. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  6. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  7. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  8. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Rao is a professor at the. Department of Biochemistry,. Indian Institute of Science,. Bengaluru. His research work primarily focuses on. DNA interacting proteins in prokaryotes. This includes restriction-modification systems, DNA repair proteins from pathogenic bacteria and and proteins involved in horizontal gene ...

  9. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  10. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  11. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Slowly repaired DNA injuries involved in cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichkina, S.I.; Rozanova, O.M.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    Caffeine was used to study the kinetics of cytogenetic damages repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Its half-time (90 min) was shown to correlate with that of repair of slowly repaired DNA damages. The caffeine-induced increase in the number of irreparable DNA damages, attributed to inhibition of double-strand break repair, is in a quantitative correlation with the effect of the cytogenetic damage modification

  12. Ceramic restoration repair: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Araújo Raposo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The esthetic and functional rehabilitation of patients with multiple missing teeth can be performed with several techniques and materials. Ceramic restorations provide reliable masticatory function and good esthetics. However, fracture can occur in some cases due to their brittle behavior. In some cases, the replacement of an extensive prosthesis is a problem due to the high treatment cost. In this paper, two cases are presented, in which fractures occurred in extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures, and their replacement was not possible. Ceramic repair was chosen and the sequences of treatment with and without presence of the ceramic fragment are also discussed. The cases illustrate that, in some situations, fractured metal-ceramic partial dentures can be successfully repaired when prosthetic replacement is not a choice. Prosthodontists must use alternatives that allow a reliable repair to extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures. Surface preparation of the ceramic with hydrofluoric acid in conjunction with a silane coupling agent is essential for a predictable bonding of composite resin. The repair performed with composite resin is an esthetic and functional alternative when extensive fixed partial dentures cannot be replaced.

  13. Opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhang, J.P.; Sheu, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes an opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair. The system has two types of failures. Type I failures (minor failures) are removed by minimal repairs, whereas type II failures are removed by replacements. Type I and type II failures are age-dependent. A system is replaced at type II failure (catastrophic failure) or at the opportunity after age T, whichever occurs first. The cost of the minimal repair of the system at age z depends on the random part C(z) and the deterministic part c(z). The opportunity arises according to a Poisson process, independent of failures of the component. The expected cost rate is obtained. The optimal T * which would minimize the cost rate is discussed. Various special cases are considered. Finally, a numerical example is given

  14. Wound repair and regeneration: Mechanisms, signaling, and translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eming, Sabine A.; Martin, Paul; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning tissue repair and its failure to heal are still poorly understood, and current therapies are limited. Poor wound healing after trauma, surgery, acute illness, or chronic disease conditions affects millions of people worldwide each year and is the consequence of poorly regulated elements of the healthy tissue repair response, including inflammation, angiogenesis, matrix deposition, and cell recruitment. Failure of one or several of these cellular processes is generally linked to an underlying clinical condition, such as vascular disease, diabetes, or aging, which are all frequently associated with healing pathologies. The search for clinical strategies that might improve the body’s natural repair mechanisms will need to be based on a thorough understanding of the basic biology of repair and regeneration. In this review, we highlight emerging concepts in tissue regeneration and repair, and provide some perspectives on how to translate current knowledge into viable clinical approaches for treating patients with wound-healing pathologies. PMID:25473038

  15. Minimizing Costs Can Be Costly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A quite common practice, even in academic literature, is to simplify a decision problem and model it as a cost-minimizing problem. In fact, some type of models has been standardized to minimization problems, like Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs, where a maximization formulation would be treated as a “generalized” QAP and not solvable by many of the specially designed softwares for QAP. Ignoring revenues when modeling a decision problem works only if costs can be separated from the decisions influencing revenues. More often than we think this is not the case, and minimizing costs will not lead to maximized profit. This will be demonstrated using spreadsheets to solve a small example. The example is also used to demonstrate other pitfalls in network models: the inability to generally balance the problem or allocate costs in advance, and the tendency to anticipate a specific type of solution and thereby make constraints too limiting when formulating the problem.

  16. The journey of DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared "Molecule of the Year". Today, we are celebrating another "year of repair", with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  17. DNA repair in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Kusano, I.; Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Dunn, W.C. Jr.; Francis, A.A.; Lee, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Our primary objective is to elucidate the molecular events in human cells when cellular macromolecules such as DNA are damaged by radiation or chemical agents. We study and characterize (i) the sequence of DNA repair events, (ii) the various modalities of repair, (iii) the genetic inhibition of repair due to mutation, (iv) the physiological inhibition of repair due to mutation, (v) the physiological inhibition of repair due to biochemical inhibitors, and (vi) the genetic basis of repair. Our ultimate goals are to (i) isolate and analyze the repair component of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic event in human cells, and (ii) elucidate the magnitude and significance of this repair component as it impinges on the practical problems of human irradiation or exposure to actual or potential chemical mutagens and carcinogens. The significance of these studies lies in (i) the ubiquitousness of repair (most organisms, including man, have several complex repair systems), (ii) the belief that mutagenic and carcinogenic events may arise only from residual (nonrepaired) lesions or that error-prone repair systems may be the major induction mechanisms of the mutagenic or carcinogenic event, and (iii) the clear association of repair defects and highly carcinogenic disease states in man [xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

  18. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this ... Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty Patient Instructions Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge Images Cleft lip repair - series References ...

  19. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    rodents as a function of time after surgery. As predicted, those animals in the negative control group (no repair following nerve deficit injury ...80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve damage, typically involve large segmental nerve deficits. Standard repair uses...technology for repair of peripheral nerve injuries involving significant neural deficit with improved functional outcomes for the wounded warrior. The

  20. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge....... For the society (and the user's) it is therefore of great importance that maintenance or replacement of a bridge is performed in such a way that all costs are minimized - not only the owners cost....

  1. Cost analysis of flexible ureterorenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J W; Keeley, F X; Timoney, A

    2004-05-01

    To assess the costs of flexible ureterorenoscopy. Data were collected prospectively for 100 cases using a new flexible ureteroscope (DUR8, Circon ACMI, Stamford, USA), including the indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy, use of laser probes, disposable instrumentation, and the cost and timing of ureteroscope repair. Of the 100 procedures 68 were for stone disease, 21 for known or suspected transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), six were diagnostic only and five were for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. The ureteroscope was repaired after the 29th and 88th cases. The ability of the ureteroscope to deflect was maintained throughout. At the time of purchase the ureteroscope was listed at pound 15 000 and each repair/exchange currently costs pound 4200, thus the total expenditure on the ureteroscope was pound 23 400. Total expenditure on ancillary equipment was pound 28 727, of which pound 22 927 was on disposables and pound 5800 on 10 laser probes. In this series the costs of the ancillary equipment exceeded the purchase and maintenance of the ureteroscope, and we expect this trend to continue in the long term. The advent of more durable ureteroscopes may ultimately reduce the frequency of costly repairs. The cost of disposables should be considered in planning the budget.

  2. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs

  3. (20) Akinwole CORRECTED Cost (new art)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    sampling and laboratory analysis of water quality parameters were also carried out using standard methods. ... and overhead costs. Depreciation for all cost parameters was taken on straight-line basis with zero salvage value. Life cycle of systems components were taken to be ... (office running cost; repairs on equipment),.

  4. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasopoulos, George; Goldstraw, Peter

    2011-02-01

    This review is trying to address the effectiveness and sustainability of results following minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE). The aim is to present these results for the benefit of clinicians and the patients. Literature search has revealed 179 hits, which were independently assessed and led to 80 publications being formally reviewed. Studies reporting results from less than 10 patients were excluded. Thirty-five studies were found to be reporting results from patients' and/or surgeons' perspective and they were included in this review. Data from the United Kingdom registry for MIRPE were also included. Results from over 2997 patients (age: reported an 'unsatisfactory end result.' However, these percentages are not necessarily referring to the same patients and an unsatisfactory result does not seem to affect the positive effect on self-esteem. The reported changes in social life, lung capacity, cardiovascular capacity, exercise capacity and general health are based on weak data and significant improvements, if any, are probably seen in a limited number of patients. The metallic bars were removed after 1.5-4.5 years and there is an overall 0-4.5% reported recurrence post-bar removal. In conclusion, MIRPE may improve cosmesis and self-esteem of patients with pectus excavatum deformity. Direct or indirect improvement in other physiological parameters may also help the 'well-being' of these patients and their social integration. There is a clear need for standardisation in the way results are reported in the literature and a socioeconomic analysis with regard to gains, benefits and costs related to MIRPE. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parotid Duct Repair with Intubation Tube: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Muhammed Beşir; Barutca, Seda Asrufoğlu; Keskin, Elif Seda; Atik, Bekir

    2017-01-01

    The parotid duct can be damaged in traumatic injuries and surgical interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment of a duct injury is of great importance because complications such as sialocele and salivary gland fistula may develop if the duct is not surgically repaired. We think the cuff of an intubation tube is an ideal material in parotid duct repair, because of its technical characteristics, easiness of availability, and low-cost. In this paper, we described the use of the cuff cannula of an intubation tube for the diagnosis and treatment of parotid duct laceration, as a low-cost and easy to access material readily available in every operating room. PMID:28713751

  6. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists. PMID:26069580

  7. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...... base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby...

  8. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  9. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verriere, P.; Alanche, J.; Minguet, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    After some general remarks on the French fast neutron system, this paper presents the state of the program for the construction of fast reactor in France. Then, the general design of Super Phenix 1 steam generator components is outlined and, the in-service monitoring systems and protective devices with which they are equiped are briefly described. The methods used, in the event of leakage, for leak location, steam generator inspection, steam generator repair and putting the affected loop back into service, are discussed. There are two main lines of research, relating respectively to the means of water leak detection in sodium and the inspection arrangements that will be used either periodically, or following a sodium-water reaction. Finally, after a brief description of the steam generator, this paper describes the four incidents (leaks) that occurred on the Phenix steam generator in the course of 1982 and 1983, and the subsequent repair operations

  10. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  11. Recent developments in underwater repair welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, H.P.; Chapman, T.L.; Willis, E.R.; Maslakowski, J.; Van Diemen, P.; Smith, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    As nuclear plants age and reactor internal components begin to show increased evidence of age-related phenomena such as corrosion and fatigue, interest in the development of cost-effective mitigation and repair remedies grows. One technology currently receiving greater development and application program focus is underwater welding. Underwater welding, as used herein, is the application of weld metal to a substrate surface that is wet, but locally dry in the immediate area surrounding the welding torch. The locally dry environment is achieved by the use of a mechanical device that is specifically designed for water exclusion from the welding torch, surface to be welded, and the welding groove. This paper will explore recent developments in the use of underwater welding as a mitigation and repair technique. (author)

  12. Lowering the UK domestic radon action level to reduce radiation-induced lung cancer in general population: when and where is it cost effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can be present within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in occupants. Recently, Darby et al. (2006) have shown that this risk exists at radon concentrations as low as 100 Bq·m -3 , which is below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq·m -3 . As a result, there have been suggestions that national domestic Action Levels should be reduced. This paper considers the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK, when a range of Action Levels from 125 Bq·m -3 to 600 Bq·m -3 are applied. The variations of total cost, cost-effectiveness, dose reduction and lung cancers saved for each proposed action level, and the proportion of houses over the proposed action level, were estimated. The study shows that, for an Action Level above 200 Bq·m -3 , a completed domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses have initial radon levels over 200 Bq·m -3 , will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost effective. In addition, a higher Action Level leaves a higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the population living in unremediated homes. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq·m -3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will be less cost-effective, because a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will be remediated with modest health benefit to occupants. The study suggests that a completed radon remediation programme is most cost-effective with an action level of around 250 to 300 Bq·m -3 . The finding appears to be independent of the percentage of houses over the Action Level. This has clear implications for future health policy. (author)

  13. On some steady-state characteristics of systems with gradual repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim; Ludick, Zani

    2014-01-01

    We consider a repairable system with continuous output that alternates between states of operation and repair. The output of the system in the operating state is represented by a continuous, decreasing function of time. We assume that during the repair state, the system can produce output that is modelled by an increasing stochastic process. The repair action gradually restores the output of the system to its initial level and it returns to the operating state. We obtain and analyse expressions for the generalized availability and related characteristics of systems with gradual repair and consider several meaningful examples

  14. Analysis of an M/G/1 Queue with Multiple Vacations, N-policy, Unreliable Service Station and Repair Facility Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an M/G/1 repairable queueing system with multiple vacations and N-policy, in which the service station is subject to occasional random breakdowns. When the service station breaks down, it is repaired by a repair facility. Moreover, the repair facility may fail during the repair period of the service station. The failed repair facility resumes repair after completion of its replacement. Under these assumptions, applying a simple method, the probability that the service station is broken, the rate of occurrence of breakdowns of the service station, the probability that the repair facility is being replaced and the rate of occurrence of failures of the repair facility along with other performance measures are obtained. Following the construction of the long-run expected cost function per unit time, the direct search method is implemented for determining the optimum threshold N* that minimises the cost function.

  15. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  16. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  17. Advanced technology for combustion turbine hot section repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishman, M.; Griller, S.L.; Lordi, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The worldwide growth in industrial gas turbine installations during the past 10 years has spawned a parallel growth of the gas turbine hot section repair business. Repair procedures do not follow those of the aircraft industry, but vary by company, with few revealing what they do and how they do it. Repair technology follows a three-phase service approach designed to reinforce dedication to excellence before commercialization. General Electric has been a leader in the field, with the operation of hot gas path speciality shops, the development of multi-vane nozzles, and special bucket alloys. 6 figures.

