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Sample records for generalized chaplygin gas

  1. Generalized Chaplygin gas and cosmic microwave background radiation constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Sen, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    We study the dependence of the location of the cosmic microwave background radiation peaks on the parameters of the generalized Chaplygin gas model, whose equation of state is given by p=-A/ρ α , where A is a positive constant and 0<α≤1. We find, in particular, that observational data arising from Archeops, BOOMERANG, supernova and high-redshift observations allow constraining significantly the parameter space of the model. Our analysis indicates that the emerging model is clearly distinguishable from the α=1 Chaplygin case and the ΛCDM model

  2. Variable generalized Chaplygin gas in a 5D cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Yanar, Hilmi; Sogut, Kenan

    2018-03-01

    We construct the variable generalized Chaplygin gas (VGCG) defining a unified dark matter-energy scenario and investigate its essential cosmological properties in a universe governed by the Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory. A possible theoretical basis for the VGCG in the KK cosmology is argued. Also, we check the validity of thermodynamical laws and reimplement dynamics of tachyons in the KK universe.

  3. Holographic Dark Energy with Generalized Chaplygin Gas in Higher Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Saha, A.; Paul, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate holographic dark energy (HDE) correspondence of interacting Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG) in the framework of compact Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology. The evolution of the modified HDE with corresponding equation of state is obtained here. Considering the present value of the density parameter a stable configuration is found which accommodates Dark Energy (DE). We note a connection between DE and Phantom fields. It reveals that the DE might have evolved from a Phantom state in the past.

  4. Accretion of new variable modified Chaplygin gas and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, Jhumpa; Debnath, Ujjal

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark energies in new variable modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG) models onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes. We find the expression of the critical four velocity component which gradually decreases for the fluid flow towards the Schwarzschild as well as the Kerr-Newman black hole. We also find the expression for the change of mass of the black hole in both cases. For the Kerr-Newman black hole, which is rotating and charged, we calculate the specific angular momentum and total angular momentum. We showed that in both cases, due to accretion of dark energy, the mass of the black hole increases and angular momentum increases in the case of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  5. On the thermodynamic stability of the generalized Chaplygin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.C.; Bedran, M.L.; Soares, V.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this Letter is to discuss the temperature behavior and the thermodynamic stability of an exotic fluid known as generalized Chaplygin gas considering only general thermodynamics. This fluid is considered a perfect fluid which obeys an adiabatic equation of state like P=-A/ρ α , where P and ρ are respectively the pressure and energy density; the parameter A is a positive universal constant and α>0. It is remarked that if the energy density of the fluid is a function of volume only, the temperature of the fluid remains zero at any pressure or volume, violating the third law of thermodynamics. We have determined a scenario where its thermal equation of state depends on temperature only and the fluid presents thermodynamic stability during any expansion process. Such a scenario also reveals that the fluid cools down through the expansion without facing any critical point or phase transition

  6. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/ρ α , has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003

  7. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)]. E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl

    2007-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003].

  8. Observational constraints on Hubble parameter in viscous generalized Chaplygin gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P.

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological model with viscous generalized Chaplygin gas (in short, VGCG) is considered here to determine observational constraints on its equation of state parameters (in short, EoS) from background data. These data consists of H(z)-z (OHD) data, Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations peak parameter, CMB shift parameter and SN Ia data (Union 2.1). Best-fit values of the EoS parameters including present Hubble parameter (H0) and their acceptable range at different confidence limits are determined. In this model the permitted range for the present Hubble parameter and the transition redshift (zt) at 1σ confidence limits are H0= 70.24^{+0.34}_{-0.36} and zt=0.76^{+0.07}_{-0.07} respectively. These EoS parameters are then compared with those of other models. Present age of the Universe (t0) have also been determined here. Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion for the model selection have been adopted for comparison with other models. It is noted that VGCG model satisfactorily accommodates the present accelerating phase of the Universe.

  9. Wormholes admitting conformal Killing vectors and supported by generalized Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    When Morris and Thorne first proposed that traversable wormholes may be actual physical objects, they concentrated on the geometry by specifying the shape and redshift functions. This mathematical approach necessarily raises questions regarding the determination of the required stress-energy tensor. This paper discusses a natural way to obtain a complete wormhole solution by assuming that the wormhole (1) is supported by generalized Chaplygin gas and (2) admits conformal Killing vectors. (orig.)

  10. Dilaton thin-shell wormholes supported by a generalized Chaplygin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Eiroa, Ernesto F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we construct spherical thin-shell wormholes with charge in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is provided by a generalized Chaplygin gas. We study the stability under perturbations preserving the symmetry. We find that the increase of the coupling between the dilaton and the electromagnetic fields reduces the range of the parameters for which stable configurations are possible.

  11. Reissner-Nordstroem thin-shell wormholes with generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Azam, M. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-09-15

    Following Visser's approach (Visser in Phys. Rev. D 39:3182, 1989; Nucl. Phys. B 328:203, 1989; Lorentzian wormholes. AIP Press, New York, 1996) of cut and paste, we construct Reissner-Nordstroem thin-shell wormholes by taking the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas for the exotic matter located at the wormhole throat. The Darmois-Israel conditions are used to determine the dynamical quantities of the system. The viability of the thin-shell wormholes is explored with respect to radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry. We find stable as well as unstable Reissner-Nordstroem thin-shell wormhole solutions depending upon the model parameters. Finally, we compare our results with both generalized and modified Chaplygin gases. (orig.)

  12. Does Chaplygin gas have salvation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Juliano P. [UFRB, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Fabris, Julio C.; Perez, Rafael; Piattella, Oliver F. [CCE, UFES, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Velten, Hermano [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Postfach 100131, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We investigate the unification scenario provided by the generalized Chaplygin gas model (a perfect fluid characterized by an equation of state p=-A/{rho} {sup {alpha}}). Our concerns lie with a possible tension existing between background kinematic tests and those related to the evolution of small perturbations. We analyze data from the observation of the differential age of the universe, type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the position of the first peak of the angular spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. We show that these tests favor negative values of the parameter {alpha}: we find {alpha}= - 0.089{sup +0.161}{sub -0.128} at the 2{sigma} level and that {alpha}<0 with 85 % confidence. These would correspond to negative values of the square speed of sound which are unacceptable from the point of view of structure formation. We discuss a possible solution to this problem, when the generalized Chaplygin gas is framed in the modified theory of gravity proposed by Rastall. We show that a fluid description within this theory does not serve the purpose, but it is necessary to frame the generalized Chaplygin gas in a scalar field theory. Finally, we address the standard general relativistic unification picture provided by the generalized Chaplygin gas in the case {alpha}=0: this is usually considered to be undistinguishable from the standard {Lambda}CDM model, but we show that the evolution of small perturbations, governed by the Meszaros equation, is indeed different and the formation of sub-horizon GCG matter halos may be importantly affected in comparison with the {Lambda}CDM scenario. (orig.)

  13. Warm intermediate inflationary Universe model in the presence of a generalized Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Videla, Nelson [Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, FCFM, Santiago (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-01-15

    A warm intermediate inflationary model in the context of generalized Chaplygin gas is investigated. We study this model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes, considering a generalized form of the dissipative coefficient Γ = Γ(T,φ), and we describe the inflationary dynamics in the slow-roll approximation. We find constraints on the parameters in our model considering the Planck 2015 data, together with the condition for warm inflation T > H, and the conditions for the weak and strong dissipative regimes. (orig.)

  14. Thin-shell wormholes with a generalized Chaplygin gas in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Figueroa Aguirre, Griselda [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-11-15

    We construct spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes supported by a generalized Chaplygin gas in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity, and we analyze their stability under radial perturbations. For different values of the Born-Infeld parameter and the charge, we compare the results with those obtained in a previous work for Maxwell electrodynamics. The stability region in the parameter space reduces and then disappears as the value of the Born-Infeld parameter is modified in the sense of a larger departure from Maxwell theory. (orig.)

  15. Study of inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas for standard and tachyon scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    We consider an inflationary universe model in the context of the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas by taking the matter field as standard and tachyon scalar fields. We evaluate the corresponding scalar fields and scalar potentials during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by modifying the first Friedmann equation. In each case, we evaluate the number of e-folds, scalar as well as tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index, and the important observational parameter, the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of this parameter shows that the model remains incompatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data in each case. (orig.)

  16. Effects of viscous pressure on warm inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia, E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: rabiasaleem1988@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2014-12-01

    This paper is devoted to study the effects of bulk viscous pressure on an inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model using FRW background. The matter contents of the universe are assumed to be inflaton and imperfect fluid. We evaluate inflaton fields, potentials and entropy density for variable as well as constant dissipation and bulk viscous coefficients in weak as well as high dissipative regimes during intermediate era. In order to discuss inflationary perturbations, we evaluate entropy density, scalar (tensor) power spectra, their corresponding spectral indices, tensor-scalar ratio and running of spectral index in terms of inflaton which are constrained using recent Planck, WMAP7 and Bicep2 probes.

  17. Study of inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas for standard and tachyon scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    We consider an inflationary universe model in the context of the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas by taking the matter field as standard and tachyon scalar fields. We evaluate the corresponding scalar fields and scalar potentials during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by modifying the first Friedmann equation. In each case, we evaluate the number of e-folds, scalar as well as tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index, and the important observational parameter, the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of this parameter shows that the model remains incompatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data in each case. (orig.)

  18. Effects of viscous pressure on warm inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study the effects of bulk viscous pressure on an inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model using FRW background. The matter contents of the universe are assumed to be inflaton and imperfect fluid. We evaluate inflaton fields, potentials and entropy density for variable as well as constant dissipation and bulk viscous coefficients in weak as well as high dissipative regimes during intermediate era. In order to discuss inflationary perturbations, we evaluate entropy density, scalar (tensor) power spectra, their corresponding spectral indices, tensor-scalar ratio and running of spectral index in terms of inflaton which are constrained using recent Planck, WMAP7 and Bicep2 probes

  19. Thin-shell wormholes with a generalized Chaplygin gas in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Figueroa Aguirre, Griselda

    2012-01-01

    We construct spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes supported by a generalized Chaplygin gas in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity, and we analyze their stability under radial perturbations. For different values of the Born-Infeld parameter and the charge, we compare the results with those obtained in a previous work for Maxwell electrodynamics. The stability region in the parameter space reduces and then disappears as the value of the Born-Infeld parameter is modified in the sense of a larger departure from Maxwell theory. (orig.)

  20. Naturalness and stability of the generalized Chaplygin gas in the seesaw cosmon scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, A. E.; Bertolami, O.

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism is conceived on the basis that a mass scale, ξ, and a dimensionless scale, s, can be fine-tuned in order to control the dynamics of active and sterile neutrinos through cosmon-type equations of motion: the seesaw cosmon equations. This allows for sterile neutrinos to be a dark matter candidate. In this scenario, the dynamical masses and energy densities of active and sterile neutrinos can be consistently embedded into the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), the unified dark sector model. In addition, dark matter adiabatically coupled to dark energy allows for a natural decoupling of the (active) mass varying neutrino component from the dark sector. Thus mass varying neutrinos turn into a secondary effect. Through the scale parameters, ξ and s, the proposed scenario allows for a convergence among three distinct frameworks: the cosmon scenario, the seesaw mechanism for mass generation, and the GCG model. It is found that the equation of state of the perturbations is the very one of the GCG background cosmology so that all the results from this approach are maintained, being smoothly modified by active neutrinos. Constrained by the seesaw relations, it is shown that the mass varying mechanism is responsible for the stability against linear perturbations and is indirectly related to the late time cosmological acceleration.

  1. Phase space analysis of some interacting Chaplygin gas models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurshudyan, M. [Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Institute for Physical Research, Ashtarak (Armenia); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Laboratory for Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we discuss a phase space analysis of various interacting Chaplygin gas models in general relativity. Linear and nonlinear sign changeable interactions are considered. For each case appropriate late time attractors of field equations are found. The Chaplygin gas is one of the dark fluids actively considered in modern cosmology due to the fact that it is a joint model of dark energy and dark matter. (orig.)

  2. Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; /Lisbon, CENTRA; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-06-06

    We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.

  3. A modified generalized Chaplygin gas as the unified dark matter-dark energy revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xue-Mei, E-mail: xmd@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2011-12-15

    A modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) is considered as the unified dark matter-dark energy revisited. The character of MGCG is endued with the dual role, which behaves as matter at early times and as a quiescence dark energy at late times. The equation of state for MGCG is p = -{alpha}{rho}/(1 + {alpha}) - {upsilon}(z){rho}{sup -{alpha}/(1 + {alpha})}, where {upsilon}(z) = -[{rho}0{sub c}(1 + z){sup 3}] {sup (1+{alpha})} (1 - {Omega}{sub 0B}){sup {alpha} {l_brace}{alpha}{Omega}0{sub DM} + {Omega}{sub 0DE} [{omega}{sub DE} + {alpha}(1 +{omega}{sub DE})](1 + z){sup 3}{omega}DE(1+{alpha}){r_brace}}. Some cosmological quantities, such as the densities of different components of the universe {Omega}{sub i} (i, respectively, denotes baryons, dark matter, and dark energy) and the deceleration parameter q, are obtained. The present deceleration parameter q{sub 0}, the transition redshift z{sub T}, and the redshift z{sub eq}, which describes the epoch when the densities in dark matter and dark energy are equal, are also calculated. To distinguish MGCG from others, we then apply the Statefinder diagnostic. Later on, the parameters ({alpha} and {omega}{sub DE}) of MGCG are constrained by combination of the sound speed c{sup 2}{sub s} , the age of the universe t{sub 0}, the growth factor m, and the bias parameter b. It yields {alpha} = -3.07{sup +5.66} {sub -4.98} x 10{sup -2} and {omega}{sub DE} = -1.05 {sup +0.06} {sub -0.11}. Through the analysis of the growth of density perturbations for MGCG, it is found that the energy will transfer from dark matter to dark energy which reach equal at z{sub e}{approx} 0.48 and the density fluctuations start deviating from the linear behavior at z {approx} 0.25 caused by the dominance of dark energy. (author)

  4. An Attempt for an Emergent Scenario with Modified Chaplygin Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, Sudeshna; Chakraborty, Subenoy; Dutta, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The present work is an attempt for emergent universe scenario with modified Chaplygin gas. The universe is chosen as spatially flat FRW space-time with modified Chaplygin gas as the only cosmic substratum. It is found that emergent scenario is possible for some specific (unrealistic) choice of the parameters in the equation of state for modified Chaplygin gas.

  5. Thermodynamics of the variable modified Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, D. [Sree Chaitanya College, Habra 743268 (India); Chatterjee, S., E-mail: dibyendupanigrahi@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: chat_sujit1@yahoo.com [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Jadavpur University, Kolkata – 700032 (India)

    2016-05-01

    A cosmological model with a new variant of Chaplygin gas obeying an equation of state (EoS), P = A ρ − B /ρ{sup α} where B = B {sub 0} a {sup n} is investigated in the context of its thermodynamical behaviour. Here B {sub 0} and n are constants and a is the scale factor. We show that the equation of state of this 'Variable Modified Chaplygin gas' (VMCG) can describe the current accelerated expansion of the universe. Following standard thermodynamical criteria we mainly discuss the classical thermodynamical stability of the model and find that the new parameter, n introduced in VMCG plays a crucial role in determining the stability considerations and should always be negative. We further observe that although the earlier model of Lu explains many of the current observational findings of different probes it fails the desirable tests of thermodynamical stability. We also note that for 0 n < our model points to a phantom type of expansion which, however, is found to be compatible with current SNe Ia observations and CMB anisotropy measurements. Further the third law of thermodynamics is obeyed in our case. Our model is very general in the sense that many of earlier works in this field may be obtained as a special case of our solution. An interesting point to note is that the model also apparently suggests a smooth transition from the big bang to the big rip in its whole evaluation process.

  6. Spherical thin-shell wormholes and modified Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Azam, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: azammath@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct spherical thin-shell wormhole solutions through cut and paste technique and investigate the stability of these solutions in the vicinity of modified Chaplygin gas. The Darmois-Israel formalism is used to formulate the stresses of the surface concentrating the exotic matter. We explore the stability of the wormhole solutions by using the standard potential method. We conclude that there exist more stable as well as unstable solutions than the previous study with generalized Chaplygin gas [19].

  7. Is the cosmological dark sector better modeled by a generalized Chaplygin gas or by a scalar field?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Fabris, Julio C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimdahl, Winfried [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    Both scalar fields and (generalized) Chaplygin gases have been widely used separately to characterize the dark sector of the universe. Here we investigate the cosmological background dynamics for a mixture of both these components and quantify the fractional abundances that are admitted by observational data from supernovae of type Ia and from the evolution of the Hubble rate. Moreover, we study how the growth rate of (baryonic) matter perturbations is affected by the dark-sector perturbations. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of polynomial Chaplygin gas warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Chaudhary, Shahid [Sharif College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Videla, Nelson [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    In the present work, we study the consequences of a recently proposed polynomial inflationary potential in the context of the generalized, modified, and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas models. In addition, we consider dissipative effects by coupling the inflation field to radiation, i.e., the inflationary dynamics is studied in the warm inflation scenario. We take into account a general parametrization of the dissipative coefficient Γ for describing the decay of the inflaton field into radiation. By studying the background and perturbative dynamics in the weak and strong dissipative regimes of warm inflation separately for the positive and negative quadratic and quartic potentials, we obtain expressions for the most relevant inflationary observables as the scalar power spectrum, the scalar spectral, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We construct the trajectories in the n{sub s}-r plane for several expressions of the dissipative coefficient and compare with the two-dimensional marginalized contours for (n{sub s}, r) from the latest Planck data. We find that our results are in agreement with WMAP9 and Planck 2015 data. (orig.)

