WorldWideScience

Sample records for generalized repairing cost

  1. A general approach to total repair cost limit replacement policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beichelt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A common replacement policy for technical systems consists in replacing a system by a new one after its economic lifetime, i.e. at that moment when its long-run maintenance cost rate is minimal. However, the strict application of the economic lifetime does not take into account the individual deviations of maintenance cost rates of single systems from the average cost development. Hence, Beichet proposed the total repair cost limit replacement policy: the system is replaced by a new one as soon as its total repair cost reaches or exceeds a given level. He modelled the repair cost development by functions of the Wiener process with drift. Here the same policy is considered under the assumption that the one-dimensional probability distribution of the process describing the repair cost development is given. In the examples analysed, applying the total repair cost limit replacement policy instead of the economic life-time leads to cost savings of between 4% and 30%. Finally, it is illustrated how to include the reliability aspect into the policy.

  2. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  3. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  4. VEHICLE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE COSTS IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standard model was established for the prediction of repair and maintenance costs of vehicles in a non-profit making government parastatal. The model was derived based on data collected over a ten year period from a non-profit making government parastatal, and it predicts repair and maintenance costs as a linear ...

  5. Financial implications of ventral hernia repair: a hospital cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Drew; Davenport, Daniel L; Korosec, Ryan L; Roth, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    Complicated ventral hernias are often referred to tertiary care centers. Hospital costs associated with these repairs include direct costs (mesh materials, supplies, and nonsurgeon labor costs) and indirect costs (facility fees, equipment depreciation, and unallocated labor). Operative supplies represent a significant component of direct costs, especially in an era of proprietary synthetic meshes and biologic grafts. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex abdominal wall hernia repair at a tertiary care referral facility. Cost data on all consecutive open ventral hernia repairs (CPT codes 49560, 49561, 49565, and 49566) performed between 1 July 2008 and 31 May 2011 were analyzed. Cases were analyzed based upon hospital status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and whether the hernia repair was a primary or secondary procedure. We examined median net revenue, direct costs, contribution margin, indirect costs, and net profit/loss. Among primary hernia repairs, cost data were further analyzed based upon mesh utilization (no mesh, synthetic, or biologic). Four-hundred and fifteen patients underwent ventral hernia repair (353 inpatients and 62 outpatients); 173 inpatients underwent ventral hernia repair as the primary procedure; 180 inpatients underwent hernia repair as a secondary procedure. Median net revenue ($17,310 vs. 10,360, p costs for cases performed without mesh were $5,432; median direct costs for those using synthetic and biologic mesh were $7,590 and 16,970, respectively (p financial loss was $8,370. Outpatient ventral hernia repairs, with and without synthetic mesh, resulted in median net losses of $1,560 and 230, respectively. Ventral hernia repair is associated with overall financial losses. Inpatient synthetic mesh repairs are essentially budget neutral. Outpatient and inpatient repairs without mesh result in net financial losses. Inpatient biologic mesh repairs result in a negative contribution margin and striking net financial losses. Cost

  6. Cost-effectiveness of open versus arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adla, Deepthi N; Rowsell, Mark; Pandey, Radhakant

    2010-03-01

    Economic evaluation of surgical procedures is necessary in view of more expensive newer techniques emerging in an increasingly cost-conscious health care environment. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of open rotator cuff repair with arthroscopic repair for moderately size tears. This was a prospective study of 30 consecutive patients, of whom 15 had an arthroscopic repair and 15 had an open procedure. Clinical effectiveness was assessed using Oxford and Constant shoulder scores. Costs were estimated from departmental and hospital financial data. At last follow-up, no difference Oxford and Constant shoulder scores was noted between the 2 methods of repair. There was no significant difference between the groups in the cost of time in the operating theater, inpatient time, amount of postoperative analgesia, number of postoperative outpatient visits, physiotherapy costs, and time off work. The incremental cost of each arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was pound675 ($1248.75) more than the open procedure. This was mainly in the area of direct health care costs, instrumentation in particular. Health care policy makers are increasingly demanding evidence of cost-effectiveness of a procedure. This study showed both methods of repair provide equivalent clinical results. Open cuff repair is more cost-effective than arthroscopic repair and is likely to have lower cost-utility ratio. In addition, the tariff for the arthroscopic procedure in some health care systems is same as open repair. Copyright 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  8. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first.

  9. Underwater coating repair cuts nuclear maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the cleaning and recoating/repair of condensate tanks or other vessels in a nuclear power plant. The topics of the article include the safety and regulatory need for this system of repair, a description of the work done on the Brown's Ferry MK-1 suppression chamber, coating failure mechanisms, qualitative inspection, quantitative inspection, quantitative inspection results, spot repairs, and economic considerations

  10. 7 CFR 58.214 - General construction, repair and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General construction, repair and installation. 58.214... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.214 General construction, repair and installation. All equipment and utensils necessary to the manufacture of dry milk products, including pasteurizer, timing-pump or device...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair, open repair, and conservative management of splenic artery aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Wouter; Lavida, Anthi; Hunink, M. G Myriam; Moll, Frans L.; Geroulakos, George; Muhs, Bart E.; Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Open repair (OPEN) and conservative management (CONS) have been the treatments of choice for splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) for many years. Endovascular repair (EV) has been increasingly used with good short-term results. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of OPEN, EV, and

  12. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    Shock model; cumulative damage model; cumulative repair cost limit; preventive maintenance model. 1. Introduction ... with two types of shocks: one type is failure shock, and the other type is damage ...... Theory, methods and applications.

  13. BMCloud: Minimizing Repair Bandwidth and Maintenance Cost in Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect data in cloud storage, fault tolerance and efficient recovery become very important. Recent studies have developed numerous solutions based on erasure code techniques to solve this problem using functional repairs. However, there are two limitations to address. The first one is consistency since the Encoding Matrix (EM is different among clouds. The other one is repairing bandwidth, which is a concern for most of us. We addressed these two problems from both theoretical and practical perspectives. We developed BMCloud, a new low repair bandwidth, low maintenance cost cloud storage system, which aims to reduce repair bandwidth and maintenance cost. The system employs both functional repair and exact repair while it inherits advantages from the both. We propose the JUDGE_STYLE algorithm, which can judge whether the system should adopt exact repair or functional repair. We implemented a networked storage system prototype and demonstrated our findings. Compared with existing solutions, BMCloud can be used in engineering to save repair bandwidth and degrade maintenance significantly.

  14. A cost analysis of operative repair of major laparoscopic bile duct injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, S; Krige, J E J; Bornman, P C; Beningfield, S J

    2015-06-01

    Major bile duct injuries occur infrequently after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but may result in life-threatening complications. Few data exist on the financial implications of duct repair. This study calculated the costs of operative repair in a cohort of patients who underwent reconstruction of the bile duct after major ductal injury. To calculate the total in-hospital cost of surgical repair of patients referred with major bile duct injuries. A prospective database was reviewed to identify all patients referred to the University of Cape Town Private Academic Hospital, South Africa, between 2002 and 2013 for assessment and repair of major laparoscopic bile duct injuries. The detailed clinical records and billing information were evaluated to determine all costs from admission to discharge. Total costs for each patient were adjusted for inflation between the year of repair and 2013. Results. Forty-four patients (33 women, 11 men; median age 48 years, range 30 - 78) underwent reconstruction of a major bile duct injury. First-time repairs were performed at a median of 24.5 days (range 1 - 3,662) after initial surgery. Median hospital stay was 15 days (range 6 - 86). Mean cost of repair was ZAR215,711 (range ZAR68,764 - 980,830). Major contributors to cost were theatre expenses (22%), admission to intensive care (21%), radiology (17%) and specialist fees (12%). Admission to a general ward (10%), consumables (7%), pharmacy (5%), endoscopy (3%) and laboratory costs (3%) made up the balance. The cost of repair of a major laparoscopic bile duct injury is substantial owing to prolonged hospitalisation, complex surgicalintervention and intensive imaging requirements.

  15. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Curriculum Guide and Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document contains a curriculum guide and lesson plans for a general mechanical repair course with three sections: minor automotive maintenance, small engine repair, and welding. The curriculum guide begins with a matrix that relates the lesson plans to essential elements of math, science, language arts, and social studies and to Texas…

  16. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

  17. Revision Arthroscopic Repair Versus Latarjet Procedure in Patients With Recurrent Instability After Initial Repair Attempt: A Cost-Effectiveness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Lamba, Nayan; Swart, Eric; Steinhaus, Michael E; Ahmad, Christopher S; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-09-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic revision instability repair and Latarjet procedure in treating patients with recurrent instability after initial arthroscopic instability repair. An expected-value decision analysis of revision arthroscopic instability repair compared with Latarjet procedure for recurrent instability followed by failed repair attempt was modeled. Inputs regarding procedure cost, clinical outcomes, and health utilities were derived from the literature. Compared with revision arthroscopic repair, Latarjet was less expensive ($13,672 v $15,287) with improved clinical outcomes (43.78 v 36.76 quality-adjusted life-years). Both arthroscopic repair and Latarjet were cost-effective compared with nonoperative treatment (incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 3,082 and 1,141, respectively). Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that under scenarios of high rates of stability postoperatively, along with improved clinical outcome scores, revision arthroscopic repair becomes increasingly cost-effective. Latarjet procedure for failed instability repair is a cost-effective treatment option, with lower costs and improved clinical outcomes compared with revision arthroscopic instability repair. However, surgeons must still incorporate clinical judgment into treatment algorithm formation. Level IV, expected value decision analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Competency Test Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document contains the competency test package for three sections of a general mechanical repair course: minor automotive maintenance, small engine mechanics, and welding. Following a list of the common essential elements for trade and industrial education, competency tests for the three sections are provided. Each test includes unit name,…

  19. General Mechanical Repair 2. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a 1-year course in general mechanical repair as part of the trade and industrial education curriculum. The guide contains the following: (1) essential elements common to all trade and industrial courses; (2) an instructional delivery outline (teaching sequence) for the…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Emissions Reduction through Vehicle Repair Compared to CNG Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Paul L; Lesko, Jon M; Stedman, Donald H

    1996-10-01

    In return for a temporary waiver from converting five vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the Denver Clean Fuels program, the University of Denver identified, tested, repaired, and retested nine employee commuter vehicles. The results of the study validated the concept that employer-based identification and repair programs can be carried out in a cost-effective way. On average, each repaired vehicle removed fifty times more carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from Denver air than each CNG conversion. The average cost of each repair was eight times less than the average cost of each conversion. The average fuel economy benefit from the repairs was enough to pay for the average cost of repairs in less than three years of normal driving. When the expected lifetimes of repairs and conversions are included, the targeted repair program appears to be over sixty times more cost-effective as a CO emissions reduction strategy than CNG conversion.

  1. Cost analysis of robotic versus laparoscopic general surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Rana M; Frelich, Matthew J; Bosler, Matthew E; Gould, Jon C

    2017-01-01

    Robotic surgical systems have been used at a rapidly increasing rate in general surgery. Many of these procedures have been performed laparoscopically for years. In a surgical encounter, a significant portion of the total costs is associated with consumable supplies. Our hospital system has invested in a software program that can track the costs of consumable surgical supplies. We sought to determine the differences in cost of consumables with elective laparoscopic and robotic procedures for our health care organization. De-identified procedural cost and equipment utilization data were collected from the Surgical Profitability Compass Procedure Cost Manager System (The Advisory Board Company, Washington, DC) for our health care system for laparoscopic and robotic cholecystectomy, fundoplication, and inguinal hernia between the years 2013 and 2015. Outcomes were length of stay, case duration, and supply cost. Statistical analysis was performed using a t-test for continuous variables, and statistical significance was defined as p robotic procedures. Length of stay did not differ for fundoplication or cholecystectomy. Length of stay was greater for robotic inguinal hernia repair. Case duration was similar for cholecystectomy (84.3 robotic and 75.5 min laparoscopic, p = 0.08), but significantly longer for robotic fundoplication (197.2 robotic and 162.1 min laparoscopic, p = 0.01) and inguinal hernia repair (124.0 robotic and 84.4 min laparoscopic, p = ≪0.01). We found a significantly increased cost of general surgery procedures for our health care system when cases commonly performed laparoscopically are instead performed robotically. Our analysis is limited by the fact that we only included costs associated with consumable surgical supplies. The initial acquisition cost (over $1 million for robotic surgical system), depreciation, and service contract for the robotic and laparoscopic systems were not included in this analysis.

  2. A Minimum Cost Flow model for Level of Repair Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2008-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be

  3. A minimum cost flow model for level of repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be

  4. Repair of Composites : Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassapoglou, C.; Rangelov, K.; Rangelov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or

  5. Costs and cost-effectiveness of pediatric inguinal hernia repair in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeson, Gareth; Birabwa-Male, Doreen; Pennington, Mark; Blair, Geoffrey K

    2015-02-01

    Surgically treatable diseases contribute approximately 11% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide yet they remain a neglected public health priority in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pediatric inguinal hernia is the most common congenital abnormality in newborns and a major cause of morbidity and mortality yet elective repair remains largely unavailable in LMICs. This study is aimed to determine the costs and cost-effectiveness of pediatric inguinal hernia repair (PIHR) in a low-resource setting. Medical costs of consecutive elective PIHRs were recorded prospectively at two centers in Uganda. Decision modeling was used to compare two different treatment scenarios (adoption of PIHR and non-adoption) from a provider perspective. A Markov model was constructed to estimate health outcomes under each scenario. The robustness of the cost-effectiveness results in the base case analysis was tested in one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The primary outcome of interest was cost per DALY averted by the intervention. Sixty-nine PIHRs were performed in 65 children (mean age 3.6 years). Mean cost per procedure was $86.68 US (95% CI 83.1-90.2 USD) and averted an average of 5.7 DALYs each. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $12.41 per DALY averted. The probability of cost-effectiveness was 95% at a cost-effectiveness threshold of $35 per averted DALY. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis under all considered scenarios. Elective PIHR is highly cost-effective for the treatment and prevention of complications of hernia disease even in low-resource settings. PIHR should be prioritized in LMICs alongside other cost-effective interventions.

  6. Repair of Composites: Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Rangelov, Konstantin; Rangelov, Svilen

    2017-08-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or wing panels under compression is analysed in detail and the fabrication cost of the panel made as a single piece or as an assembly of smaller identical components or modules is determined. The cost of special purpose repairs for two different damage sizes is compared to removing and replacing damaged modules. Hand layup and automated processing are compared. It is found that for certain repair sizes removing and replacing modules leads to lower overall cost as compared to applying a special purpose repair.

  7. Prediction of Combine Economic Life Based on Repair and Maintenance Costs Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Farm machinery managers often need to make complex economic decisions on machinery replacement. Repair and maintenance costs can have significant impacts on this economic decision. The farm manager must be able to predict farm machinery repair and maintenance costs. This study aimed to identify a regression model that can adequately represent the repair and maintenance costs in terms of machine age in cumulative hours of use. The regression model has the ability to predict the repair and maintenance costs for longer time periods. Therefore, it can be used for the estimation of the economic life. The study was conducted using field data collected from 11 John-Deer 955 combine harvesters used in several western provinces of Iran. It was found that power model has a better performance for the prediction of combine repair and maintenance costs. The results showed that the optimum replacement age of John-Deer 955 combine was 54300 cumulative hours.

  8. Reducing costs of repairable inventory supply systems via dynamic scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, H.G.H.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We study a system consisting of one repair shop and one stockpoint, where spare parts of multiple critical repairables are kept on stock to serve an installed base of technical systems. Part requests are met from stock if possible, and backordered otherwise. The objective is to minimize aggregate

  9. Maintenance & Repair Cost Calculation and Assessment of Resale Value for Different Alternative Commercial Vehicle Powertrain Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Florian; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2017-01-01

    For detailed evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership, expenditures for Maintenance & Repair as well as the resale value are important to consider and should not be neglected. However, information on Maintenance & Repair costs as well as residual values for commercial vehicles with alternative powertrains is missing and data on this issue is rare. There is a lack of information and consolidated knowledge. In order to enable a holistic cost assessment for commercial vehicles, a comprehensive ...

  10. Internal audit of costs on fixed assets repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Samchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the approaches to the process and methods of expenditure audit on repair and modernization of fixed assets and the author considers that there is no single approach to understanding the issue. The author improves the organizational and methodological support of internal audit of expenditures on the fixed assets repair and modernization that forms the accurate information for management repair and modernization of fixed assets. The paper specifies the goals and objectives of internal expenditures on repair and modernization of fixed assets, depending on the sources of such facilities to the company, allowing the author to determine the documentary control methods to be applied by an auditor to perform each task. The article determines the areas of risk components of internal control that can lead to ineffective implementation of authority by officials of an enterprise in the process of fixed assets repair, which can cause inefficient use of resources and, consequently, decrease in the efficiency of the work of fixed assets repair and modernization. The author proposes the list of auditor’s questions to assess the internal control system in the repair of fixed assets and these questions will help identify the significant drawbacks of control means.

  11. Decision making based on analysis of benefit versus costs of preventive retrofit versus costs of repair after earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2012-04-01

    dissipaters) to different amount and location in the building was considered. Device computations, a civil engineering method for building economics (and which was, before statistics existed, also the method for computing the costs of general upgrade of buildings), were done for the retrofit and for the repair measures, being able to be applied for different countries, also ones where there is no database on existing projects in seismic retrofit. The building elements for which the device computations were done are named "retrofit elements" and they can be new elements, modified elements or replaced elements of the initial building. The addition of the devices is simple, as the row in project management was, but, for the sake of comparison, also complex project management computed in other works was compared for innovative measures such as FRP (with glass and fibre). The theoretical costs for model measures were compared to the way costs of real retrofit for this building type (with reinforced concrete jacketing and FRP) are computed in Greece. The theoretical proposed measures were generally compared to those applied in practice, in Romania and Italy as well. A further study will include these, as in Italy diagonal braces with dissipation had been used. The typology of braces is relevant also for the local seismic culture, maybe outgoing for another type of skeleton structures the distribution of which has been studied: the timber skeleton. A subtype of Romanian reinforced concrete skeleton buildings includes diagonal braces. In order to assess the costs of rebuilding or general upgrade without retrofit, architecture methods for building economics are considered based on floor surface. Diagrams have been built to see how the total costs vary as addition between the preventive retrofit and the post-earthquake repair, and tables to compare to the costs of rebuilding, outgoing from a the model of addition of day-lighting in atria of buildings. The moment when a repair measure

  12. Repair and maintenance costs of 4WD tractors and self propelled combine harvesters in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Calcante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purchasing and maintaining tractors and operating machines are two of the most considerable costs of the agricultural sector, which includes farm equipment manufacturers, farm contractors and farms. In this context, repair and maintenance costs (R&M costs generally constitute 10-15% of the total costs related to agricultural equipment and tend to increase with the age of the equipment; hence, an important consideration in farm management is the optimal time for equipment replacement. Classical, R&M cost estimation models, calculated as a function of accumulated working hours, are usually developed by ASAE/ASABE for the United States operating conditions. However, R&M costs are strongly influenced by farming practices, operative conditions, crop and soil type, climatic conditions, etc. which can be specific for individual countries. In this study, R&M cost model parameters were recalculated for the current Italian situation. For this purpose, data related to the R&M costs of 100 4WD tractors with engine power ranging from 59 to 198 kW, and of 20 SP combine harvesters (10 straw walkers combines and 10 axial flow combines with engine power ranging from 159 to 368 kW working in Italy were collected. According to the model, which was obtained by interpolating the data through a two-parameter power function (proposed by ASAE/ASABE, the R&M cost incidence on the list price of Italian tractors at 12,000 working hours (estimated life of the machines was 48.6%, as compared with 43.2% calculated through the most recent U.S. model while, for self propelled combine harvesters, the R&M cost incidence at 3,000 working hours was 23.1 % as compared with 40.2% calculated through the same U.S. model.

  13. BMCloud: Minimizing Repair Bandwidth and Maintenance Cost in Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chao; Xie, Changsheng; Wan, Jiguang; Hung, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Jinjiang; Lan, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    To protect data in cloud storage, fault tolerance and efficient recovery become very important. Recent studies have developed numerous solutions based on erasure code techniques to solve this problem using functional repairs. However, there are two limitations to address. The first one is consistency since the Encoding Matrix (EM) is different among clouds. The other one is repairing bandwidth, which is a concern for most of us. We addressed these two problems from both theoretical and practi...

  14. The effect of repair costs on the profitability of a ureteroscopy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ludwig, Wesley; Sopko, Nikolai; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Matlaga, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    Ureteroscopy (URS) is a common treatment for patients with stone disease. One of the disadvantages of this approach is the great capital expense associated with the purchase and repair of endoscopic equipment. In some cases, these costs can outpace revenues and lead to an unprofitable and unsustainable enterprise. We sought to characterize the profitability of our URS program when accounting for endoscope maintenance and repair costs. We identified all URS cases performed at a single hospital during fiscal year 2013 (FY2013). Charges, collection rates, and fixed and variable costs including annual equipment repair costs were obtained. The net margin and break-even point of URS were derived on a per-case basis. For 190 cases performed in FY2013, total endoscope repair costs totaled $115,000, resulting in an average repair cost of $605 per case. The vast majority of cases (94.2%) were conducted in the outpatient setting, which generated a net margin of $659 per case, while inpatient cases yielded a net loss of $455. URS was ultimately associated with a net positive margin approaching $600 per case. On break-even analysis, URS remained profitable until repair costs reached $1200 per case. Based on these findings, an established URS program can sustain profitability even with large equipment repair costs. Nonetheless, our findings serve to emphasize the importance of controlling costs, particularly in the current setting of decreasing reimbursement. A multifaceted approach, based on improving endoscope durability and exploring digital and disposable platforms, will be critical in maintaining the sustainability of URS.

  15. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures: counterbalancing the benefits with the costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Bessias, Nikolaos; Giannoukas, Athanasios D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2010-05-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) is associated with lower 30-day mortality rates compared with open repair. Despite that, there are no significant differences in mortality rates between the two procedures at 2 years. On the other hand, EVAR is associated with considerably higher costs compared with open repair. The lack of significant long-term differences between the two procedures together with the substantially higher cost of EVAR may question the appropriateness of EVAR as an alternative to open surgical repair in patients fit for surgery. With several thousands of AAA procedures performed worldwide, the employment of EVAR for the management of all AAAs irrespective of the patient's surgical risk may hold implications for several national health economies. The lower perioperative mortality and morbidity rates associated with EVAR should thus be counterbalanced against the considerable costs of these procedures.

  16. A cost effective degradation-based maintenance strategy under imperfect repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Fan; Niknam, Seyed A.; Kobza, John E.

    2015-01-01

    An optimization model is developed to minimize the total cost of imperfect degradation-based maintenance by determining an optimal interval of condition monitoring and the degradation level after imperfect preventive repairs. The decision model is based on a novel cost model that considers functional relationship between the expected degradation reduction and the cost of preventive repairs. The decision model is applied to simulated vibration signals with a variety of specifications of cost values and degradation model parameters. This study has initiated a new area for the research of cost effective maintenance strategies. The results clearly indicate the significance of the proposed model and the decision variables under the objective of minimal cost. For instance, the results indicate direct relationship between the optimal length of monitoring interval and the monitoring cost. However, longer monitoring interval increases the risk of failure, and therefore, more degradation reduction is needed. By increasing the slope of cumulative degradation, the cost effective strategy advocates taking more frequent monitoring. The optimal degradation level after each preventive repair is not so sensitive to the change in the degradation slope due to the uncertainty associated with degradation patterns. - Highlights: • Discuss the relationship of degradation reduction and maintenance cost. • Determine the optimal interval of condition monitoring with minimal cost. • Identify the optimal degradation level after imperfect preventive repairs. • Discuss the effects of change in the slope of cumulative degradation.

  17. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  18. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  19. 34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 76.530 Section 76.530... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants and...

  20. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  1. Increasing Air Compressor Productivity While Reducing Maintenance and Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foss, R. S

    1993-01-01

    .... When this vital utility is put into this perspective we can start to deal with the considerations of systems engineering, planning, performance evaluation, cost control and preventive maintenance...

  2. Availability estimation of repairable systems using reliability graph with general gates (RGGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Gyoung Tae

    2009-02-01

    By performing risk analysis, we may obtain sufficient information about the system to redesign it and lower the probability of the occurrence of an accident or mitigate the ensuing consequences. The concept of reliability is widely used to express risk of systems. The reliability is used for non-repairable systems. But nuclear power plant systems are repairable systems. With repairable systems, repairable components can improve the availability of a system because faults that are generated in components can be recovered. Hence, the availability of the system is more proper concept in case of repairable systems. Reliability graph with general gate (RGGG) is one of the system reliability analysis methods. The RGGG is a very intuitiveness method as compared with other methods. But the RGGG has not been applied to repairable systems yet. The objective of this study is to extend the RGGG in order to enable one to analyze repairable system. Determining the probability table for each node is a critical process to calculate the system availability in the RGGG method. Therefore finding the proper algorithms and making probability tables in various situations are the major a part of this study. The other part is an example of applying RGGG method to a real system. We find the proper algorithms and probability tables for independent repairable systems, dependent series repairable systems, and k-out-of-m (K/M) redundant parallel repairable systems in this study. We can evaluate the availability of real system using these probability tables. An example for a real system is shown in the latter part of this study. For the purpose of this analysis, the charging pumps subsystem of the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) was selected. The RGGG method extended for repairable systems has the same characteristic of intuitiveness as the original RGGG method and we can confirm that the availability analysis result from the repairable RGGG method is exact

  3. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A.; Lo, Simon S.; Wang, Jian Z.; Jia Guang; Yuh, William T. C.; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. Methods: The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T r as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. Results: A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ 2 min of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T r = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T r = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. Conclusions: These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  4. Risk-Assessment Score and Patient Optimization as Cost Predictors for Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Sherif; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) is associated with complications that significantly increase healthcare costs. This study explores the associations between hospital costs for VHR and surgical complication risk-assessment scores, need for cardiac or pulmonary evaluation, and smoking or obesity counseling. An IRB-approved retrospective study of patients having undergone open VHR over 3 years was performed. Ventral Hernia Risk Score (VHRS) for surgical site occurrence and surgical site infection, and the Ventral Hernia Working Group grade were calculated for each case. Also recorded were preoperative cardiology or pulmonary evaluations, smoking cessation and weight reduction counseling, and patient goal achievement. Hospital costs were obtained from the cost accounting system for the VHR hospitalization stratified by major clinical cost drivers. Univariate regression analyses were used to compare the predictive power of the risk scores. Multivariable analysis was performed to develop a cost prediction model. The mean cost of index VHR hospitalization was $20,700. Total and operating room costs correlated with increasing CDC wound class, VHRS surgical site infection score, VHRS surgical site occurrence score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and Ventral Hernia Working Group (all p variance in costs (p optimization significantly reduced direct and operating room costs (p < 0.05). Cardiac evaluation was associated with increased costs. Ventral hernia repair hospital costs are more accurately predicted by CDC wound class than VHR risk scores. A straightforward 6-factor model predicted most cost variation for VHR. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 34 CFR 75.530 - General cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 75.530 Section 75.530 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.530 General cost principles. The general principles to be used in...

  6. Cost-effectiveness of extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a randomized comparison with conventional herniorrhaphy. Coala trial group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, M S; Halsema, J A; van der Graaf, Y; Schrijvers, A J; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-12-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair seems superior to open techniques with respect to short-term results. An issue yet to be studied in depth remains the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. As part of a multicenter randomized study in which >1000 patients were included, a cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal point of view was performed. After informed consent, all resource costs, both in and outside the hospital, for patients between August 1994 and July 1995 were recorded prospectively. Actual costs were calculated in a standardized fashion according to international guidelines. The main measures used for the evaluation of inguinal hernia repair were the number of averted recurrences and quality of life measured with the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Resource costs were recorded for 273 patients, 139 in the open and 134 in the laparoscopic group. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Average total hospital costs were Dfl 1384.91 (standard deviation: Dfl 440.15) for the open repair group and Dfl 2417.24 (standard deviation: Dfl 577.10) for laparoscopic repair, including a disposable kit of Dfl 676. Societal costs, including costs for days of sick leave, were lower for the laparoscopic repair and offset the hospital costs by Dfl 780.83 (75.6%), leaving the laparoscopic repair Dfl 251.50 more expensive (Dfl 4665 versus Dfl 4916.50). At present, the recurrence rate is 2.6% lower after laparoscopic repair. Thus, 38 laparoscopic repairs, costing an additional Dfl 9,557, prevent the occurrence of one recurrent hernia. Quality of life was better after laparoscopic repair. A better quality of life in the recovery period and the possibility of replacing parts of the disposable kit with reusable instruments may result in the laparoscopic repair becoming dominantly better--that is, less expensive and more effective from a societal perspective.

  7. Repair costs and the intensity of vehicle use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł DROŹDZIEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents correlation analyses of real-life data associated with the intensity of use of vehicles and the costs of replacement of operating materials and components performed in a three-year period for delivery vans, which was operated by the Poczta Polska (Polish Mail delivery office in Lublin.

  8. Optimal replacement policy of products with repair-cost threshold after the extended warranty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Shang; Zhiqiang Cai

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the product sold under a warranty is usually maintained by the manufacturer during the warranty period. After the expiry of the warranty, however, the consumer confronts a problem about how to maintain the reliability of the product. This paper proposes, from the consumer's perspective, a replace-ment policy after the extended warranty, under the assumption that the product is sold under the renewable free replacement warranty (RFRW) policy in which the replacement is dependent on the repair-cost threshold. The proposed replacement policy is the replacement after the extended warranty is performed by the consumer based on the repair-cost threshold or preventive replacement (PR) age, which are decision variables. The expected cost rate model is derived from the consumer's perspective. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution that minimizes the expected cost rate per unit time are offered. Finally, a numeri-cal example is presented to exemplify the proposed model.

  9. The cost-effectiveness of single-row compared with double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuario, James W; Donegan, Ryan P; Hamman, Daniel; Bell, John-Erik; Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2012-08-01

    Interest in double-row techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has increased over the last several years, presumably because of a combination of literature demonstrating superior biomechanical characteristics and recent improvements in instrumentation and technique. As a result of the increasing focus on value-based health-care delivery, orthopaedic surgeons must understand the cost implications of this practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair compared with traditional single-row repair. A decision-analytic model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair compared with single-row repair on the basis of the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Two cohorts of patients (one with a tear of row compared with single-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was $571,500 for rotator cuff tears of row repair was less than $287 for small or moderate tears and less than $352 for large or massive tears compared with the cost of single-row repair, then double-row repair would represent a cost-effective surgical alternative. On the basis of currently available data, double-row rotator cuff repair is not cost-effective for any size rotator cuff tears. However, variability in the values for costs and probability of retear can have a profound effect on the results of the model and may create an environment in which double-row repair becomes the more cost-effective surgical option. The identification of the threshold values in this study may help surgeons to determine the most cost-effective treatment.

  10. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy : Mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapma, Marten R.; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I.; van der Hilst, Christian S.; Tielliu, Ignace F.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Prins, Ted R.; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Verhoeven, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods: From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with

  11. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamiz, M.L.; Roman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform

  12. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz, M.L. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)], E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.es; Roman, Y. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform.

  13. Adoption of robotics in a general surgery residency program: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffey, J Hunter; Michaels, Alex D; Mullen, Matthew G; Yount, Kenan W; Meneveau, Max O; Smith, Philip W; Friel, Charles M; Schirmer, Bruce D

    2017-06-01

    Robotic technology is increasingly being utilized by general surgeons. However, the impact of introducing robotics to surgical residency has not been examined. This study aims to assess the financial costs and training impact of introducing robotics at an academic general surgery residency program. All patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic cholecystectomy, ventral hernia repair (VHR), and inguinal hernia repair (IHR) at our institution from 2011-2015 were identified. The effect of robotic surgery on laparoscopic case volume was assessed with linear regression analysis. Resident participation, operative time, hospital costs, and patient charges were also evaluated. We identified 2260 laparoscopic and 139 robotic operations. As the volume of robotic cases increased, the number of laparoscopic cases steadily decreased. Residents participated in all laparoscopic cases and 70% of robotic cases but operated from the robot console in only 21% of cases. Mean operative time was increased for robotic cholecystectomy (+22%), IHR (+55%), and VHR (+61%). Financial analysis revealed higher median hospital costs per case for robotic cholecystectomy (+$411), IHR (+$887), and VHR (+$1124) as well as substantial associated fixed costs. Introduction of robotic surgery had considerable negative impact on laparoscopic case volume and significantly decreased resident participation. Increased operative time and hospital costs are substantial. An institution must be cognizant of these effects when considering implementing robotics in departments with a general surgery residency program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Present state of 'Mutsu', the general inspection of safety and the repair of shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Agency has carried out the works based on the plan for the repair of shielding and the general inspection of safety in the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' also in 1979. As for the repair of shielding, the permission by the prime minister to alter the nuclear reactor installation was obtained. The contents of the alteration are the repair of primary and secondary shieldings and the additional construction of a tank for storing liquid waste. As for the general inspection of safety, the tests for confirming the functions of main machinery and equipments have been carried out since January, 1979. A set of testing apparatuses was made as the preparation for the flaw detection test of steam generator tubes. As for the general inspection of softwares, the re-evaluation of the design of nuclear reactor plant and the analysis of the accidents in nuclear reactor plant were almost completed. Considering the accident of TMI No. 2 reactor, the inspection of softwares is in progress. The contract for these repair and inspection is not yet made, and the negotiations are under way. The nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' was brought to Sasebo Port in October, 1978, and dry-docked in July, 1979. As the result of inspection, any rust and wear were not found on the bottom plates, rudder and propeller. The survey of environmental radioactivity in Sasebo and Ominato, the budget for the repair and inspection, and the movement of the government are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. General re-evaluation of the safety on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu' and its repair work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    According to the proposition by the Committee for Investigation Radiation Leak on Mutsu, the works of the general re-evaluation of safety were started after the approval by the Committee for Investigating General Re-evaluation and Repair Techniques for Mutsu. The contents of the general re-evaluation of safety are the inspection of the machines and equipments in the nuclear reactor plant, the review of the design of the nuclear reactor plant, the analysis of the nuclear reactor plant behavior in accidents, and the related experimental researches. These works have been carried out for five years, and problem did not arise at all regarding the nuclear reactor so far, but from the viewpoint of improving the safety and reliability further, it was decided to carry out the repair work based on the general re-evaluation of safety. The contents of the repair work are the improvement of the emergency core-cooling system, the improvement of the safety protection system, the improvement of the radiation monitoring equipments, the improvement of the containment vessel boundary, the improvement of the actuators for technological safety facilities, the improvement of the method controlling secondary water quality, and other repair works. The progress of the general re-evaluation of safety is reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Army Corps of Engineers: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Sharing for Dam Safety Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    agreements with the Corps, their history of being a sponsor, the financial impacts of cost sharing for dam safety repair projects, and the Corps...1240 (2007)) and Beaver Lake dam, AR (Pub. L. No. 102-377, 106 Stat. 1315, 1318 (1992), Pub. L. No. 102-580, § 209(f), 106 Stat. 4797, 4830 (1992...inaction in setting a clear policy for a provision under which sponsors face significant financial impacts has contributed to conditions under

  17. Laparoscopic versus open incisional hernia repair: a retrospective cohort study with costs analysis on 269 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, G; De Troia, A; Portinari, M; Targa, S; Carcoforo, P; Vasquez, G; Fisichella, P M; Feo, C V

    2017-08-01

    To compare clinical outcomes and institutional costs of elective laparoscopic and open incisional hernia mesh repairs and to identify independent predictors of prolonged operative time and hospital length of stay (LOS). Retrospective observational cohort study on 269 consecutive patients who underwent elective incisional hernia mesh repair, laparoscopic group (N = 94) and open group (N = 175), between May 2004 and July 2014. Operative time was shorter in the laparoscopic versus open group (p costs were lower (p = 0.02). At Cox regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders, large wall defect (W3) and higher operative risk (ASA score 3-4) were associated with prolonged operative time, while midline hernia site was associated with increased hospital LOS. Open surgical approach was associated with prolongation of both operative time and LOS. Laparoscopic approach may be considered safely to all patients for incisional hernia repair, regardless of patients' characteristics (age, gender, BMI, ASA score, comorbidities) and size of the wall defect (W2-3), with the advantage of shorter operating time and hospital LOS that yields reduced total institutional costs. Patients with higher ASA score and large hernia defects are at risk of prolonged operative time, while an open approach is associated with longer duration of surgical operation and hospital LOS.