  18. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  19. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  20. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Freindenberg and Brighton (5) found such "bioelectric potentials" to be negative in articular and epiphyseal regions and in the fracture site. Conversely...LB., and H.G. Smith. 1969. "Electric potentials in intact and fractured tibia . " Clin-. Orton. 63:222-225. 7. Borgens, .B. 1982. "What is the role of...development) or regeneration (such as fracture repair and axonal elongation) In some cases we can modify the battery driving these currents by

  1. Engineering Skeletal Muscle Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaire...

  2. Repair of high pressure pipe fittings using composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Julian; Alexander, Chris [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, Texas (United States)], email: julian.bedoya@stress.com, email: chris.alexander@stress.com; Precht, Tommy [Armor Plate, Inc., Pasadena, Texas (United States)], email: htprecht@aol.com

    2010-07-01

    Restoring mechanical properties to corroded pipelines is one of the most pressing concerns for operating companies as it can threaten the pipes' integrity and serviceability. For pipe fittings only 2 options are available: replacing the section or repairing with composite. As replacement requires shutting down the pipeline inducing important costs, this paper investigates the ability of a method using a composite material, the Armor Plate Pipe Wrap (APPW) system, to restore corroded pipe fittings. Four full scale burst tests were carried out on elbow and tee pipe fittings with a 60% metal loss, 2 were repaired with APPW and 2 were not. Results showed a 51% improvement in burst pressure between the repaired and unrepaired tee fittings and a 77% improvement for the elbow fittings. This study showed that the composite repair system used herein is capable of restoring the burst capacity of pipe fittings.

  3. Cellular reprogramming for clinical cartilage repair

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, Britta J.H.; Logie, Colin; Vonk, Lucienne A.

    2017-01-01

    The repair of articular cartilage needs a sufficient number of chondrocytes to replace the defect tissue, and therefore, expansion of cells is generally required. Chondrocytes derived by cellular reprogramming may provide a solution to the limitations of current (stem) cell-based therapies. In this article, two distinct approaches?induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-mediated reprogramming and direct lineage conversion?are analysed and compared according to criteria that encompass the qualifi...

  4. Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair: Is Improvised Maintenance the Battlefield Solution to the Repair Parts Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-14

    decade, under Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, operations research (specifically, cost-benefit 8 analysis) became a primary tool for military...be preferable: Equating A. and CA., using x to represent the break-even BDAR capability may be represented by the equation: Ao=40%= (10 houzs - I hour...commanders to overcome the problems of non-availability of repair parts through "[scrounging] and cannibalization." 38. McFarlin, Robert P., Memorandum

  5. DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  6. The Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Episiotomy Repair on Pain Severity and Rate of Perineal Repair: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hasanpoor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perineal pain is the most common complaint after episiotomy. It imposes extra pressure on mothers who attempt to adapt to their new conditions. Therefore, the present study was performed to compare pain severity and perineal repair in two episiot-omy repair methods. Methods: In this clinical trial, 100 primiparous women who re-ferred to hospitals of Tabriz (Iran for delivery were randomly allocated into two groups of 50 to undergo either continuous or interrupted episiotomy repair. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to evaluate pain severity 12-18 hours after episiotomy repair and also 10 days after delivery. Perineal repair rate was also assessed using the REEDA (redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge, and approximation scoring scale. The obtained data was analyzed in SPSS15. Results: Statistical tests did not show significant differ-ences between the 2 groups in pain severity variations or REEDA scores at 12-18 hours and the 10th day after delivery. However, the mean required time for repair and the num-ber of used threads were significantly lower in the continuous repair group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pain severity and episiotomy repair rate were similar in the two methods. Nevertheless, shorter time of repair and fewer threads were required using the continuous repair method. Therefore, this method would provide better services for mothers and reduce the required time, energy, and costs.

  7. 41 CFR 101-25.104-1 - Redistribution, repair, or rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through redistribution, repair, or rehabilitation of already owned furniture and office machines. In..., or rehabilitation. 101-25.104-1 Section 101-25.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.104-1 Redistribution, repair, or rehabilitation. Prior to the...

  8. Repair of Head and Face Defects with the Use of Pericranial Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naeimi

    2011-01-01

    The use of a pericranial flap is a simple, quick, cost-effective and safe method for repair of head and face defects. Although, a longer follow up time is required, but this uncomplicated method has been considered as an ideal method to repair sinonasal, ear and scalp defects.

  9. Improving Aviation Depot Level Repairable (AVDLR) Inventory and Repair Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baird, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    .... Additionally, research was conducted to document the management process for determining repair requirements at the Naval Inventory Control Point Philadelphia and how those requirements are accepted...

  10. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  11. CAME-Computer Aided Maintenance Engineering: a new methodology to reduce maintenance life cycle cost pipelines (repair level, spares, preventive/scheduled/inspection and resources) by modeling, analysis and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bot, Yizhak [BQR Reliability Engineering Ltd. (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    In today's insecure and uncertain climate in the high-tech industry, where money is less accessible, companies are constantly searching for ways to cut expenses. Two important financial factors to consider are maintenance and down time when the equipment/system/processes are not functioning/operating. In this paper we shall describe a new technology, which will help designers and operators of complex systems to improve the reliability of the products and to reduce the maintenance cost, when they are used in field. These set of tools are interfaced to exist CAD/CAE and ERP/CMMS systems concurrently. (author)

  12. The Cost of Troubleshooting Cost Clusters with Inside Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Jensen, Finn V.

    2010-01-01

    Decision theoretical troubleshooting is about minimizing the expected cost of solving a certain problem like repairing a complicated man-made device. In this paper we consider situations where you have to take apart some of the device to get access to certain clusters and actions. Specifically, w...

  13. Optimal post-warranty maintenance policy with repair time threshold for minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Minjae; Mun Jung, Ki; Park, Dong Ho

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a renewable minimal repair–replacement warranty policy and propose an optimal maintenance model after the warranty is expired. Such model adopts the repair time threshold during the warranty period and follows with a certain type of system maintenance policy during the post-warranty period. As for the criteria for optimality, we utilize the expected cost rate per unit time during the life cycle of the system, which has been frequently used in many existing maintenance models. Based on the cost structure defined for each failure of the system, we formulate the expected cost rate during the life cycle of the system, assuming that a renewable minimal repair–replacement warranty policy with the repair time threshold is provided to the user during the warranty period. Once the warranty is expired, the maintenance of the system is the user's sole responsibility. The life cycle of the system is defined on the perspective of the user and the expected cost rate per unit time is derived in this context. We obtain the optimal maintenance policy during the maintenance period following the expiration of the warranty period by minimizing such a cost rate. Numerical examples using actual failure data are presented to exemplify the applicability of the methodologies proposed in this paper.

  14. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Syuichi; Ito, Kosuke; Kochi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshio; Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  15. Repair strength of dental amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chiayi; Speigel, Jason; Mjör, Ivar A

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that newly triturated amalgam condensed vertically on old amalgam was essential for establishing a bond between the new and old amalgams. Twelve rectangular bars were prepared with Dispersalloy and Tytin to establish their baseline flexure strength values. An additional 12 specimens were made and separated into 24 equal halves. All fracture surfaces were abraded with a flat end fissure bur. Twelve surfaces were paired with the original amalgam, and the remaining 12 surfaces were repaired with a different amalgam. At first, freshly triturated amalgam was condensed vertically on the floor of the specimen mold (Group A). The majority of specimens repaired with Group A failed to establish bond at the repair interface. All repair surfaces were abraded again and prepared by a second method. A metal spacer was used to create a four-wall cavity to facilitate vertical condensation directly on the repair surface (Group B). The specimens were stored in ambient air for seven days prior to flexure testing. The strength of specimens repaired with Group B ranged from 26% to 54% of the baseline specimens. ANOVA showed that amalgams repaired with a different amalgam yielded higher strength values than those repaired with the original amalgam, and the baseline specimens exhibited significantly higher strength values than all the repaired specimens.

  16. Open versus endovascular aneurysm repair trial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauf, Craig; George, Elizabeth; Zhou, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The Open versus Endovascular Aneurysm Repair trial is the only randomized controlled trial that is funded by the federal government to evaluate the treatment outcomes of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Since the initial publication, multiple post-hoc analyses have become available. This review summarizes these data, focusing on the primary outcome measures (ie, overall survival) and several key secondary outcomes including aneurysm-related death, age consideration, secondary procedures, and endoleaks. Cost-effectiveness of each treatment modality and the limitations of OVER trial also are discussed critically in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Notes on the care, restoration and repair of microsurgical instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acland Robert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of microsurgical instruments is multiplied by failure to care for them appropriately. This paper describes effective practical measures for the care of microsurgical instruments; and shows detailed procedures for restoring and repairing the instruments most often damaged: jewelers′ forceps and scissors.

  18. Repair of impact damaged utility poles with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), phase II : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The aluminum and steel utility poles which support traffic signals, lighting, or mast-arm signs : are vulnerable to collisions from vehicles because of proximity to roadways. Removing these : poles for repair is costly and time-consuming, and removal...

  19. Non-Polluting Composites Repair and Remanufacturing for Military Applications: Co-Injection Resin Transfer Molding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    .... Significant environmental cost savings are possible by replacing currently practiced sequential repair and manufacturing techniques with reduced-step co-cure processes enabled by the co-injection...

  20. Lessons learned using Snodgrass hypospadias repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This is a review of our experience with the Snodgrass technique for distal hypospadias repair and we point to lessons learned in improving results. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent Snodgrass hypospadias repair for distal hypospadias over a four-year period by a single surgeon. Chart review followed by parental telephone interview was used to determine voiding function, cosmesis and complication rate. RESULTS: Thirty children and three adults were identified. Age at surgery ranged from seven months to 39 years. The urinary stream was straight in 94%, and 97% reported a good or satisfactory final cosmetic outcome. One patient (3.3%) developed a urethral fistula and 21% developed meatal stenosis which required general anaesthetic. CONCLUSION: The Snodgrass urethroplasty provides satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. High rates of meatal stenosis initially encountered have improved with modifications to technique which include modified meatoplasty and routine meatal dilatation by the parents.

  1. A steam generator maintenance and repair robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A robot is described which allows the maintenance and repair of Model 44 and 51 steam generators with minimum operator received dose. The manipulator loads itself into the steam generator channel head through the manway, and locks itself to the tube plate, from where it can reach out to accept tools and inspection equipment. At no stage in the operation of the robot does the operator have to break the plane of the manway or stand in the direct shine path from the tube plate. The robot design is based on a manipulator successfully developed for use throughout the British nuclear industry. At the time of writing five such manipulators were in manufacture for applications in fuel element remote handling and fuel reprocessing plant repair. Proposals are being considered for further applications in reactor decommissioning, underwater fuel handling and general remote maintenance

  2. Diagnostic pathway of syncope and analysis of the impact of guidelines in a district general hospital. The ECSIT study (epidemiology and costs of syncope in Trento).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Greco, Maurizio; Cozzio, Susanna; Scillieri, Marco; Caprari, Francesca; Scivales, Alessandro; Disertori, Marcello

    2003-02-01

    The ECSIT study was aimed at evaluating the hospital management of syncope patients, at comparing the appropriateness and costs of the hospital diagnostic pathway before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) the introduction of new guidelines and at analyzing the physicians' compliance to the guidelines. All syncope patients admitted to the emergency room between August 1 and October 31, 1999 (phase 1) and between March 1 and May 31, 2000 (phase 2) were enrolled and their clinical records were analyzed in a blind fashion. During the study 538 consecutive patients came to the emergency room for syncope with a hospitalization rate of 53% in phase 1 (n = 151) and of 42% in phase 2 (n = 107). The in-hospital stay increased from 9 days in phase 1 to 11.3 days in phase 2 and diagnostic tests from 2.6 per patient (phase 1) to 2.9 per patient (phase 2) with total costs that rose from [symbol: see text] 3,474 to [symbol: see text] 3,647. Patients with no diagnosis decreased from 51 to 45.8% and the principal causes were identified as vascular brain disease (36.1 vs 33.7%) and neurally-mediated mechanisms (35.3 vs 42.2%). Despite the high costs of syncope management, the appropriateness and efficacy of the hospital diagnostic pathway remains far from ideal and simply introducing new guidelines seems unable to modify clinical practice.

  3. Effect of a French experiment of team work between general practitioners and nurses on efficacy and cost of type 2 diabetes patients care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousquès, Julien; Bourgueil, Yann; Le Fur, Philippe; Yilmaz, Engin

    2010-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and the cost of a French team work experiment between nurses and GPs for managing type 2 diabetes patients. Based on a case control study design we compare the evolution of process (standard follow-up procedures) and final (glycemic control) outcomes, and of cost, between two consecutive periods between type 2 diabetes patients followed within the team work experiment (intervention group) or by "standard" GPs (controlled group). After a 11 months of follow-up, patients in the intervention group, compared with those in the controlled group, have more chances to remain or to become: correctly followed-up (with OR comprise between 2.1 and 6.8, p≤5%) and under glycemic control (with OR comprise between 1.8 and 2.7, p≤5%). The latter result is obtained only when a visit for education and counselling has been delivered by a nurse in supplement to systematic electronic patient registry and electronic clinical GPs reminder. All these results are obtained without difference in costs between the intervention and the controlled group. This experimentation of team working can be considered both effective and efficient. Our findings may have implications in the design of future larger primary care team work experiment to be launched by French health authorities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost and logistics of implementing a tissue-based American College of Surgeons/Association of Program Directors in Surgery surgical skills curriculum for general surgery residents of all clinical years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon; Clark, Philip; Sudan, Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    The cost and logistics of deploying the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) National Technical Skills Curriculum across all training years are not known. This information is essential for residency programs choosing to adopt similar curricula. A task force evaluated the authors' institution's existing simulation curriculum and enhanced it by implementing the ACS/APDS modules. A 35-module curriculum was administered to 35 general surgery residents across all 5 clinical years. The costs and logistics were noted, and resident satisfaction was assessed. The annual operational cost was $110,300 ($3,150 per resident). Cost per module, per resident was $940 for the cadaveric module compared with $220 and $240 for dry simulation and animal tissue-based modules, respectively. Resident satisfaction improved from 2.45 to 4.78 on a 5-point, Likert-type scale after implementing the ACS/APDS modules. The ACS/APDS skills curriculum was implemented successfully across all clinical years. Cadaveric modules were the most expensive. Animal and dry simulation modules were equivalent in cost. The addition of tissue-based modules was associated with high satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ageing airplane repair assessment program for Airbus A300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardon, J. M.; Schmidt, HANS-J.; Brandecker, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the repair categorization activities and includes all details about the methodologies developed for determination of the inspection program for the skin on pressurized fuselages. For inspection threshold determination two methods are defined based on fatigue life approach, a simplified and detailed method. The detailed method considers 15 different parameters to assess the influences of material, geometry, size location, aircraft usage, and workmanship on the fatigue life of the repair and the original structure. For definition of the inspection intervals a general method is developed which applies to all concerned repairs. For this the initial flaw concept is used by considering 6 parameters and the detectable flaw sizes depending on proposed nondestructive inspection methods. An alternative method is provided for small repairs allowing visual inspection with shorter intervals.