  9. Inflationary cosmology with Chaplygin gas in Palatini formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, Andrzej; Wojnar, Aneta; Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydłowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple generalisation of the ΛCDM model which on the one hand reaches very good agreement with the present day experimental data and provides an internal inflationary mechanism on the other hand. It is based on Palatini modified gravity with quadratic Starobinsky term and generalized Chaplygin gas as a matter source providing, besides a current accelerated expansion, the epoch of endogenous inflation driven by type III freeze singularity. It follows from our statistical analysis that astronomical data favors negative value of the parameter coupling quadratic term into Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian and as a consequence the bounce instead of initial Big-Bang singularity is preferred

  10. Inflationary cosmology with Chaplygin gas in Palatini formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowiec, Andrzej; Wojnar, Aneta [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204, Wrocław (Poland); Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail: andrzej.borowiec@ift.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: aleksander.stachowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: aneta.wojnar@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple generalisation of the ΛCDM model which on the one hand reaches very good agreement with the present day experimental data and provides an internal inflationary mechanism on the other hand. It is based on Palatini modified gravity with quadratic Starobinsky term and generalized Chaplygin gas as a matter source providing, besides a current accelerated expansion, the epoch of endogenous inflation driven by type III freeze singularity. It follows from our statistical analysis that astronomical data favors negative value of the parameter coupling quadratic term into Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian and as a consequence the bounce instead of initial Big-Bang singularity is preferred.

  11. Quantum scalar-metric cosmology with Chaplygin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, Barun

    2011-01-01

    A spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model with generalized Chaplygin gas is studied in the context of scalar-metric formulation of cosmology. Schutz's mechanism for the perfect fluid is applied with generalized Chaplygin gas and the classical and quantum dynamics for this model is studied. It is found that the only surviving matter degree of freedom played the role of cosmic time. For the quantum mechanical description it is possible to find the wave packet which resulted from the linear superposition of the wave functions of the Schroedinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation, which is a consequence of the above formalism. The wave packets show two distinct dominant peaks and propagate in the direction of increasing scale factor. It may happen that our present universe originated from one of those peaks. The many-world and ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to investigate about the behavior of the scale factor and the scalar field (considered for this model). In both the cases the scale factor avoids singularity and a bouncing non-singular universe is found.

  12. Scalar-metric quantum cosmology with Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Saumya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Gangopadhyay, Sunandan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Nadia, West Bengal (India); S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper we consider the flat FRW cosmology with a scalar field coupled with the metric along with generalized Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid comprising the matter sector. We use the Schutz's formalism to deal with the generalized Chaplygin gas sector. The full theory is then quantized canonically using the Wheeler-DeWitt Hamiltonian formalism. We then solve the WD equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Then by defining a proper completeness relation for the self-adjointness of the WD equation we arrive at the wave packet for the universe. It is observed that the peak in the probability density gets affected due to both fluids in the matter sector, namely, the Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid. (orig.)

  13. Warm modified Chaplygin gas shaft inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Ilyas, Amara; Rani, Shamaila [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we examine the possible realization of a new inflation family called ''shaft inflation'' by assuming the modified Chaplygin gas model and a tachyon scalar field. We also consider the special form of the dissipative coefficient Γ = a{sub 0}(T{sup 3})/(φ{sup 2}) and calculate the various inflationary parameters in the scenario of strong and weak dissipative regimes. In order to examine the behavior of inflationary parameters, the n{sub s}-φ, n{sub s}-r, and n{sub s}-α{sub s} planes (where n{sub s}, α{sub s}, r, and φ represent the spectral index, its running, tensor-to-scalar ratio, and scalar field, respectively) are being developed, which lead to the constraints r < 0.11, n{sub s} = 0.96 ± 0.025, and α{sub s} = -0.019 ± 0.025. It is quite interesting that these results of the inflationary parameters are compatible with BICEP2, WMAP (7+9) and recent Planck data. (orig.)

  14. Thin-shell wormholes in Born–Infeld electrodynamics with modified Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Azam, M., E-mail: azam.math@ue.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-25

    In this paper, we construct spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in the scenario of Born–Infeld electrodynamics theory. We take the modified Chaplygin gas for the description of exotic matter around the wormhole throat. The stability of static wormhole solutions with different values of charge and Born–Infeld parameter is investigated. We compare our results with those obtained for generalized Chaplygin gas [36] and conclude that stable static wormhole solutions also exist even for large value of Born–Infeld parameter. - Highlights: • Constructed thin-shell wormholes in Born–Infeld electrodynamics for modified Chaplygin. • Studied its stability with different values of charge and Born–Infeld parameter. • New stable solutions are found even for large value of Born–Infeld parameter. • Selection of EoS significantly changes the presence and stability of static solutions.

  15. Chaplygin dark star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed

  16. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C., E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA 40210-340 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.

  17. Stochastic gravitational waves from a new type of modified Chaplygin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Frazao, Pedro; Henriques, Alfredo B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new scenario for the early Universe where there is a smooth transition between an early de Sitter-like phase and a radiation-dominated era. In this model, the matter content is modeled by a new type of generalized Chaplygin gas [6] for the early Universe, with an underlying scalar field description. We study the gravitational waves generated by the quantum fluctuations. In particular, we calculate the gravitational-wave power spectrum, as it would be measured today, following the method of the Bogoliubov coefficients. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends strongly on one of the parameters of the model. On the other hand, we use the number of e folds, along with the power spectra and spectral index of the scalar perturbations, to constrain the model observationally.

  18. Observational constraints on cosmological models with Chaplygin gas and quadratic equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Observational manifestations of accelerated expansion of the universe, in particular, recent data for Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, for the Hubble parameter H ( z ) and cosmic microwave background constraints are described with different cosmological models. We compare the ΛCDM, the models with generalized and modified Chaplygin gas and the model with quadratic equation of state. For these models we estimate optimal model parameters and their permissible errors with different approaches to calculation of sound horizon scale r s ( z d ). Among the considered models the best value of χ 2 is achieved for the model with quadratic equation of state, but it has 2 additional parameters in comparison with the ΛCDM and therefore is not favored by the Akaike information criterion.

  19. Polytropic and Chaplygin f(T)-gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, K; Abdolmaleki, A

    2012-01-01

    We reconstruct different f(T)-gravity models corresponding to a set of dark energy scenarios containing the polytropic, the standard Chaplygin and the generalized Chaplygin gas models. We also derive the equation of state parameter of the selected f(T)-gravity models and obtain the necessary conditions for crossing the phantom-divide line.

  20. Quantum FRW cosmological solutions in the presence of Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedram, P.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model in the presence of Chaplygin gas and perfect fluid for early and late time epochs. In this work, we consider perfect fluid as an effective potential and apply Schutz's variational formalism to the Chaplygin gas which recovers the notion of time. These give rise to Schroedinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the scale factor. We use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets and study the time dependent behavior of the expectation value of the scale factor using the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. We show that contrary to the classical case, the expectation value of the scale factor avoids singularity at quantum level. Moreover, this model predicts that the expansion of Universe is accelerating for the late times

  1. F(R) cosmology via Noether symmetry and Λ-Chaplygin Gas like model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, H. R.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we consider f (R) alternative theories of gravity with an eye to Noether symmetry through the gauge theorem. For non-vacuum models, one finds Λ like gravity with energy density of Chaplygin Gas. We also obtain the effective equation of state parameter for corresponding cosmology and scale factor behavior with respect to cosmic time which show that the model provides viable EoS and scale factor with respect to observational data.

  2. Statefinder diagnostic for modified Chaplygin gas cosmology in f(R,T) gravity with particle creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. K.; Nagpal, Ritika; Pacif, S. K. J.

    In this paper, we have studied flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model with modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) having equation of state pm = Aρ ‑ B ργ, where 0 ≤ A ≤ 1, 0 ≤ γ ≤ 1 and B is any positive constant in f(R,T) gravity with particle creation. We have considered a simple parametrization of the Hubble parameter H in order to solve the field equations and discussed the time evolution of different cosmological parameters for some obtained models showing unique behavior of scale factor. We have also discussed the statefinder diagnostic pair {r,s} that characterizes the evolution of obtained models and explore their stability. The physical consequences of the models and their kinematic behaviors have also been scrutinized here in some detail.

  3. Scalar perturbations in the late Universe: viability of the Chaplygin gas models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Brilenkov, Maxim; Brilenkov, Ruslan [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya st. 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Morais, João [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Zhuk, Alexander, E-mail: mbl@ubi.pt, E-mail: maxim.brilenkov@gmail.com, E-mail: ruslan.brilenkov@gmail.com, E-mail: jviegas001@ikasle.ehu.eus, E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya st. 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2015-12-01

    We study the late-time evolution of the Universe where dark energy (DE) is parametrised by a modified generalised Chaplygin gas (mGCG) on top of cold dark matter (CDM) . We also take into account the radiation content of the Universe. In this context, the late stage of the evolution of the universe refers to the epoch where CDM is already clustered into inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Under these conditions, the mechanical approach is an adequate tool to study the Universe deep inside the cell of uniformity. To be more accurate, we study scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker metric due to inhomogeneities of CDM as well as fluctuations of radiation and mGCG, the later driving the late-time acceleration of the universe. Our analysis applies as well to the case where mGCG plays the role of DM and DE . We select the sets of parameters of the mGCG that are compatible with the mechanical approach. These sets define prospective mGCG models. By comparing the selected sets of models with some of the latest observational data results, we conclude that the mGCG is in tight agreement with those observations particularly for a mGCG playing the role of DE and DM.

  4. Duality gives rise to Chaplygin cosmologies with a big rip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We consider modifications to the Friedmann equation motivated by recent proposals along these lines pursuing an explanation to the observed late time acceleration. Here we show that these approaches can be framed within a theory with modified gravity, and we discuss the construction of the duals of the cosmologies generated within that framework. We then investigate the modifications required to generate extended, generalized and modified Chaplygin cosmologies, and then show that their duals belong to a larger family of cosmologies we call enlarged Chaplygin cosmologies. Finally, by letting the parameters of these models take values not earlier considered in the literature we show that some representatives of that family of cosmologies display sudden future singularities. This fact indicates that the behaviour of these spacetimes is rather different from that of generalized or modified Chaplygin gas cosmologies. This reinforces the idea that modifications of gravity can be responsible for unexpected evolutionary features in the universe

  5. Recent observational constraints on generalized Chaplygin gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-10

    Feb 10, 2017 ... on the EoS parameters. Best-fit values of the EoS parameters H0, As and α (As and α are defined in the energy ... This late acceleration cannot be realized in the frame- ... today). The other choices are: (i) a light homogeneous.

  6. The Riemann problem for the relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-01

    The relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation is studied. The Riemann problem is solved constructively. The delta shock wave arises in the Riemann solutions, provided that the initial data satisfy some certain conditions, although the system is strictly hyperbolic and the first and third characteristic fields are genuinely nonlinear, while the second one is linearly degenerate. There are five kinds of Riemann solutions, in which four only consist of a shock wave and a centered rarefaction wave or two shock waves or two centered rarefaction waves, and a contact discontinuity between the constant states (precisely speaking, the solutions consist in general of three waves), and the other involves delta shocks on which both the rest mass density and the proper energy density simultaneously contain the Dirac delta function. It is quite different from the previous ones on which only one state variable contains the Dirac delta function. The formation mechanism, generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition are clarified for this type of delta shock wave. Under the generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions involving delta shocks for the Riemann problem.

  7. Are Chaplygin gases serious contenders for the dark energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Dore, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We study the implications on both background and perturbation evolution of introducing a Chaplygin gas component in the universe's ingredients. We perform likelihood analyses using wide-ranging, SN1a, CMB and large scale structure observations to assess whether such a component could be a genuine alternative to a cosmological constant, Λ. We find that the current data favors behavior in an adiabatic Chaplygin gas that is akin to a cosmological constant

  8. Theory of quasi-Chaplygin unstable media and evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, S.K.; Trubnikov, B.A.; Institut Atomnoi Energii, Moscow, USSR)

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional ideal gas with negative compressibility described by quasi-Chaplygin equations is discussed. Its reduction to a Laplace equation is shown, and an evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions is summarized. Three extremely simple spontaneous solutions are obtained along with multidimensional self-similar solutions. The Buneman instability in a plasma is considered as an example. 17 references

  9. Hamiltonization and Integrability of the Chaplygin Sphere in R^n

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Bozidar

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies a natural $n$-dimensional generalization of the classical nonholonomic Chaplygin sphere problem. We prove that for a specific choice of the inertia operator, the restriction of the generalized problem onto zero value of the SO(n-1)-momentum mapping becomes an integrable Hamiltonian system after an appropriate time reparametrization.

  10. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Paul

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... The speed of sound obtained in the model is small, necessary for structure formation. We also ... constant negative pressure at low density accommodat- ing late ... drawing contour plots at different confidence levels. The.

  11. Chaplygin sleigh with periodically oscillating internal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizyaev, Ivan A.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the movement of Chaplygin sleigh on a plane that is a solid body with imposed nonholonomic constraint, which excludes the possibility of motions transversal to the constraint element (“knife-edge”), and complement the model with an attached mass, periodically oscillating relatively to the main platform of the sleigh. Numerical simulations indicate the occurrence of either unrestricted acceleration of the sleigh, or motions with bounded velocities and momenta, depending on parameters. We note the presence of phenomena characteristic to nonholonomic systems with complex dynamics; in particular, attractors occur responsible for chaotic motions. In addition, quasiperiodic regimes take place similar to those observed in conservative nonlinear dynamics.

  12. General Atomic's radioactive gas recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Perry, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    General Atomic Company has developed a Radioactive Gas Recovery System for the HTGR which separates, for purposes of retention, the radioactive components from the non-radioactive reactor plant waste gases. This provides the capability for reducing to an insignificant level the amount of radioactivity released from the gas waste system to the atmosphere--a most significant improvement in reducing total activity release to the environment. (U.S.)

  13. General Motors natural gas vehicle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koplow, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    General Motors (GM) has a number of natural gas vehicle (NGV) programs in progress that address various marketing, technical, and production planning issues that lean on the introduction of NGVs from GM. The initial target is light and medium duty trucks sold in non-attainment air quality regions. GM has also embarked on a longer term program that encompasses vehicle and systems development, gas supply and infrastructure development, and customer and market development. The major long-term issues are gas quality, supplier participation, and infrastructure

  14. Generalized Chaplygin equations for nonholonomic systems on time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572212 and 11272227) and the Innovation Program for Postgraduate in Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. KYLX16-0414).

  15. Observational constraints on modified Chaplygin gas in Horava ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. E-mail: ... greater the dark radiation less the matter contribution in the MCG in both the scenario considered here. In order to check .... like a cosmological constant, accounting for the observed features of the Universe. It.

  16. The generalized heavy free gas thermalization operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, H.H.W.

    1963-05-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the generalized heavy free gas (Horowitz) thermalization operator, which is a device for simplifying thermalization calculations. Analytical, experimental,and numerical methods for determining the energy-dependent function f in the operator are discussed. The dependence of f on the nature of the moderator, its temperature, and the absorption of the system are investigated, using a program FOCS which derives f's from DSN (multigroup) thermal spectra; it is found that for most purposes the dependence on absorption is negligible except when Pu240 is present. The sensitivity of calculated spectra and reaction rate to changes in f is considered. f is given for graphite at 300 and 600 deg. K. (author)

  17. Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

  18. Generalized hydrodynamic transport in lattice-gas automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Shi; Chen, Hudong; Chen, Shiyi; Doolen, Gary D.; Lee, Yee-Chun

    1991-01-01

    The generalized hydrodynamics of two-dimensional lattice-gas automata is solved analytically in the linearized Boltzmann approximation. The dependence of the transport coefficients (kinematic viscosity, bulk viscosity, and sound speed) upon wave number k is obtained analytically. Anisotropy of these coefficients due to the lattice symmetry is studied for the entire range of wave number, k. Boundary effects due to a finite mean free path (Knudsen layer) are analyzed, and accurate comparisons are made with lattice-gas simulations.

  19. Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: I. Thermodynamic laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B H

    2005-11-01

    The equations of state for an ideal relativistic, or generalized, gas, like an ideal quantum gas, are expressed in terms of power laws of the temperature. In contrast to an ideal classical gas, the internal energy is a function of volume at constant temperature, implying that the ideal generalized gas will show either attractive or repulsive interactions. This is a necessary condition in order that the third law be obeyed and for matter to have an electromagnetic origin. The transition from an ideal generalized to a classical gas occurs when the two independent solutions of the subsidiary equation to Lagrange's equation coalesce. The equation of state relating the pressure to the internal energy encompasses the full range of cosmological scenarios, from the radiation to the matter dominated universes and finally to the vacuum energy, enabling the coefficient of proportionality, analogous to the Grüeisen ratio, to be interpreted in terms of the degrees of freedom related to the temperature exponents of the internal energy and the absolute temperature expressed in terms of a power of the empirical temperature. The limit where these exponents merge is shown to be the ideal classical gas limit. A corollary to Carnot's theorem is proved, asserting that the ratio of the work done over a cycle to the heat absorbed to increase the temperature at constant volume is the same for all bodies at the same volume. As power means, the energy and entropy are incomparable, and a new adiabatic potential is introduced by showing that the volume raised to a characteristic exponent is also the integrating factor for the quantity of heat so that the second law can be based on the property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order. The vanishing of the chemical potential in extensive systems implies that energy cannot be transported without matter and is equivalent to the condition that Clapeyron's equation be satisfied.

  20. General conditions for gas-fired power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, Ch.; Fuessler, J.; Sommerhalder, M.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the general conditions for the installation of gas-fired power plants in Europe. Combined cycle power stations are characterised and the associated power production costs are discussed. Also, the prices resulting from the internalisation of external costs are noted. The problems associated with carbon dioxide emissions are discussed and the trading of emission certificates is looked at. Also, nitrogen oxide emissions are examined and discussed. The use of waste heat from the combined cycle power stations is also examined. Further topics include subsidies and special credits for the gas industry in Europe and the granting of permission for the planning, construction, operation and dismantling of the power station facilities. The situation in various European countries is examined and the associated market distortion is commented on

  1. Decomposition of almost-Poisson structure of generalised Chaplygin's nonholonomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Liu; Peng, Chang; Shi-Xing, Liu; Yong-Xin, Guo

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs an almost-Poisson structure for the non-self-adjoint dynamical systems, which can be decomposed into a sum of a Poisson bracket and the other almost-Poisson bracket. The necessary and sufficient condition for the decomposition of the almost-Poisson bracket to be two Poisson ones is obtained. As an application, the almost-Poisson structure for generalised Chaplygin's systems is discussed in the framework of the decomposition theory. It proves that the almost-Poisson bracket for the systems can be decomposed into the sum of a canonical Poisson bracket and another two noncanonical Poisson brackets in some special cases, which is useful for integrating the equations of motion

  2. On the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin and new examples of integrable conservative systems on S^2

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, E. N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a class of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta. We prove that this class of systems consists off the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin, the one-parameter family of systems which has been found by the author in the previous paper (dg-ga/9711005) and a new two-parameter family of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta.