  18. A Low-Cost Teaching Model of Inguinal Canal: A Useful Method to Teach Surgical Concepts in Hernia Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Frederico; Ceresoli, Marco; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Inguinal canal anatomy and hernia repair is difficult for medical students and surgical residents to comprehend. Methods: Using low-cost material, a 3-dimensional inexpensive model of the inguinal canal was created to allow students to learn anatomical details and landmarks and to perform their own simulated hernia repair. In order to…

  19. Procedural volume, cost, and reimbursement of outpatient incisional hernia repair: implications for payers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Liu, Emelline; Tackett, Scott; Shi, Lizheng; Marcus, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This analysis aimed to evaluate trends in volumes and costs of primary elective incisional ventral hernia repairs (IVHRs) and investigated potential cost implications of moving procedures from inpatient to outpatient settings. A time series study was conducted using the Premier Hospital Perspective ® Database (Premier database) for elective IVHR identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification codes. IVHR procedure volumes and costs were determined for inpatient, outpatient, minimally invasive surgery (MIS), and open procedures from January 2008-June 2015. Initial visit costs were inflation-adjusted to 2015 US dollars. Median costs were used to analyze variation by site of care and payer. Quantile regression on median costs was conducted in covariate-adjusted models. Cost impact of potential outpatient migration was estimated from a Medicare perspective. During the study period, the trend for outpatient procedures in obese and non-obese populations increased. Inpatient and outpatient MIS procedures experienced a steady growth in adoption over their open counterparts. Overall median costs increased over time, and inpatient costs were often double outpatient costs. An economic model demonstrated that a 5% shift of inpatient procedures to outpatient MIS procedures can have a cost surplus of ∼ US $1.8 million for provider or a cost-saving impact of US $1.7 million from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services perspective. The study was limited by information in the Premier database. No data were available for IVHR cases performed in free-standing ambulatory surgery centers or federal healthcare facilities. Volumes and costs of outpatient IVHRs and MIS procedures increased from January 2008-June 2015. Median costs were significantly higher for inpatients than outpatients, and the difference was particularly evident for obese patients. A substantial cost difference between inpatient and outpatient MIS cases

  20. The entropic cost of quantum generalized measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Luca; Sbroscia, Marco; Roccia, Emanuele; Gianani, Ilaria; Somma, Fabrizia; Mataloni, Paolo; Paternostro, Mauro; Barbieri, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Landauer's principle introduces a symmetry between computational and physical processes: erasure of information, a logically irreversible operation, must be underlain by an irreversible transformation dissipating energy. Monitoring micro- and nano-systems needs to enter into the energetic balance of their control; hence, finding the ultimate limits is instrumental to the development of future thermal machines operating at the quantum level. We report on the experimental investigation of a lower bound to the irreversible entropy associated to generalized quantum measurements on a quantum bit. We adopted a quantum photonics gate to implement a device interpolating from the weakly disturbing to the fully invasive and maximally informative regime. Our experiment prompted us to introduce a bound taking into account both the classical result of the measurement and the outcoming quantum state; unlike previous investigation, our entropic bound is based uniquely on measurable quantities. Our results highlight what insights the information-theoretic approach provides on building blocks of quantum information processors.

  1. The financial implications of endovascular aneurysm repair in the cost containment era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David H; Horvath, Alexander J; Goodney, Philip P; Rzucidlo, Eva M; Nolan, Brian W; Walsh, Daniel B; Zwolak, Robert M; Powell, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with significant direct device costs. Such costs place EVAR at odds with efforts to constrain healthcare expenditures. This study examines the procedure-associated costs and operating margins associated with EVAR at a tertiary care academic medical center. All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (n = 127). Among this cohort, 49 patients met standard commercial instruction for use guidelines, were treated using a single manufacturer device, and billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group (DRG) 238. Of these 49 patients, net technical operating margins (technical revenue minus technical cost) were calculated in conjunction with the hospital finance department. EVAR implant costs were determined for each procedure. DRG 238-associated costs and length of stay were benchmarked against other academic medical centers using University Health System Consortium 2012 data. Among the studied EVAR cohort (age 75, 82% male, mean length of stay, 1.7 days), mean technical costs totaled $31,672. Graft implants accounted for 52% of the allocated technical costs. Institutional overhead was 17% ($5495) of total technical costs. Net mean total technical EVAR-associated operating margins were -$4015 per procedure. Our institutional costs and length of stay, when benchmarked against comparable centers, remained in the lowest quartile nationally using University Health System Consortium costs for DRG 238. Stent graft price did not correlate with total EVAR market share. EVAR is currently associated with significant negative operating margins among Medicare beneficiaries. Currently, device costs account for over 50% of EVAR-associated technical costs and did not impact EVAR market share, reflecting an unawareness of cost differential among surgeons. These data indicate that EVAR must undergo dramatic care delivery redesign for this practice to remain sustainable. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular

  2. Allocation base of general production costs as optimization of prime costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levytska I.O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualified management aimed at optimizing financial results is the key factor in today's society. Effective management decisions depend on the necessary information about the costs of production process in all its aspects – their structure, types, accounting policies of reflecting costs. General production costs, the so-called indirect costs that are not directly related to the production process, but provide its functioning in terms of supporting structural divisions and create the necessary conditions of production, play a significant role in calculating prime costs of goods (works, services. However, the accurate estimate of prime costs of goods (works, services should be determined with the value of indirect costs (in other words, general production costs, and properly determined with the base of their allocation. The choice of allocation base of general production costs is the significant moment, depending on the nature of business, which must guarantee fair distribution regarding to the largest share of direct expenses in the total structure of production costs. The study finds the essence of general production costs based on the analysis of key definitions of leading Ukrainian economists. The optimal allocation approach of general production costs is to calculate these costs as direct production costs within each subsidiary division (department separately without selecting a base as the main one to the their total amount.

  3. Effect of Different Workscope Strategies on Wind Turbine Gearbox Life Cycle Repair Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind turbine industry is beginning to establish orthodoxies governing the repair of gearboxes, including policies governing the replacement of bearings during gearbox heavy maintenance events. Some maintainers recommend replacing all of the bearings, every time, regardless of condition or age. At the same time, others prefer to only replace the failed bearing. The former rationale achieves availability by spending more money than absolutely necessary; the latter sacrifices reliability in exchange for a lower shop visit cost. Even though neither approach results in the lowest Life Cycle Cost, no standard practice has yet been implemented to methodically determine what would be the best approach. Furthermore, as gearboxes approach the end of their planned service lives, a different strategy may be called-for. This paper presents an example of using a reliability-based statistical analysis to determine which strategy will yield the lowest Life Cycle Cost for wind turbine gearboxes.

  4. Generalized renewal process for repairable systems based on finite Weibull mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, B.; Nagode, M.; Fajdiga, M.

    2008-01-01

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old' and 'better than old but worse than new'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last one, which is more realistic in practice. In this paper, a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the three after-repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is applied. Simplistically, GRP addresses the repair assumption by introducing the concept of virtual age into the stochastic point processes to enable them to represent the full spectrum of repair assumptions. The shape of measured or design life distributions of systems can vary considerably, and therefore frequently cannot be approximated by simple distribution functions. The scope of the paper is to prove that a finite Weibull mixture, with positive component weights only, can be used as underlying distribution of the time to first failure (TTFF) of the GRP model, on condition that the unknown parameters can be estimated. To support the main idea, three examples are presented. In order to estimate the unknown parameters of the GRP model with m-fold Weibull mixture, the EM algorithm is applied. The GRP model with m mixture components distributions is compared to the standard GRP model based on two-parameter Weibull distribution by calculating the expected number of failures. It can be concluded that the suggested GRP model with Weibull mixture with an arbitrary but finite number of components is suitable for predicting failures based on the past performance of the system

  5. Mid-term cost-effectiveness analysis of open and endovascular repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, K E; Shak, J; Ambler, G K; Tang, T Y; Hayes, P D; Boyle, J R

    2014-02-01

    Emergency endovascular repair (EVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) may have lower operative mortality rates than open surgical repair. Concerns remain that the early survival benefit after EVAR for rAAA may be offset by late reinterventions. The aim of this study was to compare reintervention rates and cost-effectiveness of EVAR and open repair for rAAA. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients with rAAA undergoing EVAR or open repair over 6 years. A health economic model developed for the cost-effectiveness of elective EVAR was used in the emergency setting. Sixty-two patients (mean age 77·9 years) underwent EVAR and 85 (mean age 75·9 years) had open repair of rAAA. Median follow-up was 42 and 39 months respectively. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality rates after EVAR and open repair (18 and 26 per cent respectively; P = 0·243). Reintervention rates were also similar (32 and 31 per cent; P = 0·701). The mean cost per patient was €26,725 for EVAR and €30,297 for open repair, and the cost per life-year gained was €7906 and €9933 respectively (P = 0·561). Open repair had greater initial costs: longer procedural times (217 versus 178·5 min; P < 0·001) and intensive care stay (5·0 versus 1·0 days; P = 0·015). Conversely, EVAR had greater reintervention (€156,939 versus €35,335; P = 0·001) and surveillance (P < 0·001) costs. There was no significant difference in reintervention rates after EVAR or open repair for rAAA. EVAR was as cost-effective at mid-term follow-up. The increased procedural costs of open repair are not outweighed by greater surveillance and reintervention costs after EVAR. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The influence of management and construction methods in the repair costs of Spain’s low-volume road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutiquio Gallego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the entire process of the implementation of the Spanish low volume road network, including the design criteria, the construction techniques and the management policies during all the periods. The current situation of low volume roads in Spain was analyzed with respect to the legal framework and their actual condition. In addition, the budget required for the repair of 41 low volume roads throughout Spain was calculated in order to statistically analyze the influence of the pavement materials and the period of construction. The main conclusions were that low volume roads constructed during the 1970´s are currently those in the best state of repair and those requiring the lower repair costs, even lower than those constructed after 1980´s. In addition, low volume roads constructed with higher quality materials and using standardized techniques required five times lower repair costs than those made of lower quality materials.

  7. Endovascular aneurysm repair delivery redesign leads to quality improvement and cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Courtney J; Horvath, Alexander J; Powell, Richard J; Columbo, Jesse A; Walsh, Teri R; Goodney, Philip P; Walsh, Daniel B; Stone, David H

    2015-08-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is now a mainstay of therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysm, although it remains associated with significant expense. We performed a comprehensive analysis of EVAR delivery at an academic medical center to identify targets for quality improvement and cost reduction in light of impending health care reform. All infrarenal EVARs performed from April 2011 to March 2012 were identified (N = 127). Procedures were included if they met standard commercial instructions for use guidelines, used a single manufacturer, and were billed to Medicare diagnosis-related group 238 (n = 49). By use of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) quality improvement methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, control), targets for EVAR quality improvement were identified and high-yield changes were implemented. Procedure technical costs were calculated before and after process redesign. Perioperative services and clinic visits were identified as targets for quality improvement efforts and cost reduction. Mean technical costs before the intervention were $31,672, with endograft implants accounting for 52%. Pricing redesign in collaboration with hospital purchasing reduced mean EVAR technical costs to $28,607, a 10% reduction in overall cost, with endograft implants now accounting for 46%. Perioperative implementation of instrument tray redesign reduced instrument use by 32% (184 vs 132 instruments), saving $50,000 annually. Unnecessary clinic visits were reduced by 39% (1.6 vs 1.1 clinic visits per patient) through implementation of a preclinic imaging protocol. There was no difference in mean length of stay after the intervention. Comprehensive EVAR delivery redesign leads to cost reduction and waste elimination while preserving quality. Future efforts to achieve more competitive and transparent device pricing will make EVAR more cost neutral and enhance its financial sustainability for health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Society for

  8. Practical extensions to a minimum cost flow model for level of repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of repair analysis (LORA) gives answers to three questions that are posed when deciding on how to maintain capital goods: (1) which components to repair upon failure and which to discard, (2) at which locations in the repair network to perform each type of repairs, and (3) at which

  9. Practical extensions to a minimum cost flow model for level op repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, R.J.I.; Heijden, van der M.C.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of repair analysis (LORA) gives answers to three questions that are posed when deciding on how to maintain capital goods: (1) which components to repair upon failure and which to discard, (2) at which locations in the repair network to perform each type of repairs, and (3) at which

  10. Robotics in general surgery: A systematic cost assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gkegkes, Ioannis D.; Mamais, Ioannis A.; Iavazzo, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The utilisation of robotic-assisted techniques is a novelty in the field of general surgery. Our intention was to examine the up to date available literature on the cost assessment of robotic surgery of diverse operations in general surgery. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in a systematic way to retrieve the included studies in our review. Thirty-one studies were retrieved, referring on a vast range of surgical operations. The mean cost for robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from...

  11. Hanford general employee training - A million dollar cost beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-02-01

    In January 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training. Covering all Institute of Nuclear Power Operations general employee training objectives, training mandated by US Department of Energy orders, and training prescribed by internal Westinghouse Hanford Company policies, Hanford General Employee Training presents and manages engaging training programs individually tailored to each of the 9,000 employees. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as Hanford General Employee Training were high compared to similar costs for developing ''equivalent'' traditional training. Hardware ($500,000) and labor costs ($400,000) totaled $900,000. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, are totalling about $200,000. On the benefit side, by consolidating some 17 previous Westinghouse Hanford Company courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, Hanford General Employee Training reduced the average student training time from over 11 hours to just under 4 hours. For 9,000 employees, the computed net annual savings exceeds $1.3 million. 2 refs

  12. Editorial Commentary: "Knot" Less Strength at Half the Cost-Is It Time to Abandon Medial Row Anchors in Shoulder Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Seth L

    2018-01-01

    Transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair is an expensive construct that has demonstrated biomechanical superiority when compared with other rotator cuff repair techniques. A novel transosseous knotless repair that substitutes medial row anchors for a transosseous tunnel rivals the biomechanical advantages of transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair at half the cost and with reduced dependence on bone quality. Surgeons should carefully consider if "knotless transosseous is more." Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inguinal hernia repair: are the results from a general hospital comparable to those from dedicated hernia centres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kai Xiong; Lo, Hong Yee; Neo, Jun Xiang Andy; Appasamy, Vijayan; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to report the outcomes of inguinal hernia repair performed at Tan Tock Seng Hospital and compare them with those performed at dedicated hernia centres. We retrospectively analysed the medical records and telephone interviews of 520 patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair in 2010. The majority of the patients were male (498 [95.8%] men vs. 22 [4.2%] women). The mean age was 59.9 ± 15.7 years. Most patients (n = 445, 85.6%) had unilateral hernias (25.8% direct, 64.3% indirect, 9.9% pantaloon). The overall recurrence rate was 3.8%, with a mean time to recurrence of 12.0 ± 8.6 months. Risk factors for recurrence included contaminated wounds (odds ratio [OR] 50.325; p = 0.004), female gender (OR 8.757; p = 0.003) and pantaloon hernias (OR 5.059; p = 0.013). Complication rates were as follows: chronic pain syndrome (1.2%), hypoaesthesia (5.2%), wound dehiscence (0.4%), infection (0.6%), haematoma/seroma (4.8%), urinary retention (1.3%) and intraoperative visceral injury (0.6%). Most procedures were open repairs (67.7%), and laparoscopic repair constituted 32.3% of all the inguinal hernia repairs. Open repairs resulted in longer operating times than laparoscopic repairs (86.6 mins vs. 71.6 mins; p hospital stays (2.7 days vs. 0.7 days; p = 0.020) and a higher incidence of post-repair hypoaesthesia (6.8% vs. 1.8%; p = 0.018). However, there were no significant differences in recurrence or other complications between open and laparoscopic repair. A general hospital with strict protocols and teaching methodologies can achieve inguinal hernia repair outcomes comparable to those of dedicated hernia centres.

  14. 18 CFR 1312.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair. 1312.14 Section 1312.14 Conservation of... part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological...

  15. 43 CFR 7.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions of a permit issued pursuant to this part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the... commercial value and cost of restoration and repair. 7.14 Section 7.14 Public Lands: Interior Office of the...

  16. 32 CFR 229.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... value and cost of restoration and repair. 229.14 Section 229.14 National Defense Department of Defense...

  17. 36 CFR 296.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair. 296.14 Section 296.14 Parks, Forests, and...

  18. 22 CFR 1104.13 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource... value and cost of restoration and repair. 1104.13 Section 1104.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL...

  19. Robotics in general surgery: A systematic cost assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkegkes, Ioannis D; Mamais, Ioannis A; Iavazzo, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The utilisation of robotic-assisted techniques is a novelty in the field of general surgery. Our intention was to examine the up to date available literature on the cost assessment of robotic surgery of diverse operations in general surgery. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in a systematic way to retrieve the included studies in our review. Thirty-one studies were retrieved, referring on a vast range of surgical operations. The mean cost for robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from 2539 to 57,002, 7888 to 16,851 and 1799 to 50,408 Euros, respectively. The mean operative charges ranged from 273.74 to 13,670 Euros. More specifically, for the robotic and laparoscopic gastric fundoplication, the cost ranged from 1534 to 2257 and 657 to 763 Euros, respectively. For the robotic and laparoscopic colectomy, it ranged from 3739 to 17,080 and 3109 to 33,865 Euros, respectively. For the robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, ranged from 1163.75 to 1291 and from 273.74 to 1223 Euros, respectively. The mean non-operative costs ranged from 900 to 48,796 from 8347 to 8800 and from 870 to 42,055 Euros, for robotic, open and laparoscopic technique, respectively. Conversions to laparotomy were present in 34/18,620 (0.18%) cases of laparoscopic and in 22/1488 (1.5%) cases of robotic technique. Duration of surgery robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from 54.6 to 328.7, 129 to 234, and from 50.2 to 260 min, respectively. The present evidence reveals that robotic surgery, under specific conditions, has the potential to become cost-effective. Large number of cases, presence of industry competition and multidisciplinary team utilisation are some of the factors that could make more reasonable and cost-effective the robotic-assisted technique.

  20. Inventory of past DOE land disturbance, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and estimated general reclamation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Since 1976, DOE preliminary investigations for a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have caused widespread disturbances of the landscape. This report addresses the areal extent of those disturbances that have accrued up to June 1988, and identifies expected associated reclamation costs. It was first necessary to identify disturbances, next to classify them for reclamation purposes, and, then, to assign general reclamation costs. The purposes of the analysis were: (1) to establish the amount of disturbance that already exists in the area of Yucca Mountain in order to identify alterations of the landscape that comprise the existing baseline conditions; (2) to identify estimated general reclamation costs for repair of the disturbances; (3) to provide information needed to establish disturbance models, and eventually environmental impact models, that can be applied to future DOE activities during Site Characterization and later phases of repository development, if they occur, and (4) to provide indicators of the needs for reclamation of future disturbances created by DOE's Site Characterization program. Disturbances were estimated using measurements from June 1988, large scale color aerial photography. Two reconnaissance site visits were also conducted. The identified disturbance totals by type are displayed in tabular form in the appendices. 84 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Generalized peritonitis requiring re-operation after leakage of omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Ghaffari, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Peptic ulcer perforations are a common emergency, but available literature is silent on the exact definition, incidence, management, and complications of peritonitis due to omental patch leakage. Retrospective data were collected on 422 patients who underwent omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer between March 20, 1999 and March 20, 2006. The definitive diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer and omental patch leakage was obtained at surgery. Seventeen (4%) patients experienced generalized peritonitis due to omental patch leakage. Mean age was 60.6 years. Mortality rate was 29.4%, and the mean hospital stay was 23.6 days. Delay in surgical approach, shock on admission, and age were all significantly associated with increased mortality. Peritonitis due to omental patch leakage can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common causes of omental patch leakage and operative procedures were unknown and reinsertion of omentum, respectively. Factors such as shock on admission or delayed surgery, have significantly contributed to fatal outcomes and need careful attention.

  2. Recovering full repair costs of INDOT infrastructure damaged by motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There are approximately 4,000 instances per year where state property located along Indiana Department of Transportation : (INDOT) maintained right-of-way needs to be replaced or repaired due to motor vehicle crashes. INDOT incurs significant financi...

  3. Recovering full repair costs of INDOT infrastructure damaged by motor vehicle crashes : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    There are approximately 4,000 instances per year that require infrastructure located along right-of-way maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) to be replaced or repaired due to motor vehicle crashes. This infrastructure includ...

  4. 42 CFR 417.564 - Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... general costs. 417.564 Section 417.564 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... providing medical care. Enrollment, marketing, and other administrative and general costs that benefit the... benefit of which cannot be quantitatively measured (such as facility costs), the total allowable costs of...

  5. A General Model for Cost Estimation in an Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzion Barlev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP state that the cost of an asset acquired for cash is the fair value (FV of the amount surrendered, and that of an asset acquired in a non-monetary exchange is the FV of the asset surrendered or, if it is more “clearly evident,” the FV of the acquired asset. The measurement method prescribed for a non-monetary exchange ignores valuable information about the “less clearly evident” asset. Thus, we suggest that the FV in any exchange be measured by the weighted average of the exchanged assets’ FV estimations, where the weights are the inverse of the variances’ estimations. This alternative valuation process accounts for the uncertainty involved in estimating the FV of each of the asset in the exchange. The proposed method suits all types of exchanges: monetary and non-monetary. In a monetary transaction, the weighted average equals the cash paid because the variance of its FV is nil.

  6. The repair-fixation model: general aspects and the influence of radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Loebrich, M.

    1992-01-01

    To explain the shape of cell survival curves after radiation action it is assumed that initial lesions are transient in nature and subject to repair or fixation. Since the underlying processes are controlled by enzymes, Michaelis-Menten kinetics are assumed. No qualitative differences between repair and fixation are postulated, the only differences being the kinetic parameters. This model yields a mathematical expression which is formally equivalent to the ''lethal-potentially-lethal'' (LPL) model. It is demonstrated that both mammalian as well as microbial survival data can be fitted. The inclusion of linear energy transfer (LET) effects is shown to be possible and is discussed qualitatively. (author)

  7. Incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems under random conditions: The effect on the maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems that operates under random environmental conditions on the costs of a periodic replacement maintenance. The motivation of this paper is given by a recently published paper, where a wrong formulation of the expected cost for unit time under a periodic replacement policy is obtained. This wrong formulation is due to the incorrect assumption that the intensity function of minimally repaired systems that operate under random conditions has the same functional form as the failure rate of the first failure time. This produced an incorrect optimization of the replacement maintenance. Thus, in this note the conceptual differences between the intensity function and the failure rate of the first failure time are first highlighted. Then, the correct expressions of the expected cost and of the optimal replacement period are provided. Finally, a real application is used to measure how severe can be the economical consequences caused by the incorrect modeling of the failure process.

  8. "Poverty is the big thing": exploring financial, transportation, and opportunity costs associated with fistula management and repair in Nigeria and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Sripad, Pooja; Nwala, Emmanuel; Warren, Charlotte E

    2018-06-01

    Women living with obstetric fistula often live in poverty and in remote areas far from hospitals offering surgical repair. These women and their families face a range of costs while accessing fistula repair, some of which include: management of their condition, lost productivity and time, and transport to facilities. This study explores, through women's, communities', and providers' perspectives, the financial, transport, and opportunity cost barriers and enabling factors for seeking repair services. A qualitative approach was applied in Kano and Ebonyi in Nigeria and Hoima and Masaka in Uganda. Between June and December 2015, the study team conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with women affected by fistula (n = 52) - including those awaiting repair, living with fistula, and after repair, and their spouses and other family members (n = 17), along with health service providers involved in fistula repair and counseling (n = 38). Focus group discussions (FGDs) with male and female community stakeholders (n = 8) and post-repair clients (n = 6) were also conducted. Women's experiences indicate the obstetric fistula results in a combined set of costs associated with delivery, repair, transportation, lost income, and companion expenses that are often limiting. Medical and non-medical ancillary costs such as food, medications, and water are not borne evenly among all fistula care centers or camps due to funding shortages. In Uganda, experienced transport costs indicate that women spend Ugandan Shilling (UGX) 10,000 to 90,000 (US$3.00-US$25.00) for two people for a single trip to a camp (client and her caregiver), while Nigerian women (Kano) spent Naira 250 to 2000 (US$0.80-US$6.41) for transportation. Factors that influence women's and families' ability to cover costs of fistula care access include education and vocational skills, community savings mechanisms, available resources in repair centers, client counseling, and subsidized care and

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Versus Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair for Symptomatic Large and Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Swart, Eric; Steinhaus, Michael E; Mather, Richard C; Levine, William N; Bach, Bernard R; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-09-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness within the United States health care system of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with symptomatic large and massive rotator cuff tears without cuff-tear arthropathy. An expected-value decision analysis was constructed comparing the costs and outcomes of patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for large and massive rotator cuff tears (and excluding cases of cuff-tear arthropathy). Comprehensive literature search provided input data to extrapolate costs and health utility states for these outcomes. The primary outcome assessed was that of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty versus rotator cuff repair. For the base case, both arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and reverse total shoulder were superior to nonoperative care, with an ICER of $15,500/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and $37,400/QALY, respectively. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was dominant over primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, with lower costs and slightly improved clinical outcomes. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was the preferred strategy as long as the lifetime progression rate from retear to end-stage cuff-tear arthropathy was less than 89%. However, when the model was modified to account for worse outcomes when reverse shoulder arthroplasty was performed after a failed attempted rotator cuff repair, primary reverse total shoulder had superior outcomes with an ICER of $90,000/QALY. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair-despite high rates of tendon retearing-for patients with large and massive rotator cuff tears may be a more cost-effective initial treatment strategy when compared with primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and when assuming no detrimental impact of previous surgery on outcomes after arthroplasty. Clinical judgment should still be prioritized when formulating treatment plans for these

  10. On the optimal degree of imperfect repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    A simple cost-wise comparison between the minimal and perfect repair of a system is discussed first using a relevant example. The main focus of this note, however, is on imperfect (general) repair. The best repair for our system in this case is defined as the one that corresponds to the optimal level (extent) of repair actions that minimize the long-run expected cost per unit of time. This complex optimization problem is considered for a specific imperfect repair model (Kijima II), using the developed earlier asymptotic approach to the corresponding virtual age modelling. It is shown that the optimal solution exists when the failure rate of a system tends to infinity as t tends to infinity and the corresponding cost function decreases sufficiently fast. An example illustrating the optimization procedure is considered

  11. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost structure of radiological procedures in the intermediary referral hospitals and general practice and to develop a cost accounting system for radiological examinations that takes into consideration all relevant cost factors and is suitable for management of radiology departments and regional planning of radiological resources. The material comprised 174,560 basic radiological examinations performed in 1991 at 5 intermediate referral hospitals and 13 public health centres in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Finland. All radiological departments in the hospitals were managed by a specialist in radiology. The radiology departments at the public health care centres operated on a self-referral basis by general practitioners. The data were extracted from examination lists, inventories and balance sheets; parts of the data were estimated or calculated. The radiological examinations were compiled according to the type of examination and equipment used: conventional, contrast medium, ultrasound, mammography and roentgen examinations with mobile equipment. The majority of the examinations (87%) comprised conventional radiography. For cost analysis the cost items were grouped into 5 cost factors: personnel, equipment, material, real estate and administration costs. The depreciation time used was 10 years for roentgen equipment, 5 years for ultrasound equipment and 5 to 10 years for other capital goods. An annual interest rate of 10% was applied. Standard average values based on a sample at 2 hospitals were used for the examination-specific radiologist time, radiographer time and material costs. Four cost accounting versions with varying allocation of the major cost items were designed. Two-way analysis of variance of the effect of different allocation methods on the costs and cost structure of the examination groups was performed. On the basis of the cost analysis a cost accounting program containing both monetary and

  12. Multiobjective optimization of availability and cost in repairable systems design via genetic algorithms and discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a more realistic approach to the characterization of system reliability when handling redundancy allocation problems: it considers repairable series-parallel systems comprised of components subjected to corrective maintenance actions with failure-repair cycles modeled by renewal processes. A multiobjective optimization approach is applied since increasing the number of redundancies not only enlarges system reliability but also its associated costs. Then a multiobjective genetic algorithm is coupled with discrete event simulation and its solutions present the compromise between system reliability and cost. Two examples are provided. In the first one, the proposed algorithm is validated by comparison with results obtained from a system devised as to allow for analytical solutions of the objective functions. The second case analyzes a repairable system subjected to perfect repairs. Results from both examples show that the proposed method can be a valuable tool for the decision maker when choosing the system design.Esse artigo utiliza uma abordagem mais realista para a caracterização da confiabilidade de sistemas em problemas de alocação de redundâncias: são considerados sistemas série-paralelo formados por componentes sujeitos a ações de manutenção corretiva com ciclos de falha-reparo modelados por processos de renovação. É aplicada uma abordagem de otimização multiobjetivo, pois o aumento de redundâncias eleva a confiabilidade do sistema e também os seus custos. Assim, um algoritmo genético multiobjetivo é integrado com simulação discreta de eventos e suas soluções apresentam o compromisso entre confiabilidade e custo do sistema. Dois exemplos são fornecidos. No primeiro, o algoritmo proposto é validado através da comparação com resultados obtidos de um sistema criado de forma a permitir soluções analíticas das funções-objetivo. No segundo, analisa-se um sistema reparável sujeito a

  13. Urban seismic risk assessment: statistical repair cost data and probable structural losses based on damage scenario—correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Anastasia K.; Baltzopoulou, Aikaterini D.; Karabinis, Athanasios I.

    2016-06-01

    The current seismic risk assessment is based on two discrete approaches, actual and probable, validating afterwards the produced results. In the first part of this research, the seismic risk is evaluated from the available data regarding the mean statistical repair/strengthening or replacement cost for the total number of damaged structures (180,427 buildings) after the 7/9/1999 Parnitha (Athens) earthquake. The actual evaluated seismic risk is afterwards compared to the estimated probable structural losses, which is presented in the second part of the paper, based on a damage scenario in the referring earthquake. The applied damage scenario is based on recently developed damage probability matrices (DPMs) from Athens (Greece) damage database. The seismic risk estimation refers to 750,085 buildings situated in the extended urban region of Athens. The building exposure is categorized in five typical structural types and represents 18.80 % of the entire building stock in Greece. The last information is provided by the National Statistics Service of Greece (NSSG) according to the 2000-2001 census. The seismic input is characterized by the ratio, a g/ a o, where a g is the regional peak ground acceleration (PGA) which is evaluated from the earlier estimated research macroseismic intensities, and a o is the PGA according to the hazard map of the 2003 Greek Seismic Code. Finally, the collected investigated financial data derived from different National Services responsible for the post-earthquake crisis management concerning the repair/strengthening or replacement costs or other categories of costs for the rehabilitation of earthquake victims (construction and function of settlements for earthquake homeless, rent supports, demolitions, shorings) are used to determine the final total seismic risk factor.

  14. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Dominique; Bomfim, João A. S.; Metz, Sébastien; Bouillard, Jacques X.; Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  15. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, Dominique; Metz, Sebastien; Bouillard, Jacques X; Brignon, Jean-Marc; Bomfim, Joao A S

    2011-01-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  16. On the relation between cost and service models for general inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic overview of possible relations between cost and service models for fairly general single- and multi-stage inventory systems. In particular, we relate various types of penalty costs in pure cost models to equivalent types of service measures in service models.

  17. The feasibility, safety and cost of infiltration anaesthesia for hernia repair. Hvidovre Hospital Hernia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    Data from 400 consecutive elective ambulatory operations for inguinal hernia under unmonitored local anaesthesia with limited pre-operative testing were prospectively obtained by the use of standardised files and questionnaires to assess the feasibility, patient satisfaction and potential cost re...

  18. Lifetime Costs and Outcomes of Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot Compared to Natural Progression of the Disease: Great Ormond Street Hospital Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rachael Maree; Isaac, Mark; Frigiola, Alessandra; Blundell, David; Brown, Kate; Bull, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease that requires surgical repair without which survival through childhood is extremely rare. The aim of this paper is to use data from the mandatory follow-up of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot to model the health-related costs and outcomes over the first 55-years of life. Method A decision analytical model was developed to establish costs and outcomes for patients up to 55 years after diagnosis and first repair of Tetralogy of Fallot compared to natural progression. Data from Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) centres that follow up Tetralogy of Fallot patients and Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), London, United Kingdom (UK) medical records was used to establish the cost and effectiveness of current interventions. Data from a Czech cohort was used for the natural, no intervention condition. Results The average cost per patient of a repair for Tetralogy of Fallot was £26,938 (SE = £4,140). The full life time cost per patient, with no discount rate, was £65,310 (95% CI £64,981–£65,729); £56,559 discounted (95% CI £56,159–£56,960). Patients with a repair had an average of 35 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per patient over 55 years undiscounted and 20.16 QALYs discounted. If the disorder was left to take its natural course, patients on average had a total of 3 QALYs per patient with no discount rate and 2.30 QALYs discounted. Conclusion A model has been developed that provides an estimate of the value for money of an expensive repair of a congenital heart disease. The model could be used to test the cost-effectiveness of making amendments to the care pathway. PMID:23533645

  19. Architecture of the human and yeast general transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cimermancic, Peter; Viswanath, Shruthi; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Kim, Bong; Dehecq, Marine; Raman, Vishnu; Greenberg, Charles H.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Hahn, Steven; Ranish, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary TFIIH is essential for both RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA repair, and mutations in TFIIH can result in human disease. Here, we determine the molecular architecture of human and yeast TFIIH by an integrative approach using chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry (CXMS) data, biochemical analyses, and previously published electron microscopy maps. We identified four new conserved “topological regions” that function as hubs for TFIIH assembly and more than 35 conserved topological features within TFIIH, illuminating a network of interactions involved in TFIIH assembly and regulation of its activities. We show that one of these conserved regions, the p62/Tfb1 Anchor region, directly interacts with the DNA helicase subunit XPD/Rad3 in native TFIIH and is required for the integrity and function of TFIIH. We also reveal the structural basis for defects in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosum and Trichothiodystrophy, with mutations found at the interface between the p62 Anchor region and the XPD subunit. PMID:26340423

  20. Cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed under local anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, D; Woods, C M; Schar, M; Ma, N; Ooi, E H; Athanasiadis, T

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed in the operating theatre under local anaesthesia and general anaesthesia. The retrospective study included patients who had undergone injection laryngoplasty as day cases between July 2013 and March 2016. Cost data were obtained, along with patient demographics, anaesthetic details, type of injectant, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, total operating theatre time and surgeon procedure time. A total of 20 cases (general anaesthesia = 6, local anaesthesia = 14) were included in the cost analysis. The mean total cost under general anaesthesia (AU$2865.96 ± 756.29) was significantly higher than that under local anaesthesia (AU$1731.61 ± 290.29) (p costs. Procedures performed under local anaesthesia in the operating theatre are associated with shorter operating theatre time and length of stay in the hospital, and provide significant cost savings. Further savings could be achieved if local anaesthesia procedures were performed in the office setting.

  1. The Stickiness of Selling, General, and Administrative Costs in the Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Armanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selling, general and administration costs are the main components in the Income Statement. A large number of permanent staff in sales and marketing department will make the company dominated by the fixed costs. This fact could lead to sticky cost behavior. In addition, role of the manager can also cause the cost stickiness. When the company’s revenue decreases, manager may delay to decrease the cost or not even decrease cost at all. The objective of the study is to determine whether cost stickiness of selling, general and administrative in the Indonesian listed companies. This study applied log-linear data panel regression with 3605 firm years that is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI from 1993 – 2013. This study finds that selling, general, and administrative costs are sticky only for the manufacturing companies. Furthermore, the results show that adjustment of sales, general, and administrative costs delayed by the manager when revenue decreases, yet the cost stickiness will be reduced in the next period.

  2. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...... ratios for HNPCC in a case-control design were 419 (95 % CI: 53-18,900) for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 19 (5-72) for 307-19A>G, 194 (21-1,768) for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca); ins(attt), and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for 1,039-8T>A in MLH1. In the general population, incidence rate ratios for 1,039-8T>A carriers versus...

  3. Predicting Cost/Reliability/Maintainability of Advanced General Aviation Avionics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. R.; Kamins, M.; Mooz, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology is provided for assisting NASA in estimating the cost, reliability, and maintenance (CRM) requirements for general avionics equipment operating in the 1980's. Practical problems of predicting these factors are examined. The usefulness and short comings of different approaches for modeling coast and reliability estimates are discussed together with special problems caused by the lack of historical data on the cost of maintaining general aviation avionics. Suggestions are offered on how NASA might proceed in assessing cost reliability CRM implications in the absence of reliable generalized predictive models.

  4. Comparative clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of endovascular strategy v open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: three year results of the IMPROVE randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    Objective  To assess the three year clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Design  Randomised controlled trial. Setting  30 vascular centres (29 in UK, one in Canada), 2009-16. Participants  613 eligible patients (480 men) with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm, of whom 502 underwent emergency repair for rupture. Interventions  316 patients were randomised to an endovascular strategy (275 with confirmed rupture) and 297 to open repair (261 with confirmed rupture). Main outcome measures  Mortality, with reinterventions after aneurysm repair, quality of life, and hospital costs to three years as secondary measures. Results  The maximum follow-up for mortality was 7.1 years, with two patients in each group lost to follow-up by three years. After similar mortality by 90 days, in the mid-term (three months to three years) there were fewer deaths in the endovascular than the open repair group (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.90), leading to lower mortality at three years (48% v 56%), but by seven years mortality was about 60% in each group (hazard ratio 0.92, 0.75 to 1.13). Results for the 502 patients with repaired ruptures were more pronounced: three year mortality was lower in the endovascular strategy group (42% v 54%; odds ratio 0.62, 0.43 to 0.88), but after seven years there was no clear difference between the groups (hazard ratio 0.86, 0.68 to 1.08). Reintervention rates up to three years were not significantly different between the randomised groups (hazard ratio 1.02, 0.79 to 1.32); the initial rapid rate of reinterventions was followed by a much slower mid-term reintervention rate in both groups. The early higher average quality of life in the endovascular strategy versus open repair group, coupled with the lower mortality at three years, led to a

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  6. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college. PMID:26709315

  7. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college.

  8. Hospital costs associated with surgical site infections in general and vascular surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Melissa M; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Julian, Kathleen G; Ortenzi, Gail; Dillon, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    Although much has been written about excess cost and duration of stay (DOS) associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiothoracic surgery, less has been reported after vascular and general surgery. We used data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to estimate the total cost and DOS associated with SSIs in patients undergoing general and vascular surgery. Using standard NSQIP practices, data were collected on patients undergoing general and vascular surgery at a single academic center between 2007 and 2009 and were merged with fully loaded operating costs obtained from the hospital accounting database. Logistic regression was used to determine which patient and preoperative variables influenced the occurrence of SSIs. After adjusting for patient characteristics, costs and DOS were fit to linear regression models to determine the effect of SSIs. Of the 2,250 general and vascular surgery patients sampled, SSIs were observed in 186 inpatients. Predisposing factors of SSIs were male sex, insulin-dependent diabetes, steroid use, wound classification, and operative time (P surgery. Although the excess costs and DOS associated with SSIs after general and vascular surgery are somewhat less, they still represent substantial financial and opportunity costs to hospitals and suggest, along with the implications for patient care, a continuing need for cost-effective quality improvement and programs of infection prevention. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. A generalized cost Malmquist index in DEA for DMUs with negative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Tohidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some data envelopment analysis (DEA applications, some inputs of DMUs have negative values with positive cost. This paper generalizes the global cost Malmquist productivity index to compare the productivity of different DMUs with negative inputs in any two periods of times under variable returns to scale (VRS technology, and then the generalized index is decomposed to several components. The obtained components are computed using the nonparametric linear programming models, known as DEA. To illustrate the generalized index and its components, a numerical example at three successive periods of time is given.