  6. Specialists' meeting on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the experience accumulated in various countries on the general design philosophy of LMFBR steam generators from the view point of maintenance and repair, in-service inspection of steam generator tube bundles, identification and inspection of failed tubes and the cleaning and repairing of failed steam generators. The following main topic areas were discussed by participants: National review presentations on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators - design philosophy for maintenance and repair; Research and Development work on maintenance and repair; Experience on steam generator maintenance and repair. During the meeting papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their countries and organizations. A final discussion session was held and summaries, general conclusions and recommendations were approved by consensus

  7. A Simulation Model for Extensor Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aronstam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation model is designed for use by emergency medicine residents. Although we have instituted this at the PGY-2 level of our residency curriculum, it is appropriate for any level of emergency medicine residency training. It might also be adapted for use for a variety of other learners, such as practicing emergency physicians, orthopedic surgery residents, or hand surgery trainees. Introduction: Tendon injuries commonly present to the emergency department, so it is essential that emergency physicians be competent in evaluating such injuries. Indeed, extensor tendon repair is included as an ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone (Milestone 13, Wound Management, Level 5 – “Performs advanced wound repairs, such as tendon repairs…”.1 However, emergency medicine residents may have limited opportunity to develop these skills due to a lack of patients, competition from other trainees, or preexisting referral patterns. Simulation may provide an alternative means to effectively teach these skills in such settings. Previously described tendon repair simulation models that were designed for surgical trainees have used rubber worms4, licorice5, feeding tubes, catheters6,7, drinking straws8, microfoam tape9, sheep forelimbs10 and cadavers.11 These models all suffer a variety of limitations, including high cost, lack of ready availability, or lack of realism. Objectives: We sought to develop an extensor tendon repair simulation model for emergency medicine residents, designed to meet ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone 13, Level 5. We wished this model to be simple, inexpensive, and realistic. Methods: The learner responsible content/educational handout component of our innovation teaches residents about emergency department extensor tendon repair, and includes: 1 relevant anatomy 2 indications and contraindications for emergency department extensor tendon repair 3 physical exam findings 4 tendon suture techniques and 5 aftercare. During

  8. Logistics costs of the enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Rosová

    2007-01-01

    The article describe a problem of specification and systematization of enterprise’s logistics costs. With in a growing division of labour, also logistics costs increase their part in enterprises total costs.Almost all decisions about products and production in general, influence logistics processes even logistics costs and performances.In present is not clear enough, which of the cost-particles are relevant fot logistics costs, because some of logistics cost-particles accounts within overhead...

  9. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  10. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  11. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  12. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  13. 7 CFR 249.12 - SFMNP costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SFMNP costs. 249.12 Section 249.12 Agriculture....12 SFMNP costs. (a) General. (1) Composition of allowable costs. In general, a cost item will be... administration and operation of the SFMNP. Allowable SFMNP costs may be classified as follows: (i) Food costs and...

  14. Current strategies for articular cartilage repair

    OpenAIRE

    Redman S. N.; Oldfield S. F.; Archer C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Defects of articular cartilage that do not penetrate to the subchondral bone fail to heal spontaneously. Defects that penetrate to the subchondral bone elicit an intrinsic repair response that yields a fibrocartilaginous repair tissue which is a poor substitute for hyaline articular cartilage. Many arthroscopic repair strategies employed utilise this intrinsic repair response to induce the formation of a repair tissue within the defect. The goal, however, is to produce a repair tissue that ha...

  15. Present Worth Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Studies in the Department of Defense (1993)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, Stephen R

    1992-01-01

    .... These factors are especially useful for the life cycle cost analysis of investments in buildings or building systems which are intended to reduce future operating, maintenance, repair, replacement...

  16. Future costs in cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H

    2008-07-01

    This paper resolves several controversies in CEA. Generalizing [Garber, A.M., Phelps, C.E., 1997. Economic foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 1-31], the paper shows accounting for unrelated future costs distorts decision making. After replicating [Meltzer, D., 1997. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 33-64] quite different conclusion that unrelated future costs should be included in CEA, the paper shows that Meltzer's findings result from modeling the budget constraint as an annuity, which is problematic. The paper also shows that related costs should be included in CEA. This holds for a variety of models, including a health maximization model. CEA should treat costs in the manner recommended by Garber and Phelps.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a minimal intervention for stress-related sick leave in general practice: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic randomised control trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uegaki, K.; Bakker, I.M.; Bruijne, M.; Beek, van der A.; Terluin, B.; Marwijk, van H.; Heymans, M.; Stalman, W.; Mechelen, van W.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Stress-related mental health problems negatively impact quality of life and productivity. Worldwide, treatment is often sought in primary care. Our objective was to determine whether a general practitioner-based minimal intervention for workers with stress-related sick leave (MISS) was

  18. NEW APPROACHES TO MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRING OF THE TRACTION SUBSTATIONS EQUIPMENT ON ELECTRIFIED RAILWAYS ON THE BASIS OF SMART-TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. At the stage of modernization and reconstruction of electrified railroads in Ukraine one should take into account the innovative development level of all electric supply subjects on the basis of advanced technologies. Determination the ways to increase the power supply reliability of electrified railways and reducing the accidents of the traction substation power equipment (TS. Methodology. For attainment a goal it’s studied the international experience on qualitative power supply of the electrical railways at the basis of the ideology of Smart Grid. It’s conducted a research of the major methods of technical servicing, repairing (TS and R and diagnostics the traction substation devices of electrified railways. Findings. As a result of research it was concluded that the basis of the new methods of maintenance and repearing is analysis of the risks of operation of the weared equipment or equipment with some defects (maintenance of equipment on the basis of the actual technical condition. It’s also concluded that the conceptual definitions of Smart Grid point to the important role of smart grid technology to the economic development of the electrical system. Significant world experience of maintenance and repairing at the basis of the actual technical state shows the following general assessment of the effectiveness of this method: reducing maintenance costs by 75%, reducing the number of services up to 50%, reduction the number of failures by 70% in the first year. Originality. As a research and improvement result of the maintenance and repairing system of traction substations, the author has proposed the concept of maintenance and repairing intelligent system, monitoring and diagnostic of technical process equipment. The basic components of the system are proposed. It’s proposed a maintenance of the equipment of traction substation at the actual technical state with better resource parameters. In the normative document for

  19. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  20. Cost-utility of collaborative care for the treatment of comorbid major depressive disorder in outpatients with chronic physical conditions. A randomized controlled trial in the general hospital setting (CC-DIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goorden M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maartje Goorden,1 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis,2,3 Kirsten M van Steenbergen-Weijenburg,4 Eva K Horn,5 Aartjan TF Beekman,6,7 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen1 1Institute of Health Policy and Management (iBMG/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, 3Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGzBreburg, Tilburg, 4Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, 5Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, 6Department of Psychiatry, 7EMGO+ Research Institute VUmc, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: Major depressive disorder (MDD is highly prevalent in patients with a chronic physical condition, and this comorbidity has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Research has shown that collaborative care (CC may be a cost-effective treatment. However, its cost-effectiveness in this patient group has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of CC for the treatment of comorbid MDD in chronically ill patients in the outpatient general hospital setting. The study was conducted from a health care and societal perspective.Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 81 patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were included; 42 were randomly assigned to the CC group and 39 to the care as usual (CAU group. We applied the TiC-P, short-form Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire, and EuroQol EQ-5D 3 level version, measuring the use of health care, informal care, and household work, respectively, at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up.Results: The mean annual direct medical costs in the CC group were €6,718 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,541 to 10,680 compared to €4,582 (95% CI: 2,782 to 6,740 in the CAU group. The average quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 0.07 higher

  1. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, I.T.; Perez-Ocon, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures

  2. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  3. Reoperations after tricuspid valve repair: re-repair versus replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Young; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Bong; Ahn, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Data demonstrating results of reoperation after initial tricuspid valve repair are scarce. We evaluated outcomes of tricuspid reoperations after tricuspid valve repair and compared the results of tricuspid re-repair with those of tricuspid valve replacement (TVR). From 1994 to 2012, 53 patients (56±15 years, male:female =14:39) underwent tricuspid reoperations due to recurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after initial repair. Twenty-two patients underwent tricuspid re-repair (TAP group) and 31 patients underwent TVR (TVR group). Early mortality occurred in 6 patients (11%). Early mortality and incidence of postoperative complications were similar between the 2 groups. There were 14 cases of late mortality including 9 cardiac deaths. Five- and 10-year free from cardiac death rates were 82% and 67%, respectively, without any intergroup difference. Recurrent TR (> moderate) developed in 6 TAP group patients and structural valve deterioration occurred in 1 TVR group patient (P=0.002). Isolated tricuspid valve surgery (P=0.044) and presence of atrial fibrillation during the follow-up (P=0.051) were associated with recurrent TR after re-repair. However, the overall tricuspid valve-related event rates were similar between the 2 groups with 5- and 10-year rates of 61% and 41%, respectively. Tricuspid valve reoperation after initial repair resulted in high rates of operative mortality and complications. Long-term event-free rate was similar regardless of the type of surgery. However, great care might be needed when performing re-repair in patients with atrial fibrillation and those who had isolated tricuspid valve disease due to high recurrence of TR after re-repair.

  4. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a proactive, goal-oriented, integrated care model in general practice for older people. A cluster randomised controlled trial: Integrated Systematic Care for older People--the ISCOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jeanet; den Elzen, Wendy; van Houwelingen, Anne H; Heijmans, Margot; Stijnen, Theo; Van den Hout, Wilbert; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    older people often experience complex problems. Because of multiple problems, care for older people in general practice needs to shift from a 'problem-based, disease-oriented' care aiming at improvement of outcomes per disease to a 'goal-oriented care', aiming at improvement of functioning and personal quality of life, integrating all healthcare providers. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this proactive and integrated way of working are not yet established. cluster randomised trial. all persons aged ≥75 in 59 general practices (30 intervention, 29 control), with a combination of problems, as identified with a structured postal questionnaire with 21 questions on four health domains. for participants with problems on ≥3 domains, general practitioners (GPs) made an integrated care plan using a functional geriatric approach. Control practices: care as usual. (i) quality of life (QoL), (ii) activities of daily living, (iii) satisfaction with delivered health care and (iv) cost-effectiveness of the intervention at 1-year follow-up. Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. of the 11,476 registered eligible older persons, 7,285 (63%) participated in the screening. One thousand nine hundred and twenty-one (26%) had problems on ≥3 health domains. For 225 randomly chosen persons, a care plan was made. No beneficial effects were found on QoL, patients' functioning or healthcare use/costs. GPs experienced better overview of the care and stability, e.g. less unexpected demands, in the care. GPs prefer proactive integrated care. 'Horizontal' care using care plans for older people with complex problems can be a valuable tool in general practice. However, no direct beneficial effect was found for older persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  5. General description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szatmary, Z.

    1983-01-01

    General experiences in nuclear power are summarized using statistical data revealing the significance of nuclear power in comparison with traditional power sources. Some causes of problems associated with nuclear power are listed, including world recession, high innovation costs, oversupply of nuclear power plants, low availabilities, insufficient arguments for reactor safety to facilitate public acceptance, unsolved waste disposal problems. To assure the world's long-term energy supply, development of commercial fast breeder reactors are suggested. (V.N.)

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agents within the limitation specified under the Master Repair Contract if the contractor is a holder thereof or if the contractor does not hold a Master Repair Contract under NSA-WORKSMALREP if the contract... section 2(b), may be awarded by the General Agents, within the limitation specified, by letter or purchase...

  7. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  8. A cost-effective treatment for severe generalized erosion and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion: laboratory-fabricated composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Michael J; Stapleton, Brandon M; Harris, Bryan T; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes preventive and restorative treatment planning for a 56-year-old female patient with severe, chronic, poorly controlled gastroesophageal reflux disease and resulting loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. First, the demineralization process was controlled through collaboration with the patient's physician, and measures were taken to restore adequate stimulated salivary flow. Then, for financial reasons, indirect laboratory-fabricated composite resin restorations were adhesively bonded to replace lost tooth structure and reestablish the patient's collapsed vertical dimension. Indirect-laboratory fabricated restorations can be a cost-effective alternative to direct composite resin or all-ceramic restorations for the treatment of chronic severe erosion, but there are no long-term clinical reports in the current literature to support or contraindicate the use of indirect composites for this type of clinical application. Therefore, careful, long-term follow-up evaluations are planned for this patient.