  3. A topological classification of the Chaplygin systems in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, S S

    2014-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the topological analysis of the Chaplygin integrable case in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid. A full list of the topological types of Chaplygin systems in their dependence on the energy level is compiled on the basis of the Fomenko-Zieschang theory. An effective description of the topology of the Liouville foliation in terms of natural coordinate variables is also presented, which opens a direct way to calculating topological invariants. It turns out that on all nonsingular energy levels Chaplygin systems are Liouville equivalent to the well-known Euler case in the dynamics of a rigid body with fixed point. Bibliography: 23 titles

  4. General physical characteristics of the interstellar molecular gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    The interstellar medium may be characterized by several physically rather distinct regimes: coronal gas, intercloud gas, diffuse clouds, isolated dark clouds and globules (of small to modest mass), more massive molecular clouds containing OB (and later) stars, and giant molecular clouds. Values of temperature, density, ionization fraction, mass, size, and velocity field are discussed for each regime. Heating and cooling mechanisms are reviewed. Nearly all molecular clouds exceed the Jeans criteria for gravitational instability, yet detailed models reveal no cases where observations can be interpreted unambiguously in terms of rapid collapse. The possibility that clouds are supported by turbulence, rotation, or magnetic fields is discussed, and it is concluded that none of these agencies suffice. Comments are made about fragmentation and star formation in molecular clouds, with possible explanations for why only low mass stars form in low mass clouds, why early-type stars form only in clouds with masses > approximately 10 3 M solar masses, and why O-stars seem to form near edges of clouds. Finally, large-scale interactions between molecular clouds and the galactic disk stellar population are discussed. (Auth.)

  5. A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of experiments that examines each one of the terms of the ideal gas equation is described. Boyle's Law, Charles-Gay Lussac's Law, Amonton's Law, the number of moles or Molecular Weight, and the Gas Constant are studied. The experiments use very simple, easy to obtain equipment and common gases, mainly air. The results gathered by General Chemistry College students are satisfactory.

  6. High resolution kinetic beam schemes in generalized coordinates for ideal quantum gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yu-Hsin; Huang, J.C.; Yang, J.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A class of high resolution kinetic beam schemes in multiple space dimensions in general coordinates system for the ideal quantum gas is presented for the computation of quantum gas dynamical flows. The kinetic Boltzmann equation approach is adopted and the local equilibrium quantum statistics distribution is assumed. High-order accurate methods using essentially non-oscillatory interpolation concept are constructed. Computations of shock wave diffraction by a circular cylinder in an ideal quantum gas are conducted to illustrate the present method. The present method provides a viable means to explore various practical ideal quantum gas flows

  7. Impact Analysis of Generalized Audit Software (GAS Utilization to Auditor Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Wicaksono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand whether the use of Generalized Audit Software (GAS in the audit process had an impact on the auditors performance and to acquire conclusions in the evaluation form towards GAS audit process to provide a positive impact on the performance of auditors. The models used to evaluate the impact of GAS were Quantity of Work, Quality of Work, Job Knowledge, Creativeness, Cooperation, Dependability, Initiative, and Personal Qualities. The method used in this research was a qualitative method of analytical descriptive and evaluative, by analyzing the impact of the GAS implementation to the components of the user’s performance. The results indicate that the use of GAS has a positive impact on user’s performance components.

  8. The generalized model of organization and planning of regional gas supply monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Shevchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, gas is one of the most promising types of fuel in Ukraine. In this regard, the problems associated with its transportation in the regional system of gas supply are relevant. Now it is not completely solved and needs detailed study the problem of monitoring the regional gas supply system. Aim: The aim of the study is to improve the efficiency of the regional gas supply system at the expense of the organization and planning of gas transport monitoring and, in the future, the synthesis of the monitoring system of regional gas supply. Materials and Methods: The generalized model of organization and planning of monitoring regional gas suppliers were developed to achieve this goal. It allows making decisions on the organization of the monitoring system. In addition, this model makes it possible to plan under conditions of multicriteriality and uncertainty of the source data. Results: The basic criteria and constraints for solving the problem of organizing and planning the monitoring system of regional gas supply are proposed in this work. The corresponding computations were made to confirm the assumptions. The calculations were carried out in context of uncertainty of input data using a set of methods for the analysis of hierarchies, exhaustive search, as well as the methods of decision making in context of uncertainty.

  9. Impact of Detoxification Techniques on Pulmonary Gas Exchange Function in Patients with Generalized Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mlinnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of different detoxification techniques on pulmonary gas exchange function in patients with generalized peritonitis complicated by multiple organ failure. Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirty patients with generalized peritonitis were examined. According to the used detoxification techniques, the patients were divided into 5 groups. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination, the key element of which was the evaluation of gas exchange parameters. Results. Membrane plasmapheresis and plasmapheresis with sodium hypochlorite infusion to the plasma filter in patients with peritonitis are shown to improve pulmonary blood oxygenation.

  10. How do quantum numbers generally vary in the adiabatic transformation of an ideal gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarman, T.; Kholmetskii, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    We continue to analyse the known law of adiabatic transformation for an ideal gas PV 5/3 = Constant, where P is the pressure and V is the volume, and following the approach of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which we suggested in a previous work (Yarman et al. 2010 Int. J. Phys. Sci. 5 1524). We explicitly determine the constant for the general parallelepiped geometry of a container. We also disclose how the quantum numbers associated with molecules of an ideal gas vary through an arbitrary adiabatic transformation. Physical implications of the results obtained are discussed. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  11. General constraints on the effect of gas flows in the chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The basic equations for the chemical evolution of galaxies in which the 'simple' closed box model is modified to allow any form of inflow or outflow are examined. It is found that there are quite general limiting constraints on the effects that such flows can have. Some implications for the actual chemical evolution of galaxies are discussed, and the constraints should also be useful in understanding the behaviour of detailed numerical models of galactic chemical evolution involving gas flows. (author)

  12. Statistical distribution for generalized ideal gas of fractional-statistics particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the occupation-number distribution in a generalized ideal gas of particles obeying fractional statistics, including mutual statistics, by adopting a state-counting definition. When there is no mutual statistics, the statistical distribution interpolates between bosons and fermions, and respects a fractional exclusion principle (except for bosons). Anyons in a strong magnetic field at low temperatures constitute such a physical system. Applications to the thermodynamic properties of quasiparticle excitations in the Laughlin quantum Hall fluid are discussed

  13. Chemical potential for the interacting classical gas and the ideal quantum gas obeying a generalized exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, F J; Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential μ in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state μ = μ(n, T) where n is the particle density and T the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are presented with detailed calculations. The first one refers to the explicit calculation of μ for the interacting classical gas exemplified by van der Waals gas. For this purpose, we used the method described by van Kampen (1961 Physica 27 783). The second one refers to the calculation of μ for ideal quantum gases that obey a generalized Pauli's exclusion principle that leads to statistics that go beyond the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac cases. The audience targeted in this work corresponds mainly to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical-chemical sciences but it is not restricted to them. In regard of this, we have put a special emphasis on showing some additional details of calculations that usually do not appear explicitly in textbooks. (paper)

  14. Generalized virial theorem and pressure relation for a strongly correlated Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Shina

    2008-01-01

    For a two-component Fermi gas in the unitarity limit (i.e., with infinite scattering length), there is a well-known virial theorem, first shown by J.E. Thomas et al. A few people rederived this result, and extended it to few-body systems, but their results are all restricted to the unitarity limit. Here I show that there is a generalized virial theorem for FINITE scattering lengths. I also generalize an exact result concerning the pressure to the case of imbalanced populations

  15. Licensing topical report: interpretation of general design criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, D.D.; Raabe, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    This Licensing Topical Report presents a set of General Design Criteria (GDC) which is proposed for applicability to licensing of graphite-moderated, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Modifications as necessary to reflect HTGR characteristics and design practices have been made to the GDC derived for applicability to light-water-cooled reactors and presented in Appendix A of Part 50, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, including the Introduction, Definitions, and Criteria. It is concluded that the proposed set of GDC affords a better basis for design and licensing of HTGRs

  16. Thermostatistic properties of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas with a general energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shukuan; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    The thermostatistic problems of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas in any dimensional space and with a general energy spectrum are studied, based on the q-deformed Fermi-Dirac distribution. The effects of the deformation parameter q on the properties of the system are revealed. It is shown that q-deformation results in some novel characteristics different from those of an ordinary system. Besides, it is found that the effects of the q-deformation on the properties of the Fermi systems are very different for different dimensional spaces and different energy spectrums

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation of a relativistic Bose gas trapped in a general external potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guozhen; Chen Jincan; Chen Lixuan

    2006-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal relativistic Bose gas trapped in a generic power-law potential is investigated. The analytical expressions for some important parameters such as the critical temperature, ground-state fraction and heat capacity are derived. The general criteria on the occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation and the discontinuity of heat capacity at the critical temperature are obtained. The results obtained here present a unified description for the Bose-Einstein condensation of a class of ideal Bose systems so that many important conclusions in the literature are included in this paper

  18. Ramsey interferometry with a two-level generalized Tonks-Girardeau gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, S. V.; Campo, A. del; Lizuain, I.; Muga, J. G.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a solvable generalization of the Tonks-Girardeau model that describes a coherent one-dimensional (1D) gas of cold two-level bosons which interact with two external fields in a Ramsey interferometer. They also interact among themselves by idealized, infinitely strong contact potentials, with interchange of momentum and internal state. We study the corresponding Ramsey fringes and the quantum projection noise which, essentially unaffected by the interactions, remains that for ideal bosons. The dual system of this gas, an ideal gas of two-level fermions coupled by the interaction with the separated fields, produces the same fringes and noise fluctuations. The cases of time-separated and spatially separated fields are studied. For spatially separated fields the fringes may be broadened slightly by increasing the number of particles, but only for large particle numbers far from present experiments with Tonks-Girardeau gases. The uncertainty in the determination of the atomic transition frequency diminishes, essentially with the inverse root of the particle number. The difficulties to implement the model experimentally and possible shortcomings of strongly interacting 1D gases for frequency standards and atomic clocks are discussed

  19. General Analysis of System Efficiency in Application of Combined Power Plants for Gas-Distribution Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kachan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes utilization of discharged heat of gas-piston engine (GPE or contact steam-gas plants (SGP with the purpose to heat up gas at gas-distribution stations (GDS of combined power plants with turbine and gas-expansion units. Calculations prove significant economic efficiency of the proposed variant in comparison with the application of ordinary gas- turbine units. Technical and economic calculation is used to determine gas-piston engine or contact steam-gas plant power for specific operational conditions of gas-distribution stations and utilization rate of discharged heat.

  20. On the thermal stability of a radiating gas under general differential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1988-02-01

    The thermal stability of a radiating gas in a semi-infinite space is studied under a general differential approximation. The fluid is bounded on the axis z'=0 by a horizontal infinite wall maintained at a temperature T 0 which is high enough for radiative heat transfer to be significant. At z'=∞, the fluid is at uniform temperature T ∞ such that T 0 >T ∞ . The equations of motion under small perturbation theory reduce to a set of linear homogeneous equations with a variable coefficient subject to homogeneous boundary conditions when the unperturbed temperature is adopted as the independent variable. The solution is effected via a finite difference scheme and the Rayleigh number is determined by Newton's iterative method. (author). 8 refs

  1. The Effect of Electromagnetic Waves on the General Health of Zahedan Gas Power Plant Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Laal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: With ever improving technology and increasing the use of high voltage power in industrial environments, concerns about the destructive effects of electromagnetic waves on human health have increased. Thus the present study aims to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic waves on the general health of Zahedan gas power plant personnel. Materials & Method: The present case-control study investigated the health of people at one point of time and their amount of exposure to electromagnetic waves at the same time. The data collection tool in this study was 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. After measuring the electromagnetic waves at distances of 1, 1.5 and 3 meters at high voltage power substations and data extraction, the data were entered to SPSS software and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square. Results: In this study, the age and experience variables were not significantly different in two groups (p> 0.05. The highest magnetic fields in high voltage power substations was at a distance of 1 meter in the substation 607 (28/1 mG and in precision tool work units (7.03 mG. The results showed that the depressive and general health symptoms were significantly different between the exposed and unexposed groups (p = 0.04, however the difference was not significant in terms of physical performance, anxiety and social performance (p> 0.05. Conclusion: although the level of exposure was lower than standard level determined in Iran, the significant difference of the general health and depression between the two groups, explains the necessity of conducting more studies in this regard. Also by reducing the exposure time and increasing people’s awareness it is possible to take important steps to reduce exposure and complications.

  2. General characteristics and technical subjects on helium closed cycle gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Hiroaki

    1996-06-01

    Making the subjects clarified on nuclear-heated gas turbine that will apply the inherent features of HTGR, the present paper discusses the difference of the helium closed cycle gas turbine, which is a candidate of nuclear gas turbine, with the open cycle gas turbine and indicates inherent problems of closed cycle gas turbine, its effects onto thermal efficiency and turbine output and difficulties due to the pressure ratio and specific speed from use of helium. The paper also discusses effects of the external pressure losses onto the efficiencies of compressor and turbine that are major components of the gas turbine. According to the discussions above, the paper concludes indicating the key idea on heat exchangers for the closed cycle gas turbine and design basis to solve the problems and finally offers new gas turbine conception using nitrogen or air that is changeable into open cycle gas turbine. (author)

  3. On general features of warm dark matter with reduced relativistic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; vom Marttens, R. F.; Fabris, J. C.; Shapiro, I. L.; Casarini, L.

    2018-05-01

    Reduced relativistic gas (RRG) is a useful approach to describe the warm dark matter (WDM) or the warmness of baryonic matter in the approximation when the interaction between the particles is irrelevant. The use of Maxwell distribution leads to the complicated equation of state of the Jüttner model of relativistic ideal gas. The RRG enables one to reproduce the same physical situation but in a much simpler form. For this reason RRG can be a useful tool for the theories with some sort of a "new Physics". On the other hand, even without the qualitatively new physical implementations, the RRG can be useful to describe the general features of WDM in a model-independent way. In this sense one can see, in particular, to which extent the cosmological manifestations of WDM may be dependent on its Particle Physics background. In the present work RRG is used as a complementary approach to derive the main observational features for the WDM in a model-independent way. The only assumption concerns a non-negligible velocity v for dark matter particles which is parameterized by the warmness parameter b. The relatively high values of b ( b^2˜ 10^{-6}) erase the radiation (photons and neutrinos) dominated epoch and cause an early warm matter domination after inflation. Furthermore, RRG approach enables one to quantify the lack of power in linear matter spectrum at small scales and in particular, reproduces the relative transfer function commonly used in context of WDM with accuracy of ≲ 1%. A warmness with b^2≲ 10^{-6} (equivalent to v≲ 300 km/s) does not alter significantly the CMB power spectrum and is in agreement with the background observational tests.

  4. Measurement of activity coefficients of mixtures by head-space gas chromatography: general procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Patricia; Wouters, Christine; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Sandler, Stanley I

    2013-08-09

    Head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an applicable method to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements and determine activity coefficients. However, the reproducibility of the data may be conditioned by the experimental procedure concerning to the automated pressure-balanced system. The study developed in this work shows that a minimum volume of liquid in the vial is necessary to ensure the reliability of the activity coefficients since it may become a parameter that influences the magnitude of the peak areas: the helium introduced during the pressurization step may produce significant variations of the results when too small volume of liquid is selected. The minimum volume required should thus be evaluated prior to obtain experimentally the concentration in the vapor phase and the activity coefficients. In this work, the mixture acetonitrile-toluene is taken as example, requiring a sample volume of more than 5mL (about more than 25% of the vial volume). The vapor-liquid equilibrium and activity coefficients of mixtures at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 molar fraction) and four temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 70°C) have been determined. Relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5% have been obtained, indicating the good reproducibility of the method when a sample volume larger than 5mL is used. Finally, a general procedure to measure activity coefficients by means of pressure-balanced head-space gas chromatography is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  6. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  7. Differential Treatment of Pregnancy in Employment: The Impact of "General Electric Co. v. Gilbert" and "Nashville Gas Co. v. Satty."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ellen T.

    1978-01-01

    After discussing the facts and reasoning of the two cases (General Electric Co. vs Gilbert and Nashville Gas Co. vs Satty), the author argues that the decisions are largely the product of pregnancy stereotypes and that the Court's reasoning is flawed and should not be applied outside the context of pregnancy. Journal availability: see EA 511 481.…

  8. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  9. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  10. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  11. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  12. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal

    2015-01-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  13. Dynamical analysis of an n‑H‑T cosmological quintessence real gas model with a general equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Rossen I.; Prodanov, Emil M.

    2018-01-01

    The cosmological dynamics of a quintessence model based on real gas with general equation of state is presented within the framework of a three-dimensional dynamical system describing the time evolution of the number density, the Hubble parameter and the temperature. Two global first integrals are found and examples for gas with virial expansion and van der Waals gas are presented. The van der Waals system is completely integrable. In addition to the unbounded trajectories, stemming from the presence of the conserved quantities, stable periodic solutions (closed orbits) also exist under certain conditions and these represent models of a cyclic Universe. The cyclic solutions exhibit regions characterized by inflation and deflation, while the open trajectories are characterized by inflation in a “fly-by” near an unstable critical point.