  11. Hypobaric Unilateral Spinal Anaesthesia versus General Anaesthesia in Elderly Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Surgical Repair: A Prospective Randomised Open Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuret, Pascal; Bouvet, Lionel; Villet, Benoit; Hafez, Mohamed; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Boselli, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Intraoperative hypotension during hip fracture surgery is frequent in the elderly. No study has compared the haemodynamic effect of hypobaric unilateral spinal anaesthesia (HUSA) and standardised general anaesthesia (GA) in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgical repair. We performed a prospective, randomised open study, including 40 patients aged over 75 years, comparing the haemodynamic effects of HUSA (5 mg isobaric bupivacaine with 5 μg sufentanil and 1 mL sterile water) and GA (induction with etomidate/remifentanil and maintenance with desflurane/remifentanil). An incidence of severe hypotension, defined by a decrease in systolic blood pressure of >40% from baseline, was the primary endpoint. The incidence of severe hypotension was lower in the HUSA group compared with that in the GA group (32% vs. 71%, respectively, p=0.03). The median [IQR] ephedrine consumption was lower (p=0.001) in the HUSA group (6 mg, 0-17 mg) compared with that in the GA group (36 mg, 21-57 mg). Intraoperative muscle relaxation and patients' and surgeons' satisfaction were similar between groups. No difference was observed in 5-day complications or 30-day mortality. This study shows that HUSA provides better haemodynamic stability than GA, with lower consumption of ephedrine and similar operating conditions. This new approach of spinal anaesthesia seems to be safe and effective in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

  12. The initial experience of introducing the Onstep technique for inguinal hernia repair in a general surgical department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Burcharth, Jakob Hornstrup Frølunde; Rosenberg, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A new technique for the repair of inguinal hernia, called Onstep, has been described. This technique places the mesh in the preperitoneal space medially and between the internal and external oblique muscles laterally. The Onstep technique has not yet been described outside...... repair. Inguinal Pain Questionnaire results: 95.5% reported no pain or pain that was easily ignored. CONCLUSIONS: It seems from this study that the Onstep technique is a safe method for inguinal hernia repair regarding perioperative and postoperative complications. The postoperative pain seems...

  13. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  14. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  15. Cost implication of irrational prescribing of chloroquine in Lagos State general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Bolajoko A; Tayo, Fola; Taylor, Ogori

    2008-02-01

    A major share of the hospital budget is spent on drugs. Irrational use of these drugs is a waste of financial and human resources that could have been deployed for another use within the hospital setting especially in cases where such drugs are provided free to patients. Also there is increased morbidity and progression of severity with irrational use. The objective of this study was to determine the irrational use of chloroquine and the subsequent cost implications in Lagos State general hospitals. A retrospective study period of one year (January to December, 2000) was selected. A total of 18,781 prescription forms of "Free Eko Malaria" were sampled for children and adults from all the Lagos State general hospitals. Drug costs in each prescription form were identified. Cost effectiveness analysis of chloroquine tablet and intramuscular injection was undertaken. The average cost of medicine per prescription was 132.071 ($1.03) which should have been 94.22 ($0.73) if prescribed rationally. The total cost of prescriptions for malaria under study was 2,480,425.00 ($19,348.09). About 68% {(1,679,444.00) ($13,100.19)} of the total cost was lost to irrational prescribing. This is a waste of scarce resources. When the prescriptions were differentiated into the different dosage forms prescribed, the prescriptions containing intramuscular injections only had over 90% of the cost lost to irrational prescribing. Cost effectiveness analysis showed that chloroquine tablet was 17 times more cost effective than chloroquine injection (intramuscular) from a health care system perspective while it was 14 times more cost effective from a patient perspective. There is waste of scarce resources with irrational dispensing of drugs and these resources could have been deployed to other uses or areas within the hospitals. The tablet chloroquine was more cost effective than injection chloroquine (intramuscular). Increasing the cost of tablets, decreasing effectiveness of tablets

  16. Prevalence and cost of hospital medical errors in the general and elderly United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Peter J; Pandya, Bhavik; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ≥65 years. Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than four medical errors were removed from the population to avoid over-estimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people aged ≥ 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top 10 medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000). Pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.

  17. Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Sensinger

    Full Text Available Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise, a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity, and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial. Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05. Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53-1.78 interquartile range. This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user's error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks.

  18. Cost analysis of spinal and general anesthesia for the surgical treatment of lumbar spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Brian P; Khanna, Arjun; Yanamadala, Vijay; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Lumbar spine surgery is typically performed under general anesthesia, although spinal anesthesia can also be used. Given the prevalence of lumbar spine surgery, small differences in cost between the two anesthetic techniques have the potential to make a large impact on overall healthcare costs. We sought to perform a cost comparison analysis of spinal versus general anesthesia for lumbar spine operations. Following Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective cohort study was performed from 2009-2012 on consecutive patients undergoing non-instrumented, elective lumbar spine surgery for spondylosis by a single surgeon. Each patient was evaluated for both types of anesthesia, with the decision for anesthetic method being made based on a combination of physical status, anatomical considerations, and ultimately a consensus agreement between patient, surgeon, and anesthesiologist. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups. Operating room costs were calculated whilst blinded to clinical outcomes and reported in percentage difference. General anesthesia (n=319) and spinal anesthesia (n=81) patients had significantly different median operative times of 175 ± 39.08 and 158 ± 32.75 minutes, respectively (plumbar spine surgery. It has the potential to reduce operative times, costs, and possibly, complications. Further prospective evaluation will help to validate these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A general theory to explain the relatively high cost of environmental restoration at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Restoration costs for Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have been the subject of much scrutiny and concern for several years. General opinion is that DOE clean-up costs are as much as three times higher than costs for similar clean-up projects in the private sector. Consequently, DOE Environmental Restoration professionals are continually under pressure to do more with less, which, ironically, can lead to additional inefficiencies in the system. This paper proposes a general theory as to why DOE costs are higher, explains the reasons why current conditions will make it difficult to realize any pervasive or significant decreases in clean-up costs, and presents some general changes that need to take place in the DOE system in order to bring about conditions that will allow more efficient clean-up to occur. The theory is based on a simple economic model that describes the balance between the resources spent for risk avoidance and the corresponding changes in overall productivity as a function of risk. The elementary concepts illustrated with the economic model, when refined and specifically applied, have the potential to become the catalyst for significant change-change that is absolutely necessary if we truly intend to conduct environmental clean-up with the same efficiencies as private industry

  20. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 225 - General Principles for Determining Allowable Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... based on the fundamental premises that: (1) Governmental units are responsible for the efficient and... reduce the burden associated with maintaining systems for charging administrative costs to Federal... reasonable and necessary for operating these programs, and funds are not used for general expenses required...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accrual method of accounting that do not elect the application of section 468A are not allowed a deduction... (temporary). 1.468A-1T Section 1.468A-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-1T Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary). (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides...

  2. Sibling rivalry: competition between Pol X family members in V(D)J recombination and general double strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Ramsden, Dale A

    2004-08-01

    The nonhomologous end-joining pathway is a major means for repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all mitotic cell types. This repair pathway is also the only efficient means for resolving DSB intermediates in V(D)J recombination, a lymphocyte-specific genome rearrangement required for assembly of antigen receptors. A role for polymerases in end-joining has been well established. They are a major factor in determining the character of repair junctions but, in contrast to 'core' end-joining factors, typically appear to have a subtle impact on the efficiency of end-joining. Recent work implicates several members of the Pol X family in end-joining and suggests surprising complexity in the control of how these different polymerases are employed in this pathway.

  3. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING...

  4. Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-16

    3 0 B. Cost Accounting Standard 418 ..................................................... 3 1 1. D efinitio n s ...objective" as an activity for which a separate measurement of cost is desired. C. Horngren , Cost Accounting . A Managerial Emphasis 21 (5th ed. 1982...Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives 6. AUTHOR( S ) Stephen Thomas Lynch, Major 7. PERFORMING

  5. An automated repair method of water pipe infrastructure using carbon fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, Sean; Carr, Heath; Fyfe, Ed

    2011-04-01

    The United States water pipe infrastructure is made up of over 2 million miles of pipe. Due to age and deterioration, a large portion of this pipe is in need of repair to prevent catastrophic failures. Current repair methods generally involve intrusive techniques that can be time consuming and costly, but also can cause major societal impacts. A new automated repair method incorporating innovative carbon fiber technology is in development. This automated method would eliminate the need for trenching and would vastly cut time and labor costs, providing a much more economical pipe repair solution.

  6. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue-Ping; Yu, Guo-Pei; Liu, Hui; Ma, Xie-Min; Wang, Jing; Kong, Gui-Lan; Li, Yi; Ma, Wen; Cui, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Na; Bao, Xiao-Yuan; Guo, Yu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Bao-Guo; Ke, Yang

    2013-01-01

    With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS), cost per day (CPD), inpatient mortality rate (IMR), and length of stay (LOS), using a generalized additive model. There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (Phospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role. However, purely market-oriented health-care reform could also misguide future healthcare reform.

  7. Health Technology Assessment of laparoscopic compared to conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair regarding safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Incisional hernias are a common complication following abdominal surgery and they represent about 80% of all ventral hernia. In uncomplicated postoperative follow-up they can develop in about eleven percent of cases and up to 23% of cases with wound infections or other forms of wound complications. Localisation and size of the incisional hernia can vary according to the causal abdominal scar. Conservative treatment (e. g. weight reduction is only available to relieve symptoms while operative treatments are the only therapeutic treatment option for incisional hernia. Traditionally, open suture repair was used for incisional hernia repair but was associated with recurrence rates as high as 46%. To strengthen the abdominal wall and prevent the development of recurrences the additional implantation of an alloplastic mesh is nowadays commonly used. Conventional hernia surgery as well as minimally invasive surgery, introduced in the early 90s, make use of this mesh-technique and thereby showed marked reductions in recurrence rates. However, there are possible side effects associated with mesh-implantation. Therefore recommendations remain uncertain on which technique to apply for incisional hernia repair and which technique might, under specific circumstances, be associated with advantages over others. Objectives: The goal of this HTA-Report is to compare laparoscopic incisional hernia repair (LIHR and conventional incisional hernia repair with and without mesh-implantation in terms of their medical efficacy and safety, their cost-effectiveness as well as their ethical, social und legal implications. In addition, this report aims to compare different techniques of mesh-implantation and mesh-fixation as well as to identify factors, in which certain techniques might be associated with advantages overothers. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of

  8. Misrepair of overlapping daughter strand gaps as a possible mechanism for UV induced mutagenesis in uvr strains of Escherichia coli: a general model for induced mutagenesis by misrepair (SOS repair) of closely spaced DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    It has been previously reported that an inducible form of post-replication repair appeared to be required for UV induced mutagenesis in an uvrA strain of Escherichia coli. It is shown here that the numbers of daughter strand gaps requiring inducible repair were similar to the numbers calculated to be overlapping one another in opposite daughter chromosomes. An estimation of survival with no repair of these gaps resembled the survival predicted with mutagenesis. It is thus proposed that inducible post-replication repair causes mutagenesis by the repair of overlapping daughter strand gaps. A general model for induced mutagenesis is presented. It is proposed that (a) some DNA lesions introduced by any DNA damaging agent may be close enough to interfere with constitutive repair replication of each other, (b) these lesions induce a repair system (SOS repair) which involves the recA + . lexA + and polC + genes (c) repair, and noncomitant mutagenesis occurs during repair replication by the insertion of mismatched bases oppposite the noncoding DNA lesions

  9. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS, cost per day (CPD, inpatient mortality rate (IMR, and length of stay (LOS, using a generalized additive model. FINDINGS: There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001, from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. INTERPRETATIONS: These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role

  10. Low-Cost Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies for General Aviation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Gavinsky, Bob; Semanskee, Grant

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) Program has as a goal to reduce the overall cost of producing private aviation aircraft while maintaining the safety of these aircraft. In order to successfully meet this goal, it is necessary to develop nondestructive inspection techniques which will facilitate the production of the materials used in these aircraft and assure the quality necessary to maintain airworthiness. This paper will discuss a particular class of general aviation materials and several nondestructive inspection techniques that have proven effective for making these inspections. Additionally, this paper will discuss the investigation and application of other commercially available quality control techniques applicable to these structures.

  11. Historical Cost Dan General Price Level Accounting: Analisis Relevansi Indikator Keuangan

    OpenAIRE

    -, Meythi; Teresa, Sheffie

    2012-01-01

    In conventional accounting, financial statements are based on the historical cost principle that assumes that prices (monetary unit) are stable. Conventional accounting recognizes neither changes in the general price level nor changes in the specific price level. Consequently, if there are any changes in purchasing power such as in inflation period, the historical financial statement are not economically relevant and also income is usually overstated, and the fixed assets are usually understa...

  12. [A totally implantable venous access device. Implantation in general or local anaesthesia? A retrospective cost analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, J; Richter, S; Moussavian, M R; Kollmar, O; Schilling, M K

    2009-08-01

    Implantation of venous access port systems can be performed in local or general anesthesia. In spite of the increasing rate of interventionally implanted systems, the surgical cut-down represents a safe alternative. Thus, the question arises whether--in context to the increasing health-economic pressure--open implantation in general anesthesia is still a feasible alternative to implantation in local anesthesia regarding OR efficiency and costs. In a retrospective analysis, 993 patients receiving a totally implantable venous access device between 2001 and 2007 were evaluated regarding OR utilization, turnover times, intraoperative data and costs. Implantations in local (LA) and general anesthesia (GA) were compared. GA was performed in 762 cases (76.6 %), LA was performed in 231 patients (23.3 %). Mean operation time was similar in both groups (LA 47.27 +/- 1.40 min vs. GA 45.41 +/- 0.75 min, p = 0.244). Patients receiving local anesthesia had a significantly shorter stay in the OR unit (LA 95.9 +/- 1.78 min vs. GA 105.92 +/- 0.92 min; p cut (LA 39.57 +/- 0.69 min vs. GA 50.46 +/- 0.52 min; p material costs were significantly lower in the LA group compared with the GA group (LA: 400.72 +/- 8.25 euro vs. GA: 482.86 +/- 6.23 euro; p systems in local anesthesia is superior in comparison to the implantation under general anesthesia regarding procedural times in the OR unit and costs. With the same operation duration, but less personnel and material expenditure, implantation in local anesthesia offers a potential economic advantage by permitting faster changing times. Implantation in GA only should be performed at a special request by the patient or in difficult venous conditions. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.New York.

  13. Design of low-cost general purpose microcontroller based neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, S; Rahmi Canal, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this study, a general purpose, low-cost, programmable, portable and high performance stimulator is designed and implemented. For this purpose, a microcontroller is used in the design of the stimulator. The duty cycle and amplitude of the designed system can be controlled using a keyboard. The performance test of the system has shown that the results are reliable. The overall system can be used as the neuromuscular stimulator under safe conditions.

  14. Physical activity coaching by Australian Exercise Physiologists is cost effective for patients referred from general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Ben; Stacey, Fiona; Johnson, Natalie; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Holliday, Elizabeth; Brown, Wendy; James, Erica L

    2018-02-01

    Interventions to promote physical activity for sedentary patients seen in general practice may be a way to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Coaching by an exercise physiologist is publicly funded in Australia, but cost effectiveness has not been documented. In a three-arm randomised controlled trial, face-to-face coaching and telephone coaching over 12 weeks were compared with a control group using the outcome of step count for one week at baseline, three months and twelve months. Program costs and time-based costs were considered. Quality of life was measured as a secondary outcome. At 12 months, the intervention groups were more active than controls by 1,002 steps per day (95%CI 244, 1,759). This was achieved at a cost of AUD$245 per person. There was no change in reported quality of life or utility values. Coaching achieved a modest increase in activity equivalent to 10 minutes walking per day, at a cost of AUD$245 per person. Face-to-face and telephone counselling were both effective. Implication for public health: Persistence of increases nine months after the end of coaching suggests it creates long-term change and is a good value health intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Controlled trial of pharmacist intervention in general practice: the effect on prescribing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, S; Avery, A J; Meechan, D; Briant, S; Geraghty, M; Doran, K; Whynes, D K

    1999-09-01

    It has been suggested that the employment of pharmacists in general practice might moderate the growth in prescribing costs. However, empirical evidence for this proposition has been lacking. We report the results of a controlled trial of pharmacist intervention in United Kingdom general practice. To determine whether intervention practices made savings relative to controls. An evaluation of an initiative set up by Doncaster Health Authority. Eight practices agreed to take part and received intensive input from five pharmacists for one year (September 1996 to August 1997) at a cost of 163,000 Pounds. Changes in prescribing patterns were investigated by comparing these practices with eight individually matched controls for both the year of the intervention and the previous year. Prescribing data (PACTLINE) were used to assess these changes. The measures used to take account of differences in the populations of the practices included the ASTRO-PU for overall prescribing and the STAR-PU for prescribing in specific therapeutic areas. Differences between intervention and control practices were subjected to Wilcoxon matched-pairs, signed-ranks tests. The median (minimum to maximum) rise in prescribing costs per ASTRO-PU was 0.85 Pound (-1.95 Pounds to 2.05 Pounds) in the intervention practices compared with 2.55 Pounds (1.74 Pounds to 4.65 Pounds) in controls (P = 0.025). Had the cost growth of the intervention group been as high as that of the controls, their total prescribing expenditure would have been around 347,000 Pounds higher. This study suggests that the use of pharmacists did control prescribing expenditure sufficiently to offset their employment costs.

  16. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edejer Tessa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness. The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor.

  17. Repairing fuel for reinsertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukshenk, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eqiupment for nuclear reactor fuel assembly repairing produced by Westinghouse and Brawn Bovery companies is described. Repair of failed fuel assemblies replacement of defect fuel elements gives a noticeable economical effect. Thus if the cost of a new fuel assembly is 450-500 thousand dollars, the replacement of one fuel element in it costs approximately 40-60 thousand dollars. In simple cases repairing includes either removal of failed fuel elements from a fuel assembly and its reinsertion with the rest of fuel elements into the reactor core (reactor refueling), or replacement of unfailed fuel elements from one fuel assembly to a new one (fuel assembly overhaul and reconditioning)

  18. Costs, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic and open repair for rotator cuff tears: an economic evaluation alongside the UKUFF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Gray, A; Cooper, C; Cooper, D; Ramsay, C; Carr, A

    2016-12-01

    A trial-based comparison of the use of resources, costs and quality of life outcomes of arthroscopic and open surgical management for rotator cuff tears in the United Kingdom NHS was performed using data from the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Study (UKUFF) randomised controlled trial. Using data from 273 patients, healthcare-related use of resources, costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated at 12 months and 24 months after surgery on an intention-to-treat basis with adjustment for covariates. Uncertainty about the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for arthroscopic versus open management at 24 months of follow-up was incorporated using bootstrapping. Multiple imputation methods were used to deal with missing data. There were no significant differences between the arthroscopic and open groups in terms of total mean use and cost of resources or QALYs at any time post-operatively. Open management dominated arthroscopic management in 59.8% of bootstrapped cost and effect differences. The probability that arthroscopic management was cost-effective compared with open management at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained was 20.9%. There was no significant overall difference in the use or cost of resources or quality of life between arthroscopic and open management in the trial. There was uncertainty about which strategy was most cost-effective. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1648-55. ©2016 Gray et al.

  19. Studi Banding Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan Dengan Metode Historical Cost Accounting Dan General Price Level Accounting Pada Masa Inflasi

    OpenAIRE

    Kodrat, David Sukardi

    2006-01-01

    Generally, Financial Statements are based on Historical Cost Accounting (HCA) that assumes that prices are stable. Actually, there are several methods on accounting for the effect of changing prices, such as Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting) and Constant Dollar Accounting or General Price Level Accounting (GPLA)). GPLA will do restatement the components of financial statement to be a rupiah on a similar level of purchasing power, but without changes in accounting principle...

  20. STUDI BANDING PENYUSUNAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN DENGAN METODE HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING DAN GENERAL PRICE LEVEL ACCOUNTING PADA MASA INFLASI

    OpenAIRE

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Generally, Financial Statements are based on Historical Cost Accounting (HCA) that assumes that prices are stable. Actually, there are several methods on accounting for the effect of changing prices, such as Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting) and Constant Dollar Accounting or General Price Level Accounting (GPLA)). GPLA will do restatement the components of financial statement to be a rupiah on a similar level of purchasing power, but without changes in accounting principle...

  1. Social incidence and economic costs of carbon limits; A computable general equilibrium analysis for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, G.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.; Wiedmer, T. (Institute for Applied Microeconomics, Univ. of Bern (Switzerland))

    1992-01-01

    Both distributional and allocational effects of limiting carbon dioxide emissions in a small and open economy are discussed. It starts from the assumption that Switzerland attempts to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions over the next 25 years, and evaluates costs and benefits of the respective reduction programme. From a methodological viewpoint, it is illustrated how a computable general equilibrium approach can be adopted for identifying economic effects of cutting greenhouse gas emissions on the national level. From a political economy point of view it considers the social incidence of a greenhouse policy. It shows in particular that public acceptance can be increased and economic costs of greenhouse policies can be reduced, if carbon taxes are accompanied by revenue redistribution. 8 tabs., 1 app., 17 refs.

  2. A low cost general purpose portable programmable master/slave manipulative appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRIUMF 100 μA 500 MeV cyclotron, located at the University of British Columbia, required a low cost, portable master/slave manipulative capability for experimental beam line servicing. A programmable capability was also required for the hot cell manipulators. A general purpose unit was developed that might also have applications in light manufacturing and medical rehabilitation. The project now in prototype testing represents a modular portable robot costing less than $5000 that is lead-through-teach programmable by either a master controller or hands-on lead-through. Task programs are stored and retrieved on any 32 k personal computer. An on-board proportional integral derivative controller (Motorola 6809 based) gives discrete positioning of the six degrees of freedom 2 kg capacity end effector

  3. Prevalence and cost of full-time research fellowships during general surgery residency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Klingensmith, Mary E; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1 to 3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Response rate was 200 of 239 (84%). A total of 381 of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and postresidency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (P < 0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour regulations for clinical residents, whereas a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. Although performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after postgraduate training.

  4. Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, Gernot; Peterson, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)

  5. Negative royalty in duopoly and definition of license fee: general demand and cost functions

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the definition of license fee and a possibility of negative royalty in a duopoly with an outside innovator which has an option to enter the market and imposes a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed fee under general demand and cost functions. We consider two scenarios about determination of license fee. One is a scenario which does not assume entry of the innovator, and the other is a scenario which takes a possibility of entry of the innovator i...

  6. Prescription Patterns and the Cost of Migraine Treatments in German General and Neurological Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prescription patterns and the cost of migraine treatments in general practices (GPs) and neurological practices (NPs) in Germany. This study included 43,149 patients treated in GPs and 13,674 patients treated in NPs who were diagnosed with migraine in 2015. Ten different families of migraine therapy were included in the analysis: triptans, analgesics, anti-emetics, beta-blockers, antivertigo products, gastroprokinetics, anti-epileptics, calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and other medications (all other classes used in the treatment of migraine including homeopathic medications). The share of migraine therapies and their costs were estimated for GPs and NPs. The mean age was 44.4 years in GPs and 44.1 years in NPs. Triptans and analgesics were the 2 most commonly prescribed families of drugs in all patients and in the 9 specific subgroups. Interestingly, triptans were more commonly prescribed in NPs than in GPs (30.9% to 55.0% vs. 30.0% to 44.7%), whereas analgesics were less frequently given in NPs than in GPs (11.5% to 17.2% vs. 35.3% to 42.4%). Finally, the share of patients who received no therapy was higher in NPs than in GPs (33.9% to 58.4% vs. 27.5% to 37.9%). The annual cost per patient was €66.04 in GPs and €94.71 in NPs. Finally, the annual cost per patient increased with age and was higher in women and in individuals with private health insurance coverage than in men and individuals with public health insurance coverage. Triptans and analgesics were the 2 most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of migraine. Furthermore, approximately 30% to 40% of patients did not receive any therapy. Finally, the annual cost per patient was higher in NPs than in GPs. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  7. A Cost Estimation Model for Commander Naval Air Forces Paicifc's TACAIR F/A-18S Aviation Depot Level Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duma, David

    2001-01-01

    .... The first section discusses the methodology used to create a cost estimation model. The second and third sections provide the results of the model's outcomes and compares and analyzes those results to the actual results...

  8. Determination of chest x-ray cost using activity based costing approach at Penang General Hospital, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Ahmad, Nafees

    2012-01-01

    Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent by employees doing specific activity to their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables and clinical equipments were obtained from the procurement section of the Radiology Department. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the chest X-ray facility with the unit cost of public building department. Moreover, straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for calculation of equivalent annual costs for building and machines. Cost of electricity was calculated by multiplying number of kilo watts used by electrical appliance in the year 2010 with electricity tariff for Malaysian commercial consumers (MYR 0.31 per kWh). Five activities were identified which were required to develop one chest X-ray film. Human resource, capital, consumable and electricity cost was MYR 1.48, MYR 1.98, MYR 2.15 and MYR 0.04, respectively. Total cost of single chest X-ray was MYR 5.65 (USD 1.75). By applying ABC approach, we can have more detailed and precise estimate of cost for specific activity or service. Choice of repeating a chest X-ray can be based on our findings, when cost is a limiting factor.

  9. General inspection strategy for fault diagnosis-minimizing the inspection costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinertsen, Rune; Wang Xiaozhong

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis is presented. The procedure presented in this paper, is an improvement of methods described in papers by , and . This general strategy provides the optimal inspection procedure when the inspections require unequal effort and the minimum cut set probabilities are unequal. This feature makes the procedure described in this paper more useful for practical applications than the most recent procedure presented in the paper by Najmus-Saqib and Ishaque, which requires the minimum cut set probabilities to be equal. The inspection strategy described in this paper is based on first inspecting the basic event that will provide the maximum information gain per unit cost invested. The information gain is measured by the decrease of Shannon entropy. A detailed tutorial example is presented

  10. A Logistic Life Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis of Power Quality Management in the Avionics Repair Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    .... The implementation of power quality management can result in wide scale logistical support changes in regards to the life cycle costs of maintaining the DoD's current inventory of sensitive electronic equipment...

  11. Message from the Director General Final costs to completion of LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Luciano Maiani

    2001-01-01

    In March this year a review of the costs for the LHC machine was started, which was completed by the end of August. This was a bottom-up review with each group concerned making a projection of the cost to completion of the project. Figures presented were worryingly high. In conjunction, the responses from industries to the calls for tender for essential machine components, especially the superconducting magnet assembly, were also higher than originally anticipated. A summary of this situation was presented to the Finance Committee last week and then to the Committee of Council. After the meetings a summary was prepared by the chairman of Committee of Council which I reprint below. CHAIRMAN'S SUMMARY In the 248th Meeting of the Committee of Council, the Director-General presented a preliminary estimate of the cost to completion of the LHC Project, approved in 1994 and scheduled for commissioning and operation in 2006. Repeating that the project is well advanced and technically sound, the figures presented, s...

  12. A Generalized Minimum Cost Flow Model for Multiple Emergency Flow Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During real-life disasters, that is, earthquakes, floods, terrorist attacks, and other unexpected events, emergency evacuation and rescue are two primary operations that can save the lives and property of the affected population. It is unavoidable that evacuation flow and rescue flow will conflict with each other on the same spatial road network and within the same time window. Therefore, we propose a novel generalized minimum cost flow model to optimize the distribution pattern of these two types of flow on the same network by introducing the conflict cost. The travel time on each link is assumed to be subject to a bureau of public road (BPR function rather than a fixed cost. Additionally, we integrate contraflow operations into this model to redesign the network shared by those two types of flow. A nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear programming model with bilinear, fractional, and power components is constructed, and GAMS/BARON is used to solve this programming model. A case study is conducted in the downtown area of Harbin city in China to verify the efficiency of proposed model, and several helpful findings and managerial insights are also presented.

  13. Hanford general employee training: A million dollar cost-beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In January, 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training (HGET). Following an introduction by the course instructor, students begin the interactive video segment of the course by taking a tour of an office building. In fact, this tour is simply a setting in which to give the student a checkout on safety, security, and quality issues. For example, at one point the guide leaves the room and the phone suddenly begins a steady ring. This is a particular alarm at WHC, and the student is challenged to respond correctly. Missed questions flag corresponding tutorials to be delivered either immediately or on completion of the tour. Instructors receive notification of weakoesses left unremedied. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as HGET were high compared to similar costs for developing equivalent traditional training. Hardware and labor totaled $900K. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, appear to be running about $200K. On the benefit side, by consolidating some seventeen previous WHC courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, HGET reduced the average student training time from over eleven hours to just under four hours. In the development and implementation of HGET a number of issues were resolved, some more successfully than others: (1) what about job security for former instructors? (2) how should the course be run on a daily basis? (we envisioned a combination of instructor and videodisc); (3) how high will the maintenance costs be? (higher than projected); etc. Many obstacles arise, most in connection with the large number of groups and personnel whose efforts had to be coordinated

  14. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  15. Application of Life Support Cost, Provisioning, and Repair/Discard Models to Weapon System Procurement Decisions by Small Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    the LCC for use in system evaluation was motivated by the fact that the major part of user budgets are spent on operations and support activities...Furthermore, it was recognized that these ownership costs ex- ceed systems procurement costs by up to several times. The main motivation behind the LCC...8217 󈧄 4 ~ ~ ~ ( CL f %AO 09*. 𔃾.𔃺 𔄃 0 4 . -~4 4C4 - CL44 N 10 z3 w 4 . - 4)..LIP 4 .J~272 .0co A pF 1 PS4 ~~~~m a0~-eN ON~ - .q r N0 .. ~ ~ 7O N#04

  16. Preliminary study of life cycle cost of preventive measures and repair options for corrosion in concrete infrastructurecorrosion in concrete infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Pan, Yifan; Courage, Wim; Peelen, Willy H A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance costs of reinforced concrete infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, harbours, parking structures) are increasing due to aging of structures under aggressive exposure. Corrosion of reinforcement due to chloride ingress is the main problem for existing structures in marine and de-icing salt

  17. Costs and expected gain in lifetime health from intensive care versus general ward care of 30,712 individual patients: a distribution-weighted cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemark, Frode; Haaland, Øystein A; Kvåle, Reidar; Flaatten, Hans; Norheim, Ole F; Johansson, Kjell A

    2017-08-21

    Clinicians, hospital managers, policy makers, and researchers are concerned about high costs, increased demand, and variation in priorities in the intensive care unit (ICU). The objectives of this modelling study are to describe the extra costs and expected health gains associated with admission to the ICU versus the general ward for 30,712 patients and the variation in cost-effectiveness estimates among subgroups and individuals, and to perform a distribution-weighted economic evaluation incorporating extra weighting to patients with high severity of disease. We used a decision-analytic model that estimates the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (ICER) from ICU admission compared with general ward care using Norwegian registry data from 2008 to 2010. We assigned increasing weights to health gains for those with higher severity of disease, defined as less expected lifetime health if not admitted. The study has inherent uncertainty of findings because a randomized clinical trial comparing patients admitted or rejected to the ICU has never been performed. Uncertainty is explored in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost-effectiveness of ICU admission versus ward care was €11,600/QALY, with 1.6 QALYs gained and an incremental cost of €18,700 per patient. The probability (p) of cost-effectiveness was 95% at a threshold of €22,000/QALY. The mean ICER for medical admissions was €10,700/QALY (p = 97%), €12,300/QALY (p = 93%) for admissions after acute surgery, and €14,700/QALY (p = 84%) after planned surgery. For individualized ICERs, there was a 50% probability that ICU admission was cost-effective for 85% of the patients at a threshold of €64,000/QALY, leaving 15% of the admissions not cost-effective. In the distributional evaluation, 8% of all patients had distribution-weighted ICERs (higher weights to gains for more severe conditions) above €64,000/QALY. High-severity admissions gained the most, and were more

  18. Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes: A powerful modeling framework for Model-Based Safety Analysis of dynamic repairable and reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.

  19. STUDI BANDING PENYUSUNAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN DENGAN METODE HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING DAN GENERAL PRICE LEVEL ACCOUNTING PADA MASA INFLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Financial Statements are based on Historical Cost Accounting (HCA that assumes that prices are stable. Actually, there are several methods on accounting for the effect of changing prices, such as Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting and Constant Dollar Accounting or General Price Level Accounting (GPLA. GPLA will do restatement the components of financial statement to be a rupiah on a similar level of purchasing power, but without changes in accounting principles which using on conventional accounting. Financial statements made by GPLA are comparing to financial statements made by HCA. Both of financial statements are analysis with NOD (Number of Dollar attribute to know that financial statements are interpretative and analysis with COG (Command of Good attribute to know that financial statements are relevant. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Laporan keuangan disusun berdasarkan metode Historical Cost Accounting (HCA yang menggunakan asumsi nilai tukar stabil. Beberapa metode akuntansi yang memperhitungkan perubahan nilai tukar seperti Current Cost Accounting (Replacement Cost Accounting dan Constant Dollar Accounting atau General Price Level Accounting (GPLA. GPLA menyajikan komponen laporan keuangan berdasarkan penyesuaian rupiah dengan daya beli tanpa mengubah prinsip-prinsip akuntasi konvensional. Laporan keuangan yang disusun dengan GPLA dapat diperbandingkan dengan laporan keuangan berdasarkan HCA. Dengan analisa NOD (Number of Dollar dan COG (Command Over Good attribute menunjukkan bahwa laporan keuangan berdasarkan GPLA lebih interpretatif dan lebih relevan. Kata Kunci: Laporan Keuangan, Historical Cost Accounting, General Price Level Accounting, NOD attribute, COG attribute.

  20. Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1985-10-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  1. A General Catalytic Method for Highly Cost- and Atom-Efficient Nucleophilic Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Peter H; Filbrich, Isabel

    2018-05-23

    A general formamide-catalyzed protocol for the efficient transformation of alcohols into alkyl chlorides, which is promoted by substoichiometric amounts (down to 34 mol %) of inexpensive trichlorotriazine (TCT), is introduced. This is the first example of a TCT-mediated dihydroxychlorination of an OH-containing substrate (e.g., alcohols and carboxylic acids) in which all three chlorine atoms of TCT are transferred to the starting material. The consequently enhanced atom economy facilitates a significantly improved waste balance (E-factors down to 4), cost efficiency, and scalability (>50 g). Furthermore, the current procedure is distinguished by high levels of functional-group compatibility and stereoselectivity, as only weakly acidic cyanuric acid is released as exclusive byproduct. Finally, a one-pot protocol for the preparation of amines, azides, ethers, and sulfides enabled the synthesis of the drug rivastigmine with twofold S N 2 inversion, which demonstrates the high practical value of the presented method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. Commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  3. 装备维修体制改革与效费比变化趋势的数量分析%Quantitative Analysis on Variation Tendency of Institutional Reform and Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of Equipment Repair and Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宝军; 李先龙; 宋泽源

    2015-01-01

    装备维修体制改革是适应未来高技术战争要求的必然选择。通过对我军装备维修保障体制改革的基本构想、我军传统三级装备维修效费比模型和改革后二级装备维修效费比模型的系统分析,从改革前后装备的可用度、装备维修的费效比作了缜密系统的数量分析,为加速、深化我军装备维修体制改革提供了科学的理论论证。%Institutional reform of equipment repair and support serves as an inevitable choice to meet the demands of hi-tech warfare in the future.This paper has systematically studied the basic layout of institutional reform of equipment repair and support of the PLA,has established the cost-effectiveness models of both traditional three-level equipment repair and support system and current two-level equipment repair and support system after the reform and has made a comparison between them in terms of the availability of equipment and the cost-effectiveness ratio of equipment repair and support.All this is to provide a theoretical argumentation to accelerate and deepen the PLA's institutional reform of equipment repair and support.

  4. [Can Topical Negative Pressure Therapy be Performed as a Cost-Effective General Surgery Procedure in the German DRG System?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, Z; Xiong, L; Hirche, C; Willis, S

    2016-04-01

    Topical negative pressure therapy (TNPT) has been established for surgical wound therapy with different indications. Nevertheless, there is only sparse evidence regarding its therapeutic superiority or cost-effectiveness in the German DRG system (G-DRG). This study was designed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of TNPT in the G-DRG system with a focus on daily treatment costs and reimbursement in a general surgery care setting. In this retrospective study, we included 176 patients, who underwent TNPT between 2007 and 2011 for general surgery indications. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness involved 149 patients who underwent a simulation to calculate the reimbursement with or without TNPT by a virtual control group in which the TNP procedure was withdrawn for DRG calculation. This was followed by a calculation of costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent and material costs. Comparison between the "true" and the virtual group enabled calculation of the effective remaining surplus per case. Total reimbursement by included TNPT cases was 2,323 ,70.04 €. Costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent were 102,669.20 €. In 41 cases there was a cost-effectiveness (27.5%) with 607,422.03 € with TNP treatment, while the control group without TNP generated revenues of 442,015.10 €. Costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent were 47,376.68 €. In the final account we could generate a cost-effectiveness of 6759 € in 5 years per 149 patients by TNPT. In 108 cases there was no cost-effectiveness (72.5%). TNPT applied in a representative general surgery setting allows for wound therapy without a major financial burden. Based on the costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent, a primarily medically based decision when to use TNPT can be performed in a balanced product cost accounting. This study does not analyse the superiority of TNPT in wound care, so further prospective studies are required which focus on therapeutic superiority and cost-effectiveness. Georg Thieme

  5. General Equilibrium in a Segmented Market Economy with Convex Transaction Cost: Existence, Efficiency, Commodity and Fiat Money

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ross M.