  9. Declarativity and efficiency in providing services of general economic interest. Empirical study regarding the relation between heating costs and budget constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined by each country separately, according to real options, circumstances and traditions, the services of general economic interest have an objective purpose in ensuring protection and security for population. The services of general economic interest involve both public and economic services and show characteristics of both fields, reflecting the capabilities of communities to organize, regulate and provide them. Considering the accessibility to the essential service of general economic interest of providing household heating, as an undeniable condition of consumer protection, an analysis has been made in this field, with reference to the concrete manner of providing these services. The goal of this endeavor was to emphasize the actual conditionalities induced by the budget constraints of households while ensuring the universality of the access to the essential heating service. The empirical study is based on a survey of 55 households in sector 2 of Bucharest that have access to gas heating systems, while they have different revenues and equipments. The processing of the gathered data allowed the procurement of certain indicators that explain how household revenues determine the access to the heating services and how the deficiencies of the insurance system of these services deepen the social polarization and increase the weightings of those living at the limit of subsistence.

  10. The cost of blocking the mirror generalization process in reading: evidence for the role of inhibitory control in discriminating letters with lateral mirror-image counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Grégoire; Ahr, Emmanuel; Roell, Margot; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Mirror generalization is detrimental for identifying letters with lateral mirror-image counterparts ('b/d'). In the present study, we investigated whether the discrimination of this type of letters in expert readers might be rooted in the ability to inhibit the mirror-generalization process. In our negative priming paradigm, participants judged whether two letters were identical on the prime and two animals (or buildings) were identical on the probe. In Experiment 1, participants required more time when determining that two animals (but not two buildings) were mirror images of each other when preceded by letters with mirror-image counterparts than without mirror-image counterparts ('a/h'). In Experiment 2, we replicated the results with different letters without mirror-image counterparts and with the type of probe stimuli (animal or building) manipulated as a within-subject factors. Our results suggest that expert readers never completely "unlearn" the mirror-generalization process and still need to inhibit this heuristic to overcome mirror errors.

  11. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  13. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply for...

  14. 46 CFR 64.9 - Maintenance, repair, and alteration of MPTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance, repair, and alteration of MPTs. 64.9 Section 64.9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS General § 64.9 Maintenance, repair, and alteration of MPTs. (a...

  15. An approximate approach for the joint problem of level of repair analysis and spare parts stocking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    For the spare parts stocking problem, generally metric type methods are used in the context of capital goods. Implicitly, a decision is assumed on which components to discard and which to repair upon failure, and where to perform repairs. In the military world, this decision is taken explicitly

  16. Comparative study of ppen mesh repair and Desarda's no-mesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The first author has described a new technique of pure tissue hernia repair and published his results previously1,2. This article describes the results of a comparative study of this new technique and the open mesh repair done in a district level general hospital set up in India. Methods: This is a retrospective ...

  17. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply for...

  18. Transcript RNA supports precise repair of its own DNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Havva; Meers, Chance; Storici, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA is considered an extraordinary process in molecular biology. Despite the fact that cells transcribe abundant amount of RNA with a wide range of functions, it has been difficult to uncover whether RNA can serve as a template for DNA repair and recombination. An increasing number of experimental evidences suggest a direct role of RNA in DNA modification. Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous transcript RNA can serve as a template to repair a DNA double-strand break (DSB), the most harmful DNA lesion, not only indirectly via formation of a DNA copy (cDNA) intermediate, but also directly in a homology driven mechanism in budding yeast. These results point out that the transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA is more general than previously thought. We found that transcript RNA is more efficient in repairing a DSB in its own DNA (in cis) than in a homologous but ectopic locus (in trans). Here, we summarize current knowledge about the process of RNA-driven DNA repair and recombination, and provide further data in support of our model of DSB repair by transcript RNA in cis. We show that a DSB is precisely repaired predominately by transcript RNA and not by residual cDNA in conditions in which formation of cDNA by reverse transcription is inhibited. Additionally, we demonstrate that defects in ribonuclease (RNase) H stimulate precise DSB repair by homologous RNA or cDNA sequence, and not by homologous DNA sequence carried on a plasmid. These results highlight an antagonistic role of RNase H in RNA-DNA recombination. Ultimately, we discuss several questions that should be addressed to better understand mechanisms and implications of RNA-templated DNA repair and recombination.

  19. Ventilation cost and air cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.

  20. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    , does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  2. Selection of pipe repair methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this research is to provide pipeline operators with testing procedures and : results of the performance of composite pipe repair methods and ultimately, improve their : selection and installation, and reduce the risks associated with...

  3. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.422 Pipeline repairs. (a) Each operator shall, in repairing its pipeline systems, insure that the repairs are made in a safe manner and are made so as to prevent damage to...

  4. Betonreparationers holdbarhed (Durability of Concrete Repairs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes, Eydbjørn; Dali, Bogi í; Larsen, Erik Stoklund

    1999-01-01

    Concrete repairs on 11 pillars on bridges built in the sixties and repaired 8 to 9 years ago have been examined. Especially the chloride penetration in the repair concrete have been measured. Chloride penetration in the repair concrete is much lower than in the original concrete....

  5. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  6. [Physician's anxiety and physician's elegance. Problems in dealing with cost reduction, education of general practitioners and optimal size of practice networks in a cross-national comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J

    2000-03-01

    The key reason for physicians networking in managed care is to get a better coping with uncertainty on action (treatment) decisions. The second reason for networking in managed care are financial benefits grounds. But this reason is very ambivalent. Three different action problems (role conflicts) in managed care network are to solved, which was also in single practices. In the lecture the decision strategies and decision resources has been compared. Observations are done using expert interviews, patient interviews and analysis of documents in USA, Germany and Switzerland. The first problem is the choosing of a cost reduction strategy which is not reducing the effectiveness. Such "ugly" solution strategies like exclusion of "expensive" patients and a rationing of necessary medical services in a kind of McDonalds network of physicians will fail the target. The optimost way is a saving of all unnecessary medical even injourious performances. The chosen cost reduction strategy is not real visible from outside but in fact limited cognizable and controllable. Evidence based health care can be a resource of treatment decisions and could train such decisions but it will not substitute these decisions. The second problem is the making of real family practitioners as gatekeepers. Knowledge about the care system is still not making a real family practitioner, even if this is the minimum condition of their work. Also contractual relationships between insurance and doctor as a gatekeeper or financial incentives for patients are still making not a real family practitioner as a gatekpeeper. Only throughout the trust of patients supported by second opinions is making the real family practitioner as a gatekeeper. "Doctor hopping" could be the reaction by scarcity of trustworthy family practitioners as gatekeepers. The third problem is the choosing of the optimal scale of a network due to the very different optimal size of networks regarding the requirement of risk spreeds, of the

  7. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in Weld Repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a generalized flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in the U. S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different cancelled reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This paper describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs which are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. Construction records where available were reviewed. It is difficult to make conclusions due to the limited number of construction records reviewed. However, the records reviewed to date show a significant change in repair frequency over the years when the components in this study were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance.

  8. Meniscallesions: Meniscectomy, repair, or abstention

    OpenAIRE

    Beaufils, P.

    2004-01-01

    There are three different options in case of meniscal lesion. These are abstention, thatis to leave the torn meniscus alone, meniscectomy and meniscal repair. However, meniscallesions should be separated according to the etiology. Indications are different for meniscallesion associated with ACL tears and isolated meniscal lesions. Our experience and literature have led to the conclusion that meniscal preservation is the key word. In case of ACL rupture, meniscal repair or abstention are the b...

  9. Cost of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    . The attributable cost of direct net health care costs after the stroke (general practitioner services, hospital services, and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income) were €10,720, €8,205 and €7,377 for patients, and €989, €1,544 and €1.645 for their partners, over and above that of controls......BACKGROUND: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of stroke in patients and their partners. DESCRIPTION: Direct and indirect costs were calculated using records from the Danish National Patient Registry from 93,047 ischemic, 26,012 hemorrhagic and 128,824 unspecified stroke patients...

  10. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  11. Electrosleeve process for in-situ nuclear steam generator repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moran, T.E. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Renaud, E. [Babcock and Wilcox Industries Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing by localized corrosion is a widespread problem in the nuclear industry that can lead to costly forced out-ages, unit de-rating, SG replacement or even the permanent shutdown of a reactor. In response to the onset of SG tubing degradation at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Unit 5, and the determined unsuitability of conventional repair methods (mechanically expanded or welded sleeves) for Alloy 400, an alternative repair technology was developed. Electrosleeve is a non-intrusive, low-temperature process that involves the electrodeposition of a nanocrystalline nickel microalloy forming a continuously bonded, structural layer over the internal diameter of the degraded region. This technology is designed to provide a long-term pressure boundary repair, fully restoring the structural integrity of the damaged region to its original state. This paper describes the Electrosleeve process for SG tubing repair and the unique properties of the advanced sleeve material. The successful installation of Electrosleeves that have been in service for more than three years in Alloy 400 SG tubing at the Pickering-5 CANDU unit, the more recent extension of the technology to Alloy 600 and its demonstration in a U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR), is presented. A number of PWR operators have requested plant operating technical specification changes to permit Electrosleeve SG tube repair. Licensing of the Electrosleeve by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is expected imminently. (author)

  12. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair: are the actors ready for the clinical scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Roura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For years, sufficient progress has been made in treating heart failure following myocardial infarction; however, the social and economic burdens and the costs to world health systems remain high. Moreover, treatment advances have not resolved the underlying problem of functional heart tissue loss. In this field of research, for years we have actively explored innovative biotherapies for cardiac repair. Here, we present a general, critical overview of our experience in using mesenchymal stem cells, derived from cardiac adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood, in a variety of cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches. We also include the latest advances and future challenges, including good manufacturing practice and regulatory issues. Finally, we evaluate whether recent approaches hold potential for reliable translation to clinical trials.

  14. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  15. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  16. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  17. Marketers report costs of service operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    A study of fuel oil marketing service department costs and charges is presented. It was found that the marketers estimated their repair parts cost $16.54 per account. If that is accurate, they should be charging at least $55 to cover themselves on labor. It was also found that it costs $3934.00 to operate a service truck for a year. This figure is down from 1983 perhaps because of lower gasoline prices.

  18. 28 Comparative Study of Open Mesh Repair and Desarda's No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... new technique and the open mesh repair done in a district level general hospital set up in India. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 269 ... 80 years of age and those operated under spinal or local anesthesia were included in this .... approximation to the lateral leaf. The first stitch is taken between the ...

  19. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ...

  20. The Penile Perception Score after distal hypospadias repair with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perception, including the following items: meatus, glans, skin, and general appearance. The pediatric Penile. Perception Score (PPS) was calculated, consisting of the sum of these four items, and the study proved that pediatric PPS is a significant self-assessment test for repair and for appraisal for surgical procedures used ...

  1. Repairing Femoral Fractures: A Model Lesson in Biomaterial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakeeny, Jarred

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterial science is a rapidly growing field that has scientists and doctors searching for new ways to repair the body. A merger between medicine and engineering, biomaterials can be complex subject matter, and it can certainly capture the minds of middle school students. In the lesson described in this article, seventh graders generally learn…

  2. 46 CFR 59.01-5 - Repairs, replacements, or alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES General Requirements § 59.01-5 Repairs, replacements... to boilers, pressure vessels, their mountings or internal fittings, safety valves, piping systems, or..., manuals, and the like, and section VII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by...

  3. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  4. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  5. The use of a porcelain repair technique to improve the plane of occlusion of an existing restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nancy; Hagen, Maria Barrera

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an indirect porcelain repair technique to improve the occlusal relationship between a new fixed partial denture and an existing one. Porcelain repair techniques offer a conservative, minimally invasive, and cost-effective method of improving the opposing occlusion without replacing an existing restoration.

  6. 46 CFR 62.50-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, must be immediately replaced or repaired or vessel manning...-propelled Vessel Manning § 62.50-1 General. (a) Where automated systems are provided to replace specific...

  7. Omphalocele repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abdominal wall defect at the base of the umbilical cord (umbilicus); the infant is born with a sac ... stable. While the baby is deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia) an incision is made ...

  8. Gastroschisis repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abdominal wall defect to the side of the umbilical cord (umbilicus). The infant is born with intestines protruding ... lungs. While the infant is deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia) an incision is made ...

  9. The economics of nuclear power plants as they age: Production (capacity factors), variable costs, and retirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze-Fry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines, using multiple regression analyses, production at nuclear power plants, the variable costs involved, and estimate to dismantle reactors. Variable costs generally follow U-shaped curves as reactors age. Performance is modelled with polynomial equations, using chiefly intercept, age and age .5 terms, interacting with various reactor characteristics, plus time and operating experience. US nuclear capacity factors (actual output/possible) averaged 60% for 13 of 15 years during 1971-1985. Output generally peaked during ages 3-12. Capacity factors were much lower, or aging was faster, for reactors that are-from the worst-non-light water types, prototypes, salt water cooled, expensive to build, large, and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Expected nuclear capacity factors average 56% and reactor lives average 30 years. Outside America, generally capacity factors are much higher and reactor aging is slower. Heavy water reactors perform best, gas cooled ones worst, and BWRs do as well as pressurized water reactors. Capital addition costs have risen fastest and were most affected by aging. Fuel costs were almost constant. Repairs and O and M led the 15.3% real annual increase in nuclear variable costs/kW during 1978-1984. Forecast variable costs rise more slowly. If owners retire reactors when variable costs exceed alternatives, the last reactor should close about 2010. Then expected future lifetime levelized real variable costs range, by reactor, from 2 to 8 cents/kWh, median 4.4 (twice 1983 levels). Expected reactor lives average 24 years. At closed reactors, owners estimate costs to dismantle averaging $760/kW (1985$), or 53% of construction cost. Analysis of owner opinions for all American reactors suggests actual costs may average $200/kW. Higher burial prices could increase that substantially

  10. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. MIN-T SAI LAI1 SHIH-CHIH CHEN2. Department of Business Administration, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C; Department of Accounting Information, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C ...