  14. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  15. Particular cases of materials balance equation generalized for gas deposits associated to the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penuela, G; Ordonez, A; Bejarano, A

    1997-01-01

    One of the fundamental principles used in the work, developed in engineering is the law of the matter conservation. The application of this principle to the hydrocarbons fields, with the purpose of to quantify and to be predicted expresses by means of materials balance method. While the equation construction of conventional materials balance and the calculations that come with their application are not a difficult task, the approach of selection of the solution that better it represents the deposit it is one of the problems that the petroleum engineer should face. The materials balance is a useful analysis method of the deposit operation, reserves estimate of raw and gas, and prediction of the future behavior of the deposit. The coal, beds, devonian shales and geo pressurized-aquifer are some examples of natural gas sources and to possess production mechanisms and behaviors significantly different to the traditional than have been considered as non conventional deposits

  16. Productivity Growth and the General X-factor in Austria´s Gas Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gugler, Klaus; Liebensteiner, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We estimate cost functions to derive productivity growth using a unique database on costs and outputs of essentially all regulated Austrian gas distribution companies over the period 2002-2013, covering the times before and after the introduction of incentive regulation in 2008. We estimate a concave relation between total costs and time, and a significant one-off but permanent reduction in real costs after an imposed reduction in granted costs in the course of the introduction of incentive r...

  17. Generalized Energy Flow Analysis Considering Electricity Gas and Heat Subsystems in Local-Area Energy Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power system, will prove difficult in meeting the requirements of the coupled energy flow analysis. This paper proposes a generalized energy flow (GEF analysis method which is suitable for an ESI containing electricity, heat and gas subsystems. First, the models of electricity, heat, and natural gas networks in the ESI are established. In view of the complexity of the conventional method to solve the gas network including the compressor, an improved practical equivalent method was adopted based on different control modes. On this basis, a hybrid method combining homotopy and the Newton-Raphson algorithm was executed to compute the nonlinear equations of GEF, and the Jacobi matrix reflecting the coupling relationship of multi-energy was derived considering the grid connected mode and island modes of the power system in the ESI. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in multi-energy flow calculation and the analysis of interacting characteristics was verified using practical cases.

  18. Renormalization-group analysis of the generalized sine-Gordon model and of the Coulomb gas for d≥3 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I.; Jentschura, U.D.; Soff, G.; Sailer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Renormalization-group (RG) flow equations have been derived for the generalized sine-Gordon model (GSGM) and the Coulomb gas (CG) in d≥3 of dimensions by means of the Wegner-Houghton method, and by way of the real-space RG approach. The UV scaling laws determined by the leading-order terms of the flow equations are in qualitative agreement for all dimensions d≥3, independent of the dimensionality, and in sharp contrast to the special case d=2. For the 4-dimensional GSGM it is demonstrated explicitly (by numerical calculations) that the blocked potential tends to a constant effective potential in the infrared limit, satisfying the requirements of periodicity and convexity. The comparison of the RG flows for the three-dimensional GSGM, the CG, and the vortex-loop gas reveals a significant dependence on the renormalization schemes and the approximations used

  19. 78 FR 64237 - Information Collection: General and Oil and Gas Production Requirements in the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... OCS Lands Act, other applicable laws, and BOEM regulations; and does not unreasonably interfere with.... The form requests general information about the reservoir and the company, volumetric data, and fluid...

  20. The heterogeneous gas with singular interaction: generalized circular law and heterogeneous renormalized energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molino, Luis Carlos García del; Pakdaman, Khashayar; Touboul, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and analyze d-dimensional Coulomb gases with random charge distribution and general external confining potential. We show that these gases satisfy a large-deviation principle. The analysis of the minima of the rate function (which is the leading term of the energy) reveals that, at equilibrium, the particle distribution is a generalized circular law (i.e. with spherical support but not necessarily uniform distribution). In the classical electrostatic external potential, there are infinitely many minimizers of the rate function. The most likely macroscopic configuration is a disordered distribution in which particles are uniformly distributed (for d = 2, the circular law), and charges are independent of the positions of the particles. General charge-dependent confining potentials unfold this degenerate situation: in contrast, the particle density is not uniform, and particles spontaneously organize according to their charge. In this picture the classical electrostatic potential appears as a transition at which order is lost. Sub-leading terms of the energy are derived: we show that these are related to an operator, generalizing the Coulomb renormalized energy, which incorporates the heterogeneous nature of the charges. This heterogeneous renormalized energy informs us about the microscopic arrangements of the particles, which are non-standard, strongly dependent on the charges, and include progressive and irregular lattices. (paper)

  1. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  2. International trade in oil, gas and carbon emission rights: An intertemporal general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Rutherford, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper employs a five-region intertemporal model to examine three issues related to carbon emission restrictions. First, we investigate the possible impact of such limits upon future oil prices. We show that carbon limits are likely to differ in their near- and long-term impact. Second, we analyze the problem of open-quotes leakageclose quotes which could arise if the OECD countries were to adopt unilateral limits upon carbon emissions. Third, we quantify some of the gains from trade in carbon emission rights. Each of these issues have been studied before, but to our knowledge this is the first study based on a multi-regional, forward-looking model. We show that sequential joint maximization can be an effective way to compute equilibria for intertemporal general equilibrium models of international trade. 18 refs., 10 figs

  3. Apnea after awake-regional and general anesthesia in infants: The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnea and neurodevelopmental outcomes, a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew J.; Morton, Neil S.; Arnup, Sarah J.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; Frawley, Geoff; Hunt, Rodney W.; Hardy, Pollyanna; Khotcholava, Magda; von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S.; Wilton, Niall; Tuo, Pietro; Salvo, Ida; Ormond, Gillian; Stargatt, Robyn; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-operative apnea is a complication in young infants. Awake-regional anesthesia (RA) may reduce the risk; however the evidence is weak. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study is a randomized, controlled, trial designed to assess the influence of general anesthesia (GA) on neurodevelopment. A secondary aim is to compare rates of apnea after anesthesia. Methods Infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age scheduled for inguinal herniorraphy were randomized to RA or GA. Exclusion criteria included risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome and infants born < 26 weeks’ gestation. The primary outcome of this analysis was any observed apnea up to 12 hours post-operatively. Apnea assessment was unblinded. Results 363 patients were assigned to RA and 359 to GA. Overall the incidence of apnea (0 to 12 hours) was similar between arms (3% in RA and 4% in GA arms, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.63, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.31 to 1.30, P=0.2133), however the incidence of early apnea (0 to 30 minutes) was lower in the RA arm (1% versus 3%, OR 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05 to 0.91, P=0.0367). The incidence of late apnea (30 minutes to 12 hours) was 2% in both RA and GA arms (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 0.41 to 3.33, P=0.7688). The strongest predictor of apnea was prematurity (OR 21.87, 95% CI 4.38 to 109.24) and 96% of infants with apnea were premature. Conclusions RA in infants undergoing inguinal herniorraphy reduces apnea in the early post-operative period. Cardio-respiratory monitoring should be used for all ex-premature infants. PMID:26001033

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation of a charged relativistic ideal gas in a general homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown how the effective action formalism and ζ-function regularization can be used to study Bose-Einstein condensation for a relativistic charged scalar field in a general homogeneous magnetic field in a spacetime of arbitrary dimension. In the special case where the magnetic field has only one component, Bose-Einstein condensation occurs at high temperature only for D≥5 where D is the spatial dimension. When Bose-Einstein condensation does occur the ground-state expectation value of the scalar field is not constant and we determine its value. If the magnetic field has p independent nonzero components we show that the condition for Bose-Einstein condensation is D≥3+2p. In particular, Bose-Einstein condensation can never occur if the magnetic field has all of its independent components nonzero. The problem of Bose-Einstein condensation in a cylindrical box in D spatial dimensions with a uniform magnetic field directed along the axis of the cylinder is also discussed

  5. Generalized Lagrangian Jacobi Gauss collocation method for solving unsteady isothermal gas through a micro-nano porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Kourosh; Latifi, Sobhan; Delkhosh, Mehdi; Moayeri, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, a new method based on the Generalized Lagrangian Jacobi Gauss (GLJG) collocation method is proposed. The nonlinear Kidder equation, which explains unsteady isothermal gas through a micro-nano porous medium, is a second-order two-point boundary value ordinary differential equation on the unbounded interval [0, ∞). Firstly, using the quasilinearization method, the equation is converted to a sequence of linear ordinary differential equations. Then, by using the GLJG collocation method, the problem is reduced to solving a system of algebraic equations. It must be mentioned that this equation is solved without domain truncation and variable changing. A comparison with some numerical solutions made and the obtained results indicate that the presented solution is highly accurate. The important value of the initial slope, y'(0), is obtained as -1.191790649719421734122828603800159364 for η = 0.5. Comparing to the best result obtained so far, it is accurate up to 36 decimal places.

  6. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  7. A Generalized Nash-Cournot Model for the North-Western European Natural Gas Markets with a Fuel Substitution Demand Function: The GaMMES Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Briat, Vincent; GABRIEL, Steve A.; MASSOL, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic Generalized Nash-Cournot model to describe the evolution of the natural gas markets. The major players along the gas chain are depicted including: producers, consumers, storage and pipeline operators, as well as intermediate local traders. Our economic structure description takes into account market power and the demand representation tries to capture the possible fuel substitution that can be made between the consumption of oil, coal, and natural gas in the overall fossil energy consumption. We also take into account long-term contracts in an endogenous way, which makes the model a Generalized Nash Equilibrium problem. We discuss some means to solve such problems. Our model has been applied to represent the European natural gas market and forecast, until 2030, after a calibration process, consumption, prices, production, and natural gas dependence. A comparison between our model, a more standard one that does not take into account energy substitution, and the European Commission natural gas forecasts is carried out to analyze our results. Finally, in order to illustrate the possible use of fuel substitution, we studied the evolution of the natural gas price as compared to the coal and oil prices. (authors)

  8. Efficient simulation of gas-liquid pipe flows using a generalized population balance equation coupled with the algebraic slip model

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo; Ronco, Gianni; Marchisio, Daniele Luca; Labois, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    The inhomogeneous generalized population balance equation, which is discretized with the direct quadrature method of moment (DQMOM), is solved to predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) in a vertical pipe flow. The proposed model is compared with a more classical approach where bubbles are characterized with a constant mean size. The turbulent two-phase flow field, which is modeled using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach, is assumed to be in local equilibrium, thus the relative gas and liquid (slip) velocities can be calculated with the algebraic slip model, thereby accounting for the drag, lift, and lubrication forces. The complex relationship between the bubble size distribution and the resulting forces is described accurately by the DQMOM. Each quadrature node and weight represents a class of bubbles with characteristic size and number density, which change dynamically in time and space to preserve the first moments of the BSD. The predictions obtained are validated against previously published experimental data, thereby demonstrating the advantages of this approach for large-scale systems as well as suggesting future extensions to long piping systems and more complex geometries. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Efficient simulation of gas-liquid pipe flows using a generalized population balance equation coupled with the algebraic slip model

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The inhomogeneous generalized population balance equation, which is discretized with the direct quadrature method of moment (DQMOM), is solved to predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) in a vertical pipe flow. The proposed model is compared with a more classical approach where bubbles are characterized with a constant mean size. The turbulent two-phase flow field, which is modeled using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach, is assumed to be in local equilibrium, thus the relative gas and liquid (slip) velocities can be calculated with the algebraic slip model, thereby accounting for the drag, lift, and lubrication forces. The complex relationship between the bubble size distribution and the resulting forces is described accurately by the DQMOM. Each quadrature node and weight represents a class of bubbles with characteristic size and number density, which change dynamically in time and space to preserve the first moments of the BSD. The predictions obtained are validated against previously published experimental data, thereby demonstrating the advantages of this approach for large-scale systems as well as suggesting future extensions to long piping systems and more complex geometries. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Generalized time evolution of the homogeneous cooling state of a granular gas with positive and negative coefficient of normal restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nagi

    2018-04-01

    The homogeneous cooling state (HCS) of a granular gas described by the inelastic Boltzmann equation is reconsidered. As usual, particles are taken as inelastic hard disks or spheres, but now the coefficient of normal restitution α is allowed to take negative values , which is a simple way of modeling more complicated inelastic interactions. The distribution function of the HCS is studied at the long-time limit, as well as intermediate times. At the long-time limit, the relevant information of the HCS is given by a scaling distribution function , where the time dependence occurs through a dimensionless velocity c. For , remains close to the Gaussian distribution in the thermal region, its cumulants and exponential tails being well described by the first Sonine approximation. In contrast, for , the distribution function becomes multimodal, its maxima located at , and its observable tails algebraic. The latter is a consequence of an unbalanced relaxation–dissipation competition, and is analytically demonstrated for , thanks to a reduction of the Boltzmann equation to a Fokker–Plank-like equation. Finally, a generalized scaling solution to the Boltzmann equation is also found . Apart from the time dependence occurring through the dimensionless velocity, depends on time through a new parameter β measuring the departure of the HCS from its long-time limit. It is shown that describes the time evolution of the HCS for almost all times. The relevance of the new scaling is also discussed.

  11. Microscopic thin-shell wormholes in magnetic Melvin universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M.; Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, North Cyprus, Mersin 10 (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    We construct thin-shell wormholes in the magnetic Melvin universe. It is shown that in order to make a TSW in the Melvin spacetime the radius of the throat cannot be larger than (2)/(B{sub 0}), in which B{sub 0} is the magnetic field constant. We also analyze the stability of the constructed wormhole in terms of a linear perturbation around the equilibrium point. In our stability analysis we scan a full set of the Equation of States such as Linear Gas, Chaplygin Gas, Generalized Chaplygin Gas, Modified Generalized Chaplygin Gas, and Logarithmic Gas. Finally we extend our study to the wormhole solution in the unified Melvin and Bertotti-Robinson spacetime. In this extension we show that for some specific cases, the local energy density is partially positive but the total energy which supports the wormhole is positive. (orig.)

  12. Electrochemical Noise Sensors for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines. Final Report for the Period July 2001-October 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; Russell, James H.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  13. Cosmological effects of a class of fluid dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carturan, Daniela; Finelli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    We study the impact of a generalized Chaplygin gas as a candidate for dark energy on density perturbations and on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The generalized Chaplygin gas is a fluid component with an exotic equation of state p=-A/ρ α (a polytropic gas with negative constant and exponent). Such a component interpolates in time between dust and a cosmological constant, with an intermediate behavior as p=A 1/(1+α) +αρ. Perturbations of this fluid are stable on small scales but behave in a very different way with respect to standard quintessence. Moreover, a generalized Chaplygin gas could also represent an archetypal example of the phenomenological unified models of dark energy and dark matter. The results presented here show how CMB anisotropies and density perturbations in this class of models differ from those of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant

  14. Comparison of the generalized Riemann solver and the gas-kinetic scheme for inviscid compressible flow simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiequan; Li Qibing; Xu Kun

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Riemann problem (GRP) scheme for the Euler equations and gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) for the Boltzmann equation are two high resolution shock capturing schemes for fluid simulations. The difference is that one is based on the characteristics of the inviscid Euler equations and their wave interactions, and the other is based on the particle transport and collisions. The similarity between them is that both methods can use identical MUSCL-type initial reconstructions around a cell interface, and the spatial slopes on both sides of a cell interface involve in the gas evolution process and the construction of a time-dependent flux function. Although both methods have been applied successfully to the inviscid compressible flow computations, their performances have never been compared. Since both methods use the same initial reconstruction, any difference is solely coming from different underlying mechanism in their flux evaluation. Therefore, such a comparison is important to help us to understand the correspondence between physical modeling and numerical performances. Since GRP is so faithfully solving the inviscid Euler equations, the comparison can be also used to show the validity of solving the Euler equations itself. The numerical comparison shows that the GRP exhibits a slightly better computational efficiency, and has comparable accuracy with GKS for the Euler solutions in 1D case, but the GKS is more robust than GRP. For the 2D high Mach number flow simulations, the GKS is absent from the shock instability and converges to the steady state solutions faster than the GRP. The GRP has carbuncle phenomena, likes a cloud hanging over exact Riemann solvers. The GRP and GKS use different physical processes to describe the flow motion starting from a discontinuity. One is based on the assumption of equilibrium state with infinite number of particle collisions, and the other starts from the non-equilibrium free transport process to evolve into an

  15. The procedure for amendment of the technical conditions for electricity and natural gas. An essay on certain generally binding regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The energy law for the regulated Electricity and gas market has a stratified structure. The tariff structures and conditions that are established by the executive board of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), based on article 36 of the Electricity Act 1998 and article 12f of the Gas Act, are in a way the tailpiece. This article focuses mainly on the procedure for amendment of these conditions. [nl

  16. 77 FR 123 - Final Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA... NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking...

  17. A gas radiation property model applicable to general combustion CFD and its demonstration in oxy-fuel combustion simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Singh, Shashank; Romero, Sergio Sanchez

    2017-01-01

    As a good compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy, the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is often used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of combustion processes for evaluating gas radiative properties. However, the WSGGMs still have practical limitations (e...

  18. 78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...., whichever is earlier. Hearing statements may be provided orally or in written format. Commenters providing... Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA... NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking...

  19. Processing of FRG high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements at General Atomic under the US/FRG cooperative agreement for spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.D.; Strand, J.B.; Schwarz, F.A.; Drake, R.N.

    1981-11-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the United States (US) are cooperating on certain aspects of gas-cooled reactor technology under an umbrella agreement. Under the spent fuel treatment development section of the agreement, both FRG mixed uranium/ thorium and low-enriched uranium fuel spheres have been processed in the Department of Energy-sponsored cold pilot plant for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel processing at General Atomic Company in San Diego, California. The FRG fuel spheres were crushed and burned to recover coated fuel particles suitable for further treatment for uranium recovery. Successful completion of the tests described in this paper demonstrated certain modifications to the US HTGR fuel burining process necessary for FRG fuel treatment. Results of the tests will be used in the design of a US/FRG joint prototype headend facility for HTGR fuel

  20. Un modelo de equilibrio general para la fijación de precios del gas natural en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagobert L. Brito

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Comisión Reguladora de Energía de México ha implantado una regla deen la ce ha cia atrás para unir el pre cio del gas na tu ral me xi ca no al pre cio delgas na tu ral de Te jas. Este en sa yo de mues tra que en una eco no mía abier ta,en la que los agen tes es co gen en tre el gas y otros com bus ti bles, y en la que lafun ción de den si dad que des cri be la dis tri bu ción de los agen tes a lo lar go delgasoducto puede tener intervalos vacíos y puntos de acumulación, la regla deen la ce ha cia atrás es óp ti ma en el sen ti do de Pa re to.