    2002-01-01

    This study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Exist...

  6. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  7. A decision analytical cost analysis of offering ECV in a UK district general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Robin

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the care pathways and implications of offering mothers the choice of external cephalic version (ECV at term for singleton babies who present with an uncomplicated breech pregnancy versus assisted breech delivery or elective caesarean. Design A prospective observational audit to construct a decision analysis of uncomplicated full term breech presentations. Setting The North Staffordshire NHS Trust. Subjects All women (n = 176 who presented at full term with a breech baby without complications during July 1995 and June 1997. Main outcome measures The study determined to compare the outcome in terms of the costs and cost consequences for the care pathways that resulted from whether a women chose to accept the offer of ECV or not. All the associated events were then mapped for the two possible pathways. The costs were considered only within the hospital setting, from the perspective of the health care provider up to the point of delivery. Results The additional costs for ECV, assisted breech delivery and elective caesarean over and above a normal birth were £186.70, £425.36 and £1,955.22 respectively. The total expected cost of the respective care pathways for "ECV accepted" and "ECV not accepted" (including the probability of adverse events were £1,452 and £1,828 respectively, that is the cost of delivery through the ECV care pathways is less costly than the non ECV delivery care pathway. Conclusions Implementing an ECV service may yield cost savings in secondary care over and above the traditional delivery methods for breech birth of assisted delivery or caesarean section. The scale of these expected cost savings are in the range of £248 to £376 per patient. This converts to a total expected cost saving of between £43,616 and £44,544 for the patient cohort considered in this study.

  8. Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals-de Bos, Ingeborg B. C.; Hoving, Jan L.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Adèr, Herman J.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Koes, Bart W.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Bouter, Lex M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 183 patients with neck pain for at least two weeks

  9. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer Design for Singular Markovian Jump Time-Delay Systems with Generally Incomplete Transition Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.

  10. Economic Cost Analysis Related to Complications in General and Digestive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rosado, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Turrens, Jose; Olry-de-Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2018-04-21

    The aim was to assess the impact on economic costs and length of stay (LOS) of postoperative complications. 5,822 records from BMDS (2014-2015) are included. A descriptive, univariate and multivariate study evaluated the correlation between complications, Clavien-Dindo grade and vacation periods with LOS and economic costs, based on a full-cost model, aggregated by DRG. Mean cost per stay was €676.71, and €4,309.02 per episode. Complications appeared in 639 patients (11%). Admission to ICU was required in 203 patients, re-operation in 134 and re-admission in 243, while 66 patients died (1.1%). Complications caused significantly longer LOS (20.08 vs 5.48 days) and higher economic cost (€11,670.31 vs €3,354.12); infectious complications were the most frequent and respiratory the most expensive (€20,428.53), together with ICU admission (€20,242.66). Clavien-Dindo grade correlated with greater LOS and costs (except gradev). During vacation periods, complications and LOS are increased, but costs of these complications and LOS did not differ significantly from complications detected in non-vacation periods. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor copyright containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 μm also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK demonstration

  12. Discrete time analysis of a repairable machine

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Castro, I. T.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, in discrete time, a single machine system that operates for a period of time represented by a general distribution. This machine is subject to failures during operations and the occurrence of these failures depends on how many times the machine has previously failed. Some failures are repairable and the repair times may or may not depend on the number of times the machine was previously repaired. Repair times also have a general distribution. The operating times...

  13. Cost justification of clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team: focus on diagnosis-related group cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, K E; Hatoum, H T; Willett, M S; Witte, K W

    1988-11-01

    We used a novel approach to cost-justify clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team in nine diagnosis-related group cases. The clinical pharmacist monitored nine patients longitudinally on a general surgery team from admission to discharge and intervened in their therapeutic management. Each recommendation was analyzed for rationale, acceptance, perceived impact on quality and/or cost of patient care, whether self-initiated or solicited, and impact on patient outcome. Types of recommendations and outcomes were categorized by process and outcome measurement criteria. Total cost avoidance per patient was calculated using costs of drug therapy, laboratory tests, and length of stay. Accounting for cost of clinical pharmacy services, net cost avoidance per patient was calculated. The clinical pharmacist made 101 recommendations on nine patients. Physicians accepted 82 percent of the recommendations; 77 percent of the recommendations were self-initiated and 23 percent were solicited. Recommendations had a perceived impact on cost, quality, or both at 13, 31, and 56 percent, respectively. Most recommendations (79 percent) brought patient therapy to a level of conformance with current standards of practice as documented in the medical literature. Recommendations that potentially preserved a major organ function by preventing drug-induced toxicity or the exacerbation of existing problems constituted 16 percent of the total. None of the accepted recommendations adversely affected patient outcome and 23 percent directly resulted in a measurable positive outcome in patient care. A total of four hospital days was potentially saved for two cases. Based on objective outcome criteria, a 1.9-day increase in therapeutic control was documented per patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  15. Evaluation of proposed casemix criteria as a basis for costing patients in the adult general intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, V G; Hibbert, C L; Edbrooke, D L

    1998-10-01

    This study analyses the relationship between the actual patient-related costs of care calculated for 145 patients admitted sequentially to an adult general intensive care unit and a number of factors obtained from a previously described consensus of opinion study. The factors identified in the study were suggested as potential descriptors for the casemix in an intensive care unit that could be used to predict the costs of care. Significant correlations between the costs of care and severity of illness, workload and length of stay were found but these failed to predict the costs of care with sufficient accuracy to be used in isolation to define isoresource groups in the intensive care unit. No associations between intensive care unit mortality, reason for admission and intensive and unit treatments and costs of care were found. Based on these results, it seems that casemix descriptors and isoresource groups for the intensive care unit that would allow costs to be predicted cannot be defined in terms of single factors.

  16. Innovative repair of subsidence damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve handling of subsidence damages the Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund supported the development of novel cost-effective methods of repair. The research in developing the repairs was directed towards the most common and costly damages that had been observed. As a result repair techniques were designed for structurally cracked foundations in the tension zone; structurally cracked foundations in the compression zone; and damaged or undamaged tilted foundations. When appropriate the postulated methods would result in: 1. significant cost savings (over conventional procedures); 2. a structural capacity greater than when the foundation was uncracked; and 3. an aesthetic appeal. All the postulated repair methodologies were laboratory and/or field tested. This paper will summarize the essentials of each technique developed and the test results

  17. 29 CFR 531.3 - General determinations of “reasonable cost.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employer: Provided, That if the total so computed is more than the fair rental value (or the fair price of the commodities or facilities offered for sale), the fair rental value (or the fair price of the... REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Determinations of âReasonable Costâ and â...

  18. Distance-Based Image Classification: Generalizing to New Classes at Near Zero Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, T.; Verbeek, J.; Perronnin, F.; Csurka, G.

    2013-01-01

    We study large-scale image classification methods that can incorporate new classes and training images continuously over time at negligible cost. To this end, we consider two distance-based classifiers, the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and nearest class mean (NCM) classifiers, and introduce a new

  19. Cost of hospital care for HIV/AIDS infected patients in three general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly income and the level of education were both statistically significant predictors for healthcare consumption. The analysis allows us to extend the study by using different analytical accounting approaches such as by case and by pathology. Key words: Healthcare costs, HIV AIDS, Predictive factors for healthcare ...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of Spa treatment for fibromyalgia: general health improvement is not for free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, T.R.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an adjuvant treatment course of spa treatment compared with usual care only in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). - Methods: 134 patients with FM, selected from a rheumatology outpatient department and from members of the Dutch FM patient

  1. When is cartilage repair successful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raudner, M.; Roehrich, S.; Zalaudek, M.; Trattnig, S.; Schreiner, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Focal cartilage lesions are a cause of long-term disability and morbidity. After cartilage repair, it is crucial to evaluate long-term progression or failure in a reproducible, standardized manner. This article provides an overview of the different cartilage repair procedures and important characteristics to look for in cartilage repair imaging. Specifics and pitfalls are pointed out alongside general aspects. After successful cartilage repair, a complete, but not hypertrophic filling of the defect is the primary criterion of treatment success. The repair tissue should also be completely integrated to the surrounding native cartilage. After some months, the transplants signal should be isointense compared to native cartilage. Complications like osteophytes, subchondral defects, cysts, adhesion and chronic bone marrow edema or joint effusion are common and have to be observed via follow-up. Radiological evaluation and interpretation of postoperative changes should always take the repair method into account. (orig.) [de

  2. THE COST OF CREDIBILITY: THE COMPANY OF GENERAL FARMS AND FISCAL STAGNATION IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel D. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Company of General Farms, a quasi-private collector of about half the French taxes in the eighteenth century, was one of the largest lenders to the Crown. The relationship between the Crown and General Farms fits the model of sovereign debt as a contingent claim. Lending is sustained in contingent claims models if the lender credibly commits to withhold funds from the sovereign if he defaults. The General Farms maintained this commitment with amonopsony of the Crown's access to taxes and borrowed funds. When revolution threatened, the monopsony stood between the Crown and reform of the fiscal system. The history of the Company of General Farms shows how a contingent claims equilibrium can raise the cost of legitimate reform.

  3. Meningocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is surgery to repair birth defects of the spine and spinal membranes. Meningocele and myelomeningocele ... is covered by a sterile dressing. Your child may then be transferred to a neonatal intensive ...

  4. Coste del cuidado informal del ictus en una población general no institucionalizada Cost of informal care for stroke victims in a non-institutionalized general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Hervás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El impacto social del ictus es importante por tratarse de una enfermedad invalidante, que causa dependencia y necesidad de cuidados informales. La importancia de la dependencia cada vez es mayor en la sociedad, pero no hay registros de los costes del cuidado informal, y se desconoce cómo valorarla. Objetivos: Calcular el coste del cuidado informal del ictus en una población general y analizarlo en función del grado de dependencia. Realizar un análisis de sensibilidad con la variable costes unitarios a partir de fuentes diversas. Material y métodos: Se estudian todos los casos diagnosticados de ictus a 31 de diciembre de 2004 (n = 95 pertenecientes a una zona básica de salud de Navarra, de los que 40 (44,4% precisan cuidados informales. Se valora la dependencia para las actividades de la vida diaria mediante los índices de Barthel (actividades básicas [ABVD] y Lawton-Brody (actividades instrumentales [AIVD]. La valoración del tiempo del cuidado informal se realiza con una aproximación de abajo a arriba (bottom-up, mediante un cuestionario de recogida de actividades diarias. Resultados: El coste del cuidado informal de los pacientes con ictus es de 21.551,28 €/año, con un rango, según el análisis de sensibilidad, entre 6.490,80 y 31.436,72 €/año. Hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el coste del cuidado informal según el grado de dependencia (ABVD: 24.865,2 €/año; AIVD: 10.442,9 €/año. Conclusiones: El coste del cuidado informal en la atención al ictus es elevado y crece con el nivel de dependencia.Background: Stroke has a strong social impact since it causes disability, leading to dependency and the need for informal care. Although awareness of the importance of dependency is increasing, registries of the cost of informal care are lacking and consequently the real value of this activity to society is still unknown. Objectives: To calculate the cost of informal care of stroke victims in a

  5. Comparison of seating, powered characteristics and functions and costs of electrically powered wheelchairs in a general population of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Michael John; Bolton, Megan Jennifer; Henderson, Graham Iain

    2017-10-26

    To profile and compare the seating and powered characteristics and functions of electrically powered wheelchairs (EPWs) in a general user population including equipment costs. Case notes of adult EPW users of a regional NHS service were reviewed retrospectively. Seating equipment complexity and type were categorized using the Edinburgh classification. Powered characteristics and functions, including control device type, were recorded. 482 cases were included; 53.9% female; mean duration EPW use 8.1 years (SD 7.4); rear wheel drive 88.0%; hand joystick 94.8%. Seating complexity: low 73.2%, medium 18.0%, high 8.7%. Most prevalent diagnoses: multiple sclerosis (MS) 25.3%, cerebral palsy (CP) 18.7%, muscular dystrophy (8.5%). Compared to CP users, MS users were significantly older at first use, less experienced, more likely to have mid-wheel drive and less complex seating. Additional costs for muscular dystrophy and spinal cord injury users were 3-4 times stroke users. This is the first large study of a general EPW user population using a seating classification. Significant differences were found between diagnostic groups; nevertheless, there was also high diversity within each group. The differences in provision and the equipment costs across diagnostic groups can be used to improve service planning. Implications for Rehabilitation At a service planning level, knowledge of a population's diagnostic group and age distribution can be used to inform decisions about the number of required EPWs and equipment costs. At a user level, purchasing decisions about powered characteristics and functions of EPWs and specialised seating equipment need to be taken on a case by case basis because of the diversity of users' needs within diagnostic groups. The additional equipment costs for SCI and MD users are several times those of stroke users and add between 60 and 70% of the cost of basic provision.

  6. Use, cost, complications, and mortality of robotic versus nonrobotic general surgery procedures based on a nationwide database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Bell, Theodore; Martin, Jennifer; Bhuva, Kalpesh; Grim, Rod; Ahuja, Vanita

    2013-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1997, robotic surgery has overcome many limitations, including setup costs and surgeon training. The use of robotics in general surgery remains unknown. This study evaluates robotic-assisted procedures in general surgery by comparing characteristics with its nonrobotic (laparoscopic and open) counterparts. Weighted Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample data (2008, 2009) were used to identify the top 12 procedures for robotic general surgery. Robotic cases were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes 17.41 and 17.42. Procedures were grouped: esophagogastric, colorectal, adrenalectomy, lysis of adhesion, and cholecystectomy. Analyses were descriptive, t tests, χ(2)s, and logistic regression. Charges and length of stay were adjusted for gender, age, race, payer, hospital bed size, hospital location, hospital region, median household income, Charlson score, and procedure type. There were 1,389,235 (97.4%) nonrobotic and 37,270 (2.6%) robotic cases. Robotic cases increased from 0.8 per cent (2008) to 4.3 per cent (2009, P robotic surgery had significantly shorter lengths of stay (4.9 days) than open surgery (6.1 days) and lower charges (median $30,540) than laparoscopic ($34,537) and open ($46,704) surgery. Fewer complications were seen in robotic-assisted colorectal, adrenalectomy and lysis of adhesion; however, robotic cholecystectomy and esophagogastric procedures had higher complications than nonrobotic surgery (P robotic surgery had a lower mortality rate (0.097%) than nonrobotic surgeries per 10,000 procedures (laparoscopic 0.48%, open 0.92%; P robotic surgery is generally considered a prohibitive factor. In the present study, when overall cost was considered, including length of stay, robotic surgery appeared to be cost-effective and as safe as nonrobotic surgery except in cholecystectomy and esophagogastric procedures. Further study is needed to fully understand the long-term implications of

  7. Metabolic Compensation of Fitness Costs Is a General Outcome for Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mutants Overexpressing Efflux Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Pacheco, Jorge; Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Alcalde Rico, Manuel; Martínez, José Luis

    2017-07-25

    It is generally assumed that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is associated with a fitness cost. We have shown that overexpression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump does not decrease the fitness of a resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain compared to its wild-type counterpart. This lack of fitness cost was associated with a metabolic rewiring that includes increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain when cells are growing under fully aerobic conditions. It was not clear whether this metabolic compensation was exclusive to strains overexpressing MexEF-OprN or if it extended to other resistant strains that overexpress similar systems. To answer this question, we studied a set of P. aeruginosa mutants that independently overexpress the MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, or MexXY efflux pumps. We observed increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain in all cases, with a concomitant increase in NO 3 consumption and NO production. These efflux pumps are proton/substrate antiporters, and their overexpression may lead to intracellular H + accumulation, which may in turn offset the pH homeostasis. Indeed, all studied mutants showed a decrease in intracellular pH under anaerobic conditions. The fastest way to eliminate the excess of protons is by increasing oxygen consumption, a feature also displayed by all analyzed mutants. Taken together, our results support metabolic rewiring as a general mechanism to avoid the fitness costs derived from overexpression of P. aeruginosa multidrug efflux pumps. The development of drugs that block this metabolic "reaccommodation" might help in reducing the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance elements among bacterial populations. IMPORTANCE It is widely accepted that the acquisition of resistance confers a fitness cost in such a way that in the absence of antibiotics, resistant populations will be outcompeted by susceptible ones. Based on this assumption, antibiotic cycling regimes have been

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Heather F; Lambley, Rosemary; West, Stephanie K; Ungar, Wendy J; Mireskandari, Kamiar

    2015-11-01

    The inability of some children to tolerate detailed eye examinations often necessitates general anaesthesia (GA). The objective was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of paediatric eye examinations carried out in an outpatient sedation unit compared with GA. An episode of care cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Model inputs were based on a retrospective cross-over cohort of Canadian children aged Costs ($CAN), adverse events and number of successful procedures were modelled in a decision analysis with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost per patient was $406 (95% CI $401 to $411) for EUS and $1135 (95% CI $1125 to $1145) for EUA. The mean number of successful procedures per patient was 1.39 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.42) for EUS and 2.06 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.11) for EUA. EUA was $729 more costly on average than EUS (95% CI $719 to $738) but resulted in an additional 0.68 successful procedures per child. The result was robust to varying the cost assumptions. Cross-over designs offer a powerful way to assess costs and effectiveness of two interventions because patients serve as their own control. This study demonstrated significant savings when ophthalmological exams were carried out in a hospital outpatient clinic, although with slightly fewer procedures completed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The two faces of plan repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Plan repair has two faces. Alternately, a plan repair method looks like a planning method, or looks like a method that does exactly the opposite, i.e., removing actions from a plan. We propose a general framework for plan repair that shows the relation between these two alternating steps. Any plan

  10. Procedures for maintenance and repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.

    1981-01-01

    After a general review of the operation experience in the history of more than 12 operating years, the organization in the plant will be shown with special aspect to quality assurance, capacity of the workshops and connected groups as radiation protection, chemical laboratories etc. The number, time intervals and manpower effort for the repeating tests will be discussed. Reasons and examples for back-fitting activities in the plant are given. Besides special repair and maintenance procedures as repair of the steam generators, in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel, repair of a feed-water pipe and repair of the core structure in the pressure vessel, the general system to handle maintenance and repair-work in the KWO-plant will be shown. This includes also the detailed planning of the annual refueling and revision of the plant. (orig./RW)

  11. 34 CFR 76.565 - General management costs-restricted rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that are for the direction and control of the grantee's affairs that are organization-wide. An activity...) Components of the grantee are those organizational units supervised directly or indirectly by the chief executive officer. These organizational units generally exist one management level below the executive...

  12. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  13. General hospital costs in England of medical and psychiatric care for patients who self-harm: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; McDaid, David; Casey, Deborah; Brand, Fiona; Leal, Jose; Park, A-La; Geulayov, Galit; Hawton, Keith

    2017-10-01

    costs of psychosocial assessments were £228 for adults and £392 for individuals younger than 18 years. If our findings are extrapolated to England, the estimated overall annual cost of general hospital management of self-harm is £162 million per year. More use of psychosocial assessment and other preventive measures, especially for young people and against self-poisoning, could potentially lower future costs at a time of major cost pressures in the NHS. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research, Care Oxford at Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, and Department of Health. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. 39 CFR 230.25 - Who pays the costs incurred when the Office of Inspector General responds to a demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who pays the costs incurred when the Office of....25 Who pays the costs incurred when the Office of Inspector General responds to a demand for documents or testimony? (a) Unless determined by 28 U.S.C. 1821 or other applicable statute, the costs of...

  15. Time and cost analysis: pediatric dental rehabilitation with general anesthesia in the office and the hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashewsky, Stephanie; Parameswaran, Ashish; Sloane, Carole; Ferguson, Fred; Epstein, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric dental patients who cannot receive dental care in the clinic due to uncooperative behavior are often referred to receive dental care under general anesthesia (GA). At Stony Brook Medicine, dental patients requiring treatment with GA receive dental care in our outpatient facility at the Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine (SDM) or in the Stony Brook University Hospital ambulatory setting (SBUH). This study investigates the time and cost for ambulatory American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class I pediatric patients receiving full-mouth dental rehabilitation using GA in these 2 locations, along with a descriptive analysis of the patients and dental services provided. In this institutional review board-approved cross-sectional retrospective study, ICD-9 codes for dental caries (521.00) were used to collect patient records between July 2009 and May 2011. Participants were limited to ASA I patients aged 36-60 months. Complete records from 96 patients were reviewed. There were significant differences in cost, total anesthesia time, and recovery room time (P average total time (anesthesia end time minus anesthesia start time) to treat a child at SBUH under GA was 222 ± 62.7 minutes, and recovery time (time of discharge minus anesthesia end time) was 157 ± 97.2 minutes; the average total cost was $7,303. At the SDM, the average total time was 175 ± 36.8 minutes, and recovery time was 25 ± 12.7 minutes; the average total cost was $414. After controlling for anesthesia time and procedures, we found that SBUH cost 13.2 times more than SDM. This study provides evidence that ASA I pediatric patients can receive full-mouth dental rehabilitation utilizing GA under the direction of dentist anesthesiologists in an office-based dental setting more quickly and at a lower cost. This is very promising for patients with the least access to care, including patients with special needs and lack of insurance.

  16. Prevalence and Cost of Full-Time Research Fellowships During General Surgery Residency – A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M.; Klingensmith, Mary E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. Summary Background Data General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1-3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Methods Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Results Response rate was 200/239 (84%). A total of 381 out of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and post-residency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (p<0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of ACGME work hour regulations for clinical residents, while a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Conclusions Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. While performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after post-graduate training. PMID:19106692

  17. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    2018-02-20

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  18. General interest and investment. Long-term marginal cost and pricing at Electricite de France (1948-1949)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yon, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the construction of a concept in economic theory, long-term marginal cost pricing. It does so by exploring the work done within electricite de France in 1948-1949 by a group of engineer-economists who came out with the notion while they were engaged in completely remaking the pricing policy of the new public monopoly. I will show that the concept envisages a large-scale reorganization of the national power generation capacity in order to enact a certain conception of the general interest in the electric sector

  19. Multicenter review of robotic versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: is there a role for robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter A; May, Audriene C; Mo, Jiandi; Cherla, Deepa V; Santillan, Monica Rosales; Kim, Steven; Ryan, Heidi; Shah, Shinil K; Wilson, Erik B; Tsuda, Shawn

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of robotic platforms for general surgery procedures such as hernia repair is growing rapidly in the United States. A limited amount of data are available evaluating operative outcomes in comparison to standard laparoscopic surgery. We completed a retrospective review comparing robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair to provide safety and outcomes data to help design a future prospective trial design. A retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (142 robotic and 73 laparoscopic) was completed at two large academic centers. Primary outcome measure evaluated was recurrence. Secondary outcomes included incidence of primary fascial closure, and surgical site occurrences. Propensity for treatment match comparison demonstrated that robotic repair was associated with a decreased incidence of recurrence (2.1 versus 4.2%, p robotic repair was associated with increased incidence of primary fascial closure (77.1 versus 66.7%, p robotic repairs were completed on patients with lower body mass index (28.1 ± 3.6 versus 34.2 ± 6.4, p robotic repair was associated with decreased recurrence and surgical site occurrence. However, the differences noted in the patient populations limit the interpretability of these results. As adoption of robotic ventral hernia repair increases, prospective trials need to be designed in order to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this evolving technique.

  20. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  1. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  2. Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2014-04-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  3. Implementation of an electronic surgical referral service. Collaboration, consensus and cost of the surgeon – general practitioner Delphi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augestad KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut Magne Augestad,1–3 Arthur Revhaug,1,3 Roar Johnsen,4 Stein-Olav Skrøvseth,2 Rolv-Ole Lindsetmo1,3 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 2Department of Integrated Care and Telemedicine, University Hospital North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; 4Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: Poor coordination between levels of care plays a central role in determining the quality and cost of health care. To improve patient coordination, systematic structures, guidelines, and processes for creating, transferring, and recognizing information are needed to facilitate referral routines. Methods: Prospective observational survey of implementation of electronic medical record (EMR-supported guidelines for surgical treatment. Results: One university clinic, two local hospitals, 31 municipalities, and three EMR vendors participated in the implementation project. Surgical referral guidelines were developed using the Delphi method; 22 surgeons and seven general practitioners (GPs needed 109 hours to reach consensus. Based on consensus guidelines, an electronic referral service supported by a clinical decision support system, fully integrated into the GPs' EMR, was developed. Fifty-five information technology personnel and 563 hours were needed (total cost 67,000 £ to implement a guideline supported system in the EMR for 139 GPs. Economical analyses from a hospital and societal perspective, showed that 504 (range 401–670 and 37 (range 29–49 referred patients, respectively, were needed to provide a cost-effective service. Conclusion: A considerable amount of resources were needed to reach consensus on the surgical referral guidelines. A structured approach by the Delphi method and close collaboration between IT personnel, surgeons and primary care physicians were needed to

  4. A geometric process repair model for a repairable cold standby system with priority in use and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Wang Guanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. For each component, assume that the successive working times form a decreasing geometric process while the consecutive repair times constitute an increasing geometric process, and component 1 has priority in use and repair. Under these assumptions, we consider a replacement policy N based on the number of repairs of component 1 under which the system is replaced when the number of repairs of component 1 reaches N. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy N* such that the average cost rate (i.e. the long-run average cost per unit time) of the system is minimized. The explicit equation of the average cost rate of the system is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy N* can be determined analytically or numerically. Finally, a numerical example with Weibull distribution is given to illustrate some theoretical results in this paper.

  5. Tissue repair capacity and repair kinetics deduced from multifractionated or continuous irradiation regimens with incomplete repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.; Peters, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model is proposed for cell survival after multiple doses, when the interfraction interval is insufficient for complete Elkind repair. In the limit of ever-increasing number of ever-smaller fractional doses, the model transforms into the accumulation model of survival after continuous irradiation. When adapted to describe tissue responses to isoeffective multifractionated regimens, wherein repair is incomplete, a generalization of the usually linear plot of reciprocal total dose versus dose per fraction is obtained, in which downward curvature is evident. There is an advantage in studying tissue responses to multifractionated regimens with incomplete repair in the interfraction intervals, or continuous exposures at various dose rates since, in addition to determination of repair capacity, there is an estimate of repair kinetics. Results of analyses of previously published data are presented as illustration. Estimated from the response of three acutely responding normal tissues in the mouse (jejunum, colon and bone marrow), repair halftimes ranged from 0.3-0.9 h and values of β/delta were approximately 0.1 Gy -1 . From the response of mouse lung (LD50 for pneumonitis) to multifractionated regimens with incomplete repair, the repair halftime was estimated at 1.5 h and β/delta was 0.27 Gy -1 . In the rat spinal cord β/delta was 0.7 Gy -1 and Tsub(1/2) was 1.5 h. (U.K.)

  6. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  7. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  8. Complex networks under dynamic repair model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoqi, Fu; Ying, Wang; Kun, Zhao; Yangjun, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Invulnerability is not the only factor of importance when considering complex networks' security. It is also critical to have an effective and reasonable repair strategy. Existing research on network repair is confined to the static model. The dynamic model makes better use of the redundant capacity of repaired nodes and repairs the damaged network more efficiently than the static model; however, the dynamic repair model is complex and polytropic. In this paper, we construct a dynamic repair model and systematically describe the energy-transfer relationships between nodes in the repair process of the failure network. Nodes are divided into three types, corresponding to three structures. We find that the strong coupling structure is responsible for secondary failure of the repaired nodes and propose an algorithm that can select the most suitable targets (nodes or links) to repair the failure network with minimal cost. Two types of repair strategies are identified, with different effects under the two energy-transfer rules. The research results enable a more flexible approach to network repair.

  9. 26 CFR 1.162-4 - Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of acquisition or production or the gain or loss basis of the taxpayer's plant, equipment, or other property, as the case may be, is not increased by the amount of such expenditures. Repairs in the... incidental repairs which neither materially add to the value of the property nor appreciably prolong its life...

  10. Age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Qu, Jian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    In most of literatures of age replacement policy, failures before planned replacement age can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired based on the types of failures, cost for repairs and so on. In this paper, we propose age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability. The proposed policy incorporates the case that such intermittent failure can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired with random probabilities. The mathematical formulas of the expected cost rate per unit time are derived for both the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that the optimal replacement age exists and is finite. - Highlights: • We propose a new age replacement policy with random probability of perfect repair. • We develop the expected cost per unit time. • We discuss the optimal age for replacement minimizing the expected cost rate.

  11. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  12. Strategic Inventory Positioning of Navy Depot Level Repairable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... the benefits in modifying their current inventory positioning policy for repairable items. NAVICP wishes to incorporate a strategic inventory positioning policy that reduces transportation costs...

  13. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. Traditional methods relying on predefined quality rules to detect the conflict between data may fail to choose the right way to fix the detected conflict. Recent efforts turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes the advantages of both rule-based method and crowd-based method. Particularly, we investigate the interaction between crowd-based repairing and rule-based repairing, and show that by doing crowd-based repairing to a small portion of values, we can greatly improve the repairing quality of the rule-based repairing method. Although we prove that the optimal interaction scheme using the least number of values for crowd-based repairing to maximize the imputation recall is not feasible to be achieved, still, our proposed solution identifies an efficient scheme through investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Our empirical study on three data collections demonstrates the high repairing quality of CrowdAidRepair, as well as the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over baselines.

  14. Content-Related Repairing of Inconsistencies in Distributed Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Feng Du; De-Rong Shen; Tie-Zheng Nie; Yue Kou; Ge Yu

    2016-01-01

    Conditional functional dependencies (CFDs) are a critical technique for detecting inconsistencies while they may ignore some potential inconsistencies without considering the content relationship of data. Content-related conditional functional dependencies (CCFDs) are a type of special CFDs, which combine content-related CFDs and detect potential inconsistencies by putting content-related data together. In the process of cleaning inconsistencies, detection and repairing are interactive: 1) detection catches inconsistencies, 2) repairing corrects caught inconsistencies while may bring new incon-sistencies. Besides, data are often fragmented and distributed into multiple sites. It consequently costs expensive shipment for inconsistencies cleaning. In this paper, our aim is to repair inconsistencies in distributed content-related data. We propose a framework consisting of an inconsistencies detection method and an inconsistencies repairing method, which work iteratively. The detection method marks the violated CCFDs for computing the inconsistencies which should be repaired preferentially. Based on the repairing-cost model presented in this paper, we prove that the minimum-cost repairing using CCFDs is NP-complete. Therefore, the repairing method heuristically repairs the inconsistencies with minimum cost. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of repairing, we propose distinct values and rules sequences. Distinct values make less data shipments than real data for communication. Rules sequences determine appropriate repairing sequences to avoid some incorrect repairs. Our solution is proved to be more effective than CFDs by empirical evaluation on two real-life datasets.

  15. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  16. A Comparison of Inpatient Cost Per Day in General Surgery Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Basal-Bolus versus Sliding Scale Insulin Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Victoria L; Byrd, Anwar L; Adeel, Saira; Peng, Limin; Smiley, Dawn D; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2017-01-01

    The identification of cost-effective glycaemic management strategies is critical to hospitals. Treatment with a basal-bolus insulin (BBI) regimen has been shown to result in better glycaemic control and fewer complications than sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) in general surgery patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the effect on costs is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the RABBIT Surgery trial to examine whether total inpatient costs per day for general surgery patients with T2DM treated with BBI ( n  = 103) differed from those for patients with T2DM treated with SSI ( n  = 99) regimens. Data were collected from patient clinical and hospital billing records. Charges were adjusted to reflect hospital costs. General linearized models were used to estimate the risk-adjusted effects of BBI versus SSI treatment on average total inpatient costs per day. Risk-adjusted average total inpatient costs per day were $US5404. Treatment with BBI compared with SSI reduced average total inpatient costs per day by $US751 (14%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 20-4). Being treated in a university medical centre, being African American or having a bowel procedure or higher-volume pharmacy use significantly reduced costs per day. In general surgery patients with T2DM, a BBI regimen significantly reduced average total hospital costs per day compared with an SSI regimen. BBI has been shown to improve outcomes in a randomized controlled trial. Those results, combined with our findings regarding savings, suggest that hospitals should consider adopting BBI regimens in patients with T2DM undergoing surgery.

  17. Prospective casemix-based funding, analysis and financial impact of cost outliers in all-patient refined diagnosis related groups in three Belgian general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, Magali; Martins, Dimitri; Jackson, Terri; Dramaix, Michèle; Leclercq, Pol

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the impact of cost outliers in term of hospital resources consumption, the financial impact of the outliers under the Belgium casemix-based system, and the validity of two "proxies" for costs: length of stay and charges. The cost of all hospital stays at three Belgian general hospitals were calculated for the year 2001. High resource use outliers were selected according to the following rule: 75th percentile +1.5 xinter-quartile range. The frequency of cost outliers varied from 7% to 8% across hospitals. Explanatory factors were: major or extreme severity of illness, longer length of stay, and intensive care unit stay. Cost outliers account for 22-30% of hospital costs. One-third of length-of-stay outliers are not cost outliers, and nearly one-quarter of charges outliers are not cost outliers. The current funding system in Belgium does not penalize hospitals having a high percentage of outliers. The billing generated by these patients largely compensates for costs generated. Length of stay and charges are not a good approximation to select cost outliers.

  18. DNA repair , cell repair and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data obtained in laboratory of radiation cytology and literature data testifying to a considerable role of DNA repair in cell sensitivity to radiation and chemical DNA-tropic agents have been considered. Data pointing to the probability of contribution of inducible repair of DNA into plant cells sensitivity to X-rays are obtained. Certain violations of DNA repair do not result in the increase of radiosensitivity. It is assumed that in the cases unknown mechanisms of DNA repair operate

  19. A general model for the estimation of societal costs of lost production and informal care in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2017-02-01

    reported HRQoL data with demographically matched Italian norms. Our results will be useful for cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses conducted from the perspective of the Italian society and we encourage the inclusion of these costs in economic evaluations to allow decision makers to be fully informed about the costs and consequences of their decisions on healthcare interventions.

  20. Resource consumption and costs in Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from 29 general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redekop, WK; Koopmanschap, MA; Rutten, GEHM; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Stolk, RP; Niessen, LW

    Aims The aims of this study were to estimate the costs incurred by Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes, examine which patient and/or treatment characteristics are associated with costs, and estimate the medical and non-medical costs of patients with Type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Methods

  1. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Zhixu; Gu, Binbin; Xie, Qing; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xiangliang; Li, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes

  2. A comparison of the 'cost per child treated' at a primary care-based sedation referral service, compared to a general anaesthetic in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, K; Averley, P A; Shackley, P; Steele, J

    2007-09-22

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of dental sedation techniques used in the treatment of children, focusing on hospital-based dental general anaesthetic (DGA) and advanced conscious sedation in a controlled primary care environment. Data on fees, costs and treatment pathways were obtained from a primary care clinic specialising in advanced sedation techniques. For the hospital-based DGA cohort, data were gathered from hospital trusts in the same area. Comparison was via an average cost per child treated and subsequent sensitivity analysis. Analysing records spanning one year, the average cost per child treated via advanced conscious sedation was pound245.47. As some treatments fail (3.5% of cases attempted), and the technique is not deemed suitable for all patients (4-5%), DGA is still required and has been factored into this cost. DGA has an average cost per case treated of pound359.91, 46.6% more expensive than advanced conscious sedation. These cost savings were robust to plausible variation in all parameters. The costs of advanced conscious sedation techniques, applied in a controlled primary care environment, are substantially lower than the equivalent costs of hospital-based DGA, informing the debate about the optimum way of managing this patient group.

  3. The Distinction between Direct and General Costs with Regard to the Deduction of Input VAT - The Case of Acquisition, Holding and Sale of Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of distinguishing between direct and general costs. On the other hand the aim is to describe and analyse the law as it stands regarding the treatment of shares in the EU VAT system, with a special focus on the right to deduct input VAT on costs re-lating to transactions in shares. As a part of this analysis the aim......In revealing the conditions for the deduction of input VAT, the essential questions concern the nature of the so-called ‘direct and immediate link’ test and thus also the criteria for the important distinction between direct costs and general costs. The ‘direct and immediate link’ test...... is of general importance to all types of costs, but judged from the case law of the ECJ it has especially materialised itself when it comes to costs related to the acquisition, holding or sales of shares. The purpose of this article is therefore twofold. On the one hand it deals with the difficult question...

  4. Trojan Decommissioning Project Cost Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael B. Lackey

    2000-01-01

    The Trojan nuclear plant (Trojan) was an 1160-MW(electric) four-loop pressurized water reactor located in Rainier, Oregon. The plant was permanently shut down in 1993 after ∼17 yr of commercial operation. The early plant closure was an economic decision. The key factors in the closure analysis were escalation of inspection and repair costs associated with steam generator tube cracking and the projected availability of inexpensive replacement power in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Since the plant closure, Portland General Electric (PGE) has been actively engaged in decommissioning. The Trojan Decommissioning Project currently has a forecast at completion of $429.7 million (all costs are in millions of 1997 dollars, unless otherwise noted). The cost performance of the Trojan Decommissioning Project to date is addressed, as well as the tools that are in place to provide cost control through completion of decommissioning

  5. Incore inspection and repairing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Kimura, Motohiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for inspecting and repairing the inside of a reactor container even if it is narrow, with no trouble by using a swimming-type operation robot. Namely, the device of the present invention conducts inspection and repairing operations for the inside of the reactor by introducing a swimming type operation robot into the reactor container. The swimming-type operation robot comprises a robot main body having a propeller, a balancer operably disposed to the robot main body and an inspection and repairing unit attached detachable to the balancer. In the device of the present invention, since the inspection and preparing unit is attached detachably to the swimming robot, a robot which transports tools is formed as a standard product. As a result, the production cost can be reduced, and the reliability of products can be improved. Appropriate operations can be conducted by using best tools. (I.S.)