  11. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    Pendulum Impact Specimens (X-40 Material) Process Parameter Evaluation for Fluoride Ion Cleaning Pendulum Impact Specimens (Rene’ 80 Material... Pendulum Impact Testing was conducted on specimens machined from 0. 060" cast X-40 sheet. The impact specimens were manufactured by joining two strips 1...5" long by 0. 500" wide with a butt joint. Gap variation was controlled from 0.003" to 0.040". A Charpy Impact tester was utilized with the impact

  12. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    [5], Mizuno [6], Nakagawa [1, 7], Qian et al [8] and Perry. [9]. Furthermore, the replacement models in which a sys- tem is replaced after a shock N were proposed in Nagakawa. [10]. The replacement model with multiple decision vari- ables T, N, and k were proposed in Nakagawa and Kijima. [11] and Satow and Nakagawa ...

  13. From intraperitoneal onlay mesh repair to preperitoneal onlay mesh repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, George Pei Cheung

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic repair for ventral and incisional hernias was first reported in the early 1990s. It uses intraperitoneal only mesh placement to achieve a tension-free repair of the hernia. However, in recent years, there has been greater concern about long-term complication involving intraperitoneal mesh placement. Many case reports and case series have found evidence of mesh adhesion, mesh fistulation, and mesh migration into hollow organs including the esophagus, small bowel, and large bowel, resulting in various major acute abdominal events. Subsequent management of these complications may require major surgery that is technically demanding and difficult; in such cases, laparotomy and bowel resection have often been performed. Because of these significant, but not common, adverse events, many surgeons favor open sublay repair for ventral and incisional hernias. Investigators are therefore searching for a laparoscopic approach for ventral and incisional hernias that might overcome the mesh-induced visceral complications seen after intraperitoneal only mesh placement repair. Laparoscopic preperitoneal onlay mesh is one such approach. This article will explore the fundamental of intraperitoneal only mesh placement and its problems, the currently available peritoneal visceral-compatible meshes, and upcoming developments in laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair. The technical details of preperitoneal onlay mesh, as well as its potential advantages and disadvantages, will also be discussed. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The societal and economic value of rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-11-20

    Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient's lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost-effective for all populations. The results

  15. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  16. Modeling for prediction of restrained shrinkage effect in concrete repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yingshu; Li Guo; Cai Yue

    2003-01-01

    A general model of autogenous shrinkage caused by chemical reaction (chemical shrinkage) is developed by means of Arrhenius' law and a degree of chemical reaction. Models of tensile creep and relaxation modulus are built based on a viscoelastic, three-element model. Tests of free shrinkage and tensile creep were carried out to determine some coefficients in the models. Two-dimensional FEM analysis based on the models and other constitutions can predict the development of tensile strength and cracking. Three groups of patch-repaired beams were designed for analysis and testing. The prediction from the analysis shows agreement with the test results. The cracking mechanism after repair is discussed

  17. Case Study of Operational Cost of Tractors in Three Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of operating tractors in three different farms was investigated. Data were collected for six years on a total of 112 tractors. The data was categorized into different costs constituting cost of operating tractors such as repair and maintenance; fuel and lubricants; operator's wages; interest; insurance, taxes and shelter ...

  18. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    , the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born...

  19. Anterior vaginal repair for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazener, Cathryn Ma; Cooper, Kevin; Mashayekhi, Atefeh

    2017-07-31

    was reflected in a need for more repeat operations for incontinence (25/107 (23%) versus 4/164 (2%); RR 8.87, 95% CI 3.28 to 23.94). These findings held, irrespective of the co-existence of prolapse (pelvic relaxation). Although fewer women had a prolapse after anterior repair (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.47), later prolapse operation appeared to be equally common after vaginal (3%) or abdominal (4%) operation.In respect of the type of open abdominal retropubic suspension, most data related to comparisons of anterior vaginal repair with Burch colposuspension. The few data describing comparison of anterior repair with the Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz procedure were consistent with those for Burch colposuspension. There were not enough data to allow comparison of anterior vaginal repair with physical therapy or needle suspension for primary urinary stress incontinence in women. Open abdominal retropubic suspension appeared to be better than anterior vaginal repair judged on subjective cure rates in eight trials, even in women who had prolapse in addition to stress incontinence (six trials). The need for repeat incontinence surgery was also less after the abdominal operation. However, there was not enough information about postoperative complications and morbidity.A Brief Economic Commentary (BEC) identified one study suggesting that vaginoplasty may be more cost-effective compared with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O).

  20. Honest signalling with costly gambles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Frazer; Perlmutter, Aaron; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2013-10-06

    Costly signalling theory is commonly invoked as an explanation for how honest communication can be stable when interests conflict. However, the signal costs predicted by costly signalling models often turn out to be unrealistically high. These models generally assume that signal cost is determinate. Here, we consider the case where signal cost is instead stochastic. We examine both discrete and continuous signalling games and show that, under reasonable assumptions, stochasticity in signal costs can decrease the average cost at equilibrium for all individuals. This effect of stochasticity for decreasing signal costs is a fundamental mechanism that probably acts in a wide variety of circumstances.

  1. Fault self-repair strategy based on evolvable hardware and reparation balance technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junbin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the face of harsh natural environment applications such as earth-orbiting and deep space satellites, underwater sea vehicles, strong electromagnetic interference and temperature stress, the circuits faults appear easily. Circuit faults will inevitably lead to serious losses of availability or impeded mission success without self-repair over the mission duration. Traditional fault-repair methods based on redundant fault-tolerant technique are straightforward to implement, yet their area, power and weight cost can be excessive. Moreover they utilize all plug-in or component level circuits to realize redundant backup, such that their applicability is limited. Hence, a novel self-repair technology based on evolvable hardware (EHW and reparation balance technology (RBT is proposed. Its cost is low, and fault self-repair of various circuits and devices can be realized through dynamic configuration. Making full use of the fault signals, correcting circuit can be found through EHW technique to realize the balance and compensation of the fault output-signals. In this paper, the self-repair model was analyzed which based on EHW and RBT technique, the specific self-repair strategy was studied, the corresponding self-repair circuit fault system was designed, and the typical faults were simulated and analyzed which combined with the actual electronic devices. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed fault self-repair strategy was feasible. Compared to traditional techniques, fault self-repair based on EHW consumes fewer hardware resources, and the scope of fault self-repair was expanded significantly.

  2. Ultraviolet Light Surface Treatment as an Environmentally Benign Process for Production, Maintenance and Repair of Military Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drzal, Lawrence T

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-speed, environmentally benign, dry surface treatment method for production, and repair of military composite structures using ultraviolet (UV...

  3. Optimal Preventive Maintenance Schedule based on Lifecycle Cost and Time-Dependent Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    cost PC , the inspection cost IC and an expected variable cost EVC [2, 32]. These costs are a function of quality and reliability. The lifecycle...expected variable cost EVC is a function of the time- dependent reliability which is used to estimate the expected present value of repairing and/or

  4. Repair of Lateral Wall Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezeafshar, Reza; Moubayed, Sami P; Most, Sam P

    2018-03-01

    Lateral wall insufficiency (LWI) is classified by the zone in which it occurs. Multiple techniques for treating LWI are described in the literature and are used, but no treatment approach has been widely adopted. To establish an algorithm for treatment of LWI by evaluating subjective and objective outcomes of patients who underwent LWI repair and comparing these results with those of a control group who received no specific LWI repair. This case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. In group 1, there were 44 patients who underwent septorhinoplasty to repair LWI between February 1, 2014, and May 31, 2016. In group 2, there were 44 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent cosmetic septorhinoplasty without LWI repair. Data analysis was conducted from February 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016. Open septorhinoplasty. Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores and LWI grades. Forty-four patients (8 men and 36 women, with a mean [SD] age of 46 [16] years) who underwent open septorhinoplasty to repair LWI and 44 age- and sex-matched patients (composed of 8 men and 36 women, with a mean [SD] age of 41 [12] years) were included in the study. The mean (SD) preoperative NOSE scores were 69.4 (22) in group 1 and 20.5 (20.8) in group 2 (P system enables surgeons to localize LWI, tailor the surgical treatment to the patient, and monitor improvements in the postoperative period. 3.

  5. Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall D. McKinnon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair.

  6. DNA Repair Mechanisms and the Bypass of DNA Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteux, Serge; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are critical for maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA, and their loss is associated with cancer predisposition syndromes. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have played a central role in elucidating the highly conserved mechanisms that promote eukaryotic genome stability. This review will focus on repair mechanisms that involve excision of a single strand from duplex DNA with the intact, complementary strand serving as a template to fill the resulting gap. These mechanisms are of two general types: those that remove damage from DNA and those that repair errors made during DNA synthesis. The major DNA-damage repair pathways are base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair, which, in the most simple terms, are distinguished by the extent of single-strand DNA removed together with the lesion. Mistakes made by DNA polymerases are corrected by the mismatch repair pathway, which also corrects mismatches generated when single strands of non-identical duplexes are exchanged during homologous recombination. In addition to the true repair pathways, the postreplication repair pathway allows lesions or structural aberrations that block replicative DNA polymerases to be tolerated. There are two bypass mechanisms: an error-free mechanism that involves a switch to an undamaged template for synthesis past the lesion and an error-prone mechanism that utilizes specialized translesion synthesis DNA polymerases to directly synthesize DNA across the lesion. A high level of functional redundancy exists among the pathways that deal with lesions, which minimizes the detrimental effects of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. PMID:23547164

  7. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically-Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems

  8. Using FARIS [Fuel Assembly Repair and Inspection Station] for assembly clean-up and debris removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, J.S.; Sapyta, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Because fuel inspection and repair tasks are commonly done on the critical path during plant refuelling outages, they must be completed quickly and efficiently with minimal costs. To fulfil these demands, the Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Company has designed a Fuel Assembly Repair and Inspection Station (FARIS) for fuel assembly clean-up and debris removal in Pressurized Water Reactors. The system is portable and can also be used for carrying out visual inspections on fuel assemblies, spacer grid repair, fuel rod oxide thickness measurements and for fuel rod water channel inspections. (author)

  9. 20 CFR 627.435 - Cost principles and allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment through application of generally accepted accounting principles appropriate to the JTPA program...) Entertainment costs; (4) Bad debts expense; (5) Insurance policies offering protection against debts established...

  10. Assessment of postoperative outcomes of hypospadias repair with validated questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mona M Y; Holland, Andrew J A; Cass, Danny T

    2015-12-01

    A standardized assessment for the optimal repair of hypospadias remains elusive. This study utilized validated questionnaires to assess the postoperative functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes of hypospadias repair. 172 patients who underwent hypospadias repair under the care of a single surgeon were identified. 25 agreed for follow-up using the validated questionnaires of Hypospadias Objective Scoring Evaluation (HOSE), Pediatric Penile Perception Scale (PPPS), and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™4.0). Mean follow-up was 59months postoperatively (range 7-113months). Techniques used included tubularized incised plate urethroplasty, meatal advancement and glanuloplasty, and a 2-stage repair. 23 of 25 patients achieved a HOSE score of 14 or more (maximum of 16). The PPPS scores correlated with severity of the hypospadias. Those with glanular hypospadias (mean score=10) scored higher than those with coronal (mean score=9) and penile/penoscrotal hypospadias (mean score=7). There was no correlation between PedsQL™4.0 scores and the severity of hypospadias or procedure used. Validated questionnaires revealed generally good functional, cosmetic, and early psychosocial outcomes after hypospadias repair. The use of validated questionnaires in routine follow-up sessions may facilitate objective assessment of both functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  12. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wout, E.L.; Bever Donker, J.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department

  13. DNA repair in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1984-01-01

    Damage an repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks were measured by alkaline lysis and hydroxyapatite chromatography. PHA stimulated human lymphocytes show that the rejoining process is complete within the first 50 min., afterwords secondary DNA damage and chromatid aberration. DNA repair, in synchronized culture, allows to evaluate individual repair capacity and this in turn can contribute to the discovery of individual who, although they do not demonstrate apparent clinical signs, are carriers of DNA repair deficiency. Being evident that a correlation exists between DNA repair capacity and carcinogenesis, the possibility of evaluating the existent relationship between DNA repair and survival in tumor cells comes therefore into discussion

  14. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Contribution of repair of single-strand DNA breaks to cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanova, O.M.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    The comparison was made between the results of the effect of poly(ADP-ribosylation) ingibitors (e.g. nicotinamide and 3-aminobenzamide) and a chromatin proteinase ingibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, on the cytogenetic damages repair, by a micronuclear test, and DNA repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The values of the repair half-periods (5-7 min for the cytogenetic damages and 5 min for the rapidly repaired DNA damages) and a similar modyfying effect with regard to radiation cytogenetic damages and kynetics of DNA damages repair were found to be close. This confirms the contribution of repair of DNA single-strand breaks in the initiation of structural damages to chromosomes

  15. DNA repair systems in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioli, Panagiota G; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2013-08-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescent population. There are two major histological subtypes, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS), differing in cytogenetic and morphological features. RMS pathogenesis remains controversial and several cellular mechanisms and pathways have been implicated. Application of intense chemo- and radio-therapy improves survival rates for RMS patients, but significant efficacy has not been proved as DNA damage induced-resistance frequently occurs. The present review is aimed at summarizing the current evidence on DNA repair systems, implications in RMS development, focusing on gene expression alterations and point mutations of genes encoding for DNA repair enzymes. Understanding of DNA repair systems involvement in RMS pathogenesis could diversify RMS patients and provide novel individualized therapeutic targets.