  1. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.; Gaudez, J.C.

    1964-01-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO 2 -cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [fr

  2. Multivariate statistical assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and comparison with results from general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Based on univariate correction and coherence analyses, including techniques moving in time, and taking account of the physical basis of the relationships, a simple multivariate concept is presented which correlates observational climatic time series simultaneously with solar, volcanic, ENSO (El Nino/Souther Oscillation) and anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcing. The climatic elements considered are air temperature (near the ground and stratosphere), sea surface temperature, sea level and precipitation, and cover at least the period 1881-1980 (stratospheric temperature only since 1960). The climate signal assessments which may be hypothetically attributed to the observed CO 2 or equivalent CO 2 (implying additional greenhouse gases) increase are compared with those resulting from GCM experiments. In case of the Northern hemisphere air temperature these comparisons are performed not only in respect to hemispheric and global means, but also in respect to the regional and seasonal patterns. Autocorrelations and phase shifts of the climate response to natural and anthropogenic forcing complicate the statistical assessments

  3. On general principles of supplying safe operation of sea objects of Russian Federation oil and gas complex in ice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukui Firmin Jeevo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheet exerts a force on the hydraulic structures and vessels with developing and transporting hydrocarbons in the offshore waters of the Arctic causing to strengthen their design and/or provide additional measures against ice loads. The risk of ice impacts on objects of offshore oil and gas fields of the Arctic region determines the existence of the problem of ensuring the sustainability of these objects in terms of iceberg danger and ice formations. Reducing these risks involves the development of organizational and technical measures for improving the sustainability of the facilities in terms of iceberg danger through the use of international experience and development of advanced technologies to prevent dangerous effects of ice formations. Based on the fact that ice management is a specific activity that requires special effort and funds which as part of the rescue security (RS forces at sea are missing, as well as on the basis of the fact that the system of RS at sea is not assigned to prevent accidents and to ensure the smooth operation of offshore facilities, an ice management is seen as an independent kind of ensuring the proper functioning objects of hydrocarbons production and marine transportation. The paper considers the analysis and synthesis of domestic and foreign experience of ice and iceberg management. A system of security measures for functioning marine oil and gas facilities in icy conditions on the basis of technology of preventing dangerous effects of ice formations has been worked out. It has been shown that the system of ice and iceberg management of marine objects of hydrocarbon production and marine transportation should be a practical mechanism for reducing deposits' operation risks in ice conditions. The work relates to the safe operation of mining platforms in the Arctic seas, and more particularly, to methods and means of influence on the icebergs in order to prevent collisions with fixed or floating production

  4. 78 FR 70042 - Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... be provided orally or in written format. Commenters providing verbal comments are encouraged to... Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA exempts from... permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or...

  5. 77 FR 8855 - Final Reissuance of the NPDES General Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... determined that reissuance of this general permit is not likely to adversely affect Essential Fish Habitat... that issuance of the permit has no adverse effect to Essential Fish Habitat. Coastal Zone Management... initiated section 7 consultations in accordance with the Endangered Species Act with the U.S. Fish and...

  6. 77 FR 19282 - Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... adversely affect an Essential Fish Habitat is subject to the consultation provisions of the Manguson-Stevens Act. The Texas Coastal Subcategory areas covered by this general permit include Essential Fish Habitat... would be unlikely to adversely affect Essential Fish Habitat. EPA received written [[Page 19284...

  7. 78 FR 72080 - Draft NPDES General Permit Modification for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...). ACTION: Notice; Proposal of NPDES general permit modification. SUMMARY: EPA Region 6 today proposes... determine whether your facility, company, business, organization, etc. is regulated by this action, you..., Paperwork Reduction Act, and Regulatory Flexibility Act. The scope of Today's permit modification action...

  8. Bose-Einstein condensation in a general static homogeneous magnetic fieldinebreak and the effective action: The nonrelativistic ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of Bose-Einstein condensation for a system of nonrelativistic spin-0 bosons in a space of arbitrary dimension D. A general static homogeneous magnetic field is imposed. The effective action approach and ζ-function regularization are used. If D=2δ or 2δ+1, a constant magnetic field is characterized by δ independent components. If p≤δ of these components are nonzero, the condition for Bose-Einstein condensation to occur is D-2p≥3. This means that if D=2δ, then Bose-Einstein condensation never occurs for p=δ-1 or δ. If D=2δ+1, Bose-Einstein condensation never occurs for p=δ. For D-2p≥3, Bose-Einstein condensation does occur, and we show how it may be interpreted as symmetry breaking to give a ground state which is not constant

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  10. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy in the form of modified Chaplygin gas with variable Λ and G and bulk viscosity have been considered. We discuss three types of average scalefactor by using a special law for deceleration parameter which is linear in time with negative slope. The exact ...

  11. Bianchi Type-I Universe with wet dark fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Bianchi Type-I Universe filled with dark energy from a wet dark fluid has ... model is in the spirit of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) [9], where a physically motivated .... From the mechanical point of view, eq. (2.28) can be ...

  12. Wholesale gas market indicators - 4. Quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  13. Wholesale gas market indicators - December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  14. Wholesale gas market indicators - September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  15. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  16. LSENS: A General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. Part 1: Theory and numerical solution procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 1 of a series of three reference publications that describe LENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 1 derives the governing equations and describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved. The accuracy and efficiency of LSENS are examined by means of various test problems, and comparisons with other methods and codes are presented. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  17. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  18. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  19. Green-house gas mitigation capacity of a small scale rural biogas plant calculations for Bangladesh through a general life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khondokar M; Melville, Lynsey; Fulford, David; Huq, Sm Imamul

    2017-10-01

    Calculations towards determining the greenhouse gas mitigation capacity of a small-scale biogas plant (3.2 m 3 plant) using cow dung in Bangladesh are presented. A general life cycle assessment was used, evaluating key parameters (biogas, methane, construction materials and feedstock demands) to determine the net environmental impact. The global warming potential saving through the use of biogas as a cooking fuel is reduced from 0.40 kg CO 2 equivalent to 0.064 kg CO 2 equivalent per kilogram of dung. Biomethane used for cooking can contribute towards mitigation of global warming. Prior to utilisation of the global warming potential of methane (from 3.2 m 3 biogas plant), the global warming potential is 13 t of carbon dioxide equivalent. This reduced to 2 t as a result of complete combustion of methane. The global warming potential saving of a bioenergy plant across a 20-year life cycle is 217 t of carbon dioxide equivalent, which is 11 t per year. The global warming potential of the resultant digestate is zero and from construction materials is less than 1% of total global warming potential. When the biogas is used as a fuel for cooking, the global warming potential will reduce by 83% compare with the traditional wood biomass cooking system. The total 80 MJ of energy that can be produced from a 3.2 m 3 anaerobic digestion plant would replace 1.9 t of fuel wood or 632 kg of kerosene currently used annually in Bangladesh. The digestate can also be used as a nutrient rich fertiliser substituting more costly inorganic fertilisers, with no global warming potential impact.

  20. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  1. A Study on emission and reduction policy of greenhouse gas in Korea - a positive analysis using CGE (Computable General Equilibrium Model) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyeong Lyeob; Kwon, Tae Gyu [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The present situation and characters of greenhouse gas emission in Korea was reviewed and then the theoretical analysis on pros and cons about emissions trading system and carbon tax, and estimation of reduction cost and loss of GDP using GDP model to reduce greenhouse gas was discussed. Finally a ripple effect of carbon tax and emissions trading system on balance of international payments and output per each industry was reviewed. 24 refs., 34 Figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  3. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  4. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  5. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, D.

    2000-05-01

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  6. A general method for the calculation of absolute trace gas concentrations in air and breath from selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D.

    249-250, - (2006), s. 230-239 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube * mass spectrometry * SIFT-MS * trace gas analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2006

  7. (N+1)-dimensional Lorentzian evolving wormholes supported by polytropic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)

  8. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  9. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): an international multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Disma, Nicola; De Graaff, Jurgen C; Withington, Davinia E; Dorris, Liam; Bell, Graham; Stargatt, Robyn; Bellinger, David C; Schuster, Tibor; Arnup, Sarah J; Hardy, Pollyanna; Hunt, Rodney W; Takagi, Michael J; Giribaldi, Gaia; Hartmann, Penelope L; Salvo, Ida; Morton, Neil S; Von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; Wilton, Niall; Lynn, Anne; Thomas, Joss J; Polaner, David; Bagshaw, Oliver; Szmuk, Peter; Absalom, Anthony R; Frawley, Geoff; Berde, Charles; Ormond, Gillian D; Marmor, Jacki; Mccann, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background Preclinical data suggest that general anaesthetics affect brain development. There is mixed evidence from cohort studies that young children exposed to anaesthesia can have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to establish whether general anaesthesia in infancy

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS) : an international multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Disma, Nicola; de Graaff, Jurgen C; Withington, Davinia E; Dorris, Liam; Bell, Graham; Stargatt, Robyn; Bellinger, David C; Schuster, Tibor; Arnup, Sarah J; Hardy, Pollyanna; Hunt, Rodney W; Takagi, Michael J; Giribaldi, Gaia; Hartmann, Penelope L; Salvo, Ida; Morton, Neil S; von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; Wilton, Niall; Lynn, Anne; Thomas, Joss J; Polaner, David; Bagshaw, Oliver; Szmuk, Peter; Absalom, Anthony R; Frawley, Geoff; Berde, Charles; Ormond, Gillian D; Marmor, Jacki; McCann, Mary Ellen

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical data suggest that general anaesthetics affect brain development. There is mixed evidence from cohort studies that young children exposed to anaesthesia can have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to establish whether general anaesthesia in infancy

  11. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS) : an international multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, Andrew J.; Disma, Nicola; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Withington, Davinia E.; Dorris, Liam; Bell, Graham; Stargatt, Robyn; Bellinger, David C.; Schuster, Tibor; Arnup, Sarah J.; Hardy, Pollyanna; Hunt, Rodney W.; Takagi, Michael J.; Giribaldi, Gaia; Hartmann, Penelope L.; Salvo, Ida; Morton, Neil S.; Sternberg, Britta S. von Ungern; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; Wilton, Niall; Lynn, Anne; Thomas, Joss J.; Polaner, David; Bagshaw, Oliver; Szmuk, Peter; Absalom, Anthony R.; Frawley, Geoff; Berde, Charles; Ormond, Gillian D.; Marmor, Jacki; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background Preclinical data suggest that general anaesthetics affect brain development. There is mixed evidence from cohort studies that young children exposed to anaesthesia can have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to establish whether general anaesthesia in infancy

  12. Anisotropic stars obeying Chaplygin equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Bhar

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... Anisotropic effects may also originate from slow rotation of the core ... to include the effects of pressure anisotropy, electric charge, scalar field, dark energy and the cosmological constant in .... Generating solutions. In order to ...

  13. Impact of generalized dissipative coefficient on warm inflationary dynamics in the light of latest Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Hussain, Shahzad [Aspire College, Department of Mathematics, Hafizabad (Pakistan); Videla, Nelson [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-10-15

    The warm inflation scenario in view of the modified Chaplygin gas is studied. We consider the inflationary expansion to be driven by a standard scalar field whose decay ratio Γ has a generic power-law dependence with the scalar field φ and the temperature of the thermal bath T. By assuming an exponential power-law dependence in the cosmic time for the scale factor a(t), corresponding to the intermediate inflation model, we solve the background and perturbative dynamics considering our model to evolve according to (1) weak dissipative regime and (2) strong dissipative regime. Specifically, we find explicit expressions for the dissipative coefficient, scalar potential, and the relevant inflationary observables like the scalar power spectrum, scalar spectral index, and tensor-to-scalar ratio. The free parameters characterizing our model are constrained by considering the essential condition for warm inflation, the conditions for the model evolves according to weak or strong dissipative regime, and the 2015 Planck results through the n{sub s}-r plane. (orig.)

  14. Use of a generalized Stokes number to determine the aerodynamic capture efficiency of non-Stokesian particles from a compressible gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, R.; Rosner, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic capture efficiency of small but nondiffusing particles suspended in a high-speed stream flowing past a target is known to be influenced by parameters governing small particle inertia, departures from the Stokes drag law, and carrier fluid compressibility. By defining an effective Stokes number in terms of the actual (prevailing) particle stopping distance, local fluid viscosity, and inviscid fluid velocity gradient at the target nose, it is shown that these effects are well correlated in terms of a 'standard' (cylindrical collector, Stokes drag, incompressible flow, sq rt Re much greater than 1) capture efficiency curve. Thus, a correlation follows that simplifies aerosol capture calculations in the parameter range already included in previous numerical solutions, allows rational engineering predictions of deposition in situations not previously specifically calculated, and should facilitate the presentation of performance data for gas cleaning equipment and aerosol instruments.

  15. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel; Conception generale et principaux problemes d'un reacteur de puissance eau lourde-gaz contenu dans un caisson resistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R; Gaudez, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO{sub 2}-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi-au gaz carbonique, la solution dite 'en caisson' consiste en une integration totale du coeur, du circuit primaire (echangeurs et soufflantes) et du dispositif de manutention du combustible a l'interieur d'un meme caisson etanche et resistant en beton precontraint. La disposition envisagee est verticale; le grenier de manutention est dispose au-dessus du coeur, les echangeurs en dessous. Cette solution, qui permet d'uniformiser les types de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde ou au graphite et refroidis par une circulation descendante de gaz carbonique presente, par rapport a la solution a tube de force, des avantages et des inconvenients qui sont analyses dans cette etude. L'extrapolation pose, en particulier, des problemes specifiques a l'eau lourde (tels que son refroidissement, son epuration, l'equilibrage des pression entre l'eau lourde et le gaz, le montage

  16. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel; Conception generale et principaux problemes d'un reacteur de puissance eau lourde-gaz contenu dans un caisson resistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R.; Gaudez, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO{sub 2}-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi-au gaz carbonique, la solution dite 'en caisson' consiste en une integration totale du coeur, du circuit primaire (echangeurs et soufflantes) et du dispositif de manutention du combustible a l'interieur d'un meme caisson etanche et resistant en beton precontraint. La disposition envisagee est verticale; le grenier de manutention est dispose au-dessus du coeur, les echangeurs en dessous. Cette solution, qui permet d'uniformiser les types de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde ou au graphite et refroidis par une circulation descendante de gaz carbonique presente, par rapport a la solution a tube de force, des avantages et des inconvenients qui sont analyses dans cette etude. L'extrapolation pose, en particulier, des problemes specifiques a l'eau lourde (tels que son refroidissement, son epuration

  17. Generalized radiative transfer theory for scattering by particles in an absorbing gas: Addressing both spatial and spectral integration in multi-angle remote sensing of optically thin aerosol layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Diner, David J.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate the computational advantage gained by introducing non-exponential transmission laws into radiative transfer theory for two specific situations. One is the problem of spatial integration over a large domain where the scattering particles cluster randomly in a medium uniformly filled with an absorbing gas, and only a probabilistic description of the variability is available. The increasingly important application here is passive atmospheric profiling using oxygen absorption in the visible/near-IR spectrum. The other scenario is spectral integration over a region where the absorption cross-section of a spatially uniform gas varies rapidly and widely and, moreover, there are scattering particles embedded in the gas that are distributed uniformly, or not. This comes up in many applications, O2 A-band profiling being just one instance. We bring a common framework to solve these problems both efficiently and accurately that is grounded in the recently developed theory of Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT). In GRT, the classic exponential law of transmission is replaced by one with a slower power-law decay that accounts for the unresolved spectral or spatial variability. Analytical results are derived in the single-scattering limit that applies to optically thin aerosol layers. In spectral integration, a modest gain in accuracy is obtained. As for spatial integration of near-monochromatic radiance, we find that, although both continuum and in-band radiances are affected by moderate levels of sub-pixel variability, only extreme variability will affect in-band/continuum ratios.

  18. A numerical method for transient gas-liquid two-phase flow using a general curvilinear coordinate system. 1. Governing equations and numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki.

    1995-01-01

    A simple numerical method for solving a transient incompressible two-fluid model was proposed in the present study. A general curvilinear coordinate system was adopted in this method for predicting transient flows in practical engineering devices. The simplicity of the present method is due to the fact that the field equations and constitutive equations were expressed in a tensor form in the general curvilinear coordinate system. When a conventional rectangular mesh is adopted in a calculation, the method reduces to a numerical method for a Cartesian coordinate system. As an example, the present method was applied to transient air-water bubbly flow in a vertical U-tube. It was confirmed that the effects of centrifugal and gravitational forces on the phase distribution in the U-tube were reasonably predicted. (author)

  19. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  20. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  1. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  3. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  4. Stability analysis of thin-shell wormholes from charged black string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Azam, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: azammath@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we construct thin-shell wormholes from charged black string through cut and paste procedure and investigate its stability. We assume modified generalized Chaplygin gas as a dark energy fluid (exotic matter) present in the thin layer of matter-shell. The stability of these constructed thin-shell wormholes is investigated in the scenario of linear perturbations. We conclude that static stable as well as unstable configurations are possible for cylindrical thin-shell wormholes.

  5. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  6. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  7. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  8. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  9. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  10. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  11. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  12. Gas manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J W

    1915-05-03

    Retorts for the distillation of shale or coal for the production of oil or illuminating-gas are heated by gas from a generator or a gas-holder, and a portion of the gas from the flue leading to the heating-flues is forced by a steam jet through a by-pass and is injected into the bottom of the retorts. If the gas to be admitted to the retort is cold, it is first heated.