  6. Survey of Active Structural Control and Repair Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric actuator has gained popularity over the last few years. Attention has been directed towards the study of their electromechanical response in active repair and the control of damaged structures. This has been made possible through the development of various numerical and analytical techniques for such studies. The shift of focus towards the piezoelectric based approaches has been due to their advantages, which include strategic cost benefits in maintenance, as well as an increase in the life cycle of the repaired structures. Furthermore, adhesively bonded joints are widely used in the manufacturing and repairing of structures in many industries, especially automotive and aerospace engineering. This is due to the requirement for lightweight materials as well as the potential adhesive used to join materials with different characteristics. The piezoelectric actuator has also shown the capacity in controlling and lowering the shear stress concentration and joint edge peel in adhesively bonded joint systems. The structure’s control of stress and repair can generally be viewed as a reinforcement that influences the structure’s damage tolerance. Therefore, the interest of this review is on the applications of the piezoelectric actuators in both structural damage and the bonded adhesive joint system. The specific goal is to recognize the contemporary scientific challenges, including future opportunities.

  7. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, Gudrun P.

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is backlogged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed.......We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is backlogged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed....

  8. Imperfect repair and lifesaving in heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: FinkelM.SCl@mail.uovs.ac.za

    2007-12-15

    In this theoretical paper we generalize the notion of minimal repair to the heterogeneous case, when the lifetime distribution function can be modeled by continuous or a discrete mixture of distributions. The statistical (black box) minimal repair and the minimal repair based on information just before the failure of an object are considered. The corresponding failure (intensity) rate processes are defined and analyzed. Demographic lifesaving model is also considered: each life is saved (cured) with some probability (or equivalently a proportion of individuals who would have died are now resuscitated and given another chance). Those who are saved experience the statistical minimal repair. Both of these models are based on the Poisson or non-homogeneous Poisson processes of underlying events, which allow for considering heterogeneity. We also consider the new model of imperfect repair in the homogeneous case and present generalizations to the heterogeneous setting.

  9. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R, s, nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, G.P

    2007-01-01

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is back-logged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed. For given values of Q and R we show how to compute...

  10. The impact of substituting general practitioners with nurse practitioners on resource use, production and health-care costs during out-of-hours: a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, M.G. van der; Adang, E.M.; Burgt, R. Van Der; Wensing, M.; Laurant, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pressure in out-of-hours primary care is high due to an increasing demand for care and rising health-care costs. During the daytime, substituting general practitioners (GPs) with nurse practitioners (NPs) shows positive results to contribute to these challenges. However, there is a

  11. Better Cash Management Can Reduce the Cost of the National Direct Student Loan Program. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Office of Education has allowed schools participating in the National Direct Student Loan Program to hold more than an annual average of $63 million in federal funds in excess of their 30-day needs. The General Accounting Office estimates that if the Treasury had this money it could save the government interest costs of as much as $4 million,…

  12. The Disability Impact and Associated Cost per Disability in Women Who Underwent Surgical Revision of Transvaginal Mesh Kits for Prolapse Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Pouya; Shobeiri, S Abbas

    2017-09-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate disability impact in patients and cost to the families of patients who have had complications of transvaginal prolapse mesh kits and underwent surgical revision. Patients who developed complications of transvaginal mesh kits for prolapse and who had undergone vaginal prolapse mesh surgical revision/removal in 2009 to 2014 at a single institution were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. The group was invited to complete a phone survey pertaining to the initial vaginal mesh used for prolapse surgery utilizing Sheehan Disability Scale (scale 0-10) and Years of life Lived with Disability (YLDs) questionnaires. The data collected were used to estimate the disability and cost analysis. We used our data to estimate the economic and quality-of-life impact of vaginal mesh complications on patients in the United States RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (62/198 [31.2%]) were consented to participate and completed the questionnaires by phone. Extremely disabled patients were 18 (29%) of 62 of whole cases, and 5 (8%) of 62 reported that they had no disability after vaginal mesh surgery. The median for overall disability score after vaginal mesh procedure was 8 (which reflects marked disability on a scale of 0-10). The majority of patients missed a median of 12 months of their school or work because of their mesh complications. Thirty-seven (59.6%) of 62 did not improve after mesh removal. Twenty-one (33.9%) of 62 stated that their family income dropped because of productivity loss related to mesh complications. The mean time between vaginal mesh surgery and mesh removal procedure was 4.7 years. Sheehan Disability Scale scores are significantly correlated with YLDs outcomes. Patients' overall disability score showed a significant correlation with YLDs scores (P mesh for prolapse reduction complications had a sustained disability impact that continued despite mesh removal. Likewise, the complications were associated with

  13. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  14. Establishing Maximal Medical Improvement After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuke, William A; Leroux, Timothy S; Gregory, Bonnie P; Black, Austin; Forsythe, Brian; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2018-03-01

    As health care transitions from a pay-for-service to a pay-for-performance infrastructure, the value of orthopaedic care must be defined accurately. Significant efforts have been made in defining quality and cost in arthroplasty; however, there remains a lag in ambulatory orthopaedic care. Two-year follow-up has been a general requirement for reporting outcomes after rotator cuff repair. However, this time requirement has not been established scientifically and is of increasing importance in the era of value-based health care. Given that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a common ambulatory orthopaedic procedure, the purpose of this study was to establish a time frame for maximal medical improvement (the state when improvement has stabilized) after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Systematic review. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, identifying studies reporting sequential patient-reported outcomes up to a minimum of 2 years after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The primary clinical outcome was patient-reported outcomes at 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up. Secondary clinical outcomes included range of motion, strength, retears, and complications. Clinically significant improvement was determined between various time intervals by use of the minimal clinically important difference. The review included 19 studies including 1370 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair. Clinically significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes was seen up to 1 year after rotator cuff repair, but no clinical significance was noted from 1 year to 2 years. The majority of improvement in strength and range of motion was seen up to 6 months, but no clinically meaningful improvement was seen thereafter. All reported complications and the majority of retears occurred within 6 months after rotator cuff repair. After rotator cuff repair, a clinically significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes, range of motion, and strength was seen up to 1

  15. Comparative cost analysis of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder patients in secondary care from a national hospital registry in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanpää, Tero; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Linna, Miika; Timonen, Markku

    2014-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has shown to cause high costs to society. Earlier research indicates that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) also causes high costs, but only limited data is available in varying settings. To analyse the secondary care costs of GAD compared with those of MDD. Retrospective database analysis from Finnish Hospital Discharge Registers (FHDR). All GAD and MDD patients diagnosed between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2007 in FHDR were recorded and individual-level secondary care costs during a 48-month follow-up period were measured. The total mean cost of GAD with history of MDD or some other anxiety disorder was significantly higher than that of MDD with history of GAD or some other anxiety disorder during the 48-month follow-up period. The costs of pure GAD were comparable with those of pure MDD, but after adjusting for age and sex, the costs of pure MDD were higher than those of pure GAD. The economic burden of individual GAD patients is comparable with that of MDD patients in secondary care.

  16. Optimization of economic load dispatch of higher order general cost polynomials and its sensitivity using modified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Chakraborty, Shantanu; Abdur Razzak, S.M.; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) for constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Real cost functions are more complex than conventional second order cost functions when multi-fuel operations, valve-point effects, accurate curve fitting, etc., are considering in deregulated changing market. The proposed modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) consists of problem dependent variable number of promising values (in velocity vector), unit vector and error-iteration dependent step length. It reliably and accurately tracks a continuously changing solution of the complex cost function and no extra concentration/effort is needed for the complex higher order cost polynomials in ELD. Constraint management is incorporated in the modified PSO. The modified PSO has balance between local and global searching abilities, and an appropriate fitness function helps to converge it quickly. To avoid the method to be frozen, stagnated/idle particles are reset. Sensitivity of the higher order cost polynomials is also analyzed visually to realize the importance of the higher order cost polynomials for the optimization of ELD. Finally, benchmark data sets and methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  17. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, A N; Roulin, A

    2014-06-01

    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question of whether one or the two partners derive fitness benefits by divorcing. Our results support the hypothesis that divorce is adaptive: after a poor reproductive season, at least one of the two divorcees increase breeding success up to the level of faithful pairs. By breeding more often together, faithful pairs improve coordination and thereby gain in their efficiency to produce successful fledglings. Males would divorce to obtain a compatible mate rather than a mate of higher quality: a heritable melanin-based signal of female quality did not predict divorce (indicating that female absolute quality may not be the cause of divorce), but the new mate of divorced males was less melanic than their previous mate. This suggests that, at least for males, a cost of divorce may be to secure a lower-quality but compatible mate. The better option hypothesis could not be formally rejected, as only one of the two divorcing partners commonly succeeded in obtaining a higher reproductive success after divorce. In conclusion, incompatible partners divorce to restore reproductive success, and by breeding more often together, faithful partners improve coordination. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. [Rotator cuff repair: single- vs double-row. Clinical and biomechanical results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Kostuj, T; Klinger, H-M; Papalia, R

    2016-02-01

    The goal of rotator cuff repair is a high initial mechanical stability as a requirement for adequate biological recovery of the tendon-to-bone complex. Notwithstanding the significant increase in publications concerning the topic of rotator cuff repair, there are still controversies regarding surgical technique. The aim of this work is to present an overview of the recently published results of biomechanical and clinical studies on rotator cuff repair using single- and double-row techniques. The review is based on a selective literature research of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database on the subject of the clinical and biomechanical results of single- and double-row repair. In general, neither the biomechanical nor the clinical evidence can recommend the use of a double-row concept for the treatment for every rotator cuff tear. Only tears of more than 3 cm seem to benefit from better results on both imaging and in clinical outcome studies compared with the use of single-row techniques. Despite a significant increase in publications on the surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears in recent years, the clinical results were not significantly improved in the literature so far. Unique information and algorithms, from which the optimal treatment of this entity can be derived, are still inadequate. Because of the cost-effectiveness and the currently vague evidence, the double-row techniques cannot be generally recommended for the repair of all rotator cuff tears.

  19. Advanced repair methods for enhanced reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornfeldt, H.

    1993-01-01

    A few innovative concepts are described of the ABB Atom Service Division for repair and mitigation techniques for primary systems in nuclear power plants. The concepts are based on Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology. A basic feature of all methods is that welding and component replacement is being avoided and the radiation dose imposed on maintenance personnel reduced. The SMA-based repair methods give plant operators new ways to meet increased safety standards and rising maintenance costs. (Z.S.) 4 figs

  20. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  1. Life satisfaction, general well-being and costs of treatment for severe fear of childbirth in nulliparous women by psychoeducative group or conventional care attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhe, Hanna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Toivanen, Riikka; Tokola, Maiju; Halmesmäki, Erja; Saisto, Terhi

    2015-05-01

    Fear of childbirth is a common reason for seeking cesarean section. It is important to consider outcomes and costs associated with alternative treatment and delivery mode. We compared well-being and costs of group psychoeducation and conventional care for fear of childbirth. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 371 nulliparous women scoring over the 95th centile in the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ) during the first trimester. Finland, data from obstetrical patient records and questionnaires. Randomization to group psychoeducation with relaxation (six sessions during pregnancy, one after childbirth, n = 131), or surveillance and referral on demand (n = 240). All costs in maternity care during pregnancy, delivery and postnatally according to Diagnoses Related Groups. Life satisfaction and general well-being 3 months after childbirth (by a Satisfaction with Life Scale and Well-being Visual Analogue Scale). The groups did not differ in total direct costs (€3786/woman in psychoeducative group and €3830/woman in control group), nor in life satisfaction or general well-being. Although only 76 (30%) of the women assigned to the surveillance were referred to special maternity care and 36 (15%) attended advanced prenatal classes, costs in the psychoeducation group did not exceed the costs of the controls, mostly because of the greater number of uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (63% vs. 47%, p = 0.005). Through an association with safer childbirth and equal well-being after delivery, psychoeducative group treatment for nulliparous women with fear of childbirth can be a recommended choice for the same overall costs as conventional treatment. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses for combinations of prevention strategies against human papillomavirus (HPV infection: a general trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gervais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the arrival of multi-valent HPV vaccines, it is more and more important to have a better understanding of the relationship between vaccination and screening programmes. This review aimed to: (1 collect published evidence on the cost-effectiveness profile of different HPV prevention strategies and, in particular, those combining vaccination with changes in screening practices; (2 explore the cost-effectiveness of alternative preventive strategies based on screening and vaccination. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify the relevant studies regarding the cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies against HPV infection. Analysis comparing the modelling approaches between studies was made along with an assessment of the magnitude of impact of several factors on the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. Results A total of 18 papers were quantitatively summarised within the narrative. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in terms of how HPV prevention strategies have been assessed in terms of their economic and epidemiological impact, with variation in screening practice and valence of HPV vaccination found to have large implications in terms of cost-effectiveness. Conclusions This review demonstrated synergies between screening and vaccination. New prevention strategies involving multi-valence vaccination, HPV DNA test screening, delayed commencement and frequency of screening could be implemented in the future. Strategies implemented in the future should be chosen with care, and informed knowledge of the potential impact of all possible prevention strategies. Highlighted in this review is the difficulty in assessing multiple strategies. Appropriate modelling techniques will need to be utilised to assess the most cost-effective strategies.

  3. Availability and cost functions for periodically inspected preventively maintained units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Unavailability and cost rate functions are developed for components whose failures can occur randomly but they are detected only by periodic testing or inspections. If a failure occurs between consecutive inspections, the unit remains failed until the next inspection. Components are renewed by preventive maintenance periodically, or by repair or replacement after a failure, whichever occurs first (age-replacement). The model takes into account finite repair and maintenance durations as well as costs due to testing, repair, maintenance and lost production or accidents. For normally operating units the time-related penalty is loss of production. For standby safety equipment it is the expected cost of an accident that can happen when the component is down due to a dormant failure, repair or maintenance. The objective of maintenance optimization is to minimize the total cost rate by proper selection of two intervals, one for inspections and one for replacements. General conditions and techniques are developed for solving optimal test and maintenance intervals, with and without constraints on the production loss or accident rate. Insights are gained into how the optimal intervals depend on various cost parameters and reliability characteristics

  4. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  5. Retinal detachment repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines Problems breathing You may not recover full vision. ... detachments can be repaired. Failure to repair the retina always results in loss of vision to some degree. After surgery, the quality of ...

  6. Health care costs before and after diagnosis of depression in patients with unexplained pain: a retrospective cohort study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Reed,1 Jihyung Hong,2 Diego Novick,1 Alan Lenox-Smith,3 Michael Happich41Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 3Eli Lilly UK, Basingstoke, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, GermanyPurpose: To assess the impact of pain severity and time to diagnosis of depression on health care costs for primary care patients with pre-existing unexplained pain symptoms who subsequently received a diagnosis of depression.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4000 adults with unexplained pain (defined as painful physical symptoms [PPS] without any probable organic cause and a subsequent diagnosis of depression, identified from the UK General Practice Research Database using diagnostic codes. Patients were categorized into four groups based on pain severity (milder or more severe; based on number of pain-relief medications and use of opioids and time to diagnosis of depression (≤1 year or >1 year from PPS index date. Annual health care costs were calculated (2009 values and included general practitioner (GP consultations, secondary care referrals, and prescriptions for pain-relief medications for the 12 months before depression diagnosis and in the subsequent 2 years. Multivariate models of cost included time period as a main independent variable, and adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities.Results: Total annual health care costs before and after depression diagnosis for the four patient groups were higher for the groups with more severe pain (£819–£988 versus £565–£628; P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons and highest for the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis in the subsequent 2 years (P < 0.05. Total GP costs were highest in the group with more severe pain and longer time to depression diagnosis both before and after depression diagnosis (P

  7. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  8. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  9. Reparación general o restablecimiento a kilómetro cero. ¿Cuál es la diferencia? // General repair or reestablishment to zero kilometer. Which is the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baste González

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se ha presentado con gran énfasis el uso de los agregados y motores que han pasado un proceso derestablecimiento a kilómetro cero. El empleo de los procesos tecnológicos de reparación general de agregados ha sidosiempre un método que en la variante individual es de gran aplicación en los talleres que reparan modelos distintos y enpequeñas cantidades. En la presente nota técnica se hace un análisis de las diferencias y semejanzas entre la reparacióngeneral individual y el restablecimiento a kilómetro cero.Palabras claves: Reparación general, kilómetro cero, reparación de motores.______________________________________________________________________________En la actualidad se ha presentado con gran énfasis el uso de los agregados y motores que han pasado un proceso derestablecimiento a kilómetro cero. El empleo de los procesos tecnológicos de reparación general de agregados ha sidosiempre un método que en la variante individual es de gran aplicación en los talleres que reparan modelos distintos y enpequeñas cantidades. En la presente nota técnica se hace un análisis de las diferencias y semejanzas entre la reparacióngeneral individual y el restablecimiento a kilómetro cero.Palabras claves: Reparación general, kilómetro cero, reparación de motores.

  10. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Sapowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed body condition scores (BCS and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n=149 and a general practice (n=166. BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices. Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P<0.001 and education (P<0.001 compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P<0.001 and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P<0.001. Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P=0.083, with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P=0.046, but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P=0.230. Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P=0.004. Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  11. Reparación general o restablecimiento a kilómetro cero. ¿Cuál es la diferencia? // General repair or reestablishment to zero kilometer. Which is the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    J. Baste González

    2003-01-01

    En la actualidad se ha presentado con gran énfasis el uso de los agregados y motores que han pasado un proceso derestablecimiento a kilómetro cero. El empleo de los procesos tecnológicos de reparación general de agregados ha sidosiempre un método que en la variante individual es de gran aplicación en los talleres que reparan modelos distintos y enpequeñas cantidades. En la presente nota técnica se hace un análisis de las diferencias y semejanzas entre la reparacióngeneral individual y el rest...

  12. High performance repairing of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.; Holschemacher, K.; Mueller, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steel fibered high strength concrete is effective for repairing concrete elements. ► Changing fibers’ content, required ductility of the repaired element is achieved. ► Experiments prove previously developed design concepts for two layer beams. -- Abstract: Steel fibered high strength concrete (SFHSC) is an effective material that can be used for repairing concrete elements. Design of normal strength concrete (NSC) elements that should be repaired using SFHSC can be based on general concepts for design of two-layer beams, consisting of SFHSC in the compressed zone and NSC without fibers in the tensile zone. It was previously reported that such elements are effective when their section carries rather large bending moments. Steel fibers, added to high strength concrete, increase its ultimate deformations due to the additional energy dissipation potential contributed by fibers. When changing the fibers’ content, a required ductility level of the repaired element can be achieved. Providing proper ductility is important for design of structures to dynamic loadings. The current study discusses experimental results that form a basis for finding optimal fiber content, yielding the highest Poisson coefficient and ductility of the repaired elements’ sections. Some technological issues as well as distribution of fibers in the cross section of two-layer bending elements are investigated. The experimental results, obtained in the frame of this study, form a basis for general technological provisions, related to repairing of NSC beams and slabs, using SFHSC.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of i-Sleep, a guided online CBT intervention, for patients with insomnia in general practice: protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zweerde, Tanja; Lancee, Jaap; Slottje, Pauline; Bosmans, Judith; Van Someren, Eus; Reynolds, Charles; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-04-02

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder causing clinically significant distress and impairment. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with high societal and individual costs. Although cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) is the preferred treatment, it is not used often. Offering CBT-I in an online format may increase access. Many studies have shown that online CBT for insomnia is effective. However, these studies have all been performed in general population samples recruited through media. This protocol article presents the design of a study aimed at establishing feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a guided online intervention (i-Sleep) for patients suffering from insomnia that seek help from their general practitioner as compared to care-as-usual. In a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, adult patients with insomnia disorder recruited through general practices are randomized to a 5-session guided online treatment, which is called "i-Sleep", or to care-as-usual. Patients in the care-as-usual condition will be offered i-Sleep 6 months after inclusion. An ancillary clinician, known as the psychological well-being practitioner who works in the GP practice (PWP; in Dutch: POH-GGZ), will offer online support after every session. Our aim is to recruit one hundred and sixty patients. Questionnaires, a sleep diary and wrist actigraphy will be administered at baseline, post intervention (at 8 weeks), and at 6 months and 12 months follow-up. Effectiveness will be established using insomnia severity as the main outcome. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility (using costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) as outcome) will be conducted from a societal perspective. Secondary measures are: sleep diary, daytime consequences, fatigue, work and social adjustment, anxiety, alcohol use, depression and quality of life. The results of this trial will help establish whether online CBT-I is (cost-) effective and feasible in general practice as compared

  14. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project; Schutz durch Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzschichten auf dickwandigen End- und Zwischenlagerbauteilen zur Reduktion von Reparaturen, Korrosion und Kosten 'SHARK'. Ein Ueberblick zum Abschluss des Projektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Unterwassertechnikum Hannover, Garbsen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Dyllong, Nobert; Tragsdorf, Inga Maren [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor {sup copyright} containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 {mu}m also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK

  15. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  16. Laser cladding: repairing and manufacturing metal parts and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Laser cladding is presently used to repair high volume aerospace, automotive, marine, rail or general engineering components where excessive wear has occurred. It can also be used if a one-off high value component is either required or has been accidentally over-machined. The ultimate application of laser cladding is to build components up from nothing, using a laser cladding system and a 3D CAD drawing of the component. It is thus emerging that laser cladding can be classified as a special case of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Up to this point in time RP was seen, and is still seen, as in intermediately step between the design stage of a component and a finished working product. This can now be extended so that laser cladding makes RP a one-stop shop and the finished component is made from tool-steel or some alloy-base material. The marriage of laser cladding with RP is an interesting one and offers an alternative to traditional tool builders, re-manufacturers and injection mould design/repair industries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence of this new technology, along with the transference of the process out of the laboratory and into the industrial workplace and show it is finding its rightful place in the manufacturing/repair sector. It will be shown that it can be used as a cost cutting, strategic material saver and consequently a green technology.

  17. Understanding safety climate in small automobile collision repair shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Brosseau, Lisa M; Bejan, Anca; Skan, Maryellen; Xi, Min

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 236,000 people work in 37,600 auto collision-repair businesses. Workers in the collision-repair industry may be exposed to a wide range of physical and chemical hazards. This manuscript examines the relationship of safety climate as reported by collision repair shop workers and owners to: (1) an independent business safety assessment, and (2) employee self-reported work practices. The study was conducted in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A total of 199 workers from 49 collision shops completed a survey of self-reported work practices and safety climate. Surveys were completed by an owner or manager in all but three shops. In general, self-reported work practices were poor. Workers' scores on safety climate were uniformly lower than those of owners. For workers, there was no correlation between how well the business scored on an independent audit of business safety practices and the safety climate measures they reported. For owners, however, there was a positive correlation between safety climate scores and the business safety assessment. For workers, safety rules and procedures were associated with improved work practices for those engaged in both painting-related and body technician-related activities. The enforcement of safety rules and procedures emerged as a strong factor positively affecting self-reported work practices. These findings identify a simple, cost effective path to reducing hazards in small workplaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell is difficult to control, the damage can be possibly delayed and controlled by use of a suitable repair material. The lattice fracture model is used in this paper to investigate the performance of strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC in concrete repair systems exposed to ongoing corrosion. Numerical results were verified by experimental tests when SHCC, nonreinforced material (repair mortar, and commercial repair mortar are used as repair materials. In experiments, reinforcement bars (surrounded by a repair material were exposed to accelerated corrosion tests. The influence of the substrate surface preparation, the type of repair material, the interface, and the substrate strength on the resulting damage and failure mode of repair systems are discussed. In general, SHCC repair enables distributed cracking with small crack widths, up to several times smaller compared to repair mortar. Furthermore, more warning signs prior to the final failure are present in the SHCC repair system.

  19. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  20. Pregabalin versus SSRIs and SNRIs in benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder: a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis in usual medical practice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Salas-Cansado M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina De Salas-Cansado,1 José M Olivares,2 Enrique Álvarez,3 Jose L Carrasco,4 Andoni Barrueta,5 Javier Rejas,51Trial Form Support Spain, Madrid; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo; 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid; 5Health Outcomes Research Department, Medical Unit, Pfizer Spain, Alcobendas, Madrid, SpainBackground: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a prevalent health condition which seriously affects both patient quality of life and the National Health System. The aim of this research was to carry out a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis of the effect of pregabalin versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs in treated benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with GAD.Methods: This post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis used secondary data extracted from the 6-month cohort, prospective, noninterventional ADAN study, which was conducted to ascertain the cost of illness in GAD subjects diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Benzodiazepine-refractory subjects were those who claimed persistent symptoms of anxiety and showed a suboptimal response (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale ≥16 to benzodiazepines, alone or in combination, over 6 months. Patients could switch to pregabalin (as monotherapy or addon or to an SSRI or SNRI, alone or in combination. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years gained, and the perspective was that of the National Health System in the year 2008. A sensitivity analysis was performed using bootstrapping techniques (10,000 resamples were obtained in order to obtain a cost-effectiveness plane and a corresponding acceptability curve.Results: A total of 282 subjects (mean Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score 25.8 were

  1. Is laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair more effective than open repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, O.; Green, A.; Joy, M.; Wong, C.H.; Malik, M

    2011-01-01

    To systematically review randomized controlled trials, (RCT) evidence comparing Lichtenstein to total extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at University of Abderdeen, U.K. Methodology: A comprehensive online literature search was undertaken using databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Springerlink. Studies were then short listed according to the selection criteria (RCT with over 100 subject and English language publications from 1995 onwards) and appraised using the SIGN Methodology Checklist. A meta analysis of the data was also performed using RevMan software. Results: Analysis of reported data shows that TEP has less postoperative pain and return to work than Lichtenstein method. Operation time is shown to be longer in the TEP but this difference is shortened with increasing surgeon experience. The meta-analysis of the data on complications shows that there are no significant differences between the two types of procedures. TEP causes more short-term recurrences which are attributed to the learning curve effect. Long term recurrence rates on the other hand show no significant differences. At present TEP is slightly more expensive than Lichtenstein repair. Conclusion: Both TEP and Lichtenstein repair are clinically effective procedures. The choice between them should be made on a case-by-case basis; which depends on the patient's preference and characteristics such as age, work and health status. (author)

  2. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  3. Repair kinetics in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Determining Outsourcing Potential for the Inventory Management of Navy Repairables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgart, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    .... The research then analyzes the costs and benefits of several successful DLA and NAVICP outsourcing initiatives. The analysis results in a model which NAVICP can use to screen repairable items to determine which level of outsourcing will succeed.

  5. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  6. Optimal maintenance policies in incomplete repair models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahle, Waltraud

    2007-01-01

    We consider an incomplete repair model, that is, the impact of repair is not minimal as in the homogeneous Poisson process and not 'as good as new' as in renewal processes but lies between these boundary cases. The repairs are assumed to impact the failure intensity following a virtual age process of the general form proposed by Kijima. In previous works field data from an industrial setting were used to fit several models. In most cases the estimated rate of occurrence of failures was that of an underlying exponential distribution of the time between failures. In this paper, it is shown that there exist maintenance schedules under which the failure behavior of the failure-repair process becomes a homogeneous Poisson process

  7. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  8. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  9. Risk-Cost Estimation of On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Failures Using Extreme Value Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Laura E; Silverstein, JoAnn; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2017-05-01

      Owner resistance to increasing regulation of on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), including obligatory inspections and upgrades, moratoriums and cease-and-desist orders in communities around the U.S. demonstrate the challenges associated with managing risks of inadequate performance of owner-operated wastewater treatment systems. As a result, determining appropriate and enforceable performance measures in an industry with little history of these requirements is challenging. To better support such measures, we develop a statistical method to predict lifetime failure risks, expressed as costs, in order to identify operational factors associated with costly repairs and replacement. A binomial logistic regression is used to fit data from public records of reported OWTS failures, in Boulder County, Colorado, which has 14 300 OWTS to determine the probability that an OWTS will be in a low- or high-risk category for lifetime repair and replacement costs. High-performing or low risk OWTS with repairs and replacements below the threshold of $9000 over a 40-year life are associated with more frequent inspections and upgrades following home additions. OWTS with a high risk of exceeding the repair cost threshold of $18 000 are further analyzed in a variation of extreme value analysis (EVA), Points Over Threshold (POT) where the distribution of risk-cost exceedance values are represented by a generalized Pareto distribution. The resulting threshold cost exceedance estimates for OWTS in the high-risk category over a 40-year expected life ranged from $18 000 to $44 000.

  10. Analysis operating and maintenance cost of Danish wind turbines in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godtfredsen, F.

    1994-10-01

    A study of operation and maintenance (O and M) cost of Danish wind turbines has been carried out. The study is based on a questionnaire survey by the wind turbine owners association. The study shows a significant decline in the O and M cost from 55 kW machines installed in 1980-87 to modern machines. In 1993, the average total O and M cost for 55 kW and 150 kW turbines was approximately 0.22 DKK/kWh and 0.07 DKK/kWh, respectively. For 150 kW turbines, insurance and administration costs amounted to 0.04 DKK/kWh while repair and maintenance costs came to 0.03 DKK/kWh. In 1993, repair and maintenance cost were significantly higher for older vintages of 55 kW and 150 kW turbines, but it is not possible based on this study to conclude whether increasing O and M costs generally comes with increasing age. The statistical basis of this study is not large enough to conclude whether there are positive scale effects for ST's from 105 kW. Similarly, because of relatively few large WT are older than 10 years, it is not possible based on this study to predict the size of major future repair costs/reinvestments. To estimate the O and M costs more exactly, a larger empirical basis is needed. (au) (8 tabs., 17 ills., 11 refs.)

  11. Innovative Concrete Repairing Technique Using Post Tensioning Steel Straps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chau-Khun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, innovative technique using low-cost recycled steel straps confinement to repair load-induced damaged high-strength concrete (HSC columns were studied. This paper explains the effects of repairing technique using post tensioning steel straps. A series of experimental test was carried out to investigate the stress-strain relationships of such concrete. A total of 6 HSC columns were compressed 50% of their ultimate strength, then repaired by using steel straps. The proposed repairing technique significantly improved the performance of damaged concrete columns, in both strength and ductility. It was evidenced from this study that the steel strapping confining technique is effective in repairing of damaged HSC columns but ensured reasonable operating costs.

  12. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  13. Non-periodic preventive maintenance with reliability thresholds for complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zu-Liang; Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Fang, Chih-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In general, a non-periodic condition-based PM policy with different condition variables is often more effective than a periodic age-based policy for deteriorating complex repairable systems. In this study, system reliability is estimated and used as the condition variable, and three reliability-based PM models are then developed with consideration of different scenarios which can assist in evaluating the maintenance cost for each scenario. The proposed approach provides the optimal reliability thresholds and PM schedules in advance by which the system availability and quality can be ensured and the organizational resources can be well prepared and managed. The results of the sensitivity anlysis indicate that PM activities performed at a high reliability threshold can not only significantly improve the system availability but also efficiently extend the system lifetime, although such a PM strategy is more costly than that for a low reliabiltiy threshold. The optimal reliability threshold increases along with the number of PM activities to prevent future breakdowns caused by severe deterioration, and thus substantially reduces repair costs. - Highlights: • The PM problems for repairable deteriorating systems are formulated. • The structural properties of the proposed PM models are investigated. • The corresponding algorithms to find the optimal PM strategies are provided. • Imperfect PM activities are allowed to reduce the occurences of breakdowns. • Provide managers with insights about the critical factors in the planning stage

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  15. A cost-minimization analysis of root canal treatment before and after education in nickel-titanium rotary technique in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M; Tegelberg, A; Eckerlund, I; Axelsson, S

    2012-07-01

    To compare root canal treatments performed before and after education in a nickel-titanium rotary technique (NiTiR) with respect to costs for instrumentation and number of instrumentation sessions in a County Public Dental Service in Sweden.   Following education, 77% of the general dental practitioners adopted completely the NiTiR. The randomly selected sample comprised 850 root canal treatments: 425 performed after the education, mainly using the NiTiR-technique (group A) and 425 performed before, using mainly stainless steel hand instrumentation (SSI) (group B). The number of instrumentation sessions in root canal treatments in group A and B was calculated. A CMA was undertaken on the assumption that treatment outcome was identical in group A and B. Direct costs associated with SSI and NiTiR were estimated and compared. Investment costs required for implementation of NiTiR were calculated, but not included in the CMA. Instrumentation sessions were counted in 418 (98%) root canal treatments performed in group A and 419 (99%) in group B. The number of instrumentation sessions in group A was significantly lower; 2.38, compared with 2.82 in group B (P session was saved. Root canal treatments in teeth with one canal, and three or more canals, were completed in significantly fewer instrumentation sessions after the education (P sessions were SEK 2587 (USD 411) for group A and SEK 2851 (USD 453) for group B, for teeth with one canal, and SEK 2946 (USD 468) for group A and SEK 3510 (USD 558) for group B, for teeth with three or more canals (year 2011). Root canal treatments of teeth with two canals showed no significant difference with respect to number of instrumentation sessions and costs. Significantly fewer instrumentation sessions were required in group A, and root canal instrumentation therefore costs less than in group B. On the assumption that treatment outcome is identical in group A and B, root canal instrumentation performed after the education was more

  16. Comparação dos gastos com material para reparação de perfurações de córnea com cola de cianoacrilato e sutura de córnea Comparative cost evaluation in corneal perforation repair with cyanoacrylate adhesive versus corneal suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lioji Ueda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação comparativa de custos de reparação de pequenas perfurações oculares utilizando a técnica da cola de cianoacrilato Super Bonder® (2-metil-cianoacrilato comparada à técnica de sutura de córnea. MÉTODOS: A fim de avaliar comparativamente os custos do uso da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato com a técnica de sutura de córnea, realizou-se análise dos materiais usados em ambas técnicas. RESULTADOS: A análise de custos comparativos entre o uso da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato em pequenas perfurações, versus a técnica de sutura de córnea demonstrou menor gasto com uso do adesivo. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato, para reparação de perfuração de córnea, apresentou custos menores quando comparada com a técnica de sutura de córnea.PURPOSE: The aim of this study was performing a comparative evaluation of cost in small ocular perforation repair using cyanoacrylate adhesive technique Super BonderTM (methyl-2-cyanoacrylate as compared with corneal suture technique. METHODS: In order to compare evaluations of cost a cost analysis in "reais" (R$ was conducted for both techniques according to the materials used in cyanoacrylate glue technique and the corneal suture. RESULTS: The analysis of comparative cost of the cyanoacrylate adhesive technique in small perforations versus corneal suture showed a lower cost of the former. CONCLUSION: Lower cost was found for the cyanoacrylate glue technique for corneal perforation repair when compared to the corneal suture technique.

  17. Efficacy of local anaesthesia in repair of inguinal hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, M.K.; Sultan, B.; Malik, M.A.; Khan, K.; Abbasi, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Local anaesthesia has been identified as the most favourable anaesthesia for elective inguinal hernia repair with respect to complication rate, cost effectiveness and overall patients' satisfaction. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local anaesthesia in inguinal hernia in terms of pain relief, wound infection and hospital stay. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), 60 patients with inguinal hernia were included at the General Surgical 'B' Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad. Results: The day-case rates were significantly higher when patients underwent surgery under LA compared to GA (82.6 percent versus 42.6 percent). The incidence of urinary retention was higher in the GA group (p<0.05). There were 17 (2.9 percent) re-admissions overall. The reasons for re-admission included haematoma (n=6), severe pain (n=4), infection (n=3), fainting (n=2) and urinary retention (n=2). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that local anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair has better efficacy as compared to general anaesthesia. (author)

  18. A study on the development of repair procedure for gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W S; Kim, Y P; Baek, J H [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    In the buried natural gas pipelines, many defects may occur by construction faults, corrosion, third-party interference and ground movement. When a segment of a pipeline is found to be defective, one of the repair methods is to remove its contents and cut out the defective segment after shutting down the pipeline. However, the cost is extremely high in terms of venting and disrupting the gas supply. Therefore, most pipeline companies have developed in-service repair methods without removing the line from service. In general, in order to avoid removing the line from service, direct deposition of weld metal, full-encirclement sleeve, patches, stopple fittings, half-sole and branch connections are required. There are three important concerns in the sleeve-repair welding like other methods of in-service repair-welding. The first concern is the possibility of burn-through which is due to the localized heating and loss of meterial strength on the inner surface of pipe during the welding process. The pipe wall may burst under internal pressure if the loss in strength is too great. The second concern is the high cooling rates by the flowing gas which quickly removes heat from the pipe wall, resulting in accelerated cooling of the weld. Such rapid cooling rates promote the formation of hard heat affected zone microstructure making these welds susceptible to hydrogen cracking. The third concern is for the load carrying ability, such as tensile strength, fracture toughness and fatigue strength. This study was taken to investigate the effect of in-service welding conditions and assess the mechanical properties for the direct deposition welding and sleeve-repair welding of in-service gas pipelines and develope the welding procedure specification for in-service pipeline repair. 81 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Defense Infrastructure: General and Flag Officer Quarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... We reviewed 17 GFOQs at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with budgeted maintenance and repair costs of $1,247,300, to determine whether the Navy had properly classified interior shutter costs as maintenance and repair...

  20. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  1. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicras-Mainar A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antoni Sicras-Mainar,1 Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez,2 Ruth Navarro-Artieda3 1Planning Directorate, Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain; 3Medical Documentation, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Objective: To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin®/Vandral® in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. Methods: A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio, health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. Results: A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969 and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471. Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, P<0.001; and 8.8 versus 8.1 months, P<0.05, respectively. Brand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, P<0.001; and 82.1% versus 79.0%, P<0.05, respectively. Adjusted average costs were higher with generic compared with brand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; P<0.001 for gabapentin; and €1,110 versus €928

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Submission of repair entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY GENERAL AGENT'S RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH FOREIGN REPAIR CUSTOM'S ENTRIES Sec. 2 Submission of repair entries. At the... with the District Director of Customs as defined in 19 CFR 1.1(d) an affidavit on Custom's Form 3417...