  16. PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON DARNING AND LICHTENSTEIN MESH HERNIOPLASTY (LMH IN INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Prospective study on Darning and Lichtenstein Mesh Hernioplasty in Inguinal Hernia Repair is a study of 61 cases of inguinal hernias which were treated by either open Inguinal hernia mesh repair (Lichtenstein or darning repair. The study was conducted with an objective to compare the effectiveness of these procedures and complications if any. 61 cases of inguinal hernia admitted in Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Mangalore were selected on the basis of the non-probability (prospective sampling method. All patients with uncomplicated direct and indirect hernias treated by darning or mesh repair were included. After preoperative preparation they were randomly chosen for darning or mesh repair. The age/sex incidence, mode of presentation, precipitating factors, surgical treatment and postoperative complications were all evaluated and compared with standard published literature. The total number of postoperative complications was reported in 13.9% patients, complications was high after Mesh repair when compared to Darning. Seroma was the most common complication followed by funiculitis and wound infection. There was one recurrence each noted till date in the two groups under study. Darn repair is equally effective and much less costly treatment for inguinal hernia than mesh repair which had more risk of infection.

  17. History of flexor tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Paul R

    2005-05-01

    The first issue of Hand Clinics published 20 years ago was devoted to flexor tendon injuries. This was most appropriate, because no subject in hand surgery has sparked more interest or discussion. That inaugural issue included excellent presentations on the basic science of tendon injuries (anatomy, biomechanics, nutrition, healing, adhesions) and the clinical practice of tendon repair. Of interest, there was no presentation on the fascinating history of flexor tendon surgery. It is most appropriate, therefore, that this current update of the flexor tendon begins with a historical review of the evolution of flexor tendon repair.

  18. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur....... Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA...

  19. Modeling the reliability and maintenance costs of wind turbines using Weibull analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachon, W.A. [W.A. Vachon & Associates, Inc., Manchester, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A general description is provided of the basic mathematics and use of Weibull statistical models for modeling component failures and maintenance costs as a function of time. The applicability of the model to wind turbine components and subsystems is discussed with illustrative examples of typical component reliabilities drawn from actual field experiences. Example results indicate the dominant role of key subsystems based on a combination of their failure frequency and repair/replacement costs. The value of the model is discussed as a means of defining (1) maintenance practices, (2) areas in which to focus product improvements, (3) spare parts inventory, and (4) long-term trends in maintenance costs as an important element in project cash flow projections used by developers, investors, and lenders. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 7 CFR 58.807 - General construction, repair and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 58.807 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... sanitary design principles, except where engineering requirements preclude strict adherence to such...

  1. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  2. Contemporary economic and clinical evaluations of endovascular repair for intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silingardi, Roberto; Gennai, Stefano; Coppi, Giovanni; Chester, Johanna; Marcheselli, Luigi; Brunetti, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical and contemporary costs associated with elective endovascular repair of intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAA) into the mid-term follow-up. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained clinical database including 29 consecutive patients from July 2005 to December 2009 treated with elective endovascular repair (TEVAR) or TEVAR and surgical infrarenal repair (hybrid) of intact DTAA was performed. Mean age was 74.5 years old (±7.1). Primary clinical endpoints include mortality and major morbidity. Additionally a comprehensive economic appraisal of individual in-hospital and follow-up costs was executed. Economic endpoints include in-hospital and follow-up costs and patient discharge status. Elective endovascular and open repairs' clinical and economical outcomes in contemporary literature were assessed for comparison according to PRISMA standards. Immediate mortality was 6.9% (1/24 TEVAR and 1/5 hybrid). Three respiratory complications were recorded (11%; 2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid). Renal and cardiac complication rates were 7.4% (1 TEVAR, 1 hybrid) and 3.7% (1 TEVAR) respectively. Routine discharge home was achieved for 85% of patients (95.7% TEVAR, 25% hybrid). Three endoleaks were treated throughout the follow-up (2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid; mean 30.4 mo, ±19.9) rendering an 11% (3/27) reintervention rate. Average immediate cost was €21,976.87 for elective endovascular repair and €33,783.21 for elective endovascular hybrid repair. Additional reintervention and routine follow-up costs augmented immediate costs by 12.4%. This study supports satisfying immediate clinical outcomes for TEVAR and TEVAR+surgical infrarenal procedures. Although limited by a small population size and difficulties in economic comparisons, this study presents the real world social and economic cost scenario for both elective TEVAR and TEVAR hybrid treatment of DTAA of both the in-hospital and at mid term follow-up periods.

  3. Unitat autònoma remota, d'adquisició de mesures metereològiques de propòsit general i de baix cost per aplicacions domèstiques

    OpenAIRE

    Augé Alomà, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Resum El projecte explica l’estudi del disseny d’una unitat d’adquisició de mesures meteorològiques de propòsit general i de baix cost per aplicacions domèstiques. El sistema dissenyat és una unitat compacta i simple amb alimentació autònoma mitjançant panells fotovoltaics i bateries reforçades amb unes piles de reserva per tal d’assegurar una alimentació elèctrica continua i que utilitza una connexió wireless estàndard per comunicar-se amb un PC que recollirà les dades. ...

  4. EVALUATION OF COSTS OF HARVESTER IN CUT AND PROCESSING OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Nunes dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Before performing any financial analysis costs must be calculated. These costs should allow the planning and control over the use of the machines as well as the comparison between different investments alternatives since this is easily calculated. Generally the operating costs of forest harvesting machines are estimated until the maximum of 25,000 hours of work, and it is not possible to know whether the activity remains profitable thereafter or not. For this reason the objective of this study was to evaluate the costs from cutting activities and wood processing carried out by a forestry tractor harvester up to approximately 30,000 hours of work. Ten forest machines composed of two models of harvester (John Deere, model 1270D and 1470D were used. A spreadsheet provided by a forestry company located in the state of Minas Gerais, containing the necessary data to estimate the operating cost of the machines and subsequent achievement of the sensitivity analysis was used. The operating cost was obtained by the sum of the fixed and variable costs. For sensitivity analysis the variation ± 20% of the most representative elements of the total cost of the machine was performed. The results for the operating cost of the harvester and forwarder was U.S. $ 190.85 h-1. Costs for repairs and maintenance, labor, fuel, and depreciation represented approximately 90% of the total cost of the machine. Despite the fact that the age of the machine has a direct influence on its operating cost, the costs did not behave in a linear fashion over the years.

  5. Logistics costs of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describe a problem of specification and systematization of enterprise’s logistics costs. With in a growing division of labour, also logistics costs increase their part in enterprises total costs.Almost all decisions about products and production in general, influence logistics processes even logistics costs and performances.In present is not clear enough, which of the cost-particles are relevant fot logistics costs, because some of logistics cost-particles accounts within overhead are charged together with costs of other sorts.Substantive step in the process of the monitoring and evidence of logistics costs is definition of this, that costs of enterprise´s processes will be inclusive in logistics costs and determining points of contact with the others departments (acquisition, production, sale etc.. After the specification of meditation processes, there is a need to choose applicable parameters for the expression of logistics performances. Besides logistics costs is needed to know logistics performances equivalent herewith at a cost of, therefore from the control side have for enterprise bigger value indices expressive correlation costs and performances(e.g. share of logistics unit costs performance.At the proposal and evidence of logistics costs and performances is needed consistently entertain an individual conditions of enterprise. Because the area of processes included strongly affects the size of account logistics costs and its share part in total costs of enterprise. Logistics costs are flow line between economy and logistics of the enterprise.

  6. Economic evaluation of laparoscopic and open inguinal herniorrhaphies: the effect of cost-containment measures and internal hospital policy decisions on costs and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajanchee, Y S; Kenyon, T A G; Hansen, P D; Swanström, L L

    2004-08-01

    Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repairs of inguinal hernias, despite having a favorable clinical outcome are often criticized due to higher costs and charges associated with this approach. We, therefore, present a comparison of direct costs and charges between TEP and open tension-free (OPN) repairs, emphasizing the effect of cost-containment measures on the part of surgeons and the hospital's charging (rate-setting) policies on these measurements. Itemized direct costs, charges, and reimbursements were determined for 41 TEP and 44 OPN unilateral repairs done between January 1997 and December 1999. Multiple sensitivity analyses were done to evaluate the effect of cost-containment measures and the hospital's rate-setting policies on the differences in costs and charges between the two procedures. The hospital's profits were expressed as profit-cost ratios. The mean direct cost for a TEP repair was $128.58 more than the OPN repair ($795.07[+/-65] vs 666.49 [+/-52]). However, mean charges and hospital reimbursement were $2,139.80 and $1,679.87, respectively, more for the TEP repairs. The profit-cost ratio was significantly higher in the TEP group (2.85:1 vs 1.07:1, Pcontainment measures. Forty-five percent of the difference in charges was due to the hospital's nonuniform rate-setting policies. Long-term follow-up (38 months) showed no recurrence for either procedure. The direct cost of TEP repairs with the minimal use of disposable instruments in a high-volume center is comparable to the OPN repair. However, due to differences in the hospital's charging policies, TEP repair would appear to be an expensive alternative from the payer's point of view.

  7. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  8. Two-stage repair in hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Haxhirexha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin. During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers.

  9. OPERATE BY EXPLOITATION AND TECHNOLOGY REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Radkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of establishing traffic control in the management of maintenance and repair of equipment, which will greatly facilitate the management of mobile repair facilities and improve the efficiency of their use, are considered.

  10. Outreach Materials for the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign offers outreach materials to help collision repair shops reduce toxic air exposure. Materials include a DVD, poster, training video, and materials in Spanish (materiales del outreach en español).

  11. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  12. Principles of cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Erggelet, Christoph; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage defects affect patients of all age groups. Surgeons, teamdoctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists alike are expected to provide adequate care. Only individual treatment plans combining a well balanced choice of various options will be successful. Background knowledge, operative and non-operative therapies are described in concise chapters: Articular cartilage biology - Diagnostics - Surgical techniques - Symptomatic and alternative medications - Physiotherapy. Diagnostic findings and surgical procedures are generously illustrated by aquarelles and colour photographs. Recommendations for additional reading, description of important clinical scoring systems and a listing of analytic tools are added for further information.

  13. 48 CFR 231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 231.205... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205 Selected costs. ...

  14. Histerectomia Laparoscópica em um Hospital Geral Comunitário Experiência Inicial e Comparação de Custos Hospitalares Laparoscopic Hysterectomy in a Community General Hospital Initial Experience and Comparison of Hospital Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal Henrique de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar os custos hospitalares entre a histerectomia vaginal assistida por laparoscopia (HVAL e a histerectomia total abdominal (HTA, relatando a experiência inicial com a nova abordagem em um hospital geral comunitário. Pacientes e Métodos: foram comparados 11 casos de HVAL e 23 de HTA, realizados de setembro de 1998 a julho de 1999. Prontuários e demonstrativos das despesas hospitalares de cada paciente foram revistos para coletar as variáveis analisadas. Resultados: não houve diferença estat��stica entre os grupos quanto à idade, paridade e cirurgia abdominal prévia. A principal indicação cirúrgica para ambos os grupos foi leiomiomatose uterina. O grupo das HVAL apresentou tempo de internação menor, com mediana de 1 dia e o das HTA, de 2 dias (pPurpose: to compare hospital costs between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH and total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH, reporting the initial experience with the new approach in a communitary general hospital. Patients and Methods: eleven cases of LAVH and 23 of TAH, carried out from September 1998 to July 1999, were compared. Each patient's records and hospital charges were reviewed to collect the analyzed variables. Results: there was no statistical difference between the groups in relation to age, parity, and previous abdominal surgery. The main surgical indication for both groups was uterine leiomyomatosis. The LAVH group presented a shorter hospital stay with a median of one day, and the TAH group, of two days (p<0.01. LAVH showed to be 40.2% more expensive than TAH (p<0.01. Operating room charges contributed to the major part of hospital costs for both groups, corresponding to 79.8 and 57.9% of the total, for LAVH and TAH, respectively. LAVH infirmary charges were smaller than for TAH, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002. Conclusion: with shorter hospital stay and smaller infirmary costs, we demonstrated that LAVH provides better

  15. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone triage of patients requesting same day consultations in general practice: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing nurse-led and GP-led management systems (ESTEEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen an increase in primary care workload, especially following the introduction of a new General Medical Services contract in 2004. Telephone triage and telephone consultation with patients seeking health care represent initiatives aimed at improving access to care. Some evidence suggests that such approaches may be feasible but conclusions regarding GP workload, cost, and patients’ experience of care, safety, and health status are equivocal. The ESTEEM trial aims to assess the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of nurse-led computer-supported telephone triage and GP-led telephone triage, compared to usual care, for patients requesting same-day consultations in general practice. Methods/design ESTEEM is a pragmatic, multi-centre cluster randomised clinical trial with patients randomised at practice level to usual care, computer decision-supported nurse triage, or GP-led triage. Following triage of 350–550 patients per practice we anticipate estimating and comparing total primary care workload (volume and time), the economic cost to the NHS, and patient experience of care, safety, and health status in the 4-week period following the index same-day consultation request across the three trial conditions. We will recruit all patients seeking a non-emergency same-day appointment in primary care. Patients aged 12.0–15.9 years and temporary residents will be excluded from the study. The primary outcome is the number of healthcare contacts taking place in the 4-week period following (and including) the index same-day consultation request. A range of secondary outcomes will be examined including patient flow, primary care NHS resource use, patients’ experience of care, safety, and health status. The estimated sample size required is 3,751 patients (11,253 total) in each of the three trial conditions, to detect a mean difference of 0.36 consultations per patient in the four week follow-up period between either intervention group and usual

  16. Regression Models for Repairable Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-972 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Reliability analysis * Repair models * Regression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/novak-0450902.pdf

  17. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  18. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  19. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  20. Molecular biological mechanisms I. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cells of all living systems possess a variety of mechanisms that allow to repair spontaneous and exogeneously induced DNA damage. DNA repair deficiencies may invoke enhanced sensitivity towards DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation. They may also enhance the risk of cancer development, both spontaneously or after induction. This article reviews several DNA repair mechanisms, especially those dealing with DNA double-strand breaks, and describes hereditary diseases associated with DNA repair defects. (orig.) [de

  1. Recent advances in DNA repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, L A; Jones, N J

    1998-09-11

    The subjects of the talks at this 1-day DNA Repair Network meeting, held at City University, London on December 15, 1997, encompassed a range of topics and reflected some of the current areas of research in the United Kingdom. Topics included DNA double-strand break repair, V(D)J recombination, DNA ligases, the RecQ family of helicases and Bloom's syndrome, UVB and immunosuppression, the repair of oxidative damage and mismatch repair mechanisms.