  13. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  14. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  15. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  16. Gas. The Energy of Possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz launches a campaign to introduce the general public to all the gas energy industry's advanced solutions for the future of energy. Gas takes on new forms through innovative and ambitious solutions that offer concrete applications in territories: producing biomethane from agricultural, industrial or domestic waste, transforming excess renewable electricity into storable renewable gas, using gas and biomethane for cleaner land transport and, in liquid form, cleaner sea transport. In support of this energy source, France can rely on its discreet and robust gas infrastructure to promote the growing dynamic and offer a response to major challenges, such as air quality, waste management and renewable energy storage

  17. The Italian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2004-01-01

    The first meeting of the French gas association (AFG) of the year 2004 was devoted to the Italian gas market. Two experts of this market were invited: A. Ferrari, general director of the Italian gas and electricity regulation authority, and D. Dispenza, vice-general director of Eni Division Gas and Power. This conference was the occasion to compare the French and Italian gas industries. France and Italy have a border in common and also a series of common structural characteristics: the dependence with respect to foreign supplies, the position of the public company, the sensitiveness with respect to the security of supplies, to the role of storage and to the public utility. The French and Italian decisions are inter-dependent. The liberalization taking place with an unpredictable rate, it is necessary for the gas industry to anticipate its effects. When the political, legal and regulatory decisions are enforced, the initiative comes back to the hands of the industry. In this context, the trend of the transfrontier industries becomes particularly important for the regulatory authority. (J.S.)

  18. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  19. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  20. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  1. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  2. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  3. Quasi-gas dynamic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Elizarova, Tatiana G

    2009-01-01

    This book presents two interconnected mathematical models generalizing the Navier-Stokes system. The models, called the quasi-gas-dynamic and quasi-hydrodynamic equations, are then used as the basis of numerical methods solving gas- and fluid-dynamic problems.

  4. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1947-05-01

    A short description of the process is given, with gas yields from various feedstocks, and the composition of the gas. Short descriptions of several batch digester designs are given: Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofta, and Somagaz. The utilization and the economics of the process are discussed. Two diagrams of Ducellier and Isman designs are included.

  5. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  6. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  7. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on hydrogen gas turbine); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso gas turbine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research aims at establishment of the meaning of using hydrogen as gas turbine fuel in the hydrogen energy system and various conditions for hydrogen gas turbines, and approaches to the feasibility study and R and D of hydrogen gas turbines in the future. In fiscal 1975, researches were made on (1) feasibility study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, (2) establishment of various conditions for technical, social and economic realization of hydrogen gas turbines in the total energy system, and (3) study on technical troubles to be solved for realization of hydrogen gas turbines. For the above researches, study was made on hydrogen combustion based on the hydrogen combustion test result of gas mixture including hydrogen, and on the feasibility of aphodid cycle. In addition, study on the applicability of hydrogen-oxygen gas turbines, comparative study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, MHD power generation and fuel cell, and the future prospect of hydrogen gas turbines for ships were made to place this hydrogen gas turbine. (NEDO)

  8. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  9. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  10. Formation of submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V.; Ginsburg, G.D. (Reserch Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean ' ' VNII Okeangeologia' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Submarine gas hydrates have been discoverd in the course of deep-sea drilling (DSDP and ODP) and bottom sampling in many offshore regions. This paper reports on expeditions carried out in the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas. Gas hydrate accumulations were discovered and investigated in all these areas. The data and an analysis of the results of the deep-sea drilling programme suggest that the infiltration of gas-bearing fluids is a necessary condition for gas hydrate accumulation. This is confirmed by geological observations at three scale levels. Firstly, hydrates in cores are usually associated with comparatively coarse-grained, permeable sediments as well as voids and fractures. Secondly, hydrate accumulations are controlled by permeable geological structures, i.e. faults, diapirs, mud volcanos as well as layered sequences. Thirdly, in the worldwide scale, hydrate accumulations are characteristic of continental slopes and rises and intra-continental seas where submarine seepages also are widespread. Both biogenic and catagenic gas may occur, and the gas sources may be located at various distances from the accumulation. Gas hydrates presumably originate from water-dissolved gas. The possibility of a transition from dissolved gas into hydrate is confirmed by experimental data. Shallow gas hydrate accumulations associated with gas-bearing fluid plumes are the most convenient features for the study of submarine hydrate formation in general. These accumulations are known from the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas, the Gulf of Mexico and off northern California. (au) (24 refs.)

  11. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  12. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  13. Elements of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Liepmann, H W

    2001-01-01

    The increasing importance of concepts from compressible fluid flow theory for aeronautical applications makes the republication of this first-rate text particularly timely. Intended mainly for aeronautics students, the text will also be helpful to practicing engineers and scientists who work on problems involving the aerodynamics of compressible fluids. Covering the general principles of gas dynamics to provide a working understanding of the essentials of gas flow, the contents of this book form the foundation for a study of the specialized literature and should give the necessary background

  14. Volcanic Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive ... the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash -producing eruption, ash particles are ...

  15. Gas - flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and other symptoms such as stomach pain, rectal pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fever, or ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  16. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  17. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  18. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  19. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  20. Free Piston Problem for Isentropic Gas Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Shigeharu

    1995-01-01

    We consider the existence of the generalized solution for a free piston problem for isentropic gas dynamics. By the compensated compactness theory, we can show that an approximate solution converges to a generalized solution.

  1. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  2. Rio Vista gas leak study: Belleaire Gas Field, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Rio Vista gas leak study evaluated methods for remotely sensing gas leaks from buried pipelines and developed methods to elucidate methane transport and microbial oxidation in soils. Remote-sensing methods were evaluated by singing gas leaks along an abandoned Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E) gas field collection line in northern California and applying surface-based and airborne remote-sensing techniques in the field, including thermal imaging, laser imaging, and multispectral imagery. The remote-sensing techniques exhibited limitations in range and in their ability to correlate with ground truth data. To elucidate methane transport and microbial oxidation in soils, a study of a controlled leak permitted field testing of methods so that such processes could be monitored and evaluated. Monitoring and evaluation techniques included (1) field measurement of soil-gas concentrations, temperatures, and pressures; (2) laboratory measurement of soil physical/chemical properties and activity of methane-oxidizing microorganisms by means of field samples; and (3) development of a preliminary numerical analysis technique for combined soil-gas transport/methane oxidation. Soil-gas concentrations at various depths responded rapidly to the high rate of gas leakage. The number of methane-oxidizing microorganisms in site soils rapidly increased when the gas leak was initiated and decreased after the leak was terminated. The preliminary field, laboratory, and numerical analysis techniques tested for this study of a controlled gas leak could be successfully applied to future studies of gas leaks. Because soil-gas movement is rapid and temporally variable, the use of several complementary techniques that permit generalization of site-specific results is favored

  3. 10 CFR 300.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.1 General. (a) Purpose... Policy Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 13385(b)). The purpose of the guidelines is to establish the procedures and... organizations, households and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas...

  4. Gas attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D.

    1977-08-01

    Consumersfirst Ltd. is reacting to deregulation with a massive advertising campaign. The gas utility is owned by Consumers Gas Energy Inc., and is struggling to hold onto its 35 per cent share of Ontario`s two million residential natural gas buyers. An industry analyst pointed out that deregulation could mean that Consumers` Gas has much to lose: customers, market share, control of the assets and control of the process. The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) however, had specified that Consumersfirst is not to proceed with paperwork to sign up new customers until the OEB issues a draft code-of-conduct that would prevent cross-subsidizing between regulated franchise holders. This has now been done, and several heavyweights such as Calgary-based Suncor Energy Inc., Union Gas of Chatham, Ontario, and the US-based Enron Corp. of Houston, have started campaigns to sign up potential consumers. It is predicted that brand loyalty will be a factor, but in the end, like long distance telephone rates, it will all come down to pricing, and a winning formula is not easy to find.

  5. Gas treating absorption theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explain

  6. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  7. The impact of northern gas on North American gas infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letwin, S.

    2004-01-01

    The three business units that Enbridge operates are crude oil pipelines; natural gas liquids (NGL) transportation; and gas transmission and distribution. The need for more infrastructure will increase as the demand for natural gas increases. This presentation outlined the issues that surround and sometimes impede infrastructure development. It also emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. Additional LNG supply is required along with new supply from Alaska, Mackenzie Delta and the east coast. The issue of a secure source of supply was discussed along with northern gas expectations. It is expected that Mackenzie Delta gas (1.2 bcf/day) will be available by 2008 to 2010 and Alaska North Slope gas (4 bcf/day) will be available from 2012 to 2014. Gas demand by industrial, residential, commercial and power generation sectors across North America was illustrated. The challenge lies in creating infrastructure to move the supply to where it is most in demand. General infrastructure issues were reviewed, such as prices, regulatory streamlining, lead times, stakeholder issues and supporting infrastructure. 19 figs

  8. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  9. Normalization of natural gas composition data measured by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Martin J T; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Andrew S; Cowper, Chris J

    2009-01-01

    The composition of natural gas determined by gas chromatography is routinely used as the basis for calculating physico-chemical properties of the gas. Since the data measured by gas chromatography have particular statistical properties, the methods used to determine the composition can make use of a priori assumptions about the statistical model for the data. We discuss a generalized approach to determining the composition, and show that there are particular statistical models for the data for which the generalized approach reduces to the widely used method of post-normalization. We also show that the post-normalization approach provides reasonable estimates of the composition for cases where it cannot be shown to arise rigorously from the statistical structure of the data

  10. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of finances, economy and plan about the law project (no. 1613) relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Avis presente au nom de la Commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carayon, B.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the advice of the commission of finances and economy about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions and comments made by the commission about the law project while the second part concerns the detailed analysis of the articles 16 and 22 about the pension funds of EdF and GdF agents and the change of the status of both utilities. The amendments adopted by the commission for these articles conclude the report. (J.S.)

  11. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  12. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  13. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  14. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1948-11-01

    Descriptions are given of several batch digesters: the Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofla, and Somagaz designs. Sketches of two Ducellier and Isman designs are given with a photograph of an installation consisting of four contiguous, rectangular concrete tanks. There are short explanations of the fundamentals and economics of the process, and of the use of the gas.

  15. Generalized Stefan-Boltzmann Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montambaux, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    We reconsider the thermodynamic derivation by L. Boltzmann of the Stefan law and we generalize it for various different physical systems whose chemical potential vanishes. Being only based on classical arguments, therefore independent of the quantum statistics, this derivation applies as well to the saturated Bose gas in various geometries as to "compensated" Fermi gas near a neutrality point, such as a gas of Weyl Fermions. It unifies in the same framework the thermodynamics of many different bosonic or fermionic non-interacting gases which were until now described in completely different contexts.

  16. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  17. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  18. Signal generation in gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1993-01-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation

  19. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  20. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Exchange energy in the local Airy gas approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model of the edge electron gas is used to construct an exchange-energy functional that is an alternative to those obtained in the local-density and generalized-gradient approximations. Test calculations for rare-gas atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces show that the Airy gas...

  2. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements...

  3. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  4. Gas fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardelli, H. da C.

    1976-03-01

    The equations of motion for both gas and particles in a gas fluidised system are stablished through general assumptions which are generally accepted on physical grounds. The resulting model is used to study the velocity fields of each phase in the case of an isolated bubble rising close to the flat distributor plate. A well posed problem results for the solution of Laplace's equation of the potential flow of the particles when consideration is given to the presence of the distributor as a boundary condition. The corresponding stream functions are also obtained which enable the drawing of the motion patterns using numerical techniques. The following two dimensional cases are analysed: S/b=1; S/b=1,5; S/b=2,5; S/b=5 and the limiting case S/b→αinfinite. The results for the interphase exchange between bubbles and particulate phases are applied to a gas fluidised bed reactor and its effect on the chemical conversion is studied for the simplest cases of piston flow and perfect mixing in the particulate phase [pt

  5. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  6. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  7. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  8. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  9. World electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and gas utilities are central middlemen in the energy business. Worldwide, more than 50% of all primary energy is transformed by utilities and delivered to final consumers through utility wires and pipes. The structure and behavior of the electricity and gas industries and the role and behavior of utilities are therefore important to all other energy industry players. The electricity and gas industries are special. Unlike oil, coal, or wood, electricity and gas are transported from producers to consumers mostly via fixed grids. This means that supplies are generally tied to specific markets and, unlike an oil tanker on the high seas, cannot be easily diverted elsewhere. These grids are natural monopolies inasmuch as having more than one wire or pipe along a given route is generally unnecessary duplicative. In addition, both supply and grid investments are generally large and lumpy. Industrial organization theory suggests that the coordination of industries can be achieved either through hierarchies or through markets. Hierarchies are generally preferred when the transaction costs of coordinating through markets is too high. These two elements of electricity and gas industry structure are the means of hierarchical coordination. This paper discusses the possibilities for changing the structure of utilities to one which has greater reliance on markets

  10. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  11. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  12. Gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.P.; Risby, T.H.; Field, L.R.; Yu, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to the published literature for the years 1978 - 79, this review of developments in the field of gas chromatography includes earlier articles of particular significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature which was not available at the time of the previous review. The articles cited were selected as presenting the most fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation. Some applications are cited if they reflect an advance in the state-of-the-art or have particular relevance to new developments. 1149 references are cited

  13. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  14. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  15. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  16. Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim) ... This paper focuses on the development of software for optimum design and simulation of natural gas pipeline. General ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  18. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  19. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  20. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  1. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  2. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  3. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  4. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  5. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  6. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  7. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  8. Gas evolution from spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1991-04-01

    Gas evolution from spherical solids or liquids where no convective processes are active is analyzed. Three problem classes are considered: (1) constant concentration boundary, (2) Henry's law (first order) boundary, and (3) Sieverts' law (second order) boundary. General expressions are derived for dimensionless times and transport parameters appropriate to each of the classes considered. However, in the second order case, the non-linearities of the problem require the presence of explicit dimensional variables in the solution. Sample problems are solved to illustrate the method.

  9. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C.E.; Dinc, O.S.; Bagepalli, B.S.; Correia, V.H.; Aksit, M.F.

    1996-04-23

    A gas-path leakage seal is described for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the ``plane`` of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member. 4 figs.

  10. The electromagnetic coupling and the dark side of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Torres, P.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the properties of dark energy and dark matter through the study of the variation of the electromagnetic coupling. For concreteness, we consider the unification model of dark energy and dark matter, the generalized Chaplygin gas model (GCG), characterized by the equation of state p=-Aρ α , where p is the pressure, ρ is the energy density and A and α are positive constants. The coupling of electromagnetism with the GCG's scalar field can give rise to such a variation. We compare our results with experimental data, and find that the degeneracy on parameters α and A s , A s =A/ρ ch0 1+α , is considerable

  11. Role of baryons in unified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beca, L.M.G.; Avelino, P.P.; Carvalho, J.P. de M.; Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the importance of including baryons in analyses of unified dark matter scenarios, focusing on toy models involving a generalized Chaplygin gas. We determine observational constraints on this unified dark matter scenario coming from large-scale structure, type Ia supernovae and CMB data showing how this component can bring about a different behavior from the classical cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant and thus motivate further studies of this type of models. We also speculate on interesting new features which are likely to be important on nonlinear scales in this context

  12. Revival of the unified dark energy-dark matter model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Sen, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and show that it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantomlike dark energy is excluded. Within this framework, we study structure formation and show that difficulties associated to unphysical oscillations or blowup in the matter power spectrum can be circumvented. Furthermore, we show that the dominance of dark energy is related to the time when energy density fluctuations start deviating from the linear δ∼a behavior

  13. Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar

    2010-01-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy

  14. Improvements on a Unified Dark Matter Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Popolo A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study, by means of a spherical collapse model, the effect of shear, rotation, and baryons on a generalized Chaplygin gas (gCg dominated universe. We show that shear, rotation, and the presence of baryons slow down the collapse compared to the simple spherical collapse model. The slowing down in the growth of density perturbation is able to solve the instability of the unified dark matter (UDM models described in previous papers (e.g. Sandvik et al. 2004 at the linear perturbation level, as also shown by a direct comparison of our model with previous results.

  15. A Study of Universal Thermodynamics in Brane World Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Saugata; Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2015-01-01

    A study of Universal thermodynamics is done in the framework of RSII brane model and DGP brane scenario. The Universe is chosen as FRW model bounded by apparent or event horizon. Assuming extended Hawking temperature on the horizon, the unified first law is examined for perfect fluid (with constant equation of state) and Modified Chaplygin Gas model. As a result there is a modification of Bekenstein entropy on the horizons. Further the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics and thermodynamical equilibrium are also investigated

  16. The gas industry as a field for investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, D.A.; Mosbacher, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    This article addresses the attractiveness of the gas industry as a field for investment. A favorable view is given. Topics addressed are the industry in general, gas supply, gas prices, residential markets, commercial and industrial markets, and includes an overview of the position of the gas industry as it enters a new decade. Key ratios of various industries are given for comparison to the yield and growth of the natural gas industry

  17. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  18. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  19. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  20. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  1. 49 CFR 192.53 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.53 General. Materials for pipe and...

  2. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  3. Natural gas supply in Denmark - A model of natural gas transmission and the liberalized gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregnbaek, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the liberalization of European energy markets a large area of research has spawned. This area includes the development of mathematical models to analyze the impact of liberalization with respect to efficiency, supply security and environment, to name but a few subjects. This project describes the development of such a model. In Denmark the parallel liberalization of the markets of natural gas and electricity and the existence of an abundance of de-centralized combined heat and power generators of which most are natural gas fired, leads to the natural assumption that the future holds a greater deal of interdependency for these markets. A model is developed describing network flows in the natural gas transmission system, the main arteries of natural gas supply, from a technical viewpoint. This yields a technical bounding on the supply available in different parts of the country. Additionally the economic structure of the Danish natural gas market is formulated mathematically giving a description of the transmission, distribution and storage options available to the market. The supply and demand of natural gas is put into a partial equilibrium context by integrating the developed model with the Balmorel model, which describes the markets for electricity and district heat. Specifically on the demand side the consumption of natural gas for heat and power generation is emphasized. General results and three demonstration cases are presented to illustrate how the developed model can be used to analyze various energy policy issues, and to disclose the strengths and weaknesses in the formulation. (au)

  4. Sensor platform for gas composition measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, G.; Bakker, F.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensor research presented here has a focus on the measurement of the composition of natural gas and gases from sustainable resources, such as biogas. For efficient and safe combustion, new sensor systems need to be developed to measure the composition of these new gases. In general about 6

  5. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  6. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  7. Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.