  3. Haemophilus influenzae does not fit theories of postreplication repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, J.K.; Notani, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    Studies with Escherichia coli have provided all the initial insights into the molecular bases of repair processes. It is the thesis of this article that especially if we believe that there are some general mechanisms in nature, it is important to consider more than one microorganism in arriving at an understanding of the biology of repair of DNA

  4. Change in healthcare utilization and costs following initiation of benzodiazepine therapy for long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Ariel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepine anxiolytics are used in the US to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. While benzodiazepines typically provide rapid symptomatic relief, long-term use is not recommended due to risks of dependency, sedation, falls, and accidents. Methods Using a US health insurance database, we identified all persons with GAD (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 300.02 who began a long-term course of treatment (≥90 days with a benzodiazepine anxiolytic between 1/1/2003 and 12/31/2007, We compared healthcare utilization and costs over the six-month periods preceding and following the date of treatment initiation (“pretreatment” and “post-treatment”, respectively, and focused attention on accident-related encounters (e.g., for treatment of fractures and care received for other reasons possibly related benzodiazepine use (e.g., sedation, dizziness. Results A total of 866 patients met all study entry criteria; 25% of patients began treatment on an add-on basis (i.e., adjunctive to escitalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, or venlafaxine, while 75% of patients did not receive concomitant therapy. Mean total healthcare costs increased by $2334 between the pretreatment and post-treatment periods (from $4637 [SD=$9840] to $6971 [$17,002]; p Conclusions Healthcare costs increase in patients with GAD beginning long-term (≥90 days treatment with a benzodiazepine anxiolytic; a substantial proportion of this increase is attributable to care associated with accidents and other known sequelae of long-term benzodiazepine use.

  5. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin(®)/Vandral(®)) in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR) of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio), health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969) and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471). Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, PBrand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, Pbrand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; Pbrand-name was associated with higher reduction in pain (7.8%; Pbrand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine were more likely to adhere and persist on treatment of pNP or GAD, have lower health care costs, and show further reduction of pain and anxiety symptoms than with generic drugs in routine medical practice.

  6. Cost-Effective Recruitment need for 24x7 Paediatricians in the State General Hospitals in Relation to the Reduction of Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ranjana; Chatterjee, Sukanta

    2016-10-01

    According to World Health Organisation (WHO), improvement of hospital based care can have an impact of upto 30% in reducing Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), whereas, strengthening universal outreach and family-community based care is known to have a greater impact. The study intends to assess how far gaps in the public health facilities contribute towards infant mortality, as 2/3 rd of infant mortality is due to suboptimum care seeking and weak health system. To identify cost-effectiveness of employment of additional paediatric manpower to provide round the clock skilled service to reduce IMR in the present state health facilities at the district general hospitals. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital and district hospitals of 2 districts (Hooghly and Howrah in West Bengal). Factors affecting infant mortality and shift wise analysis of proportion of infant deaths were analysed in both tertiary and district level hospitals. Information was gathered in a predesigned proforma for one year period by verifying hospital records and by personal interview with service personnel in the health establishment. SPSS software version 17 (Chicago, IL) was used. The p-value was calculated by Fischer exact t-test. Available hospital beds per 1000 population were 1.1. Percentage of paediatric beds available in comparison to total hospital bed was disproportionately lower (10%). Dearth of skilled medical care provider at odd hours in district hospitals resulted in significantly greater infant death (p based infant mortality and it is cost-effective.

  7. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA molecule which makes it ideal for storage and propagation of genetic information. ... of these errors are broadly referred to as DNA repair. DNA can ... changes occur in the human genome per day. ..... nails, frequent physical and mental.

  8. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  9. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incarcerated) in the hernia and become impossible to push back in. This is usually painful. The blood supply ... you are lying down or that you cannot push back in. Risks The risks of ventral hernia repair ...

  10. Omphalocele repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100033.htm Omphalocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the base ...

  11. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  13. MULTI-AGENT APPROACH TO BUILDING AN INTELLIGENT VEHICLE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavlenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of the car, early detection and prevention of the occurrence and development of failures is required in order to reduce the costs of maintenance and repair. Multi-agent technologies make it possible to raise the level of technical reliability of cars and minimize the costs of performing repair and maintenance operations.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for chronically ill patients with comorbid depressive disorder in the general hospital setting, a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is one of the most common disorders, and is highly prevalent in chronically ill patients. The presence of comorbid depression has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Early diagnosis and well-organized treatment of depression has a positive influence on these aspects. Earlier research in the USA has reported good results with regard to the treatment of depression with a collaborative care approach and an antidepressant algorithm. In the UK 'Problem Solving Treatment' has proved to be feasible. However, in the general hospital setting this approach has not yet been evaluated. Methods/Design CC: DIM (Collaborative Care: Depression Initiative in the Medical setting is a two-armed randomised controlled trial with randomisation at patient level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in general hospitals in the Netherlands based on a collaborative care framework, including contracting, 'Problem Solving Treatment', antidepressant algorithm, and manual-guided self-help. 126 outpatients with diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiovascular diseases will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Patients will be included if they have been diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on the DSM-IV criteria in a two-step screening method. The intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach; the control group will receive 'care as usual'. Baseline and follow-up measurements (after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months will be performed by means of questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, as measured with the PHQ-9. The secondary outcome measure is the cost-effectiveness of these treatments according to the TiC-P, the EuroQol and the SF-36. Discussion Earlier research has indicated that depressive disorder is

  15. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-24

    This report by the General Accounting Office examines the Federal Aviation : Administration's (FAA) oversight of the aviation repair station industry. : Specifically, this report addresses the following questions: (1) What is the : nature and scope o...

  16. Radiobiological significance of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A short outline is given on the history of the problem relating to the repair of radiation injuries, specifically its molecular mechanisms. The most urgent problems which currently confront the researchers are noted. This is a further study on the role of DNA repair in post-radiation recovery, search for ways to activate and suppress DNA repair, investigations into the activity balance of various repair enzymes as well as the problem of errors in the structure of repairing DNA. An important role is attached to the investigations of DNA repair in solving a number of practical problems

  17. Implementing optical fibres for the structural health monitoring of composite patch repaired structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Kotsidis, Elias A.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is increasingly being implemented to improve the level of safety of structures and to reduce inspection and repair costs by allowing for correct planning of these actions, if needed. Composite patch repairing presents an appealing alternative to traditional repair...... methods as it enables the reduction of closedown time and the mitigation of complications associated with traditional repair methods. As reinforcement with the use of composite patches is predominantly performed at defected structures, the urge to monitor the performance of the repair becomes even greater...

  18. Recombinational repair: workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard-Flanders, P.

    1983-01-01

    Recombinational repair may or may not be synonymous with postreplication repair. Considerable progress has been made in the study of the relevant enzymes, particularly those from bacteria. In this workshop we focus on the recombination enzyme RecA protein. What structural changes take place in the protein and in DNA during repair. How does homologous pairing take place. How is ATP hydrolysis coupled to the stand exchange reaction and the formation of heteroduplx DNA. Turning to another enzyme needed for certain kinds of bacterial recombination, we will ask whether the purified recB protein and recC protein complement each other and are sufficient for exonuclease V activity. In higher cells, we would like to know whether sister exchanges, which occur in bacteria after uv irradiation, are also seen in animal cells

  19. Scaffolds for Tendon and Ligament Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Anthony; Butler, David L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Cagle, Paul J; Proctor, Christopher S; Ratcliffe, Seena S; Flatow, Evan L

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced tendon and ligament repair would have a major impact on orthopaedic surgery outcomes, resulting in reduced repair failures and repeat surgeries, more rapid return to function, and reduced health care costs. Scaffolds have been used for mechanical and biologic reinforcement of repair and regeneration with mixed results. This review summarizes efforts made using biologic and synthetic scaffolds using rotator cuff and ACL as examples of clinical applications, discusses recent advances that have shown promising clinical outcomes, and provides insight into future therapy. PMID:25650098

  20. Meniscal repair devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  1. DNA repair and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Shakuntla; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Gaur, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecule that encode it's genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many one million individual molecular lesions per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions include potentially harmful mutation in cell's genome which affect the survival of it's daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. Inherited mutation that affect DNA repair genes are strongly associated with high cancer risks in humans. Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is strongly associated with specific mutation in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. BRCA1, BRCA2 two famous mutation conferring a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carrier, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathway, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination. Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing most typically cancer cells are preferentially affected. The side effect is that other non-cancerous but rapidly dividing cells such as stem cells in the bone marrow are also affected. Modern cancer treatment attempt to localize the DNA damage to cells and tissue only associated with cancer, either by physical means (concentrating the therapeutic agent in the region of the tumor) or by biochemical means (exploiting a feature unique to cancer cells in the body). (author)

  2. Exploiting global information in complex network repair processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianyu WANG; Jun ZHANG; Sebastian WANDELT

    2017-01-01

    Robustness of complex networks has been studied for decades,with a particular focus on network attack.Research on network repair,on the other hand,has been conducted only very lately,given the even higher complexity and absence of an effective evaluation metric.A recently proposed network repair strategy is self-healing,which aims to repair networks for larger compo nents at a low cost only with local information.In this paper,we discuss the effectiveness and effi ciency of self-healing,which limits network repair to be a multi-objective optimization problem and makes it difficult to measure its optimality.This leads us to a new network repair evaluation metric.Since the time complexity of the computation is very high,we devise a greedy ranking strategy.Evaluations on both real-world and random networks show the effectiveness of our new metric and repair strategy.Our study contributes to optimal network repair algorithms and provides a gold standard for future studies on network repair.

  3. Biological radiolesions and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In 7 chapters, the book answers the following questions: 1) What reactions are induced in biological matter by absorption of radiation energy. 2) In what parts of the cell do the radiation-induced reactions with detectable biological effects occur. 3) In which way are these cell components changed by different qualities of radiation. 4) What are the cell mechanisms by which radiation-induced changes can be repaired. 5) What is the importance of these repair processes for man, his life and evolution. At the end of each chapter, there is a bibliography of relevant publications in this field. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    , does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... operation and should be avoided owing to the risk of rare neurologic side effects and the high risk of urinary retention. General anesthesia with short-acting agents may be a valid alternative when combined with local infiltration anesthesia, although an anesthesiologist is required. Despite sufficient...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  5. Load response and gap formation in a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lachlan; Richardson, Martin; Sobol, Tony; Caldow, Jonathon; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Double-row rotator cuff tendon repair techniques may provide superior contact area and strength compared with single-row repairs, but are associated with higher material expenses and prolonged operating time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gap formation, ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair construct, and to compare these results with those of the Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair constructs. Infraspinatus tendons from 24 spring lamb shoulders were harvested and allocated to cruciate suture, Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair groups. Specimens were loaded cyclically between 10 and 62 N for 200 cycles, and gap formation simultaneously measured using a high-speed digital camera. Specimens were then loaded in uniaxial tension to failure, and construct stiffness and repair strength were evaluated. Gap formation in the cruciate suture repair was significantly lower than that of the Mason-Allen repair (mean difference = 0.6 mm, P = 0.009) and no different from that of the SutureBridge repair (P > 0.05). Both the cruciate suture repair (mean difference = 15.7 N/mm, P = 0.002) and SutureBridge repair (mean difference = 15.8 N/mm, P = 0.034) were significantly stiffer than that of the Mason-Allen repair; however, no significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between repair groups were discerned (P > 0.05). The cruciate suture repair construct, which may represent a simple and cost-effective alternative to double-row and double-row equivalent rotator cuff repairs, has comparable biomechanical strength and integrity with that of the SutureBridge repair, and may result in improved construct longevity and tendon healing compared with the Mason-Allen repair. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Composite Repair System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the...

  7. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  8. Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair During Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair During Pregnancy: A Case Report ... Abstract. We report a repair of Vesicovaginal fistula during pregnancy that was aimed at preventing another spontaneous ... practices that encourage teenage marriage and girl.

  9. Social repair of relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted

    2017-01-01

    organisations, friends and family, and communities. These social relations are viewed as the foundation of citizenship as experienced and practised. Focusing on how two dimensions of lived citizenship, namely rights-responsibilities and belonging, are affected by the social repairs, the chapter shows how...

  10. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  11. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  12. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  13. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  14. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  15. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Slowly repaired DNA injuries involved in cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichkina, S.I.; Rozanova, O.M.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    Caffeine was used to study the kinetics of cytogenetic damages repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Its half-time (90 min) was shown to correlate with that of repair of slowly repaired DNA damages. The caffeine-induced increase in the number of irreparable DNA damages, attributed to inhibition of double-strand break repair, is in a quantitative correlation with the effect of the cytogenetic damage modification

  16. Wound repair and regeneration: Mechanisms, signaling, and translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eming, Sabine A.; Martin, Paul; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning tissue repair and its failure to heal are still poorly understood, and current therapies are limited. Poor wound healing after trauma, surgery, acute illness, or chronic disease conditions affects millions of people worldwide each year and is the consequence of poorly regulated elements of the healthy tissue repair response, including inflammation, angiogenesis, matrix deposition, and cell recruitment. Failure of one or several of these cellular processes is generally linked to an underlying clinical condition, such as vascular disease, diabetes, or aging, which are all frequently associated with healing pathologies. The search for clinical strategies that might improve the body’s natural repair mechanisms will need to be based on a thorough understanding of the basic biology of repair and regeneration. In this review, we highlight emerging concepts in tissue regeneration and repair, and provide some perspectives on how to translate current knowledge into viable clinical approaches for treating patients with wound-healing pathologies. PMID:25473038

  17. Ceramic restoration repair: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Araújo Raposo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The esthetic and functional rehabilitation of patients with multiple missing teeth can be performed with several techniques and materials. Ceramic restorations provide reliable masticatory function and good esthetics. However, fracture can occur in some cases due to their brittle behavior. In some cases, the replacement of an extensive prosthesis is a problem due to the high treatment cost. In this paper, two cases are presented, in which fractures occurred in extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures, and their replacement was not possible. Ceramic repair was chosen and the sequences of treatment with and without presence of the ceramic fragment are also discussed. The cases illustrate that, in some situations, fractured metal-ceramic partial dentures can be successfully repaired when prosthetic replacement is not a choice. Prosthodontists must use alternatives that allow a reliable repair to extensive metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures. Surface preparation of the ceramic with hydrofluoric acid in conjunction with a silane coupling agent is essential for a predictable bonding of composite resin. The repair performed with composite resin is an esthetic and functional alternative when extensive fixed partial dentures cannot be replaced.

  18. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this ... Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty Patient Instructions Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge Images Cleft lip repair - series References ...

  19. DNA repair in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Kusano, I.; Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Dunn, W.C. Jr.; Francis, A.A.; Lee, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Our primary objective is to elucidate the molecular events in human cells when cellular macromolecules such as DNA are damaged by radiation or chemical agents. We study and characterize (i) the sequence of DNA repair events, (ii) the various modalities of repair, (iii) the genetic inhibition of repair due to mutation, (iv) the physiological inhibition of repair due to mutation, (v) the physiological inhibition of repair due to biochemical inhibitors, and (vi) the genetic basis of repair. Our ultimate goals are to (i) isolate and analyze the repair component of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic event in human cells, and (ii) elucidate the magnitude and significance of this repair component as it impinges on the practical problems of human irradiation or exposure to actual or potential chemical mutagens and carcinogens. The significance of these studies lies in (i) the ubiquitousness of repair (most organisms, including man, have several complex repair systems), (ii) the belief that mutagenic and carcinogenic events may arise only from residual (nonrepaired) lesions or that error-prone repair systems may be the major induction mechanisms of the mutagenic or carcinogenic event, and (iii) the clear association of repair defects and highly carcinogenic disease states in man [xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

  20. The journey of DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared "Molecule of the Year". Today, we are celebrating another "year of repair", with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  1. Opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhang, J.P.; Sheu, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes an opportunity-based age replacement policy with minimal repair. The system has two types of failures. Type I failures (minor failures) are removed by minimal repairs, whereas type II failures are removed by replacements. Type I and type II failures are age-dependent. A system is replaced at type II failure (catastrophic failure) or at the opportunity after age T, whichever occurs first. The cost of the minimal repair of the system at age z depends on the random part C(z) and the deterministic part c(z). The opportunity arises according to a Poisson process, independent of failures of the component. The expected cost rate is obtained. The optimal T * which would minimize the cost rate is discussed. Various special cases are considered. Finally, a numerical example is given

  2. Repair mechanisms and exposure standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed; public policy for setting radiation standards; use of linear, nonthreshold theory in setting radiation standards; dose-rate dependence; occupational exposure to radiation; radon inhalation from radium in the soil in the vicinity of the phosphate industry; relation of repair mechanisms for cell survival to cancer induction; application of information on genetic repair to humans and to cancer induction; importance of repair processes in radiation protection standards; corrective factors for repair processes; relation of repair processes to age, sex, and other factors; and population distribution in radiosensitivity

  3. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs

  4. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Escuela Politecnica de Linares, Universidad de Jaen, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs.

  5. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasopoulos, George; Goldstraw, Peter

    2011-02-01

    This review is trying to address the effectiveness and sustainability of results following minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE). The aim is to present these results for the benefit of clinicians and the patients. Literature search has revealed 179 hits, which were independently assessed and led to 80 publications being formally reviewed. Studies reporting results from less than 10 patients were excluded. Thirty-five studies were found to be reporting results from patients' and/or surgeons' perspective and they were included in this review. Data from the United Kingdom registry for MIRPE were also included. Results from over 2997 patients (age: reported an 'unsatisfactory end result.' However, these percentages are not necessarily referring to the same patients and an unsatisfactory result does not seem to affect the positive effect on self-esteem. The reported changes in social life, lung capacity, cardiovascular capacity, exercise capacity and general health are based on weak data and significant improvements, if any, are probably seen in a limited number of patients. The metallic bars were removed after 1.5-4.5 years and there is an overall 0-4.5% reported recurrence post-bar removal. In conclusion, MIRPE may improve cosmesis and self-esteem of patients with pectus excavatum deformity. Direct or indirect improvement in other physiological parameters may also help the 'well-being' of these patients and their social integration. There is a clear need for standardisation in the way results are reported in the literature and a socioeconomic analysis with regard to gains, benefits and costs related to MIRPE. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...... base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby...

  7. Parotid Duct Repair with Intubation Tube: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Muhammed Beşir; Barutca, Seda Asrufoğlu; Keskin, Elif Seda; Atik, Bekir

    2017-01-01

    The parotid duct can be damaged in traumatic injuries and surgical interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment of a duct injury is of great importance because complications such as sialocele and salivary gland fistula may develop if the duct is not surgically repaired. We think the cuff of an intubation tube is an ideal material in parotid duct repair, because of its technical characteristics, easiness of availability, and low-cost. In this paper, we described the use of the cuff cannula of an intubation tube for the diagnosis and treatment of parotid duct laceration, as a low-cost and easy to access material readily available in every operating room. PMID:28713751

  8. Cartilage repair in the degenerative ageing knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittberg, Mats; Gomoll, Andreas H; Canseco, José A; Far, Jack; Lind, Martin; Hui, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists. A group of clinicians was given the task of discussing the role of tissue engineering in the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions in ageing patients. We present the outcomes of our discussions on current treatment options for such lesions, with particular emphasis on different biological repair techniques and their supporting level of evidence. Results and interpretation Based on the studies on treatment of degenerative lesions and early OA, there is low-level evidence to suggest that cartilage repair is a possible treatment for such lesions, but there are conflicting results regarding the effect of advanced age on the outcome. We concluded that further improvements are needed for direct repair of focal, purely traumatic defects before we can routinely use such repair techniques for the more challenging degenerative lesions. Furthermore, we need to identify trigger mechanisms that start generalized loss of cartilage matrix, and induce subchondral bone changes and concomitant synovial pathology, to maximize our treatment methods for biological repair in degenerative ageing joints. PMID:27910738

  9. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verriere, P.; Alanche, J.; Minguet, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    After some general remarks on the French fast neutron system, this paper presents the state of the program for the construction of fast reactor in France. Then, the general design of Super Phenix 1 steam generator components is outlined and, the in-service monitoring systems and protective devices with which they are equiped are briefly described. The methods used, in the event of leakage, for leak location, steam generator inspection, steam generator repair and putting the affected loop back into service, are discussed. There are two main lines of research, relating respectively to the means of water leak detection in sodium and the inspection arrangements that will be used either periodically, or following a sodium-water reaction. Finally, after a brief description of the steam generator, this paper describes the four incidents (leaks) that occurred on the Phenix steam generator in the course of 1982 and 1983, and the subsequent repair operations

  10. On some steady-state characteristics of systems with gradual repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim; Ludick, Zani

    2014-01-01

    We consider a repairable system with continuous output that alternates between states of operation and repair. The output of the system in the operating state is represented by a continuous, decreasing function of time. We assume that during the repair state, the system can produce output that is modelled by an increasing stochastic process. The repair action gradually restores the output of the system to its initial level and it returns to the operating state. We obtain and analyse expressions for the generalized availability and related characteristics of systems with gradual repair and consider several meaningful examples

  11. Advanced inspection and repair techniques for primary side components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    The availability of nuclear power plant mainly depends on the components of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) such as reactor pressure vessel, core internals and steam generators. The last decade has been characterized by intensive inspection and repair work on PWR steam generators. In the future, it can be expected, that the inspection of the reactor pressure vessel and the inspection and repair of its internals, in both PWR and BWR will be one of the challenges for the nuclear community. Due to this challenge, new, advanced inspection and repair techniques for the vital primary side components have been developed and applied, taking into account such issues as: use of reliable and fast inspection methods, repair of affected components instead of costly replacement, reduction of outage time compared to conventional methods, minimized radiation exposure, acceptable costs. This paper reflects on advanced inspection and repair techniques such as: Baffle Former Bolt inspection and replacement, Barrel Former Bolt inspection and replacement, Mechanized UT and visual inspection of reactor pressure vessels, Steam Generator repair by advanced sleeving technology. The techniques described have been successfully applied in nuclear power plants and improved the operation performance of the components and the NPP. (author). 6 figs

  12. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  13. Causes and Implications of Readmission after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David Yu; Greenberg, Caprice C.; Kind, Amy J.H.; Havlena, Jeffrey A.; Mell, Matthew W.; Nelson, Matthew T.; Smith, Maureen A.; Kent, K. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency, causes, predictors, and consequences of 30-day readmission after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Summary Background Data CMS will soon reduce total Medicare reimbursements for hospitals with higher-than-predicted 30-day readmission rates after vascular surgical procedures including AAA repair. However, causes and factors leading to readmission in this population have never before been systematically analyzed. Methods We analyzed elective AAA repairs over a two-year period from the CMS Chronic Conditions Warehouse, a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Results 2481 patients underwent AAA repair – 1502 endovascular (EVAR) and 979 open. 30-day readmission rates were equivalent for EVAR (13.3%) and open repair (12.8%). While wound complication was the most common reason for readmission after both procedures, the relative frequency of other causes differed – e.g., bowel obstruction was common following open repair and graft complication after EVAR. In multivariate analyses, preoperative comorbidities had a modest effect on readmission; however, postoperative factors including serious complications leading to prolonged length of stay and discharge destination other than home had a profound influence on the probability of readmission. The one-year mortality in readmitted patients was 23.4% versus 4.5% in those not readmitted (preadmission is common after AAA repair. Adjusting for comorbidities, postoperative events predict readmission, suggesting that proactively preventing, detecting, and managing postoperative complications may provide an approach to decreasing readmissions, with the potential to reduce cost and possibly enhance long-term survival. PMID:22964736

  14. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  15. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Yang, Qiang; Xie, Qing; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  16. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  17. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  18. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  19. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  20. Optimal Inspection and Repair Strategies for Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, A. M.; Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1992-01-01

    and a design variable as optimization variables. A model for estimating the total expected costs for structural systems is given including the costs associated with the loss of individual structural members as well as the costs associated with the loss of at least one element of a particular group......A model for reliability-based repair and maintenance strategies of structural systems is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime of the structure are minimized with the number of inspections, the number and positions of the inspected points, the inspection efforts, the repair criteria...... of structural members and the costs associated with the simultaneous loss of all members of a specific group of structural members. The approach is based on the pre-posteriori analysis from the classical decision theory. Special emphasis is given to the problem of selecting the number of points in the structure...

  1. Handbook of Equipment Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-14

    state of leapin- fn’rw.rd. Tn recent years, many mechanical repair workers often write and ask us to reprint the book. In our consideration, however...ast 4iron 1. .-eat _--OSIS-RTS 5.5 . . 4-5 t4- cast -3.01 -6 ~.0 ’ ɘ.᝱ 5,,:e j?24 2 * 10- 5 aron C l 50 S lcon : Ielt rSSIS-RQTS-s;.4 u a 2.47 5at- .0

  2. Prioritizing quality improvement in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Peter L; Dimick, Justin B; Birkmeyer, John D

    2008-11-01

    Despite growing interest in quality improvement, uncertainty remains about which procedures offer the most room for improvement in general surgery. In this context, we sought to describe the relative contribution of different procedures to overall morbidity, mortality, and excess length of stay in general surgery. Using data from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP), we identified all patients undergoing a general surgery procedure in 2005 and 2006 (n=129,233). Patients were placed in 36 distinct procedure groups based on Current Procedural Terminology codes. We first examined procedure groups according to their relative contribution to overall morbidity and mortality. We then assessed procedure groups according to their contribution to overall excess length of stay. Ten procedure groups alone accounted for 62% of complications and 54% of excess hospital days. Colectomy accounted for the greatest share of adverse events, followed by small intestine resection, inpatient cholecystectomy, and ventral hernia repair. In contrast, several common procedures contributed little to overall morbidity and mortality. For example, outpatient cholecystectomy, breast procedures, thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, and outpatient inguinal hernia repair together accounted for 34% of procedures, but only 6% of complications (and only 4% of major complications). These same procedures accounted for surgery. Focusing quality improvement efforts on these procedures may be an effective strategy for improving patient care and reducing cost.

  3. Analysis of an M/G/1 Queue with Multiple Vacations, N-policy, Unreliable Service Station and Repair Facility Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an M/G/1 repairable queueing system with multiple vacations and N-policy, in which the service station is subject to occasional random breakdowns. When the service station breaks down, it is repaired by a repair facility. Moreover, the repair facility may fail during the repair period of the service station. The failed repair facility resumes repair after completion of its replacement. Under these assumptions, applying a simple method, the probability that the service station is broken, the rate of occurrence of breakdowns of the service station, the probability that the repair facility is being replaced and the rate of occurrence of failures of the repair facility along with other performance measures are obtained. Following the construction of the long-run expected cost function per unit time, the direct search method is implemented for determining the optimum threshold N* that minimises the cost function.

  4. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  5. Inducibility of error-prone DNA repair in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siede, W.; Eckardt, F.

    1984-01-01

    Whereas some experimental evidence suggests that mutagenesis in yeast after treatment with DNA-damaging agents involves inducible functions, a general-acting error-prone repair activity analogous to the SOS system of Escherichia coli has not yet been demonstrated. The current literature on the problem of inducibility of mutagenic repair in yeast is reviewed with emphasis on the differences in the experimental procedures applied. (orig.)

  6. Lowering the UK domestic radon action level to reduce radiation-induced lung cancer in general population: when and where is it cost effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can be present within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in occupants. Recently, Darby et al. (2006) have shown that this risk exists at radon concentrations as low as 100 Bq·m -3 , which is below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq·m -3 . As a result, there have been suggestions that national domestic Action Levels should be reduced. This paper considers the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK, when a range of Action Levels from 125 Bq·m -3 to 600 Bq·m -3 are applied. The variations of total cost, cost-effectiveness, dose reduction and lung cancers saved for each proposed action level, and the proportion of houses over the proposed action level, were estimated. The study shows that, for an Action Level above 200 Bq·m -3 , a completed domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses have initial radon levels over 200 Bq·m -3 , will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost effective. In addition, a higher Action Level leaves a higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the population living in unremediated homes. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq·m -3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will be less cost-effective, because a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will be remediated with modest health benefit to occupants. The study suggests that a completed radon remediation programme is most cost-effective with an action level of around 250 to 300 Bq·m -3 . The finding appears to be independent of the percentage of houses over the Action Level. This has clear implications for future health policy. (author)

  7. Testing of self-repairing composite airplane components by use of CAI and the release of the repair chemicals from carefully inserted small tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2007-04-01

    The research on self repair of airplane components, under an SBIR phase II with Wright Patterson Air Force Base, has investigated the attributes and best end use applications for such a technology. These attributes include issues related to manufacturability, cost, potential benefits such as weight reduction, and cost reduction. The goal of our research has been to develop self-repairing composites with unique strength for air vehicles. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the composite matrix itself. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the composite senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the composite is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The advantages to the military would be safely executed missions, fewer repairs and eventually lighter vehicles. In particular the research has addressed the issues by correlating the impact of the various factors, such as 1) delivery vessel placement, shape/size and effect on composite strength, chemicals released and their effect on the matrix, release trigger and efficacy and any impact on matrix properties 2) impact of composite processing methods that involve heat and pressure on the repair vessels. Our self repairing system can be processed at temperatures of 300-350F, repairs in less than 30 seconds and does not damage the composite by repair fiber insertion or chemical release. Scaling up and manufacture of components has revealed that anticipating potential problems allowed us to avoid those associated with processing temperatures and pressures. The presentation will focus on compression after impact testing and the placement of repair fibers/tubes into prepreg

  8. Improving Aviation Depot Level Repairable (AVDLR) Inventory and Repair Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baird, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    .... Additionally, research was conducted to document the management process for determining repair requirements at the Naval Inventory Control Point Philadelphia and how those requirements are accepted...

  9. A new incomplete-repair model based on a ''reciprocal-time'' pattern of sublethal damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, R.G.; Fowler, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A radiobiological model for closely spaced non-instantaneous radiation fractions is presented, based on the premise that the time process of sublethal damage (SLD) repair is 'reciprocal-time' (second order), rather than exponential (first order), in form. The initial clinical implications of such an incomplete-repair model are assessed. A previously derived linear-quadratic-based model was revised to take account of the possibility that SLD may repair with time such that the fraction of an element of initial damage remaining at time t is given as 1/(1+zt), where z is an appropriate rate constant; z is the reciprocal of the first half-time (τ) of repair. The general equation so derived for incomplete repair is applicable to all types of radiotherapy delivered at high, low and medium dose-rate in fractions delivered at regular time intervals. The model allows both the fraction duration and interfraction intervals to vary between zero and infinity. For any given value of z, reciprocal repair is associated with an apparent 'slowing-down' in the SLD repair rate as treatment proceeds. The instantaneous repair rates are not directly governed by total dose or dose per fraction, but are influenced by the treatment duration and individual fraction duration. Instantaneous repair rates of SLD appear to be slower towards the end of a continuous treatment, and are also slower following 'long' fractions than they are following 'short' fractions. The new model, with its single repair-rate parameter, is shown to be capable of providing a degree of quantitative explanation for some enigmas that have been encountered in clinical studies. A single-component reciprocal repair process provides an alternative explanation for the apparent existence of a range of repair rates in human tissues, and which have hitherto been explained by postulating the existence of a multi-exponential repair process. The build-up of SLD over extended treatments is greater than would be inferred using a

  10. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  11. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  12. Repairing methods of steam turbine blades using welding procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Cristalinas, V.; Kubiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam turbine blades are subjected to the natural permanent wear or damage, which may be of mechanical or metallurgical origin. The typical damage occurring during the lifetime of turbine blading may be erosion, corrosion, foreign objects damage, rubbing and cracking caused by high cycle fatigue and creep crack growth. The nozzle and diaphragm vanes (stationary blades) of the steam turbine are elements whose damage is commonly occurring and they require special repair processes. The damage of the blade trailing edge of nozzle and diaphragm vanes, due to the former causes, may be refurbished by welding deposits or stainless steel inserts welded to the blades. Both repair methods of the stationary steam turbine blades are presented. The results of the blades refurbishment are an increase of the turbine availability, reliability and efficiency, and a decrease of the risk that failure will occur. Also, the repair cost versus the spare blades cost represent significant reduction of expenditure. 7 refs

  13. Semi-Automated Diagnosis, Repair, and Rework of Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.; Easton, John W.; Anderson, Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program for Exploration of the Moon and Mars places human crews in extreme isolation in resource scarce environments. Near Earth, the discontinuation of Space Shuttle flights after 2010 will alter the up- and down-mass capacity for the International Space Station (ISS). NASA is considering new options for logistics support strategies for future missions. Aerospace systems are often composed of replaceable modular blocks that minimize the need for complex service operations in the field. Such a strategy however, implies a robust and responsive logistics infrastructure with relatively low transportation costs. The modular Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) used for ISS requires relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may really be three orders of magnitude smaller. The ability to perform in-situ repair of electronics circuits at the component level can dramatically reduce the scale of spares and related logistics cost. This ability also reduces mission risk, increases crew independence and improves the overall supportability of the program. The Component-Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task under the NASA Supportability program was established to demonstrate the practicality of repair by first investigating widely used soldering materials and processes (M&P) performed by modest manual means. The work will result in program guidelines for performing manual repairs along with design guidance for circuit reparability. The next phase of CLEAR recognizes that manual repair has its limitations and some highly integrated devices are extremely difficult to handle and demand semi-automated equipment. Further, electronics repairs require a broad range of diagnostic capability to isolate the faulty components. Finally repairs must pass functional tests to determine that the repairs are successful and the circuit can be returned to service. To prevent equipment demands from exceeding spacecraft volume

  14. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Syuichi; Ito, Kosuke; Kochi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshio; Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  15. Engineered Heart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, B; Zimmermann, W-H

    2017-08-01

    There is a pressing need for the development of advanced heart failure therapeutics. Current state-of-the-art is protection from neurohumoral overstimulation, which fails to address the underlying cause of heart failure, namely loss of cardiomyocytes. Implantation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via tissue-engineered myocardium is being advanced to realize the remuscularization of the failing heart. Here, we discuss pharmacological challenges pertaining to the clinical translation of tissue-engineered heart repair with a focus on engineered heart muscle (EHM). © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. Optimal post-warranty maintenance policy with repair time threshold for minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Minjae; Mun Jung, Ki; Park, Dong Ho

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a renewable minimal repair–replacement warranty policy and propose an optimal maintenance model after the warranty is expired. Such model adopts the repair time threshold during the warranty period and follows with a certain type of system maintenance policy during the post-warranty period. As for the criteria for optimality, we utilize the expected cost rate per unit time during the life cycle of the system, which has been frequently used in many existing maintenance models. Based on the cost structure defined for each failure of the system, we formulate the expected cost rate during the life cycle of the system, assuming that a renewable minimal repair–replacement warranty policy with the repair time threshold is provided to the user during the warranty period. Once the warranty is expired, the maintenance of the system is the user's sole responsibility. The life cycle of the system is defined on the perspective of the user and the expected cost rate per unit time is derived in this context. We obtain the optimal maintenance policy during the maintenance period following the expiration of the warranty period by minimizing such a cost rate. Numerical examples using actual failure data are presented to exemplify the applicability of the methodologies proposed in this paper.

  17. A Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Feasibility of Implementing A Same-Day Surgery Program at the 121ST General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-27

    complete my research include the following: Mr. Craig Carter, LTC Jane Denio, Ms. Patricia Felder, Mr. Al Rayos , Mr. Modesto Rivera, Mrs. Helen Shinn...3,100,392, calculated as such: (*Average DRG Cost x 894) – (*Average SDS Cost x 894) = $3,100,392 There were 22 cases that could be clearly identified as a... x 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………..…… 1 Conditions Which Prompted the Study……………………….…. 2 Statement of the Problem

  18. CAME-Computer Aided Maintenance Engineering: a new methodology to reduce maintenance life cycle cost pipelines (repair level, spares, preventive/scheduled/inspection and resources) by modeling, analysis and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bot, Yizhak [BQR Reliability Engineering Ltd. (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    In today's insecure and uncertain climate in the high-tech industry, where money is less accessible, companies are constantly searching for ways to cut expenses. Two important financial factors to consider are maintenance and down time when the equipment/system/processes are not functioning/operating. In this paper we shall describe a new technology, which will help designers and operators of complex systems to improve the reliability of the products and to reduce the maintenance cost, when they are used in field. These set of tools are interfaced to exist CAD/CAE and ERP/CMMS systems concurrently. (author)

  19. Lessons learned using Snodgrass hypospadias repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This is a review of our experience with the Snodgrass technique for distal hypospadias repair and we point to lessons learned in improving results. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent Snodgrass hypospadias repair for distal hypospadias over a four-year period by a single surgeon. Chart review followed by parental telephone interview was used to determine voiding function, cosmesis and complication rate. RESULTS: Thirty children and three adults were identified. Age at surgery ranged from seven months to 39 years. The urinary stream was straight in 94%, and 97% reported a good or satisfactory final cosmetic outcome. One patient (3.3%) developed a urethral fistula and 21% developed meatal stenosis which required general anaesthetic. CONCLUSION: The Snodgrass urethroplasty provides satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. High rates of meatal stenosis initially encountered have improved with modifications to technique which include modified meatoplasty and routine meatal dilatation by the parents.