  2. VARIANT FOR CONSTRUCTION, REPAIR OR RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century moral depreciation concept comprises not only deterioration of outside appearance of construction elements in the course of time but accelerated fashion changes in respect of interior design and rapid increase in technical level for residence buildings. For this reason if average rate of building dilapidation in the buildings of series 1–335, 1–335А and 1–464А constructed in Minsk within the period of 1957–1975 and being operated till 2005–2006 has constituted 25–29 % and their moral depreciation has been equal to more than 40 % then rate of the moral depreciation has significantly increased in the XXI century. Such situation requires execution of special investigations. High operating rates of refinancing have led to the necessity for record keeping of initial expenses and repairability levels because selection of building construction, repair or reconstruction variant depends on these parameters. Repairability classification of main elements of residence buildings and premises has been proposed for regulation of such selection procedure. In this case it is recommended to take into account technological effectiveness of repair and technical service, verifiability, accessibility, easy dismountability, substitutability and interchangeability of construction elements and technical devices. The paper presents nomograms that permit to make easier practical calculations on determination of cost-efficient time period for operation of the element prior to its substitution at various refinancing rates and also for comparison of relative initial expenses according to time service. 

  3. Health Care Technology Assessment. Hearing Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examination of the Health Cost Containment Issue: Health Technology Assessment; General Cost Containment Strategies; and Cost Implications of Defensive Medicine and Medical Malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This committee hearing was held to consider factors in federal suport of health care services, including the roles of professional organizations, insurance companies, and hospitals. The process of evaluating whether the use of medical technology, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic procedures are cost-effective and beneficial is identified as…

  4. Effect of day-case unilateral cochlear implantation in adults on general and disease-specific quality of life, postoperative complications and hearing results, tinnitus, vertigo and cost-effectiveness: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Laura S M; Wegner, Inge; Smit, Adriana L; Thomeer, Hans G X M; Topsakal, Vedat; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-10-03

    Cochlear implantation is an increasingly common procedure in the treatment of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children and adults. It is often performed as a day-case procedure. The major drive towards day-case surgery has been from a logistical, economical and societal perspective, but we also speculate that the patient's quality of life (QoL) is at least equal to inpatient surgery if not increased as a result of rapid discharge and rehabilitation. Even though cochlear implantation seems well suited to a day-case approach and this even seems to be common practice in some countries, evidence is scarce and of low quality to guide us towards the preferred treatment option. A single-centre, non-blinded, randomised, controlled trial was designed to (primarily) investigate the effect on general QoL of day-case cochlear implantation compared to inpatient cochlear implantation and (secondarily) the effect of both methods on (subjective) hearing improvement, disease-specific QoL, tinnitus, vertigo and cost-effectiveness. 30 adult patients with severe to profound bilateral postlingual SNHL who are eligible for unilateral cochlear implantation will be randomly assigned to either the day-case or inpatient treatment group. The outcome measures will be assessed using auditory evaluations, questionnaires (preoperatively, at 1-week, 3-week, 3-month and 1-year follow-up) and costs diaries (weekly during the first month postoperatively, after which once in a month until 1-year follow-up). Preoperative and postoperative outcomes will be compared. The difference in costs and benefit will be represented using the incremental cost utility/effectiveness ratio. The analyses will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. This research protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the UMC Utrecht (NL45590.041.13; V.5, November 2015). The trial results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at scientific

  5. Optimal fund assignment and allocation models for pipe repair maintenance in leaky water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen Luong; Fujiwara, Okitsugu; Luong, Huynh Trung

    2000-05-01

    In pipe repair maintenance operations for leaky water distribution networks in cities, it is usually the practice that whenever pipe leaks are detected, repair actions are undertaken until the funds assigned are exhausted. The allocation of limited repair funds to different pipe sections is normally done without careful quantitative analysis but according to an intuitive rule, whereby the section of the larger leak volume receives the larger share of funds. This paper proposes a new modeling approach to determine optimal repair fund allocation to different sections of a city. A basic periodic-review stochastic demand inventory model is first applied to ascertain the optimal funds to be assigned to a city under an assumption of no fund limitation. The model is then extended to determine the optimal allocation of the limited funds to different sections of a city. The models minimize the expected total system cost composed of repair cost, storage cost (of spare parts and materials), and penalty cost for water loss due to lack of funds. Numerical experiments are then conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed models, and the characteristics of the optimal solutions with regard to parameter variations are investigated. Data used in the numerical example are taken from actual data of the secondary network of Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam.

  6. USING THE OUTSOURCING MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE IN METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the work is to study the outsourcing mechanism from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of repair and maintenance at a metallurgical enterprise. Method Analysis of the experience of using outsourcing of repair services at domestic and foreign metallurgical enterprises was carried out. Analysis of the experience of the withdrawal from enterprise repair services into a separate outsourcing company has shown that the main advantages of this method of organising repair activities are an increase in the transparency of the costs of repairs and maintenance, and hence their reduction, as well as a reduction in the amount of equipment downtime. The main characteristics of outsourcing were revealed, substantiating its expediency. The restructuring of the repair system provides a step-by-step transition from decentralised to centralised structures of technical, mechanical, power and electrical repair services of enterprises, from the principle of "self-service" to the principle of "proprietary service" by isolating the subdivisions of the repair system from the structure of enterprises and creating competing members of the repair services market. Put another way, this is typified by moving away from the status of auxiliary production to a selfdependent activity. The stages of outsourcing the repair services of the enterprise are considered and possible problems that may arise in the course of the work of a working group are established to determine the suitability of outsourcing and to resolve the numerous issues arising from the transfer of repair functions. Results The findings of the research include approaches developed for overcoming risky situations: providing guarantees from the customer and the contractor and indicating them in the contract, increasing the motivation of the outsourcing company through a key performance indicator that should increase the interest of the performer in providing quality

  7. Use of Drosophila to study DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.B.; Harris, P.V.; Sakaguchi, K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses Drosophila, the premier metazoan organism for analyzing many fundamental features of eukaryotic gene regulation. The authors present adaptations of several approaches for studying DNA repair to an analysis of repair-defective mutants in Drosophila. A current understanding of Drosophila DNA repair is described

  8. Rapid Set Materials for Advanced Spall Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and the coefficient of thermal expansion . pavement, spall repair, airfield damage repair...ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS ACI American Concrete Institute AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory ASR alkali-silica reaction ASTM American...3 3.2. Concrete Repair Materials

  9. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair...

  10. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....

  11. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair h...

  12. Reliable concrete repair : A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of achieving durable and long-term predictable repair of reinforced concrete structures. The performance of concrete repair in past and current engineering practice, including all types of repair and application of different materials, is often unsatisfactory.

  13. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  14. Open-source implementation of an ad-hoc IEEE802.11a/g/p software-defined radio on low-power and low-cost general purpose processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ciccia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a low-cost and low-power software-defined radio open-source platform with IEEE 802.11 a/g/p wireless communication capability. A state-of-the-art version of the IEEE 802.11 a/g/p software for GNU Radio (a free and open-source software development framework is available online, but we show here that its computational complexity prevents operations in low-power general purpose processors, even at throughputs below the standard. We therefore propose an evolution of this software that achieves a faster and lighter IEEE 802.11 a/g/p transmitter and receiver, suitable for low-power general purpose processors, for which GNU Radio provides very limited support; we discuss and describe the software radio processing structuring that is necessary to achieve the goal, providing a review of signal processing techniques. In particular, we emphasize the advanced reduced-instruction set (RISC machine (ARM study case, for which we also optimize some of the processing libraries. The presented software will remain open-source.

  15. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA, it ...... co-import appears to be a mechanism employed by the composite repair systems NER and MMR to enhance and regulate nuclear accumulation of repair proteins thereby ensuring faithful DNA repair....

  16. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  17. Our Experience with the Use of Low Cost Mesh in Tension-Free Inguinal Hernioplasty in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenli, Edwin M T; Abanga, John; Tabiri, Stephen; Kpangkpari, Steve; Tigwii, Aubrey; Nsor, Azare; Amesiya, Robert; Ekremet, Kwame; Abantanga, Francis A

    2017-06-01

    To describe our experience and success in the use of low cost mesh for the repair of inguinal hernias in consenting adult patients. A prospective study was carried out from August 2010 to December 2013 in ten district hospitals across Northern Ghana. The patients were divided into four groups according to Kingsnorth's classification of hernias. Low cost mesh was used to repair uncomplicated groin hernia. Those hernias associated with complications were excluded. We assessed the patients for wound infection, long term incisional pain and recurrence of hernia. The data collected was entered, cleaned, validated and analyzed. One hundred and eighty-four patients had tension-free repair of their inguinal hernias using non-insecticide impregnated mosquito net mesh. The median age of the patients was 51 years. The male to female ratio was 7:1. Using Kingsnorth's classification, H3 hernias were (62, 33.7%), followed by the H1 group (56, 30.4%). Local anaesthesia was used in 70% and less than 5% had general anaesthesia. The cost of low cost mesh to each patient was calculated to be $ 1.8(GH¢7.2) vs $ 45(GH¢ 180) for commercial mesh of same size. The benefit to the patient and the facility was enormous. Wound hematoma was noticed in 7% while superficial surgical site infection was 3%. No patient reported of long term wound pain. There was no recurrence of hernia. Low cost mesh such as sterilized mosquito net mesh for use in hernioplasty in resource-limited settings is reasonable, acceptable and cost-effective, it should be widely propagated. None declared.

  18. Advanced repair solution of clear defects on HTPSM by using nanomachining tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Munsik; Jung, Hoyong; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-10-01

    As the mask specifications become tighter for low k1 lithography, more aggressive repair accuracy is required below sub 20nm tech. node. To meet tight defect specifications, many maskshops select effective repair tools according to defect types. Normally, pattern defects are repaired by the e-beam repair tool and soft defects such as particles are repaired by the nanomachining tool. It is difficult for an e-beam repair tool to remove particle defects because it uses chemical reaction between gas and electron, and a nanomachining tool, which uses physical reaction between a nano-tip and defects, cannot be applied for repairing clear defects. Generally, film deposition process is widely used for repairing clear defects. However, the deposited film has weak cleaning durability, so it is easily removed by accumulated cleaning process. Although the deposited film is strongly attached on MoSiN(or Qz) film, the adhesive strength between deposited Cr film and MoSiN(or Qz) film becomes weaker and weaker by the accumulated energy when masks are exposed in a scanner tool due to the different coefficient of thermal expansion of each materials. Therefore, whenever a re-pellicle process is needed to a mask, all deposited repair points have to be confirmed whether those deposition film are damaged or not. And if a deposition point is damaged, repair process is needed again. This process causes longer and more complex process. In this paper, the basic theory and the principle are introduced to recover clear defects by using nanomachining tool, and the evaluated results are reviewed at dense line (L/S) patterns and contact hole (C/H) patterns. Also, the results using a nanomachining were compared with those using an e-beam repair tool, including the cleaning durability evaluated by the accumulated cleaning process. Besides, we discuss the phase shift issue and the solution about the image placement error caused by phase error.

  19. Mechanisms of DNA repair and radio-induced mutagenesis in higher eukaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbeck, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes possess several very efficient systems for the repair of radiation-induced lesions in DNA. Different strategies have been adopted at the cellular level to remove or even tolerate various types of lesions in order to assure survival and limit the mutagenic consequences. In mammalian cells, the main DNA repair systems comprise direct reversion of damage, excision of damage and exchange mechanisms with intact DNA. Among these, the direct ligation of single strand breaks (SSB) by a DNA ligase and the multi-enzymatic repair systems of mismatch repair, base and nucleotide excision repair as well as the repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination or non homologous end-joining are the most important systems. Most of these processes are error-free except the non homologous end-joining pathway used for the repair of DSB. Moreover, certain lesions can be tolerated by more or less accurately acting polymerases capable of performing trans-lesion DNA syntheses. The DNA repair systems are intimately integrated in the network of cellular regulation. Some of their components are DNA damage inducible. Radiation-induced mutagenesis is largely due to unrepaired DNA damage but also involves error-prone repair processes like the repair of DSB by non-homologous end-joining. Generally, mammalian cells are well prepared to repair radiation-induced lesions. However, some questions remain to be asked about mechanistic details and efficiencies of the systems for removing certain types of radiation-damage and about their order and timing of action. The answers to these questions would be important for radioprotection as well as radiotherapy. (author)

  20. 78 FR 71558 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... information on the damage susceptibility of vehicles when they have visited dealerships? c. Have there been... method for reporting simple and understandable motor vehicle damage susceptibility information to... and repair of crash damage, the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings (MVICS) Act, Public Law 92...