  8. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, M.; Boswell, R.; Presley, J.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.; Sethi, A.; Lall, M.V.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring “ice-like” combination of natural gas and water that has the potential to serve as an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions. However, gas-hydrate recovery is both a scientific and a technical challenge and much remains to be learned about the geologic, engineering, and economic factors controlling the ultimate energy resource potential of gas hydrate. The amount of natural gas contained in the world’s gas-hydrate accumulations is enormous, but these estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 2,800 to 8,000,000 trillion cubic meters of gas. By comparison, conventional natural gas accumulations (reserves and undiscovered, technically recoverable resources) for the world are estimated at approximately 440 trillion cubic meters. Gas recovery from gas hydrate is hindered because the gas is in a solid form and because gas hydrate commonly occurs in remote Arctic and deep marine environments. Proposed methods of gas recovery from gas hydrate generally deal with disassociating or “melting” in situ gas hydrate by heating the reservoir beyond the temperature of gas-hydrate formation, or decreasing the reservoir pressure below hydrate equilibrium. The pace of energy-related gas hydrate assessment projects has accelerated over the past several years.

  10. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  11. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  12. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zeidabadinezhad, Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO. In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC 50 = 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC 50 = 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD 50 = 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC 50 = 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC 50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  13. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT assay and Larvicidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tavakoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%, isobutyl acetate (25.73% and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68% were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29 respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  14. Noble Gas Concept Of Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    The intent of this document is to provide the reader with an understanding of a general approach to performing the noble gas component of an On Site Inspection or OSI. The authors of this document recognize that owing to the wide range of scenarios that are possible for carrying out an underground nuclear explosion, the diverse sets of information that might be available to the inspection team initially and the potential range of political and physical constraints imposed during the inspection, a satisfactory prescriptive approach to carrying out the noble gas component of an OSI is unlikely. Rather, the authors intend only to aid the reader in understanding what a reasonable course of actions or responses may be as performed by an inspection team (IT) during a general OSI. If this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from this general scenario, it will have achieved its intent.

  15. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  16. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. General document environmental impact report (m.e.r.) oil and gas exploitation industry. Update and supplement of the general document; Generiek document m.e.r. offshore olie- en gaswinningsindustrie. Update en aanvulling van het generiek document environmental impact report (m.e.r.) offshore, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    The generic environmental impact assessment (EIA or MER in Dutch) in 1999 is intended to serve as a template for specific environmental impact assessments for oil and gas exploitation projects at sea. Since 1999, a number of innovations and changes were implemented. Particularly in offshore technologies and regulations new insights and ideas came up in recent years. Therefore the existing generic document has to be updated with new information, relevant in the preparation of specific environmental impact assessments in the offshore oil and gas exploitation industry in the Dutch part of the Continental Shelf [Dutch] De generieke milieu effect rapportage (MER) uit 1999 is bedoeld om te dienen als een sjabloon voor specifieke Milieueffectrapportages bij olie- en gaswinningprojecten op zee. Sinds 1999 is een aantal vernieuwingen en veranderingen doorgevoerd. Met name in offshore technologieen en wet- en regelgeving zijn de afgelopen jaren nieuwe inzichten en ideeen ontstaan. Hierdoor is de wens ontstaan om het bestaande generieke document aan te vullen met nieuwe informatie die relevant is voor het opstellen van specifieke Milieueffectrapportages in de offshore olie- en gaswinningsindustrie op het Nederlands deel van het Continentaal Plat.

  18. Linear and nonlinear interactions in the dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate models of interacting dark matter and dark energy for the Universe in a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time. We find the 'source equation' for the total energy density and determine the energy density of each dark component. We introduce an effective one-fluid description to evidence that interacting and unified models are related to each other, analyze the effective model, and obtain the attractor solutions. We study linear and nonlinear interactions, the former comprises a linear combination of the dark matter and dark energy densities, their first derivatives, the total energy density, its first and second derivatives, and a function of the scale factor. The latter is a possible generalization of the linear interaction consisting of an aggregate of the above linear combination and a significant nonlinear term built with a rational function of the dark matter and dark energy densities homogeneous of degree 1. We solve the evolution equations of the dark components for both interactions and examine exhaustively several examples. There exist cases where the effective one-fluid description produces different alternatives to the ΛCDM model and cases where the problem of coincidence is alleviated. In addition, we find that some nonlinear interactions yield an effective one-fluid model with a Chaplygin gas equation of state, whereas others generate cosmological models with de Sitter and power-law expansions. We show that a generic nonlinear interaction induces an effective equation of state which depends on the scale factor in the same way as the variable modified Chaplygin gas model, giving rise to the 'relaxed Chaplygin gas model'.

  19. Oil and Gas Industry In Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In less than two decades, numerous impressive developments have taken place. These include: the realization of full ownership and complete control by the State over oil and gas operations and related industries, the establishment of Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC), the development of exploration and production activities, the full utilization of natural gas in industry and domestic sectors and the construction of down stream industries in the industrial area (Umm Said) including the refinery, the natural gas liquids plants and the fertilizer and petrochemical complexes. Such important achievements have been crowned with the development of the North Field massive reserves of non associated gas. 4 figs

  20. The future of gas power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2001-01-01

    The growth of gas power capacity in Western Europe in 2001 is estimated at 6.5 per cent. The extent of plants under construction in 2001 and ambitious plans for further development demonstrates the general belief that investing in gas power is soon becoming profitable. Expected slump in the world economy may curb the willingness to invest, at least in the short run. In Norway, the greatest barrier to the development of gas power production is political. Great Britain is the major gas power producing country in Western Europe, contributing 30 per cent of the total production

  1. Using the capital markets in Ras Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voge, B.; Penzer, M.

    1997-01-01

    In December 1996, Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Ltd (Ras Gas) closed a multi-source financing that included an offering of US$1.2bn of bonds. The sponsors of the Ras Gas project overcame a number of obstacles on the road to closing the capital markets offering. This article provides a general overview of capital markets offerings in international project financings and discusses how Ras Gas was able to successfully integrate a capital markets offering into a financing plan which included a commercial bank facility and several export-credit agency facilities. (Author)

  2. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  3. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  4. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  5. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  6. Decision in the matter of a generic hearing in respect to market issues and conduct related to the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick; Decision en l'affaire concernant une audience generale en ce qui touche les preoccupations du marche et la conduite relative a la vente de gaz et de services a la clientele dans l'industrie du gaz naturel au Nouveau-Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-02

    In response to changes in the Gas Distribution Act and the Gas Distributor Marketing Regulation, the New Brunswick Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities (Board), issued an order in June 2003 for a generic hearing regarding the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick. The purpose of the hearing was to have an open discussion among intervenors regarding several issues, such as whether the Code of Conduct provides fair and adequate rules for marketers; should Enbridge Gas New Brunswick (EGNB) be required to follow rules similar to the Code of Conduct; the requirements surrounding letters of credit; the Board's decision on Rules and Regulations regarding the billing conduct of gas distributors and marketers; the information that should be provided by a gas marketer or a distributor to the customer before the customer enters into an agreement for the supply of gas; the need for information on price volatility; the need for EGNB to notify potential customers of all possible suppliers of gas; the removal of automatic renewal clauses from gas retailers' contracts; how the Board should determine if prices are reasonably and sufficiently competitive; financial reporting requirements; the role of the Board in response to customer complaints regarding the sale of gas by a distributor; and, the Board's action regarding Enbridge Atlantic's plan to exit the New Brunswick market. This report provided the response to these issues by 10 intervenors.

  7. General Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.

    2002-01-01

    analysis. The new methodology for risk assessment for hazardous substances transport pipeline and transportation accidents was proposed. The Food Chain and Dose Model was connected to the RODOS system. The improvement of the physical parameters library were done in the frame of IAEA Coordinated project. The new results in numerical methods for solving large system of linear equations using the prefactorisation algorithms were obtained. In cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the studies on removing harmful components from flue gases using electron beam irradiation were continued mainly the efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removing was investigated. Basing on the pilot installation in Kaweczyn results, the industrial station was designed at the Pomorzany Power Plant. Research on dosimetry and radiation protection was focused on three subjects - recombination methods for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields at low radiation levels in pressurised tissue equivalent gas mixtures and on internal dosimetry of 137 Cs. A new project started in 2001 concerns measurements of 131 I uptake in thyroid, with regard to the depth of thyroid gland. The Radioactive Waste Management Department was in charge of the collection management, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste from territory of Poland. The relation between impact strength and the fracture toughness of low alloy steel in temperatures up to 650 o C were investigated in Material Research Laboratory. The evolution of mechanical properties of reactor materials irradiated by heavy ions and neutrons were investigated. The radiological protection of the activities at the Research Centre Swierk and in the National Radioactive Waste Repository was guided by the Division of the Radiation Protection Service

  8. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  9. Natural gas prices and the end of gradual change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas price predictions for the years 1998, 1999-2001, 2000-2005 are provided. In general, prices are predicted to decrease with increase in storage. Some other factors that will influence the price of natural gas and, therefore, should receive consideration in price predictions, include growth in demand, natural gas production, deliverability, new pipelines, and the Alberta price basis. tabs., figs

  10. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  11. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  12. European Gas Appliances Directive and the Dutch Decree on Gas Appliances. Special section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, B.; Venhorst, T.; Van Tricht, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Gas Appliances Decree is the Dutch translation of the European Gas Appliances Directive. The Decree and the EU Directive contain substantial information, provided they will be read carefully. The EU Directive lays down general safety requirements for gas appliances. They serve as a practical tool for manufacturers and service engineers. In two articles, the Directive is explained, addressing uncertainties and answering important questions. 5 ills

  13. Gas transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Clifford K

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a compilation of state-of-the art studies on gas and vapor transport processes in porous and fractured media. A broad set of models and processes are presented, including advection/diffusion, the Dusty Gas Model, enhanced vapor diffusion, phase change, coupled processes, solid/vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering. Numerous applications are also presented that illustrate these processes and models in current problems facing the scientific community. This book fills a gap in the general area of transport in porous and fractured media; an area that has historically been dominated by studies of liquid-phase flow and transport. This book identifies gas and vapor transport processes that may be important or dominant in various applications, and it exploits recent advances in computational modeling and experimental methods to present studies that distinguish the relative importance of various mechanisms of transport in complex media.

  14. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. 33 CFR 127.503 - Training: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations. (5) LNG release response procedures. (6) First aid procedures for— (i) Frostbite; (ii) Burns... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training: General. 127.503... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Personnel Training § 127.503 Training: General. The...

  17. Oil and gas-fuelled high-efficiency boilers still going strong; Oel und Gas - Brennwert setzt sich weiter durch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerbauer, R.

    2007-07-15

    High-efficiency boilers are going strong. They are generally used in gas boilers and are now conquering the gas boiler field as well. Producers are advertising their high energy efficiency, as was reflected at the ISH 2007. Further, the option of bio-natural gas and bio-oil provides an image of high sustainability. (orig.)

  18. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  19. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  20. A new method for calculating gas saturation of low-resistivity shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jiaoshiba shale gas field is located in the Fuling area of the Sichuan Basin, with the Upper Ordovician Wufeng–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm as the pay zone. At the bottom of the pay zone, a high-quality shale gas reservoir about 20 m thick is generally developed with high organic contents and gas abundance, but its resistivity is relatively low. Accordingly, the gas saturation calculated by formulas (e.g. Archie using electric logging data is often much lower than the experiment-derived value. In this paper, a new method was presented for calculating gas saturation more accurately based on non-electric logging data. Firstly, the causes for the low resistivity of shale gas reservoirs in this area were analyzed. Then, the limitation of traditional methods for calculating gas saturation based on electric logging data was diagnosed, and the feasibility of the neutron–density porosity overlay method was illustrated. According to the response characteristics of neutron, density and other porosity logging in shale gas reservoirs, a model for calculating gas saturation of shale gas was established by core experimental calibration based on the density logging value, the density porosity and the difference between density porosity and neutron porosity, by means of multiple methods (e.g. the dual-porosity overlay method by optimizing the best overlay coefficient. This new method avoids the effect of low resistivity, and thus can provide normal calculated gas saturation of high-quality shale gas reservoirs. It works well in practical application. This new method provides a technical support for the calculation of shale gas reserves in this area. Keywords: Shale gas, Gas saturation, Low resistivity, Non-electric logging, Volume density, Compensated neutron, Overlay method, Reserves calculation, Sichuan Basin, Jiaoshiba shale gas field

  1. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  2. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Future of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Widdershoven, C.; Nicola, S.; Cragg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles and two columns in this section on the future of natural gas. In the first article attention is paid to the possibility that large natural gas producers are setting up a cartel a la OPEC. Most experts argue that the structure of gas markets makes the gas business much less amenable to cartelisation than the oil business. If that is true, why are so many people in the gas industry afraid of a gas cartel? The second article focuses on the future role of North Africa in the supply of natural gas

  4. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  5. Noncommutative field gas driven inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barosi, Luciano; Brito, Francisco A [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Queiroz, Amilcar R, E-mail: lbarosi@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: fabrito@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: amilcarq@gmail.com [Centro Internacional de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Universidade de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04667, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    We investigate early time inflationary scenarios in a Universe filled with a dilute noncommutative bosonic gas at high temperature. A noncommutative bosonic gas is a gas composed of a bosonic scalar field with noncommutative field space on a commutative spacetime. Such noncommutative field theories were recently introduced as a generalization of quantum mechanics on a noncommutative spacetime. Key features of these theories are Lorentz invariance violation and CPT violation. In the present study we use a noncommutative bosonic field theory that, besides the noncommutative parameter {theta}, shows up a further parameter {sigma}. This parameter {sigma} controls the range of the noncommutativity and acts as a regulator for the theory. Both parameters play a key role in the modified dispersion relations of the noncommutative bosonic field, leading to possible striking consequences for phenomenology. In this work we obtain an equation of state p = {omega}({sigma},{theta};{beta}){rho} for the noncommutative bosonic gas relating pressure p and energy density {rho}, in the limit of high temperature. We analyse possible behaviours for these gas parameters {sigma}, {theta} and {beta}, so that -1{<=}{omega}<-1/3, which is the region where the Universe enters an accelerated phase.

  6. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Worldwide gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas is an important source of energy throughout the world due to its availability and clean burning characteristics. From liquefied natural gas being shipped via tanker from Alaska to Japan, to natural gas via pipeline from Canada to the US, to inter-country natural gas shipment within the European continent, natural gas continues to expand and justify its place of honor in the world energy picture

  8. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  9. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  10. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  11. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  12. Gist of the gas business law amendment. Deregulation in the town gas business field; Gas jigyoho kaisei no yoten. Toshi gas jigyo bun`ya ni okeru kisei kanwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, A. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-20

    This paper introduces the summary of the partial amendment in the gas business law (which was enforced in March 1995 upon propositions from the General Energy Investigation Council). The amendment consists mainly of deregulation on business rules for gas supply to large users. The amendment may be summarized as follows: the present billing regulations are deregulated for cases that gas purchasers are large users, permitting in principle the pricing to be agreed upon negotiations between the concerned parties; general gas business operators are allowed to supply gas under certain conditions even outside their supply areas, provided the supply is limited to large users; even any other persons than the general gas business operators can supply gas under certain conditions; persons to start newly a large -scale gas supply business shall be applied with the mandatory portions of the safety regulations that have already been imposed on the general gas business operators; clerical works for the national examination on chief gas engineers will be commissioned to civil organizations; and duplicated application of regulations in the gas utility industry law is eliminated for those operators who are subjected to regulations in the electric utility industry law. 1 fig.

  13. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale 'city-gate' price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply

  14. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  15. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  16. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  17. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  18. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  19. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  20. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  1. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  2. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  3. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  4. Feedforward Nonlinear Control Using Neural Gas Network

    OpenAIRE

    Machón-González, Iván; López-García, Hilario

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear systems control is a main issue in control theory. Many developed applications suffer from a mathematical foundation not as general as the theory of linear systems. This paper proposes a control strategy of nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics by means of a set of local linear models obtained by a supervised neural gas network. The proposed approach takes advantage of the neural gas feature by which the algorithm yields a very robust clustering procedure. The direct model of the ...

  5. An analysis on social cost benefit of city gas safety supervision system - concentrated on estimating the intended amount paid about gas safety of households using city gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Sung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    With the increase of convenient and clean gas fuel consumption, the danger of gas safety accident is also increasing. Therefore, now is the time for requiring many thoughtful concerns and cares for the prevention of gas accident. In this study, the perception of city gas end users on use of city gas was studied and the economic value of improving gas safety was estimated by examining the intended amount paid for improving safety of city gas use. Although most of city gas end-users perceive that gas use is generally safe, they are concerned about a possibility of dander of accidents happened without any notice. On the other hand, about 97% of households using city gas know checking gas safety at a minimum, but only 60% among them are implementing self-checkup. The economic benefit of improving gas safety of city gas end-users in Korea is estimated from the lowest of 121.47 billion to the highest of 317.97 billion annually. (author). 38 refs., 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  6. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  7. Gas transportation issues in the WCSB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addressed the issue of the competitiveness of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), concentrating on transportation issues. Various related issues such as natural gas pricing dynamics, price convergence in late 1998, projected gas revenues, issues of supply and demand, reserves inventory, the worrisome rate of decline in well productivity, deliverability and drilling, all received attention. Despite the gloomy picture, the general conclusion was that industry activity in the Basin will need to increase as the growth of the WCSB will be driven by rising North American demand. A profile of Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. was also presented. 1 tab., 13 figs

  8. History of gas in sprial galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, P.

    1987-01-01

    The general association of luminous young stars with spiral arms in galaxies has led to widespread acceptance of the idea that the formation of massive stars, at least, is somehow triggered by the interaction of interstellar gas clouds with a spiral density wave. A very simple model for the gas in a spiral galaxy, with a specified initial surface density and angular velocity is examined. Typical results from this simple model, with parameters appropriate to NGC 6946, are shown. The accuracy of the presumption that the molecular gas distributions in galaxies is based upon observations of CO J = 1-0 emission, is discussed

  9. Theoretical models for recombination in expanding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avron, Y.; Kahane, S.