  20. Rectocele repair using biomaterial augmentation: current documentation and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Mellgren, Anders; Zetterström, Jan

    2005-11-01

    Although the etiology of rectocele remains debated, surgical innovations are currently promoted to improve anatomic outcome while avoiding dyspareunia and alleviating rectal emptying difficulties following rectocele surgery. Use of biomaterials in rectocele repair has become widespread in a short time, but the clinical documentation of their effectiveness and complications is limited. Medline and the Cochrane database were searched electronically from 1964 to May 2005 using the Pubmed and Ovid search engines. All English language publications including any of the search terms "rectocele," "implant," "mesh," "biomaterial," "prolapse," "synthetical," "pelvic floor," "biological," and "compatibility" were reviewed. This review outlines the basic principles for use of biomaterials in pelvic reconstructive surgery and provides a condensation of peer-reviewed articles describing clinical use of biomaterials in rectocele surgery. Historical and new concepts in rectocele surgery are discussed. Factors of importance for human in vivo biomaterial compatibility are presented together with current knowledge from clinical studies. Potential risks and problems associated with the use of biomaterials in rectocele and pelvic reconstructive surgery in general are described. Although use of biomaterials in rectocele and other pelvic organ prolapse surgery offers exciting possibilities, it raises treatment costs and may be associated with unknown and potentially severe complications at short and long term. Clinical benefits are currently unknown and need to be proven in clinical studies. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians After completion of this article, the reader should be able to explain that the objective of surgical treatment is to improve anatomic outcome and alleviate rectal emptying difficulties, describe the efficacy of biomaterials in rectocele repair, and summarize the potential risks and problems associated with use of biomaterials in rectocele and pelvic

  1. Cost-effectiveness of i-Sleep, a guided online CBT intervention, for patients with insomnia in general practice : protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zweerde, Tanja; Lancee, Jaap; Slottje, Pauline; Bosmans, Judith; Van Someren, Eus; Reynolds, Charles; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder causing clinically significant distress and impairment. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with high societal and individual costs. Although cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) is the preferred treatment, it is not used often.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of i-Sleep, a guided online CBT intervention, for patients with insomnia in general practice: protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zweerde, T.; Lancee, J.; Slottje, P.; Bosmans, J.; van Someren, E.; Reynolds, C.; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder causing clinically significant distress and impairment. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with high societal and individual costs. Although cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) is the preferred treatment, it is not used often.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of i-Sleep, a guided online CBT intervention, for patients with insomnia in general practice : Protocol of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zweerde, T.; Lancee, J.; Slottje, P.; Bosmans, J.; Van Someren, E.; Reynolds, C.; Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder causing clinically significant distress and impairment. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with high societal and individual costs. Although cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) is the preferred treatment, it is not used often.

  4. Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping of repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tadaaki

    1985-01-01

    Chromosome mapping of repair genes involved in U.V. sensitivity is reported. Twenty-three of 25 hybrid cells were resistant to U.V. light. Survival curves of 2 U.V.-resistant cell strains, which possessed mouse chromosomes and human chromosome No.7 - 16, were similar to those of wild strain (L5178Y). On the other hand, survival curves of U.V.-sensitive hybrid cells was analogous to those of Q31. There was a definitive difference in the frequency of inducible chromosome aberrations between U.V. resistant and sensitive mouse-human hybrid cells. U.V.-resistant cell strains possessed the ability of excision repair. Analysis of karyotype in hybrid cells showed that the difference in U.V. sensitivity is dependent upon whether or not human chromosome No.13 is present. Synteny test on esterase D-determining locus confirmed that there is an agreement between the presence of chromosome No.13 and the presence of human esterase D activity. These results led to a conclusion that human genes which compensate recessive character of U.V.-sensitive mutant strain, Q31, with mouse-human hybrid cells are located on the locus of chromosome No.13. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Male infertility after mesh hernia repair: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallén, Magnus; Sandblom, Gabriel; Nordin, Pär; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Kvist, Ulrik; Westerdahl, Johan

    2011-02-01

    Several animal studies have raised concern about the risk for obstructive azoospermia owing to vasal fibrosis caused by the use of alloplastic mesh prosthesis in inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of male infertility after bilateral mesh repair. In a prospective study, a questionnaire inquiring about involuntary childlessness, investigation for infertility and number of children was sent by mail to a group of 376 men aged 18-55 years, who had undergone bilateral mesh repair, identified in the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR). Questionnaires were also sent to 2 control groups, 1 consisting of 186 men from the SHR who had undergone bilateral repair without mesh, and 1 consisting of 383 men identified in the general population. The control group from the SHR was matched 2:1 for age and years elapsed since operation. The control group from the general population was matched 1:1 for age and marital status. The overall response rate was 525 of 945 (56%). Method of approach (anterior or posterior), type of mesh, and testicular status at the time of the repair had no significant impact on the answers to the questions. Nor did subgroup analysis of the men ≤40 years old reveal any significant differences. The results of this prospective study in men do not support the hypothesis that bilateral inguinal hernia repair with alloplastic mesh prosthesis causes male infertility at a significantly greater rate than those operated without mesh. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ageing airplane repair assessment program for Airbus A300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardon, J. M.; Schmidt, HANS-J.; Brandecker, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the repair categorization activities and includes all details about the methodologies developed for determination of the inspection program for the skin on pressurized fuselages. For inspection threshold determination two methods are defined based on fatigue life approach, a simplified and detailed method. The detailed method considers 15 different parameters to assess the influences of material, geometry, size location, aircraft usage, and workmanship on the fatigue life of the repair and the original structure. For definition of the inspection intervals a general method is developed which applies to all concerned repairs. For this the initial flaw concept is used by considering 6 parameters and the detectable flaw sizes depending on proposed nondestructive inspection methods. An alternative method is provided for small repairs allowing visual inspection with shorter intervals.

  8. Specialists' meeting on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the experience accumulated in various countries on the general design philosophy of LMFBR steam generators from the view point of maintenance and repair, in-service inspection of steam generator tube bundles, identification and inspection of failed tubes and the cleaning and repairing of failed steam generators. The following main topic areas were discussed by participants: National review presentations on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators - design philosophy for maintenance and repair; Research and Development work on maintenance and repair; Experience on steam generator maintenance and repair. During the meeting papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their countries and organizations. A final discussion session was held and summaries, general conclusions and recommendations were approved by consensus

  9. The Cost of Troubleshooting Cost Clusters with Inside Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Jensen, Finn V.

    2010-01-01

    Decision theoretical troubleshooting is about minimizing the expected cost of solving a certain problem like repairing a complicated man-made device. In this paper we consider situations where you have to take apart some of the device to get access to certain clusters and actions. Specifically, w...

  10. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  11. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old

  12. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  13. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  14. My journey to DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    I completed my medical studies at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm but have always been devoted to basic research. My longstanding interest is to understand fundamental DNA repair mechanisms in the fields of cancer therapy, inherited human genetic disorders and ancient DNA. I initially measured DNA decay, including rates of base loss and cytosine deamination. I have discovered several important DNA repair proteins and determined their mechanisms of action. The discovery of uracil-DNA glycosylase defined a new category of repair enzymes with each specialized for different types of DNA damage. The base excision repair pathway was first reconstituted with human proteins in my group. Cell-free analysis for mammalian nucleotide excision repair of DNA was also developed in my laboratory. I found multiple distinct DNA ligases in mammalian cells, and led the first genetic and biochemical work on DNA ligases I, III and IV. I discovered the mammalian exonucleases DNase III (TREX1) and IV (FEN1). Interestingly, expression of TREX1 was altered in some human autoimmune diseases. I also showed that the mutagenic DNA adduct O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)mG) is repaired without removing the guanine from DNA, identifying a surprising mechanism by which the methyl group is transferred to a residue in the repair protein itself. A further novel process of DNA repair discovered by my research group is the action of AlkB as an iron-dependent enzyme carrying out oxidative demethylation. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The journey of DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  16. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  17. The Design of Intelligent Repair Welding Mechanism and Relative Control System of Big Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective repair of worn big gear has large influence on ensuring safety production and enhancing economic benefits. A kind of intelligent repair welding method was put forward mainly aimed at the big gear restriction conditions of high production cost, long production cycle and high- intensity artificial repair welding work. Big gear repair welding mechanism was designed in this paper. The work principle and part selection of big gear repair welding mechanism was introduced. The three dimensional mode of big gear repair welding mechanism was constructed by Pro/E three dimensional design software. Three dimensional motions can be realized by motor controlling ball screw. According to involute gear feature, the complicated curve motion on curved gear surface can be transformed to linear motion by orientation. By this way, the repair welding on worn gear area can be realized. In the design of big gear repair welding mechanism control system, Siemens S7-200 series hardware was chosen. Siemens STEP7 programming software was chosen as system design tool. The entire repair welding process was simulated by experiment simulation. It provides a kind of practical and feasible method for the intelligent repair welding of big worn gear.

  18. Effect of a French experiment of team work between general practitioners and nurses on efficacy and cost of type 2 diabetes patients care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousquès, Julien; Bourgueil, Yann; Le Fur, Philippe; Yilmaz, Engin

    2010-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and the cost of a French team work experiment between nurses and GPs for managing type 2 diabetes patients. Based on a case control study design we compare the evolution of process (standard follow-up procedures) and final (glycemic control) outcomes, and of cost, between two consecutive periods between type 2 diabetes patients followed within the team work experiment (intervention group) or by "standard" GPs (controlled group). After a 11 months of follow-up, patients in the intervention group, compared with those in the controlled group, have more chances to remain or to become: correctly followed-up (with OR comprise between 2.1 and 6.8, p≤5%) and under glycemic control (with OR comprise between 1.8 and 2.7, p≤5%). The latter result is obtained only when a visit for education and counselling has been delivered by a nurse in supplement to systematic electronic patient registry and electronic clinical GPs reminder. All these results are obtained without difference in costs between the intervention and the controlled group. This experimentation of team working can be considered both effective and efficient. Our findings may have implications in the design of future larger primary care team work experiment to be launched by French health authorities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic pathway of syncope and analysis of the impact of guidelines in a district general hospital. The ECSIT study (epidemiology and costs of syncope in Trento).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Greco, Maurizio; Cozzio, Susanna; Scillieri, Marco; Caprari, Francesca; Scivales, Alessandro; Disertori, Marcello

    2003-02-01

    The ECSIT study was aimed at evaluating the hospital management of syncope patients, at comparing the appropriateness and costs of the hospital diagnostic pathway before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) the introduction of new guidelines and at analyzing the physicians' compliance to the guidelines. All syncope patients admitted to the emergency room between August 1 and October 31, 1999 (phase 1) and between March 1 and May 31, 2000 (phase 2) were enrolled and their clinical records were analyzed in a blind fashion. During the study 538 consecutive patients came to the emergency room for syncope with a hospitalization rate of 53% in phase 1 (n = 151) and of 42% in phase 2 (n = 107). The in-hospital stay increased from 9 days in phase 1 to 11.3 days in phase 2 and diagnostic tests from 2.6 per patient (phase 1) to 2.9 per patient (phase 2) with total costs that rose from [symbol: see text] 3,474 to [symbol: see text] 3,647. Patients with no diagnosis decreased from 51 to 45.8% and the principal causes were identified as vascular brain disease (36.1 vs 33.7%) and neurally-mediated mechanisms (35.3 vs 42.2%). Despite the high costs of syncope management, the appropriateness and efficacy of the hospital diagnostic pathway remains far from ideal and simply introducing new guidelines seems unable to modify clinical practice.

  20. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  1. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E; Crisp, Ryan W; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-10-23

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We utilized atomically thin semiconductor nanoplatelets as a convenient platform for studying, both microscopically and spectroscopically, the development of defects during ligand exchange with the conductive ligands Na 4 SnS 4 and (NH 4 ) 4 Sn 2 S 6 . These defects can be repaired via mild chemical or thermal routes, through the addition of L-type ligands or wet annealing, respectively. This results in a higher-quality, conductive, colloidally stable nanomaterial that may be used as the active film in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  3. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, I.T.; Perez-Ocon, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures

  4. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  5. Cost-utility of collaborative care for the treatment of comorbid major depressive disorder in outpatients with chronic physical conditions. A randomized controlled trial in the general hospital setting (CC-DIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goorden M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maartje Goorden,1 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis,2,3 Kirsten M van Steenbergen-Weijenburg,4 Eva K Horn,5 Aartjan TF Beekman,6,7 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen1 1Institute of Health Policy and Management (iBMG/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, 3Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGzBreburg, Tilburg, 4Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, 5Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, 6Department of Psychiatry, 7EMGO+ Research Institute VUmc, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: Major depressive disorder (MDD is highly prevalent in patients with a chronic physical condition, and this comorbidity has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Research has shown that collaborative care (CC may be a cost-effective treatment. However, its cost-effectiveness in this patient group has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of CC for the treatment of comorbid MDD in chronically ill patients in the outpatient general hospital setting. The study was conducted from a health care and societal perspective.Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 81 patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were included; 42 were randomly assigned to the CC group and 39 to the care as usual (CAU group. We applied the TiC-P, short-form Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire, and EuroQol EQ-5D 3 level version, measuring the use of health care, informal care, and household work, respectively, at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up.Results: The mean annual direct medical costs in the CC group were €6,718 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,541 to 10,680 compared to €4,582 (95% CI: 2,782 to 6,740 in the CAU group. The average quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 0.07 higher

  6. Present Worth Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Studies in the Department of Defense (1993)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, Stephen R

    1992-01-01

    .... These factors are especially useful for the life cycle cost analysis of investments in buildings or building systems which are intended to reduce future operating, maintenance, repair, replacement...

  7. Monogenic diseases of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzers, Guido; Bakula, Daniela; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the genome is essential for all organisms, and it is not surprising that damage to DNA has been proposed as an explanation for multiple chronic diseases.1-5 Conserving a pristine genome is therefore of central importance to our health. To overcome the genotoxic stress...... of a growing number of human diseases. Notably, many of these monogenic DNA-repair disorders display features of accelerated aging, supporting the notion that genome maintenance is a key factor for organismal longevity. This review focuses on the physiological consequences of loss of DNA repair, particularly...... in the context of monogenic DNA-repair diseases....

  8. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  9. Changes in the frequencies of abdominal wall hernias and the preferences for their repair: a multicenter national study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan; Öztuna, Derya; Topgül, Koray; Akyol, Cihangir; Çakmak, Atıl; Karateke, Faruk; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Gürer, Ahmet; Zerbaliyev, Elbrus; Seker, Duray; Yorgancı, Kaya; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydın, Ibrahim; Ensari, Cemal; Bilecik, Tuna; Kahraman, İzzettin; Reis, Erhan; Kalaycı, Murat; Canda, Aras Emre; Demirağ, Alp; Kesicioğlu, Tuğrul; Malazgirt, Zafer; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Terzi, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are a common problem in the general population. A Western estimate reveals that the lifetime risk of developing a hernia is about 2%. As a result, hernia repairs likely comprise the most frequent general surgery operations. More than 20 million hernias are estimated to be repaired every year around the world. Numerous repair techniques have been described to date however tension-free mesh repairs are widely used today because of their low hernia recurrence rates. Nevertheless, there are some ongoing debates regarding the ideal approach (open or laparoscopic), the ideal anesthesia (general, local, or regional), and the ideal mesh (standard polypropylene or newer meshes).

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a proactive, goal-oriented, integrated care model in general practice for older people. A cluster randomised controlled trial: Integrated Systematic Care for older People--the ISCOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jeanet; den Elzen, Wendy; van Houwelingen, Anne H; Heijmans, Margot; Stijnen, Theo; Van den Hout, Wilbert; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    older people often experience complex problems. Because of multiple problems, care for older people in general practice needs to shift from a 'problem-based, disease-oriented' care aiming at improvement of outcomes per disease to a 'goal-oriented care', aiming at improvement of functioning and personal quality of life, integrating all healthcare providers. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this proactive and integrated way of working are not yet established. cluster randomised trial. all persons aged ≥75 in 59 general practices (30 intervention, 29 control), with a combination of problems, as identified with a structured postal questionnaire with 21 questions on four health domains. for participants with problems on ≥3 domains, general practitioners (GPs) made an integrated care plan using a functional geriatric approach. Control practices: care as usual. (i) quality of life (QoL), (ii) activities of daily living, (iii) satisfaction with delivered health care and (iv) cost-effectiveness of the intervention at 1-year follow-up. Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. of the 11,476 registered eligible older persons, 7,285 (63%) participated in the screening. One thousand nine hundred and twenty-one (26%) had problems on ≥3 health domains. For 225 randomly chosen persons, a care plan was made. No beneficial effects were found on QoL, patients' functioning or healthcare use/costs. GPs experienced better overview of the care and stability, e.g. less unexpected demands, in the care. GPs prefer proactive integrated care. 'Horizontal' care using care plans for older people with complex problems can be a valuable tool in general practice. However, no direct beneficial effect was found for older persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  11. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  12. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Morocco. 10.787 Section 10.787 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules that apply for...

  13. An approximate approach for the joint problem of level of repair analysis and spare parts stocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, R.J.I.; Heijden, van der M.C.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    For the spare parts stocking problem, generally metric type methods are used in the context of capital goods. Implicitly, a decision is assumed on which components to discard and which to repair upon failure, and where to perform repairs. In the military world, this decision is taken explicitly

  14. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply for...

  15. An approximate approach for the joint problem of level of repair analysis and spare parts stocking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    For the spare parts stocking problem, generally metric type methods are used in the context of capital goods. Implicitly, a decision is assumed on which components to discard and which to repair upon failure, and where to perform repairs. In the military world, this decision is taken explicitly

  16. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    a learning curve of about 50-100 cases and decreases chronic pain, but slightly increases the risk of serious complications compared with open mesh repairs. Therefore, a simpler kind of operation is needed. The ONSTEP technique is a possible solution to this problem. The objective of the present randomised...... comparing the ONSTEP technique with the laparoscopic technique. The results from this study are needed before it can be decided whether the ONSTEP technique should replace the laparoscopic technique in general surgical practice. FUNDING: This study has not received external funding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT...

  17. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  18. Declarativity and efficiency in providing services of general economic interest. Empirical study regarding the relation between heating costs and budget constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined by each country separately, according to real options, circumstances and traditions, the services of general economic interest have an objective purpose in ensuring protection and security for population. The services of general economic interest involve both public and economic services and show characteristics of both fields, reflecting the capabilities of communities to organize, regulate and provide them. Considering the accessibility to the essential service of general economic interest of providing household heating, as an undeniable condition of consumer protection, an analysis has been made in this field, with reference to the concrete manner of providing these services. The goal of this endeavor was to emphasize the actual conditionalities induced by the budget constraints of households while ensuring the universality of the access to the essential heating service. The empirical study is based on a survey of 55 households in sector 2 of Bucharest that have access to gas heating systems, while they have different revenues and equipments. The processing of the gathered data allowed the procurement of certain indicators that explain how household revenues determine the access to the heating services and how the deficiencies of the insurance system of these services deepen the social polarization and increase the weightings of those living at the limit of subsistence.

  19. 7 CFR 249.12 - SFMNP costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SFMNP costs. 249.12 Section 249.12 Agriculture....12 SFMNP costs. (a) General. (1) Composition of allowable costs. In general, a cost item will be... administration and operation of the SFMNP. Allowable SFMNP costs may be classified as follows: (i) Food costs and...

  20. Economic Analysis of Cleft Palate Repair in International Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson-Hansen, Sandra; Paliga, J Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Paine, Kaitlyn M; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective cohort study. Major international tertiary care referral center for cleft palate repair. One hundred thirty-eight patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia who had palate repair performed between 2010 and 2013, excluding syndromic patients, patients undergoing palate revision, and patients with incomplete payment information. None. Fees and charges for procedures. Surgeon payment was significantly higher for international adoptees (Δ = $2047.51 [$128.35 to $3966.66], P = .038). Medicaid-adjusted surgeon payments averaged $1006 more for adoptees ([-$394.19 to $2406.98], P = .158). Hospital and anesthesiology costs for adoptee palate repair were highly variable but did not differ significantly from those for nonadoptees. Partly due to payer mix, surgeon reimbursement was somewhat higher for international adoptees. No difference in total payment was found.

  1. Colon trauma: primary repair evolving as the standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffoletto, J. P.; Tate, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the management of colon injuries treated at the trauma surgical service, University of Nevada Medical Center between 1987 and 1992. Sixty-six patients sustained either blunt or penetrating colon injuries during the study period. The patients were divided into two groups: patients who underwent diverting colostomies and patients who underwent primary repair. Both groups were equally matched in terms of colon injury severity as well as trauma scores. The results indicated that primary colon repair was as safe if not safer than colostomy with less complications and at lower costs. The authors conclude that primary repair should be reevaluated in a critical manner as an evolving standard of care. PMID:8855649

  2. Properties shaping and repair of selected types of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of twofold use of TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas also known as GTA - Gas Tungsten Arc. First is surfacing by welding on cold and hot-cold to repair chromium cast iron with chromium content about 15%. Second is remelting with electric arc of selected gray (with pearlitic matrix and ductile (with ferritic-pearlitic matrix cast iron. Repair of cast iron elements was realized in order to cut out a casting defects. Defects decrease a usability of castings for constructional application and increase a manufacturing costs. Application of surface heat treatment guarantees mechanical properties i.e. hardness and wear resistance improvement. The result of investigations show possibility of castings repair by put on defects a good quality padding welds, which have comparable properties with base material. Use of electric arc surface heat treatment resulted in increase of hardness and wear resistance, which was measured on the basis of ASTM G 65 - 00 standard.

  3. Solvent neurotoxicity in vehicle collision repair workers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keer, Samuel; Glass, Bill; Prezant, Bradley; McLean, David; Pearce, Neil; Harding, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Diana; McGlothlin, James; Babbage, Duncan R; Douwes, Jeroen

    2016-12-01

    To assess whether solvent use and workplace practices in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with symptoms of neurotoxicity in spray painters and panel beaters (auto body repair workers). Neurobehavioural symptoms were assessed using a cross-sectional study design in 370 vehicle collision repair and 211 reference workers using the EUROQUEST questionnaire. Full-shift airborne solvent levels were measured in a subset (n=92) of collision repair workers. Solvent exposures were higher in spray painters than in panel beaters, but levels were below current international exposure standards. Collision repair workers were more likely to report symptoms of neurotoxicity than reference workers with ORs of 2.0, 2.4 and 6.4 (all p<0.05) for reporting ≥5, ≥10 and ≥15 symptoms respectively. This trend was generally strongest for panel beaters (ORs of 2.1, 3.3 and 8.2 for ≥5, ≥10 and ≥15 symptoms respectively). Associations with specific symptom domains showed increased risks for neurological (OR 4.2), psychosomatic (OR 3.2), mood (OR 2.1), memory (OR 2.9) and memory and concentration symptoms combined (OR 2.4; all p<0.05). Workers who had worked for 10-19 years or 20+ years in the collision repair industry reported consistently more symptoms than those who had only worked less than 10 years even after adjusting for age. However, those who worked more than 20 years generally reported fewer symptoms than those who worked 10-19 years, suggesting a possible healthy worker survivor bias. Despite low airborne solvent exposures, vehicle collision repair spray painters and panel beaters continue to be at risk of symptoms of neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Umbilical hernia repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment. The indications for umbilical hernia repair include: incarcerated (strangulated) umbilical hernia defects not spontaneously closed by 4 to 5 years of age children under 2 with very large defects unacceptable to ...

  5. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard D.

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  6. Canadian company innovates dam repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Successful repair without any downtime, of the Sabana Yegua power and irrigation structure in the western Dominican Republic by Aquatic Sciences Ltd., a St. Catherine, Ontario-based underwater specialist company, is discussed. The structure was damaged by Hurricane George last when when rising water levels damaged a major valve in the control gate chamber. The repair strategy designed by Aquatic Sciences used a remotely operated vehicle with a mechanical arm for minor tasks which placed a specially-made plug into the inlet pipe. The work was completed in one week, saving the utility company a great deal of money by making it possible to make the repairs remotely in the gate chamber without having to drain the tunnel, as would have been necessary had the repair been completed manually. The remotely operated vehicles use a scanning sonar as well as light to find their way. They are particularly well adapted to work underwater under low-visibility conditions

  7. Betonreparationers holdbarhed (Durability of Concrete Repairs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes, Eydbjørn; Dali, Bogi í; Larsen, Erik Stoklund

    1999-01-01

    Concrete repairs on 11 pillars on bridges built in the sixties and repaired 8 to 9 years ago have been examined. Especially the chloride penetration in the repair concrete have been measured. Chloride penetration in the repair concrete is much lower than in the original concrete....

  8. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected no later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15 calendar...

  10. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it is...

  11. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in Weld Repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a generalized flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in the U. S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different cancelled reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This paper describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs which are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. Construction records where available were reviewed. It is difficult to make conclusions due to the limited number of construction records reviewed. However, the records reviewed to date show a significant change in repair frequency over the years when the components in this study were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance.

  12. Approximate Cores of a General Class of Economies. Part II. Set-Up Costs and Firm Formation in Coalition Production Economies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    r AAI1Z 608 YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT C OWLES FOUNDATION FOR RESEARC --ETC F/G 513 APPROXIMATE CORES 6F A GENERAL CLASS OF ECONOMIES. PART It. SET--ETC(U...theoretic models of the economy in strategic form are institutional. Markets and firms and even money are assumed to exist. Cooperative game theory can be...groups. Alternatively we can define firms and firms- in-being, specify the manner of trade in the markets , define what is meant by entry and exit and

  13. Laparoscopic Repair of Inguinal Hernias

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Jonathan; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2011-01-01

    For patients with recurrent inguinal hernia, or bilateral inguinal hernia, or for women, laparoscopic repair offers significant advantages over open techniques with regard to recurrence risk, pain, and recovery. For unilateral first-time hernias, either laparoscopic or open repair with mesh can offer excellent results. The major drawback of laparoscopy is that the technique requires a significant number of cases to master. For surgeons in group practice, it makes sense to have one surgeon in ...

  14. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Affordable Combat Aircraft, AGARD - CP -600, 1997. [17] Helbling J, Grover R and Ratwani M. M “Analysis and Structural Test of Composite Reinforcement to...considered suitable for the composite patch repair of aluminum structure. Ductile adhesives such as FM- 73 are preferred over brittle adhesives Repair Types...zone. A proper cure cycle is followed as prescribed by the adhesive manufacturer. For FM- 73 adhesive cure at 2500F (1210C) for 120 minutes is

  15. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  16. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  17. Overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Andrea K; Myers, Erinn M; Lippmann, Quinn K; Matthews, Catherine A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of how to anatomically reconstruct extensive posterior-compartment defects is variable among gynecologists. The objective of this video is to demonstrate an effective technique of overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair. In this video, a scripted storyboard was constructed that outlines the key surgical steps of a comprehensive posterior compartment repair: (1) surgical incision that permits access to posterior compartment and perineal body, (2) dissection of the rectovaginal space up to the level of the cervix, (3) plication of the rectovaginal muscularis, (4) repair of internal and external anal sphincters, and (5) reconstruction of the perineal body. Using a combination of graphic illustrations and live video footage, tips on repair are highlighted. The goals at the end of repair are to: (1) have improved vaginal caliber, (2) increase rectal tone along the entire posterior vaginal wall, (3) have the posterior vaginal wall at a perpendicular plane to the perineal body, (4) reform the hymenal ring, and (5) not have an overly elongated perineal body. This video provides a step-by-step guide on how to perform an overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair.

  18. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  19. Management of radiological related equipments. Creating the equipment management database and analysis of the repair and maintenance records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Megumu; Taguchi, Keiichi; Oota, Takashi; Kajiwara, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyotune; Hagio, Kiyofumi; Uesugi, Ekizo; Kajishima, Tetuo; Ueda, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, we established the committee of equipments maintenance and management in our department. We designed the database in order to classify and register all the radiological related equipments using Microsoft Access. The management of conditions and cost of each equipment has become easier, by keeping and recording the database in the equipments management ledger and by filing the history of repairs or maintenances occurred to modalities. We then accounted numbers, cost of repairs and downtimes from the data of the repair and maintenance records for four years, and we reexamined the causal analysis of failures and the contents of the regular maintenance for CT and MRI equipments that had shown the higher numbers of repairs. Consequently, we have found the improvement of registration method of the data and the more economical way to use of the cost of repair. (author)

  20. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  1. Electrosleeve process for in-situ nuclear steam generator repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, R.A.; Moran, T.E.; Renaud, E.

    1997-01-01

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing by localized corrosion is a widespread problem in the nuclear industry that can lead to costly forced out-ages, unit de-rating, SG replacement or even the permanent shutdown of a reactor. In response to the onset of SG tubing degradation at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Unit 5, and the determined unsuitability of conventional repair methods (mechanically expanded or welded sleeves) for Alloy 400, an alternative repair technology was developed. Electrosleeve is a non-intrusive, low-temperature process that involves the electrodeposition of a nanocrystalline nickel microalloy forming a continuously bonded, structural layer over the internal diameter of the degraded region. This technology is designed to provide a long-term pressure boundary repair, fully restoring the structural integrity of the damaged region to its original state. This paper describes the Electrosleeve process for SG tubing repair and the unique properties of the advanced sleeve material. The successful installation of Electrosleeves that have been in service for more than three years in Alloy 400 SG tubing at the Pickering-5 CANDU unit, the more recent extension of the technology to Alloy 600 and its demonstration in a U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR), is presented. A number of PWR operators have requested plant operating technical specification changes to permit Electrosleeve SG tube repair. Licensing of the Electrosleeve by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is expected imminently. (author)

  2. Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

  3. The exploration of medical resources utilization among inguinal hernia repair in Taiwan diagnosis-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Kung, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi

    2017-11-09

    This study centered on differences in medical costs, using the Taiwan diagnosis-related groups (Tw-DRGs) on medical resource utilization in inguinal hernia repair (IHR) in hospitals with different ownership to provide suitable reference information for hospital administrators. The 2010-2011 data for three hospitals under different ownership were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. A retrospective method was applied to analyze the age, sex, length of stay, diagnosis and surgical procedure code, and the change in financial risk of medical costs in IHR cases after introduction of Tw-DRGs. The study calculated the cost using Tw-DRG payment principles, and compared it with estimated inpatient medical costs calculated using the fee-for-service policy. There were 723 IHR cases satisfying the Tw-DRGs criteria. Cost control in the medical care corporation hospital (US$764.2/case) was more efficient than that in the public hospital (US$902.7/case) or nonprofit proprietary hospital (US$817.1/case) surveyed in this study. For IHR, anesthesiologists in the public hospital preferred to use general anesthesia (86%), while those in the two other hospitals tended to administer spinal anesthesia. We also discovered the difference in anesthesia cost was high, at US$80.2/case on average. Because the Tw-DRG-based reimbursement system produces varying hospital costs, hospital administrators should establish a financial risk assessment system as early as possible to improve healthcare quality and financial management efficiency. This would then benefit the hospital, patient, and Bureau of National Health Insurance.

  4. The exploration of medical resources utilization among inguinal hernia repair in Taiwan diagnosis-related groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study centered on differences in medical costs, using the Taiwan diagnosis-related groups (Tw-DRGs on medical resource utilization in inguinal hernia repair (IHR in hospitals with different ownership to provide suitable reference information for hospital administrators. Methods The 2010–2011 data for three hospitals under different ownership were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. A retrospective method was applied to analyze the age, sex, length of stay, diagnosis and surgical procedure code, and the change in financial risk of medical costs in IHR cases after introduction of Tw-DRGs. The study calculated the cost using Tw-DRG payment principles, and compared it with estimated inpatient medical costs calculated using the fee-for-service policy. Results There were 723 IHR cases satisfying the Tw-DRGs criteria. Cost control in the medical care corporation hospital (US$764.2/case was more efficient than that in the public hospital (US$902.7/case or nonprofit proprietary hospital (US$817.1/case surveyed in this study. For IHR, anesthesiologists in the public hospital preferred to use general anesthesia (86%, while those in the two other hospitals tended to administer spinal anesthesia. We also discovered the difference in anesthesia cost was high, at US$80.2/case on average. Conclusions Because the Tw-DRG-based reimbursement system produces varying hospital costs, hospital administrators should establish a financial risk assessment system as early as possible to improve healthcare quality and financial management efficiency. This would then benefit the hospital, patient, and Bureau of National Health Insurance.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairin...

  6. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ix I. Introduction ...RELIABILITY OF REPAIRABLE USAF SYSTEMS I. Introduction General Issue The United States relies on complex systems to protect and project the national...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Implementing a Lifecycle Mangement Framework, Washington DC, DC: DoD, 2008

  7. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ...

  8. The Penile Perception Score after distal hypospadias repair with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perception, including the following items: meatus, glans, skin, and general appearance. The pediatric Penile. Perception Score (PPS) was calculated, consisting of the sum of these four items, and the study proved that pediatric PPS is a significant self-assessment test for repair and for appraisal for surgical procedures used ...

  9. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  10. A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Double-Row, Distal Triceps Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorweiler, Matthew A; Van Dyke, Rufus O; Siska, Robert C; Boin, Michael A; DiPaola, Mathew J

    2017-05-01

    Triceps tendon ruptures are rare orthopaedic injuries that almost always require surgical repair. This study tests the biomechanical properties of an original anchorless double-row triceps repair against a previously reported knotless double-row repair. The anchorless double-row triceps repair technique will yield similar biomechanical properties when compared with the knotless double-row repair technique. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen cadaver arms were randomized into 2 groups. One group received the anchorless repair and the other received the knotless anchor repair. A materials testing system (MTS) machine was used to cycle the repaired arms from 0° to 90° with a 2.5-pound weight for 1500 cycles at 0.25 Hz. Real-time displacement of the tendon was measured during cycling using a probe. Load to failure was performed after completion of cyclic loading. The mean displacement with the anchorless technique was 0.77 mm (SD, 0.25 mm) at 0° (full elbow extension) and 0.76 mm (SD, 0.38 mm) at 90° (elbow flexion). The mean displacement with the anchored technique was 0.83 mm (SD, 0.57 mm) at 0° and 1.01 mm (SD, 0.62 mm) at 90°. There was no statistically significant difference for tendon displacement at 0º ( P = .75) or 90º ( P = .31). The mean load to failure with the anchorless technique was 618.9 N (SD, 185.6 N), while it was 560.5 N (SD, 154.1 N) with the anchored technique, again with no statistically significant difference ( P = .28). Our anchorless double-row triceps repair technique yields comparable biomechanical properties to previously described double-row triceps tendon repair techniques, with the added benefit of avoiding the cost of suture anchors. This anchorless double-row triceps tendon repair can be considered as an acceptable alternative to a knotless anchor repair for triceps tendon ruptures.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair: are the actors ready for the clinical scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Roura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For years, sufficient progress has been made in treating heart failure following myocardial infarction; however, the social and economic burdens and the costs to world health systems remain high. Moreover, treatment advances have not resolved the underlying problem of functional heart tissue loss. In this field of research, for years we have actively explored innovative biotherapies for cardiac repair. Here, we present a general, critical overview of our experience in using mesenchymal stem cells, derived from cardiac adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood, in a variety of cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches. We also include the latest advances and future challenges, including good manufacturing practice and regulatory issues. Finally, we evaluate whether recent approaches hold potential for reliable translation to clinical trials.

  12. [Physician's anxiety and physician's elegance. Problems in dealing with cost reduction, education of general practitioners and optimal size of practice networks in a cross-national comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J

    2000-03-01

    The key reason for physicians networking in managed care is to get a better coping with uncertainty on action (treatment) decisions. The second reason for networking in managed care are financial benefits grounds. But this reason is very ambivalent. Three different action problems (role conflicts) in managed care network are to solved, which was also in single practices. In the lecture the decision strategies and decision resources has been compared. Observations are done using expert interviews, patient interviews and analysis of documents in USA, Germany and Switzerland. The first problem is the choosing of a cost reduction strategy which is not reducing the effectiveness. Such "ugly" solution strategies like exclusion of "expensive" patients and a rationing of necessary medical services in a kind of McDonalds network of physicians will fail the target. The optimost way is a saving of all unnecessary medical even injourious performances. The chosen cost reduction strategy is not real visible from outside but in fact limited cognizable and controllable. Evidence based health care can be a resource of treatment decisions and could train such decisions but it will not substitute these decisions. The second problem is the making of real family practitioners as gatekeepers. Knowledge about the care system is still not making a real family practitioner, even if this is the minimum condition of their work. Also contractual relationships between insurance and doctor as a gatekeeper or financial incentives for patients are still making not a real family practitioner as a gatekpeeper. Only throughout the trust of patients supported by second opinions is making the real family practitioner as a gatekeeper. "Doctor hopping" could be the reaction by scarcity of trustworthy family practitioners as gatekeepers. The third problem is the choosing of the optimal scale of a network due to the very different optimal size of networks regarding the requirement of risk spreeds, of the

  13. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other...

  14. Prototype fast reactor steam generator unit pressure vessel repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.D.; Green, D.; Henderson, J.D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The prototype fast reactor at Dounreay has experienced a number of unscheduled shutdowns due to leaking reheater and superheater shell welds. There was a need to determine the cracking mechanism and to design a general repair technique simultaneously. Detailed investigations revealed that the crack locations correlated with the positions of rectification welds made at the time of vessel manufacture. A creep crack growth mechanism was identified; this requires through wall residual stress for through cracks to develop. A repair technique has been devised and successfully applied to the sites of a number of leaks. (author)

  15. Modeling for prediction of restrained shrinkage effect in concrete repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yingshu; Li Guo; Cai Yue

    2003-01-01

    A general model of autogenous shrinkage caused by chemical reaction (chemical shrinkage) is developed by means of Arrhenius' law and a degree of chemical reaction. Models of tensile creep and relaxation modulus are built based on a viscoelastic, three-element model. Tests of free shrinkage and tensile creep were carried out to determine some coefficients in the models. Two-dimensional FEM analysis based on the models and other constitutions can predict the development of tensile strength and cracking. Three groups of patch-repaired beams were designed for analysis and testing. The prediction from the analysis shows agreement with the test results. The cracking mechanism after repair is discussed

  16. An optimal replacement policy for a repairable system based on its repairman having vacations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Li [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@tongji.edu.c [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with two different components and one repairman who can take multiple vacations. If there is a component which fails and the repairman is on vacation, the failed component will wait for repair until the repairman is available. In the system, assume that component 1 has priority in use. After repair, component 1 follows a geometric process repair, while component 2 can be repaired as good as new after failures. Under these assumptions, a replacement policy N based on the failed times of component 1 is studied. The system will be replaced if the failure times of component 1 reach N. The explicit expression of the expected cost rate is given, so that the optimal replacement time N{sup *} is determined. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results of the model.