  1. When is cartilage repair successful?; Wann ist eine Knorpelreparatur erfolgreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-MR, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Schreiner, M.M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie fokaler Knorpelschaeden ist weiterhin eine klinische Herausforderung. Nach erfolgter Sanierung gilt es daher besonders, Erfolg und Misserfolg zu evaluieren und den Verlauf standardisiert und somit reproduzierbar zu beurteilen. Dieser Artikel bietet einen Ueberblick ueber gaengige Reparaturverfahren und deren Charakteristika in der Magnetresonanztomographie. Nach einer erfolgreichen Knorpelreparatur ist eine vollstaendige, aber nicht hypertrophe Fuellung des Knorpeldefekts das primaere Kriterium. Zum umgebenden Nativknorpel ist ausserdem eine durchgehende Integration des Transplantats vordergruendig. Im weiteren postoperativen Verlauf sollte das Transplantat ausserdem ein im Vergleich zu nativem Knorpel isointenses Signalverhalten zeigen. Haeufig beobachtete Komplikationen sind zentrale Osteophyten, subchondrale Defekte, Zysten, chronifizierte Knochenmarksoedeme, Gelenkserguesse oder Adhaesionen. Die radiologische Beurteilung dieser

  2. The contemporary role of 1 vs. 2-stage repair for proximal hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dason, Shawn; Wong, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the most commonly employed techniques in the repair of proximal hypospadias, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of single versus staged surgical techniques. Hypospadias can have a spectrum of severity with a urethral meatus ranging from the perineum to the glans. Associated abnormalities are commonly found with proximal hypospadias and encompass a large spectrum, including ventral curvature (VC) up to 50 degrees or more, ventral skin deficiency, a flattened glans, penile torsion and penoscrotal transposition. Our contemporary understanding of hypospadiology is comprised of a foundation built by experts who have described a number of techniques and their outcomes, combined with survey data detailing practice patterns. The two largest components of hypospadias repair include repair of VC and urethroplasty. VC greater than 20 degrees is considered clinically relevant to warrant surgical correction. To repair VC, the penis is first degloved—a procedure that may reduce or remove curvature by itself in some cases. Residual curvature is then repaired with dorsal plication techniques, transection of the urethral plate, and/or ventral lengthening techniques. Urethroplasty takes the form of 1- or 2-stage repairs. One-stage options include the tubularized incised urethroplasty (TIP) or various graft or flap-based techniques. Two-stage options also include grafts or flaps, including oral mucosal and preputial skin grafting. One stage repairs are an attractive option in that they may reduce cost, hospital stay, anesthetic risks, and time to the final result. The downside is that these repairs require mastery of multiple techniques may be more complex, and—depending on technique—have higher complication rates. Two-stage repairs are preferred by the majority of surveyed hypospadiologists. The 2-stage repair is versatile and has satisfactory outcomes, but necessitates a second procedure. Given the lack of clear high-quality evidence

  3. Operating cost reduction by optimization of I and C backfitting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Heinz-U.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant requires a large scope of automation systems to act properly in combination. The associated maintenance costs, necessary to test these systems periodically and to repair or to replace them partly or completely, are one important factor in the overall operating costs of a nuclear power plant. Reducing these costs by reducing the maintenance effort could decrease the availability of the power plant and by this way increase the operating costs significantly. The minimization of the overall operating costs requires a well-balanced maintenance strategy taking into account all these opposite influences. The replacement of an existing I and C system by a new one reduces the maintenance cost in the long term and increases the plant availability. However, it requires some investments in the short term. On the other hand the repair of an I and C system avoids investments, but it doesn't solve the aging problems. That means maintenance costs will increase in the long term and the plant availability could be decreased. An optimized maintenance strategy can be elaborated on a plant specific base taking into account the residual lifetime of the plant, the properties of the installed I and C systems as well as their influence on the plant availability. As a general result of such an optimization performed by FANP it has been found as a rule that the replacement of I and C systems becomes the most economic way the longer the expected lifetime is and the stronger the I and C system influences, the availability of the plant. (author)

  4. Safety, efficacy, and cost of surgery for patients with unruptured aneurysms deemed unsuitable for endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Christian; Sacho, Raphael Hillel; Tymianski, Rachel; Radovanovic, Ivan; Tymianski, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Open surgery is a frequent option given to patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) unsuitable for endovascular repair. Since the risk of rupture of UIAs is generally low, we determined whether the risks and costs of surgery in this patient subset are warranted. The safety, efficacy, and costs of minimally invasive surgery by minicraniotomy were evaluated in 102 consecutive patients with anterior circulation UIAs deemed unsuitable for endovascular repair by an interdisciplinary conference of surgeons and neurointerventionalists. Data from 107 UIA patients treated by endovascular means in the same period were used as the standard. Surgical patients comprised a different subset of aneurysms, with more MCA and fewer paraophthalmic aneurysms (54 vs. 6, p < 0.0001 and 4 vs. 60, p < 0.0001, for minicraniotomy and endovascular, respectively). However, surgery incurred shorter anesthesia time (197.7 vs. 149.3 min, p < 0.0001), higher rates of complete aneurysm obliteration (94.57 vs. 66.67 %, p < 0.0001), and lower overall hospital costs ($8,287 CAD vs. $17,732 CAD, p < 0.0001) than the endovascular cohort. There were no treatment-related surgical deaths, but one patient had an mRS of 3 after 6 months due to temporal lobe epilepsy and memory problems. This compared favorably with the endovascular cohort in which two patients died due to treatment (mRS = 6) and one suffered a severe stroke (mRS = 5 at 6 months). For patients counseled to undergo treatment but have UIAs unsuitable for endovascular repair, surgery is safe, effective, and cost-efficient.

  5. DNA damage and repair mechanism. [DNA damage and repair mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The ability of cells to survive in an environment specifically damaging to its DNA can be attributed to a variety of inherent repair mechanisms. This is a form of repair in which alterations are directly reversed to their original form. This reversibility is exemplified by the photoreactivation of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers. This phenomenon is attributable to the action of an enzyme, photolyase (photoreactivating enzyme), which is able to monomerize the uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in the presence of 320 to 370 nm light. Dilution of damage can be effected through a series of sister chromatid exchanges, controlled by recombinational mechanisms as a postreplication event. In this form of repair, replication proceeds to the point of damage, stops and resumes at the point of the next initiation site resulting in a gap in the newly synthesized daughter strand. It is presumed that those strands containing damaged regions exchange with undamaged regions of other DNA, strands, resulting in the eventual dilution of such damage.

  6. Draft environmental statement related to steam generator repair at H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2, (Docket No. 50-261)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The staff has considered the environmental impacts and economic costs of the proposed steam generator repair at the H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2 along with reasonable alternatives to the proposed action. The staff has concluded that the proposed repair will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and that there are no preferable alternatives to the proposed action. Furthermore, any impacts from the repair program are outweighted by its benefits

  7. Draft environmental statement related to steam-generator repair at Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-266

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The staff has considered the environmental impacts and economic costs of the proposed steam generator repair at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant Unit No. 1 along with reasonable alternatives to the proposed action. The staff has concluded that the proposed repair will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and that there are no preferable alternatives to the proposed action. Furthermore, any impacts from the repair program are outweighed by its benefits

  8. Final environmental statement related to steam-generator repair at Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-266)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The staff hhas considered the environental impacts and economic costs of the proposed steam generator repair at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 1 along with reasonable alternatives to the proposed action. The staff has concluded that the proposed repair will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and that there are no preferable alternatives to the proposed action. Furthermore, any impacts from the repair program are outweighed by its benefits

  9. Applying Best Practices to Military Commercial-Derivative Aircraft Engine Sustainment: Assessment of Using Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) Parts and Designated Engineering Representative (DER) Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    costs. Th e 12 Th e DLA Management Information System records all parts received and issued from a DLA distribution center . Th rough codes, we can...Parts and Repairs 47 DER repair parts lists from private-sector companies. We then ana- lyzed DLA distribution center data for quantities of NIINs... ISO 9001 :2000 and/ or AS9100 certification, if any 100 Using PMA Parts and DER Repairs Tables F.1 and F.2 described SAR documentation requirements

  10. 24 CFR 583.135 - Administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 583.135... Administrative costs. (a) General. Up to five percent of any grant awarded under this part may be used for the purpose of paying costs of administering the assistance. (b) Administrative costs. Administrative costs...

  11. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8)) ...

  12. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost. 908.108 Section 908.108..., RENTAL VOUCHER, AND MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS § 908.108 Cost. (a) General. The costs of the... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost of...

  13. A Bayesian perspective on age replacement with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Yeh, R.H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Juang, M.-G.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian approach is developed for determining an optimal age replacement policy with minimal repair. By incorporating minimal repair, planned replacement, and unplanned replacement, the mathematical formulas of the expected cost per unit time are obtained for two cases - the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that there exists a unique and finite optimal age for replacement under some reasonable conditions. When the failure density is Weibull with uncertain parameters, a Bayesian approach is established to formally express and update the uncertain parameters for determining an optimal age replacement policy. Further, various special cases are discussed in detail. Finally, a numerical example is given

  14. Defining the Costs of Reusable Flexible Ureteroscope Reprocessing Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Dylan; Ahmad, Tessnim; Metzler, Ian; Tzou, David T; Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Zetumer, Samuel; Sherer, Benjamin; Stoller, Marshall; Chi, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures. Estimated times needed for each step by which damaged ureteroscopes identified during reprocessing are sent for repair were characterized through interviews with purchasing analyst staff. Process maps were created for reprocessing and repair detailing individual step times and their variances. Cost data for labor and disposables used were applied to calculate per minute and average step costs. Ten ureteroscopes were followed through reprocessing. Process mapping for ureteroscope reprocessing averaged 229.0 ± 74.4 minutes, whereas sending a ureteroscope for repair required an estimated 143 minutes per repair. Most steps demonstrated low variance between timed observations. Ureteroscope drying was the longest and highest variance step at 126.5 ± 55.7 minutes and was highly dependent on manual air flushing through the ureteroscope working channel and ureteroscope positioning in the drying cabinet. Total costs for reprocessing totaled $96.13 per episode, including the cost of labor and disposable items. Utilizing TDABC delineates the full spectrum of costs associated with ureteroscope reprocessing and identifies areas for process improvement to drive value-based care. At our institution, ureteroscope drying was one clearly identified target area. Implementing training in ureteroscope drying technique could save up to 2 hours per reprocessing event, potentially preventing expensive OR delays.

  15. Sutureless repair of inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A I

    1992-03-01

    Sutureless repair is successful for all but the largest of indirect inguinal hernias. After reduction of the peritoneal sac, the presenting indirect component of the hernia is immediately resolved by placement of a polypropylene mesh through the internal ring. The posterior wall is reinforced with a second swatch of Prolene mesh to prevent herniation, which often results from future degenerative changes. Both swatches of mesh are held in place in separate tissue planes by the body's internal hydrostatic forces. Being sutureless, no tension is placed on any layer; there is no damage to tissues from an errant suturing technique. This procedure has been used in 412 of the 1,091 inguinal hernia repairs over the past 36 months.

  16. Robotic-Assisted Simultaneous Repair of Paraesophageal Hernia and Morgagni Hernia: Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shawn S; Carton, Melissa M; Ghaderi, Iman; Galvani, Carlos A

    2017-12-13

    Morgagni hernias are a rare form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, accounting for 2%-3% of cases. The presence of a simultaneous Morgagni hernia and paraesophageal hernia (PEH) is even more rare, with only a few reported cases in the surgical literature. Both open and laparoscopic surgical approaches have been previously described. Herein we discuss a robotic-assisted surgical approach to the repair of simultaneous Morgagni hernia and PEH in a 65-year-old woman. Simultaneous repair of Morgagni hernia and PEH is indicated mainly when symptoms are generally indistinctive. The use of robotic technology allowed for both hernias to be repaired both primarily and with mesh reinforcement.

  17. Quantitation of DNA repair in brain cell cultures: implications for autoradiographic analysis of mixed cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambergs, R.; Kidson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitation of DNA repair in the mixed cell population of mouse embryo brain cultures has been assessed by autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis following UV-irradiation. The proportion of labelled neurons and the grain density over neuronal nuclei were both less than the corresponding values for glial cells. The nuclear geometries of these two classes of cell are very different. Partial correction for the different geometries by relating grain density to nuclear area brought estimates of neuronal and glial DNA repair synthesis more closely in line. These findings have general implications for autoradiographic measurement of DNA repair in mixed cell populations and in differentiated versus dividing cells. (author)

  18. Bacterial radiosensitivity to gamma and ultraviolet. Compositional dependence and repair mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Angulo, R. M.; Davila, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gamma and ultraviolet radiosensitivity of several species of bacteria has been determined its dependence on DNAs composition and repair processes has been studied. Base composition are evaluated by chromatography, DNA melting temperature and isopycnic sedimentation on CsCl gradient. Repair capacity of gamma -and UV- lesions has been studied in two bacterial strains with same DMA base composition. It is concluded that the postulated correlation between radiosensitivity and base composition can not be generalized, the enzymatic repair mechanisms being of determining on radiosensitivity. (Author) 248 refs

  19. Long-term survival of repaired amalgams, recemented crowns and gold castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, Roger J; Hawthorne, Warwick S

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study compared the long-term survival rate of repaired versus replaced amalgam restorations and recemented crowns and gold castings versus non-recemented similar restorations. Private general dental practitioners treated adult subjects at three city practices. No significant survival differences were found between the repaired and replaced amalgams at five years, although the repaired amalgams showed higher failure rates by 10 years (p=0.37). However, there were significantly higher failures by five years for recemented crowns (pamalgams had survival rates of approximately 37 +/- 15 (SEr) percent, recemented crowns 28 +/- 15 (SEr) percent and recemented gold castings 42 +/- 17 (SEr) percent.

  20. Local anaesthesia as a risk factor for recurrence after groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H.; Bay-Nielsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature is inconclusive regarding the effect of local infiltration anaesthesia on the risk of recurrence after groin hernia repair. METHODS: Based upon the Danish Hernia Database, reoperations after a primary Lichtenstein mesh repair were assessed in 43,123 patients between 1998...... and 2005. Data were analysed in relation to type of inguinal hernia and whether repaired in public hospitals or by private hernia surgeons. RESULTS: The nationwide data showed no overall difference in reoperation rate (about 3.5% after five years), whether performed in local or general/regional anaesthesia....... Reoperation rates were about 50% higher when performed for a direct hernia than for an indirect hernia. The use of local anaesthesia was followed by higher reoperation rates compared with general or regional anaesthesia after repair of a direct but not an indirect hernia in hospitals. However, reoperation...