  17. Brazing and diffusion bonding processes as available repair techniques for gas turbine blades and nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The conventionally welding methods are not useful for repair of heavily damaged gas turbine blades and nozzles. It includes thermal fatigue and craze cracks, corrosion, erosion and foreign object damage, which extend to the large areas. Because of required extensive heat input and couponing, it can cause severe distortion of the parts and cracks in the heat affected zone, and can made the repair costs high. For these cases, the available repair methods of gas turbine blades and nozzles, include brazing and diffusion bonding techniques are presented. Detailed analysis of the brazing and diffusion bonding processes applied for gas turbine blades repair with all elements which presented. Detailed analysis of the brazing and diffusion bonding processes applied for gas turbine blades repair with all elements which have influence to get sound joint is carried out. Depend of kind of blades and nozzle damage or deterioration registered a different methods of brazing and diffusion bonding applicability is presented. (Author) 65 refs

  18. Overview of existing cartilage repair technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNickle, Allison G; Provencher, Matthew T; Cole, Brian J

    2008-12-01

    Currently, autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral grafting bridge the gap between palliation of cartilage injury and resurfacing via arthroplasty. Emerging technologies seek to advance first generation techniques and accomplish several goals including predictable outcomes, cost-effective technology, single-stage procedures, and creation of durable repair tissue. The biologic pipeline represents a variety of technologies including synthetics, scaffolds, cell therapy, and cell-infused matrices. Synthetic constructs, an alternative to biologic repair, resurface a focal chondral defect rather than the entire joint surface. Scaffolds are cell-free constructs designed as a biologic "net" to augment marrow stimulation techniques. Minced cartilage technology uses stabilized autologous or allogeneic fragments in 1-stage transplantation. Second and third generation cell-based methods include alternative membranes, chondrocyte seeding, and culturing onto scaffolds. Despite the promising early results of these products, significant technical obstacles remain along with unknown long-term durability. The vast array of developing technologies has exceptional promise and the potential to revolutionize the cartilage treatment algorithm within the next decade.

  19. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost

  20. Ventilation cost and air cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.

  1. Costs of employee turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a general methodology for calculating the costs incurred by employee turnover. This paper deals with identification of costs incurred by the departure of an employee, and does not deal with the cost of recruitment of a new employee. Economic calculations are adjusted to the tax policy in the Czech Republic. The costs of employee turnover (according to Bliss, 2012 include the costs of substitution of the unoccupied position, costs of conducting the exit interview and termination of the contract. The cost of an executive’s time to understand the causes of leaving and costs of the leaving employee’s training were also determined. Important factors in the costs of employee turnover also include the loss of knowledge and possibly also a loss of customers. Costs of lost employee and department productiveness represent an important part of the costs of employee turnover, as well. For all of these costs there have been proposed general calculations formulas.

  2. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts

  3. Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall D. McKinnon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair.

  4. Sleeving repair of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, Michael D.; Schafer, Bruce W.

    2000-01-01

    Defective heat exchanger tubes can be repaired using techniques that do not involve the cost and schedule penalties of component replacement. FTI's years of experience repairing steam generator tubes have been successfully applied to heat exchangers. Framatome Technologies heat exchanger sleeves can bridge defective areas of the heat exchanger tubes, sleeves have been designed to repair typical heat exchanger tube defects caused by excessive tube vibration, stress corrosion cracking, pitting or erosion. By installing a sleeve, the majority of the tube's heat transfer and flow capacity is maintained and the need to replace the heat exchanger can be delayed or eliminated. Both performance and reliability are improved. FTI typically installs heat exchanger tube sleeves using either a roll expansion or hydraulic expansion process. While roll expansion of a sleeve can be accomplished very quickly, hydraulic expansion allows sleeves to be installed deep within a tube where a roll expander cannot reach. Benefits of FTI's heat exchanger tube sleeving techniques include: - Sleeves can be positioned any where along the tube length, and for precise positioning of the sleeve eddy current techniques can be employed. - Varying sleeve lengths can be used. - Both the roll and hydraulic expansion processes are rapid and both produce joints that do not require stress relief. - Because of low leak rates and speed of installations, sleeves can be used to preventatively repair likely-to-fail tubes. - Sleeves can be used for tube stiffening and to limit leakage through tube defects. - Because of installation speed, there is minimal impact on outage schedules and budgets. FTI's recently installed heat exchanger sleeving at the Kori-3 Nuclear Power Station in conjunction with Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd. The sleeves were installed in the 3A and 3B component cooling water heat exchangers. A total of 859 tubesheet and 68 freespan sleeves were installed in the 3A heat

  5. Laser repair welding of molds with various pulse shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pleterski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair welding of cold-work tool steels with conventional methods is very difficult due to cracking during remelting or cladding and is generally performed with preheating. As an alternative, repair welding with laser technology has recently been used. This paper presents the influence of different pulse shapes on welding of such tools with the pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Repair welding tests were carried out on AISI D2 tool steel, quenched and tempered to hardness of 56 HRc, followed by microstructural analysis and investigation of defects with scanning electron microscopy. Test results suggest that it is possible to obtain sound welds without preheating, with the right selection of welding parameters and appropriate pulse shape.

  6. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  7. DNA Repair Mechanisms and the Bypass of DNA Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteux, Serge; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are critical for maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA, and their loss is associated with cancer predisposition syndromes. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have played a central role in elucidating the highly conserved mechanisms that promote eukaryotic genome stability. This review will focus on repair mechanisms that involve excision of a single strand from duplex DNA with the intact, complementary strand serving as a template to fill the resulting gap. These mechanisms are of two general types: those that remove damage from DNA and those that repair errors made during DNA synthesis. The major DNA-damage repair pathways are base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair, which, in the most simple terms, are distinguished by the extent of single-strand DNA removed together with the lesion. Mistakes made by DNA polymerases are corrected by the mismatch repair pathway, which also corrects mismatches generated when single strands of non-identical duplexes are exchanged during homologous recombination. In addition to the true repair pathways, the postreplication repair pathway allows lesions or structural aberrations that block replicative DNA polymerases to be tolerated. There are two bypass mechanisms: an error-free mechanism that involves a switch to an undamaged template for synthesis past the lesion and an error-prone mechanism that utilizes specialized translesion synthesis DNA polymerases to directly synthesize DNA across the lesion. A high level of functional redundancy exists among the pathways that deal with lesions, which minimizes the detrimental effects of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. PMID:23547164

  8. AVACOM-ETAP, Availability and Element Transient and Asymptotic Repair Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, G.

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: In reliability theory, the term 'availability' generally indicates the probability of the proper functioning of a system or of a component at a general time t when various possible replacement or repair policies are considered. AVACOM-ETARP calculates the transient and asymptotic availability of a component subject to a repair process with generic failure and repair laws. Five of the most commonly used distributions have been included as options: exponential, normal; lognormal; gamma; Weibull. 2 - Method of solution: The used mathematical model considers the failure-restoration process as a 2-state non-homogeneous Markov process containing the homogeneous Markov one as a particular case

  9. Cost of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    . The attributable cost of direct net health care costs after the stroke (general practitioner services, hospital services, and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income) were €10,720, €8,205 and €7,377 for patients, and €989, €1,544 and €1.645 for their partners, over and above that of controls......BACKGROUND: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of stroke in patients and their partners. DESCRIPTION: Direct and indirect costs were calculated using records from the Danish National Patient Registry from 93,047 ischemic, 26,012 hemorrhagic and 128,824 unspecified stroke patients...

  10. Outcomes following vaginal prolapse repair and mid urethral sling (OPUS) trial--design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, John; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly; Brown, Morton; Barber, Matthew; Xiao Xu; Kenton, Kimberly; Nager, Charles; Schaffer, Joseph; Visco, Anthony; Weber, Anne

    2009-04-01

    The primary aims of this trial are to determine whether the use of a concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure may prevent stress urinary incontinence symptom development in women undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this prophylactic approach. To present the rationale and design of a randomized controlled surgical trial (RCT), the Outcomes following vaginal Prolapse repair and mid Urethral Sling (OPUS) Trial highlighting the challenges in the design and implementation. The challenges of implementing this surgical trial combined with a cost-effectiveness study and patient preference group are discussed including the study design, ethical issues regarding use of sham incision, maintaining the masking of study staff, and pragmatic difficulties encountered in the collection of cost data. The trial is conducted by the NICHD-funded Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. The ongoing OPUS trial started enrollment in May 2007 with a planned accrual of 350. The use of sham incision was generally well accepted but the collection of cost data using conventional billing forms was found to potentially unmask key study personnel. This necessitated changes in the study forms and planned timing for collection of cost data. To date, the enrollment to the patient preference group has been lower than the limit established by the protocol suggesting a willingness on the part of women to participate in the randomization. Given the invasive nature of surgical intervention trials, potential participants may be reluctant to accept random assignment, potentially impacting generalizability. Findings from the OPUS trial will provide important information that will help surgeons to better counsel women on the benefits and risks of concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure at the time of vaginal surgery for prolapse. The implementation of the OPUS trial has necessitated that investigators consider ethical issues up front, remain flexible

  11. Validation of newly developed physical laparoscopy simulator in transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Yuichi; Isobe, Yoh; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2017-12-01

    A realistic simulator for transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair would enhance surgeons' training experience before they enter the operating theater. The purpose of this study was to create a novel physical simulator for TAPP inguinal hernia repair and obtain surgeons' opinions regarding its efficacy. Our novel TAPP inguinal hernia repair simulator consists of a physical laparoscopy simulator and a handmade organ replica model. The physical laparoscopy simulator was created by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, and it represents the trunk of the human body and the bendability of the abdominal wall under pneumoperitoneal pressure. The organ replica model was manually created by assembling materials. The TAPP inguinal hernia repair simulator allows for the performance of all procedures required in TAPP inguinal hernia repair. Fifteen general surgeons performed TAPP inguinal hernia repair using our simulator. Their opinions were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. All participants strongly agreed that the 3D-printed physical simulator and organ replica model were highly useful for TAPP inguinal hernia repair training (median, 5 points) and TAPP inguinal hernia repair education (median, 5 points). They felt that the simulator would be effective for TAPP inguinal hernia repair training before entering the operating theater. All surgeons considered that this simulator should be introduced in the residency curriculum. We successfully created a physical simulator for TAPP inguinal hernia repair training using 3D printing technology and a handmade organ replica model created with inexpensive, readily accessible materials. Preoperative TAPP inguinal hernia repair training using this simulator and organ replica model may be of benefit in the training of all surgeons. All general surgeons involved in the present study felt that this simulator and organ replica model should be used in their residency curriculum.

  12. Ultraviolet Light Surface Treatment as an Environmentally Benign Process for Production, Maintenance and Repair of Military Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drzal, Lawrence T

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-speed, environmentally benign, dry surface treatment method for production, and repair of military composite structures using ultraviolet (UV...

  13. DNA repair in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1984-01-01

    Damage an repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks were measured by alkaline lysis and hydroxyapatite chromatography. PHA stimulated human lymphocytes show that the rejoining process is complete within the first 50 min., afterwords secondary DNA damage and chromatid aberration. DNA repair, in synchronized culture, allows to evaluate individual repair capacity and this in turn can contribute to the discovery of individual who, although they do not demonstrate apparent clinical signs, are carriers of DNA repair deficiency. Being evident that a correlation exists between DNA repair capacity and carcinogenesis, the possibility of evaluating the existent relationship between DNA repair and survival in tumor cells comes therefore into discussion

  14. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Contribution of repair of single-strand DNA breaks to cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanova, O.M.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    The comparison was made between the results of the effect of poly(ADP-ribosylation) ingibitors (e.g. nicotinamide and 3-aminobenzamide) and a chromatin proteinase ingibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, on the cytogenetic damages repair, by a micronuclear test, and DNA repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The values of the repair half-periods (5-7 min for the cytogenetic damages and 5 min for the rapidly repaired DNA damages) and a similar modyfying effect with regard to radiation cytogenetic damages and kynetics of DNA damages repair were found to be close. This confirms the contribution of repair of DNA single-strand breaks in the initiation of structural damages to chromosomes

  15. Development of a Remote External Repair Tool for Damaged or Defective Polyethylene Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth H. Green; Willie E. Rochefort; Nick Wannenmacher; John A. Clark; Kevin Harris

    2006-06-30

    Current procedures for repairing polyethylene (PE) gas pipe require excavation, isolation, and removal of the damaged section of pipe followed by fusing a new section of pipe into place. These techniques are costly and very disruptive. An alternative repair method was developed at Timberline Tool with support from Oregon State University (OSU) and funding by the U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL). This project was undertaken to design, develop and test a tool and method for repairing damaged PE pipe remotely and externally in situ without squeezing off the flow of gas, eliminating the need for large-scale excavations. Through an iterative design and development approach, a final engineered prototype was developed that utilizes a unique thermo-chemical and mechanical process to apply a permanent external patch to repair small nicks, gouges and punctures under line pressure. The project identified several technical challenges during the design and development process. The repair tool must be capable of being installed under live conditions and operate in an 18-inch keyhole. This would eliminate the need for extensive excavations thus reducing the cost of the repair. Initially, the tool must be able to control the leak by encapsulating the pipe and apply slight pressure at the site of damage. Finally, the repair method must be permanent at typical operating pressures. The overall results of the project have established a permanent external repair method for use on damaged PE gas pipe in a safe and cost-effective manner. The engineered prototype was subjected to comprehensive testing and evaluation to validate the performance. Using the new repair tool, samples of 4-inch PE pipe with simulated damage were successfully repaired under line pressure to the satisfaction of DOE/NETL and the following natural gas companies: Northwest Natural; Sempra Energy, Southwest Gas Corporation, Questar, and Nicor. However, initial results of

  16. Mitochondrial DNA repair and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Santos, Janine H.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain plays an important role in energy production in aerobic organisms and is also a significant source of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, RNA and proteins in the cell. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial DNA is implicated in various degenerative diseases, cancer and aging. The importance of mitochondrial ROS in age-related degenerative diseases is further strengthened by studies using animal models, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and yeast. Research in the last several years shows that mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to various carcinogens and ROS when compared to nuclear DNA. DNA damage in mammalian mitochondria is repaired by base excision repair (BER). Studies have shown that mitochondria contain all the enzymes required for BER. Mitochondrial DNA damage, if not repaired, leads to disruption of electron transport chain and production of more ROS. This vicious cycle of ROS production and mtDNA damage ultimately leads to energy depletion in the cell and apoptosis

  17. Mitochondrial DNA repair and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Santos, Janine H.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2002-11-30

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain plays an important role in energy production in aerobic organisms and is also a significant source of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, RNA and proteins in the cell. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial DNA is implicated in various degenerative diseases, cancer and aging. The importance of mitochondrial ROS in age-related degenerative diseases is further strengthened by studies using animal models, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and yeast. Research in the last several years shows that mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to various carcinogens and ROS when compared to nuclear DNA. DNA damage in mammalian mitochondria is repaired by base excision repair (BER). Studies have shown that mitochondria contain all the enzymes required for BER. Mitochondrial DNA damage, if not repaired, leads to disruption of electron transport chain and production of more ROS. This vicious cycle of ROS production and mtDNA damage ultimately leads to energy depletion in the cell and apoptosis.

  18. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically-Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems

  19. Developing a Model for Optimizing Inventory of Repairable Items at Single Operating Base

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Tin

    2016-01-01

    The use of EOQ model in inventory management is popular. However, EOQ models has many disadvantages, especially, when the model is applied to manage repairable items. In order to deal with high-cost and repairable items, Craig C. Sherbrooke introduced a model in his book “Optimal Inventory Modeling of Systems: Multi-Echelon Techniques”. The research focus is to implement and develop a program to execute the single-site in-ventory model for repairable items. The model helps to significantl...

  20. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  1. Relying on Visiting Foreign Doctors for Fistula Repair: The Profile of Women Attending Fistula Repair Surgery in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Salad, Abdulwahab M; Jimale, Liban H; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services.

  2. Reliability analysis for a circular consecutive-2-out-of-n:F repairable system with priority in repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Zuo, Ming J.; Yam, Richard C.M.

    2000-01-01

    A circular consecutive-2-out-of-n:F repairable system with one repairman is studied in this paper. When there are more than one failed component, priorities are assigned to the failed components. Both the working time and the repair time of each component is assumed to be exponentially distributed. Every component after repair is as good as new. By using the definition of generalized transition probability and the concept of critical component, we derive the state transition probability matrix of the system. Methodologies are then presented for the derivation of system reliability indexes such as availability, rate of occurrence of failure, mean time between failures, reliability, and mean time to first failure

  3. 7 CFR 58.807 - General construction, repair and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 58.807 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... sanitary design principles, except where engineering requirements preclude strict adherence to such...

  4. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  6. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  7. Production cost methods and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffe, R. E.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The general gas cost equation for utility financing is presented. Modifications and assumptions made in order to apply the cost equation to hydrogen production are described. Cost data are given for various methods of hydrogen production. The cost matrix procedure is briefly discussed.

  8. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    OpenAIRE

    Adenwalla, H. S.; Narayanan, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform clos...

  9. Trends in epidemiology and hospitalization utilization for myelomeningocele repair from 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dominic A; Cherian, Jacob; LoPresti, Melissa; Jea, Andrew; Lam, Sandi

    2016-07-01

    Although the incidence of myelomeningocele (MMC) has declined over the past decades with folic acid supplementation and prenatal screening, neural tube defects remain the most common birth defect in the USA. A majority of affected neonates require surgical repair. To characterize US trends in the epidemiology and hospital utilization of MMC repair over the past decade, we analyzed a nationally representative database. We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) for all discharges with procedure code for MMC repair for the years 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. The cohorts from these time points were compared for their demographic and in-hospital variables. Results are reported as estimated frequencies and means with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Sex, race, insurance status, family income level, and mortality of affected infants have not changed significantly over the decade. A majority of neonatal MMC repairs occur in larger hospital bed size and more specialized children's hospital centers. Of patients, 52.3 to 60 % receive VPS placement during the same admission as the primary MMC repair. Total hospital costs for the MMC hospitalizations have remained relatively stable from 42,843 dollars in 2003 to 46,749 dollars in 2009 (adjusted to 2009 dollars). Demographics of children having MMC repair have not changed significantly over the past decade, while these surgeries have become more concentrated in pediatric-specialized centers. There appears to be a plateau in public health and access advances with relatively stable cost of MMC hospital care.

  10. LAPAROSCOPIC TEP VERSUS OPEN HERNIOPLASTY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRAPERITONEAL TENSION FREE MESH REPAIRS IN INGUINAL HERNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Sabir; Sadiq; Shadan

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is now one of the most commonly performed general surgical procedures in practice. 'Tension - free repair' is the procedure of choice . [ 1 ] due to its low recurrence rate, these tension - free repair procedures can be roughly categorized into two groups: laparoscopic and open anterior approach. TEP is accepted as the most ideal method because it can avoid entry into the peritoneal cavity, which can cause intraperitoneal compli...

  11. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction with point of care testing in a general practice setting - rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline; Gialamas, Angela; Yelland, Lisa; Bubner, Tanya; Ryan, Philip; Willson, Kristyn; Glastonbury, Briony; Gill, Janice; Shephard, Mark; Beilby, Justin

    2008-08-06

    Point of care testing (PoCT) may be a useful adjunct in the management of chronic conditions in general practice (GP). The provision of pathology test results at the time of the consultation could lead to enhanced clinical management, better health outcomes, greater convenience and satisfaction for patients and general practitioners (GPs), and savings in costs and time. It could also result in inappropriate testing, increased consultations and poor health outcomes resulting from inaccurate results. Currently there are very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in GP that have investigated these aspects of PoCT. The Point of Care Testing in General Practice Trial (PoCT Trial) was an Australian Government funded multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction of PoCT in a GP setting.The PoCT Trial covered an 18 month period with the intervention consisting of the use of PoCT for seven tests used in the management of patients with diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and patients on anticoagulant therapy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients within target range, a measure of therapeutic control. In addition, the PoCT Trial investigated the safety of PoCT, impact of PoCT on patient compliance to medication, stakeholder satisfaction, cost effectiveness of PoCT versus laboratory testing, and influence of geographic location. The paper provides an overview of the Trial Design, the rationale for the research methodology chosen and how the Trial was implemented in a GP environment. The evaluation protocol and data collection processes took into account the large number of patients, the broad range of practice types distributed over a large geographic area, and the inclusion of pathology test results from multiple pathology laboratories.The evaluation protocol developed reflects the complexity of the Trial setting, the Trial Design and the approach taken within the funding

  12. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction with point of care testing in a general practice setting – rationale, design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glastonbury Briony

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Point of care testing (PoCT may be a useful adjunct in the management of chronic conditions in general practice (GP. The provision of pathology test results at the time of the consultation could lead to enhanced clinical management, better health outcomes, greater convenience and satisfaction for patients and general practitioners (GPs, and savings in costs and time. It could also result in inappropriate testing, increased consultations and poor health outcomes resulting from inaccurate results. Currently there are very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs in GP that have investigated these aspects of PoCT. Design/Methods The Point of Care Testing in General Practice Trial (PoCT Trial was an Australian Government funded multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction of PoCT in a GP setting. The PoCT Trial covered an 18 month period with the intervention consisting of the use of PoCT for seven tests used in the management of patients with diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and patients on anticoagulant therapy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients within target range, a measure of therapeutic control. In addition, the PoCT Trial investigated the safety of PoCT, impact of PoCT on patient compliance to medication, stakeholder satisfaction, cost effectiveness of PoCT versus laboratory testing, and influence of geographic location. Discussion The paper provides an overview of the Trial Design, the rationale for the research methodology chosen and how the Trial was implemented in a GP environment. The evaluation protocol and data collection processes took into account the large number of patients, the broad range of practice types distributed over a large geographic area, and the inclusion of pathology test results from multiple pathology laboratories. The evaluation protocol developed reflects the complexity of the Trial setting

  13. Measuring strand discontinuity-directed mismatch repair in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cell-free nuclear extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenghua; Lai, Fangfang; Gu, Liya; Zhou, Wen; El Hokayem, Jimmy; Zhang, Yanbin

    2009-05-01

    Mismatch repair corrects biosynthetic errors generated during DNA replication, whose deficiency causes a mutator phenotype and directly underlies hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic cancers. Because of remarkably high conservation of the mismatch repair machinery between the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and humans, the study of mismatch repair in yeast has provided tremendous insights into the mechanisms of this repair pathway in humans. In addition, yeast cells possess an unbeatable advantage over human cells in terms of the easy genetic manipulation, the availability of whole genome deletion strains, and the relatively low cost for setting up the system. Although many components of eukaryotic mismatch repair have been identified, it remains unclear if additional factors, such as DNA helicase(s) and redundant nuclease(s) besides EXO1, participate in eukaryotic mismatch repair. To facilitate the discovery of novel mismatch repair factors, we developed a straightforward in vitro cell-free repair system. Here, we describe the practical protocols for preparation of yeast cell-free nuclear extracts and DNA mismatch substrates, and the in vitro mismatch repair assay. The validity of the cell-free system was confirmed by the mismatch repair deficient yeast strain (Deltamsh2) and the complementation assay with purified yeast MSH2-MSH6.

  14. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  15. Modes of DNA repair and replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.; Kondo, S.

    1979-01-01

    Modes of DNA repair and replication require close coordination as well as some overlap of enzyme functions. Some classes of recovery deficient mutants may have defects in replication rather than repair modes. Lesions such as the pyrimidine dimers produced by ultraviolet light irradiation are the blocks to normal DNA replication in vivo and in vitro. The DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase 1 of E. coli is blocked at one nucleotide away from the dimerized pyrimidines in template strands. Thus, some DNA polymerases seem to be unable to incorporate nucleotides opposite to the non-pairing lesions in template DNA strands. The lesions in template DNA strands may block the sequential addition of nucleotides in the synthesis of daughter strands. Normal replication utilizes a constitutive ''error-free'' mode that copies DNA templates with high fidelity, but which may be totally blocked at a lesion that obscures the appropriate base pairing specificity. It might be expected that modified replication system exhibits generally high error frequency. The error rate of DNA polymerases may be controlled by the degree of phosphorylation of the enzyme. Inducible SOS system is controlled by recA genes that also control the pathways for recombination. It is possible that SOS system involves some process other than the modification of a blocked replication apparatus to permit error-prone transdimer synthesis. (Yamashita, S.)

  16. Defective G2 repair in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincheira, J.; Rodriguez, M.; Bravo, M.; Navarrete, M.H.; Lopez-Saez, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocytes from both Down syndrome (DS) patients and age-matched control donors have been investigated to identify a possible disturbance in chromosomal G2 repair. Analyses of caffeine treatments during G2 have shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations is higher in DS lymphocytes than in normal lymphocytes. Likewise, G2 duration is longer in DS cells than in normal cells. In both control and DS lymphocytes, caffeine treatments increase the frequencies of chromatid breakages and decrease the average of G2 duration. The reversal of the caffeine potentiation effect by adenosine and niacinamide is higher in DS cells than in normal cells. Furthermore, ATP content per cell in DS lymphocytes is one third of that estimated in normal lymphocytes. The increase of ATP level produced by adenosine or niacinamide generally correlates with the reversal of the caffeine effect on chromosome aberrations. Under the experimental conditions tested, a good negative exponential correlation between ATP level and chromosome aberrations has been detected in both normal and DS lymphocytes which were or were not X-irradiated. Finally, we postulate a decrease in G2 repair capability of DS lymphocytes caused by a low availability of ATP and/or some other factor correlating with it. (au)

  17. Contemporary economic and clinical evaluations of endovascular repair for intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silingardi, Roberto; Gennai, Stefano; Coppi, Giovanni; Chester, Johanna; Marcheselli, Luigi; Brunetti, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical and contemporary costs associated with elective endovascular repair of intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAA) into the mid-term follow-up. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained clinical database including 29 consecutive patients from July 2005 to December 2009 treated with elective endovascular repair (TEVAR) or TEVAR and surgical infrarenal repair (hybrid) of intact DTAA was performed. Mean age was 74.5 years old (±7.1). Primary clinical endpoints include mortality and major morbidity. Additionally a comprehensive economic appraisal of individual in-hospital and follow-up costs was executed. Economic endpoints include in-hospital and follow-up costs and patient discharge status. Elective endovascular and open repairs' clinical and economical outcomes in contemporary literature were assessed for comparison according to PRISMA standards. Immediate mortality was 6.9% (1/24 TEVAR and 1/5 hybrid). Three respiratory complications were recorded (11%; 2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid). Renal and cardiac complication rates were 7.4% (1 TEVAR, 1 hybrid) and 3.7% (1 TEVAR) respectively. Routine discharge home was achieved for 85% of patients (95.7% TEVAR, 25% hybrid). Three endoleaks were treated throughout the follow-up (2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid; mean 30.4 mo, ±19.9) rendering an 11% (3/27) reintervention rate. Average immediate cost was €21,976.87 for elective endovascular repair and €33,783.21 for elective endovascular hybrid repair. Additional reintervention and routine follow-up costs augmented immediate costs by 12.4%. This study supports satisfying immediate clinical outcomes for TEVAR and TEVAR+surgical infrarenal procedures. Although limited by a small population size and difficulties in economic comparisons, this study presents the real world social and economic cost scenario for both elective TEVAR and TEVAR hybrid treatment of DTAA of both the in-hospital and at mid term follow-up periods.

  18. Outreach Materials for the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign offers outreach materials to help collision repair shops reduce toxic air exposure. Materials include a DVD, poster, training video, and materials in Spanish (materiales del outreach en español).

  19. Intern's Experiences with Episiotomy and its Repair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    repair is inadequately done, it may leave the woman suffering from perineal pain and other long term conditions with serious impact on the .... The maternity section had an average of ... with the job of performing episiotomy repair necessitating.

  20. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  1. Principles of cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Erggelet, Christoph; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage defects affect patients of all age groups. Surgeons, teamdoctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists alike are expected to provide adequate care. Only individual treatment plans combining a well balanced choice of various options will be successful. Background knowledge, operative and non-operative therapies are described in concise chapters: Articular cartilage biology - Diagnostics - Surgical techniques - Symptomatic and alternative medications - Physiotherapy. Diagnostic findings and surgical procedures are generously illustrated by aquarelles and colour photographs. Recommendations for additional reading, description of important clinical scoring systems and a listing of analytic tools are added for further information.

  2. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  3. Regression Models for Repairable Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-972 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Reliability analysis * Repair models * Regression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/novak-0450902.pdf

  4. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  5. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  6. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  7. Molecular biological mechanisms I. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cells of all living systems possess a variety of mechanisms that allow to repair spontaneous and exogeneously induced DNA damage. DNA repair deficiencies may invoke enhanced sensitivity towards DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation. They may also enhance the risk of cancer development, both spontaneously or after induction. This article reviews several DNA repair mechanisms, especially those dealing with DNA double-strand breaks, and describes hereditary diseases associated with DNA repair defects. (orig.) [de

  8. Repair of steam turbines by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Loebert, P.

    1987-01-01

    In some cases, turbine parts can be repaired by welding, even rotating parts such as the shaft or the blades. Practical examples of successful repair work are explained, as for instance: welding of the last web of the turbine wheel of two MD-rotors, repair of erosion damage on turbine blades, of solid-matter erosion on a medium-pressure blading, or welding repair of a high-pressure turbine casing. (DG) [de

  9. Recent advances in DNA repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, L A; Jones, N J

    1998-09-11

    The subjects of the talks at this 1-day DNA Repair Network meeting, held at City University, London on December 15, 1997, encompassed a range of topics and reflected some of the current areas of research in the United Kingdom. Topics included DNA double-strand break repair, V(D)J recombination, DNA ligases, the RecQ family of helicases and Bloom's syndrome, UVB and immunosuppression, the repair of oxidative damage and mismatch repair mechanisms.

  10. Predictions and measurements of residual stress in repair welds in plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.B. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Technology and Engineering, Porterfield Road, Renfrew, PA4 8DJ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bbrown@mitsuibabcock.com; Dauda, T.A. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Technology and Engineering, Porterfield Road, Renfrew, PA4 8DJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Truman, C.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, England (United Kingdom); Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Memhard, D. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Pfeiffer, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the work, from the European Union FP-5 project ELIXIR, on a series of rectangular repair welds in P275 and S690 steels to validate the numerical modelling techniques used in the determination of the residual stresses generated during the repair process. The plates were 1,000 mm by 800 mm with thicknesses of 50 and 100 mm. The repair welds were 50%, 75% and 100% through the plate thickness. The repair welds were modelled using the finite element method to make predictions of the as-welded residual stress distributions. These predictions were compared with surface-strain measurements made on the parent plates during welding and found to be in good agreement. Through-thickness residual stress measurements were obtained from the test plates through, and local to, the weld repairs using the deep hole drilling technique. Comparisons between the measurements and the finite element predictions generally showed good agreement, thus providing confidence in the method.

  11. Predictions and measurements of residual stress in repair welds in plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.B.; Dauda, T.A.; Truman, C.E.; Smith, D.J.; Memhard, D.; Pfeiffer, W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work, from the European Union FP-5 project ELIXIR, on a series of rectangular repair welds in P275 and S690 steels to validate the numerical modelling techniques used in the determination of the residual stresses generated during the repair process. The plates were 1,000 mm by 800 mm with thicknesses of 50 and 100 mm. The repair welds were 50%, 75% and 100% through the plate thickness. The repair welds were modelled using the finite element method to make predictions of the as-welded residual stress distributions. These predictions were compared with surface-strain measurements made on the parent plates during welding and found to be in good agreement. Through-thickness residual stress measurements were obtained from the test plates through, and local to, the weld repairs using the deep hole drilling technique. Comparisons between the measurements and the finite element predictions generally showed good agreement, thus providing confidence in the method

  12. VARIANT FOR CONSTRUCTION, REPAIR OR RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century moral depreciation concept comprises not only deterioration of outside appearance of construction elements in the course of time but accelerated fashion changes in respect of interior design and rapid increase in technical level for residence buildings. For this reason if average rate of building dilapidation in the buildings of series 1–335, 1–335А and 1–464А constructed in Minsk within the period of 1957–1975 and being operated till 2005–2006 has constituted 25–29 % and their moral depreciation has been equal to more than 40 % then rate of the moral depreciation has significantly increased in the XXI century. Such situation requires execution of special investigations. High operating rates of refinancing have led to the necessity for record keeping of initial expenses and repairability levels because selection of building construction, repair or reconstruction variant depends on these parameters. Repairability classification of main elements of residence buildings and premises has been proposed for regulation of such selection procedure. In this case it is recommended to take into account technological effectiveness of repair and technical service, verifiability, accessibility, easy dismountability, substitutability and interchangeability of construction elements and technical devices. The paper presents nomograms that permit to make easier practical calculations on determination of cost-efficient time period for operation of the element prior to its substitution at various refinancing rates and also for comparison of relative initial expenses according to time service. 

  13. Electrosleeve process for in-situ nuclear steam generator repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, E.; Brennenstuhl, A.M.; Stewart, D.R.; Gonzalez, F.

    2000-01-01

    Degradation of steam generator tubing by localized corrosion is a widespread problem in the nuclear industry that can lead to costly forced outages, unit derating, steam generator replacement or even the permanent shutdown of a reactor. In response to the onset of steam generator degradation at Ontario Power Generation's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Unit 5, and the determined unsuitability of conventional repair methods (mechanically expanded or welded sleeves) for Alloy 400, an alternative repair technology was developed. Electrosleeve is a non-intrusive, low-temperature process that involves the electrodeposition of a nanocrystalline nickel microalloy forming a continuously bonded, structural layer over the internal diameter of the degraded region. This technology is designed to provide a long-term pressure boundary repair, fully restoring the structural integrity of the damaged region to its original state. This paper describes the Electrosleeve process for steam generator tubing repair and the unique properties of the advanced sleeve material. The successful installation of fourteen Electrosleeves that have been in service for more than six years in Alloy 400 tubing at the Pickering-S CANDU unit, and the more recent (Nov. 99) extension of the technology to Alloy 600 by the installation of 57 sleeves in a U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) at Callaway, is presented. The Electrosleeve process has been granted a conditional license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In Canada, the process of licensing Electrosleeve with the CNSC / TSSA has begun. (author)

  14. Costs associated with wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Wheeling costs are incurred by all companies that experience a change in power flows over their transmission lines during a specific transaction, whether or not the lines of that company are part of the contract path. The costs of providing wheeling service differ from one system to another and from one kind of wheeling transaction to another. While most transactions may be completed using existing capacity, others may require an increase in line. Depending on the situation, some cost components may be high, low, negative, or not incurred at all. This article discusses two general categories of costs; transactional and capital. The former are all operation, maintenance and opportunity costs incurred in completing a specific transaction assuming the existence of adequate capacity. Capital costs are the costs of major new equipment purchases and lines necessary to provide any increased level of transmission services

  15. Use of Drosophila to study DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.B.; Harris, P.V.; Sakaguchi, K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses Drosophila, the premier metazoan organism for analyzing many fundamental features of eukaryotic gene regulation. The authors present adaptations of several approaches for studying DNA repair to an analysis of repair-defective mutants in Drosophila. A current understanding of Drosophila DNA repair is described

  16. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  19. USING THE OUTSOURCING MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE IN METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the work is to study the outsourcing mechanism from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of repair and maintenance at a metallurgical enterprise. Method Analysis of the experience of using outsourcing of repair services at domestic and foreign metallurgical enterprises was carried out. Analysis of the experience of the withdrawal from enterprise repair services into a separate outsourcing company has shown that the main advantages of this method of organising repair activities are an increase in the transparency of the costs of repairs and maintenance, and hence their reduction, as well as a reduction in the amount of equipment downtime. The main characteristics of outsourcing were revealed, substantiating its expediency. The restructuring of the repair system provides a step-by-step transition from decentralised to centralised structures of technical, mechanical, power and electrical repair services of enterprises, from the principle of "self-service" to the principle of "proprietary service" by isolating the subdivisions of the repair system from the structure of enterprises and creating competing members of the repair services market. Put another way, this is typified by moving away from the status of auxiliary production to a selfdependent activity. The stages of outsourcing the repair services of the enterprise are considered and possible problems that may arise in the course of the work of a working group are established to determine the suitability of outsourcing and to resolve the numerous issues arising from the transfer of repair functions. Results The findings of the research include approaches developed for overcoming risky situations: providing guarantees from the customer and the contractor and indicating them in the contract, increasing the motivation of the outsourcing company through a key performance indicator that should increase the interest of the performer in providing quality

  20. Advanced repair solution of clear defects on HTPSM by using nanomachining tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Munsik; Jung, Hoyong; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-10-01

    As the mask specifications become tighter for low k1 lithography, more aggressive repair accuracy is required below sub 20nm tech. node. To meet tight defect specifications, many maskshops select effective repair tools according to defect types. Normally, pattern defects are repaired by the e-beam repair tool and soft defects such as particles are repaired by the nanomachining tool. It is difficult for an e-beam repair tool to remove particle defects because it uses chemical reaction between gas and electron, and a nanomachining tool, which uses physical reaction between a nano-tip and defects, cannot be applied for repairing clear defects. Generally, film deposition process is widely used for repairing clear defects. However, the deposited film has weak cleaning durability, so it is easily removed by accumulated cleaning process. Although the deposited film is strongly attached on MoSiN(or Qz) film, the adhesive strength between deposited Cr film and MoSiN(or Qz) film becomes weaker and weaker by the accumulated energy when masks are exposed in a scanner tool due to the different coefficient of thermal expansion of each materials. Therefore, whenever a re-pellicle process is needed to a mask, all deposited repair points have to be confirmed whether those deposition film are damaged or not. And if a deposition point is damaged, repair process is needed again. This process causes longer and more complex process. In this paper, the basic theory and the principle are introduced to recover clear defects by using nanomachining tool, and the evaluated results are reviewed at dense line (L/S) patterns and contact hole (C/H) patterns. Also, the results using a nanomachining were compared with those using an e-beam repair tool, including the cleaning durability evaluated by the accumulated cleaning process. Besides, we discuss the phase shift issue and the solution about the image placement error caused by phase error.