    1978-09-01

    In laser isotope separation of atomic uranium, one is confronted with the theoretical problem of estimating the concentration of thermally ionized uranium atoms. To investigate this problem theoretical models for recombination in an expanding gas and in the absence of local thermal equilibrium have been constructed. The expansion of the gas is described by soluble models of the hydrodynamic equation, and the recombination by rate equations. General results for the freezing effect for the suitable ranges of the gas parameters are obtained. The impossibility of thermal equilibrium in expanding two-component systems is proven

  10. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  11. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  12. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  13. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  14. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster describes the development process of an electro-optical based solution for detecting and locating SF6 gas leaks at gas insulated switch gear. The principal technologies that were researched are explained with their advantages...

  15. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  16. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  17. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  18. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.

    1994-01-01

    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  19. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  20. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  1. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  2. The nonextensive gas: a kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Silva, R.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a kinetic nonextensive generalization of the Maxwellian ideal gas. The analysis rests on two basic assumptions: (i) instead of the standard Gaussian form, the q-gas is described by a power-law velocity distribution as suggested in the nonextensive Tsallis' framework (ii) the q-nonextensive generalization of the Boltzmann entropy formula governs the behavior of the q-gas. In this context, we show that the pressure and the internal energy are kinetically modified, but the general equation of state, PV=2U/3, remains valid. The adiabatic index is now a function of the nonextensive parameter, γ=C p /C V =5/3q. However, the standard expression relating the specific heats (at constant pressure and volume) with the coefficient of expansion and the isothermal compressibility, C P -C V =TVα 2 /κ T , is not modified

  3. Analysis of a multicomponent gas absorption system with carrier gas coabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, J.R.

    1975-03-01

    Conventional integrated versions of the packed gas absorber design equations do not account for significant coabsorption of the carrier gas along with the dilute transferring species. These equations, as a result, also neglect the relationship between dilute component transfer and carrier gas coabsorption. In the absorption of Kr and Xe from various carrier gases, using CCl 2 F 2 as the process solvent, carrier coabsorption is substantial. Consequently, a design package was developed to deal with multicomponent gas absorption in systems characterized by carrier gas coabsorption. Developed within the general film theory framework, the basic feature of this design approach is a view of dilute component mass-transfer as a conventional diffusive transfer superimposed on a net flux caused by carrier absorption. Other supporting elements of the design package include predictive techniques for various fluid properties, estimating procedures for carrier gas equilibrium constants, and correlations for carrier gas and dilute gas mass-transfer coefficients. When applied to systems using CCl 2 F 2 as the solvent; He, N 2 , air, or Ar as the carrier gas; and Kr or Xe as the dilute gas; the design approach gave good results, even when extended to conditions well beyond those of its development. (U.S.)

  4. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  5. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  6. Water into gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodord, Julian.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the move by water utilities into the gas market and potentially into the electricity supply market. Operation by Dee Valley Holdings, York Waterworks, York Gas, and North Wales Gas are reported, and investment, use of mail campaigns and telemarketing to secure customers, and the opportunities offered by diversification are considered. (UK)

  7. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  8. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  9. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  10. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  11. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  12. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  13. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  14. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  15. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  16. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  17. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  18. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  19. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  20. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  1. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  2. The Gas Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document is published before a congress which will address the struggle against climate change, the security of the gas supply chain, the responses of energy groups to environmental and economic challenges, the opening of the gas market, the European energy policy, the future role of gas in the third industrial revolution, and the security of gas supplies. After an introduction briefly discussing these issues and the impacts of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and the struggle against climate change for gas production and consumption, several interviews are proposed with actors belonging to the AFG (Association Francaise du Gaz), ADEME, European Commission, Total, GDF Suez, other professional bodies, or local communities

  3. Gas: the great depression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the worrying situation of gas industry: thermal plants are being closed one after the other because of the concurrence of renewable energies and of consumption decrease. European gas industries outline that gas plants could be used for back-up production in case of consumption peaks, and criticize subsidies awarded to renewable energies. Several factors impact this situation: decrease of gross prices, decrease of energy consumption due to a better energy efficiency, development of shale gas production in the USA and in Canada, revival of coal plants (coal is now competitive with respect to gas, and CO 2 is very cheap on the ETS)

  4. Méthode analytique généralisée pour le calcul du coning. Nouvelle solution pour calculer le coning de gaz, d'eau et double coning dans les puits verticaux et horizontaux Generalized Analytical Method for Coning Calculation. New Solution to Calculation Both the Gas Coning, Water Coning and Dual Coning for Vertical and Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietraru V.

    2006-11-01

    reservoirs [1]. This article gives a generalized description of this method for confined reservoirs. The case corresponding to a horizontal top is considered (bottom water drive and gas-cap drive. The generalization proposed is based on the solving of differential equations for diffusivity, while taking gravity drainage effects and boundary conditions into consideration for a confined reservoir. The method can be applied to isotropic or anisotropic reservoirs. The principal contributions of this article are :- Introduction of the concept of coning radius, differing from the well radius. The coning height and critical flow rate depend on the coning radius, whereas they are independent of the well radius. - A new correlation for calculating the critical flow rate in an adimensional from as a function of three parameters :. time,. length of the horizontal drain hole (zero for a vertical well, . and drainage radius. - Correlations for calculating the gas/oil ratios (GOR or the water fraction (fw during critical and postcritical periods, which take capillary pressure and relative permeabilities into consideration. - Correlations for calculating the gas/oil and water/oil ratios during the pre, post and supercritical periods of dual coning. - Criteria for calculating the breakthrough time at the well for simple gas or water coning, or for dual gas or water coning. The critical flow rate varies with time. It depends on the geometric and physical parameters of the reservoir, such as the thickness of the layer or the drainage area of the well, and on an important parameter, the coning radius, which will be defined hereunder. On the contrary, the critical flow rate does not depend on the parameters characterizing the well or the near-well vicinity, i. e. the radius and damage (skin.N.B. No confusion must be made between the critical flow rate due to coning and other flow rates associated with the way the well operates, such as the potential flow rate of the well defined by the

  5. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  6. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  7. Venezuelan gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Venezuelan natural gas industry. The structure of PDVSA, the Petroleos de Venezuela Organization, its foreign and domestic affiliates, and its subsidiaries are discussed. Natural gas resources in Venezuela total 290 trillion cubic feet, and Venezuela's share of world, OPEC and latin American production and reserves are 1%, 11% and 26%, respectively for production and 3%, 6% and 49% for reserves. Venezuela's gas pipeline network, plants, production, and marketing are described. Natural gas production and demand forecasts to 2002 are presented. Gas resources are largely located in eastern Venezuela, and large volumes of natural gas non-associated with crude oil will start to become important in the Venezuelan natural gas industry. 19 figs

  8. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  9. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  10. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  11. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  12. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  13. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  14. Competitive landscape for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990s, natural gas will be the critical pressure point for energy and environmental developments in North America, according to the author of this paper. The author points to the forces bearing on natural gas, including the need for new power generation capacity, tightening environmental standards, growing concerns about energy security, cyclical factors in U.S. oil and gas exploration, and changes in the oil services industry. This paper discusses how these external factors will shape gas markets in the 1990s. First, it states that gas will gain market share in power generation through greater use of both existing gas-fired facilities and new turbines by electric utilities. Second, it predicts that the cumulative impact of the Clean Air Act and other environmental legislation having significant consequences for the relative roles of coal and natural gas, particularly during the late 1990s. Third, it points to the eventual reawakening of energy security concerns, focusing attention on developing North America's sizeable gas reserves. Finally, it states that while the long-term view of a gas supply crisis without a rebound in drilling activity is accurate, it has been disastrously wrong in the short term. This had led to underestimation of the amount of extra gas that can be provided in the interim from conventional areas at relatively low cost

  15. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  16. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  17. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system: fission-gas-release module. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original SPEAR-BETA general description manual covers both mechanistic and statistical models for fuel reliability, but only mechanistic modeling of fission gas release. This addendum covers the SPEAR-BETA statistical model for fission gas release

  18. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  19. TIS General Safety Group Annual Report 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, W

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the main activities of the General Safety (GS) Group of the Technical Inspection and Safety Division (TIS) during the year 2000, and the results obtained. The different topics in which the Group is active are covered: general safety inspections and ergonomy, electrical, chemistry and gas safety, chemical pollution containment and control, industrial hygiene, the safety of civil engineering works and outside contractors, fire prevention and the safety aspects of the LHC experiments.

  20. [Poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas: 22 cases study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Min; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Ming-Chang; He, Meng

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the case characteristics of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas and provide references for forensic identification and prevention of such accidents. Twenty-two cases of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas in Minhang District during 2004 to 2013 were collected. Some aspects such as general conditions of deaths, incidence time, weather, field investigation, and autopsy were retrospectively analyzed. In the 22 cases, there were 15 males and 16 females. The age range was between 2 and 82 years old. The major occurring time was in January or February (8 cases in each) and the cases almost occurred in small area room (21 cases). There was wide crack next to the exhaust port when the gas water heater was been used in all cases. There are more prone to occurrence of exhaust gas poisoning of imperfect combustion of natural gas in small area room with a ventilation window near the exhaust port of gas water heated. It shows that the scene of combustion exhaust gas poisoning should be more concerned in the cold season.

  1. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  2. The general atomic strand winding machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matt, P.

    1976-01-01

    In conjunction with the integrated development of their high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), General Atomic of San Diego, USA, also developed a strand winding system for the horizontal prestressing of pressure vessels. The machine lay-out, its capabilities and the test program carried out in the laboratory and on a full scale pressure vessel model are described. (author)

  3. City gas supply management system. Toshi gas kyokyu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, S [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-05

    Supply and control system of city gas (about 90% is LNG) at Tokyo Gas Company is summarized. The LNG is delivered from the high pressure, A-middle pressure and B-middle pressure stations through the low pressure governors at about 3,000 locations to the low-pressure conduit networks. The information system department uses a large-size general purpose IBM computer as a host computer, control computers at each station, and communication networks consisted mainly of the in-house wireless networks. The trunk lines are all looped, and the important facilities are dualized. Characteristic functions include the supply prediction, which takes into account the past supply and ambient temperature records, a day of the week for a particular date, and demand fluctuation trends; adjustments of each holder based on the prediction and restrictions; and piping network simulation to decide gas manufacturing patterns, and determine reasonability of local construction of complicated conduits. The monitoring and control system as the central nerve includes a quick block-wide operation at an accident from earthquake and the like to prevent wide area disasters. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  5. U.S. gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. gas producers won't see much price relief in 1991, barring a Persian Gulf war that interrupts crude supply which might be replaced by gas on short notice. Besides the current supply surplus, natural gas futures have added yet another dimension to the process of setting gas prices. Spectators (read speculators) having no intention of ever buying one cu ft of gas now have a hand in setting the forward price of gas. That doesn't necessarily mean something bad; it simply means that there is a new game with new rules and new players. All things considered, look for an average spot price of $1.70 this year. Exploration should pick up modestly, but production from conventional sources is expected to decline slightly in the '90s. Technological developments that enhance deliverability and reduce finding costs will moderate the decline, but not halt it

  6. The gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part proposes an overview of the current situation of the gas market and predictions regarding gas consumption and turnovers of gas producers and dealers, indication of important recent events, and a dashboard of the sector activity. A second part proposes an annual report on trends and on the competition context. It describes the activity structure (sector organisations, gas types, main customers, heating modes in French housing, tariff offers), indicates the main determining factors for the sector activity, describes the context (temperature evolution, thermal electricity production, production of the chemical industry, housing stock, natural gas consumption), analyses the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators), describes the sector economic structure (upstream sector, gas supply), and gives an overview of actors: historical suppliers, alternate suppliers, highlights of the sector, company rankings, and financial performance

  7. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  8. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  9. The 'new' gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Vornel

    2000-01-01

    The use of computer-aided 3-dimensional design tools to overcome problems associated with extraction of gas from unconventional gas deposits such as shale, sand and coal gas fields in landlocked nations is examined, and the economics of land based gas exploration in the USA, and the transport of the product to market are considered. The use of 3D design tools by the Pearl Development Company for providing engineering solutions for the recovery of natural gas liquids (NGL) for the Thunder Creek Gas Services company servicing the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and utilisation of the CADWorx/PIPE 3D piping design tool are reported. The benefits of the software package which allows easy visualisation of designs and produces 2D drawings from multi-discipline plant models are outlined

  10. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  11. Kinetics of a gas adsorption compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Elleman, D.D.; Tward, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter uses a two-phase model to analyze the transients of a gas adsorption compressor. The modeling of the adsorption process is based on complete thermal and mechanical equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the adsorbed gas phase. The theories and techniques that have been developed for a two-phase system are used to predict the pressure, the temperature and the mass flow transients in a gas sorption compressor. The analytical solutions are then compared with the performance of a laboratory gas adsorption compressor. A computer code was written to solve the governing equations, using a standard forward marching predictor-corrector method. It is found that while the analytical model overpredicts the pressure and the temperature transient, it predicts the general trend of the transient profile and the existence of the turning point

  12. (Canada) Oil and gas survey, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This summarizes the financial reporting of a major segment of the oil and gas industry in Canada as shown in annual reports to shareholders for 1986. Annual reports have been surveyed with particular attention to developments in accounting practices in the oil and gas industry during 1986. The survey was not restricted to financial statements and all information presented in the annual reports was considered. Matters of general financial disclosure not unique to the oil and gas industry are not included. Examples quoted from reports covered by this survey are not presented as recommended methods but are illustrations of present practice only. Some illustrations were drawn from oil and gas companies not included in the survey.

  13. Gas Classification Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai; Zhao, Xiaojin; Pan, Xiaofang; Ye, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) tailored for gas classification. Inspired by the great success of DCNN in the field of computer vision, we designed a DCNN with up to 38 layers. In general, the proposed gas neural network, named GasNet, consists of: six convolutional blocks, each block consist of six layers; a pooling layer; and a fully-connected layer. Together, these various layers make up a powerful deep model for gas classification. Experimental results show that the proposed DCNN method is an effective technique for classifying electronic nose data. We also demonstrate that the DCNN method can provide higher classification accuracy than comparable Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods and Multiple Layer Perceptron (MLP). PMID:29316723

  14. Gas Classification Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai; Zhao, Xiaojin; Pan, Xiaofang; Ye, Wenbin

    2018-01-08

    In this work, we propose a novel Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) tailored for gas classification. Inspired by the great success of DCNN in the field of computer vision, we designed a DCNN with up to 38 layers. In general, the proposed gas neural network, named GasNet, consists of: six convolutional blocks, each block consist of six layers; a pooling layer; and a fully-connected layer. Together, these various layers make up a powerful deep model for gas classification. Experimental results show that the proposed DCNN method is an effective technique for classifying electronic nose data. We also demonstrate that the DCNN method can provide higher classification accuracy than comparable Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods and Multiple Layer Perceptron (MLP).

  15. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  16. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  17. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  18. Valve for gas centrifuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  19. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  20. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  1. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  2. Gas in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) can be thought of as the galactic atmosphere which fills the space between stars. When clouds within the ISM collapse, stars are born. When the stars die, they return their matter to the surrounding gas. Therefore the ISM plays a vital role in galactic evolution. The medium includes starlight, gas, dust, planets, comets, asteroids, fast moving charged particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields. The gas can be further divided into hot, warm and cold components, e...

  3. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  4. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Oil, gas and other energies, a primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legault, A.

    2007-09-01

    At a time when the topic of energy is front and centre, this book examines the basic concepts that are essential to grasping the energy issues of the 21 st century. Ail the main questions that people have about energy, especially oil and gas, are addressed, providing students, academics, journalists, representatives of government and other institutions and interested readers in general with the information they need to understand the complex, multifaceted energy sector. Abundantly illustrated, this book represents five years of exhaustive research on a fascinating and highly controversial topic. If discusses all the processes related to fossil forms of energy, from the formation of hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) to the delivery of oil and gas to consumers. It also examines renewable energy options and climate change issues in addressing the major geopolitical challenges facing the energy sector. Content: 1 - The Extraordinary History of the Earth; 2 - The Formation of Oil and Gas; 3 - Energy, Past and Present; 4 - Renewable Energies; 5 - The Essence of Oil and Gas; 6 - Geography of Oil and Gas; 7 - The Outlook for Petroleum Prices and Demand Until 2030; 8 - Global Warming; 9 - Liquefied Natural Gas;10 - The Big Three: Russia, China and the United States

  6. Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.; Hashemi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows

  7. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  8. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  9. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  10. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  12. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  13. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  14. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  15. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  16. 2017 Gas Congress special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Patrick; Ferrier, Jerome; Holleaux, Didier; Vivier, Laurent; Gattaz, Pierre; Delga, Carole; Carenco, Jean-Francois; Sadamori, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of 'Gaz d'Aujourd'hui' journal is entirely devoted to the 2017 Gas Congress proceedings. The congress was organized in 5 round tables and 12 workshops: Round table 1 - COP 21 2 years after, workshops 1-6: 1 - digital transformation: what are the challenges for the gas sector? 2 - Which actors and what policies to fight against energy insecurity? 3 - Natural gas development: what fiscal signs? 4 - Terrestrial transportation: current situation and prospects; 5 - Consumers' perception of gas; 6 - industrial uses; Round table 2 - Maritime and fluvial LNG perspectives; Round table 3 - Territories, the new decision-makers, workshops 7-12: 7 - What energy regulation for tomorrow? 8 - How to succeed in injecting more and more green gas? 9 - Digital, data and emerging technologies (drones, blockchain..): challenges and applications for gas networks? 10 - Underground storage: a promising infrastructure? 11 - Security of supply: what new cooperation? 12 - Power-to-gas: a new way of energy valorization; Round table 4 - Gas and electricity, winning synergies; Round table 5 - The Europe of gas

  17. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  18. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  19. 30 CFR 206.156 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any sales type code be reduced to zero. (d) If, after a review or audit, MMS determines that a lessee... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.156 Transportation allowances—general. (a) Where the value of gas has been determined pursuant to § 206.152 or § 206.153 of this subpart at a point (e.g., sales...

  20. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1919-07-01

    and to the fact that it affects the skin, the eyes, the throat and lungs, as well as the digestive’ tract if’ food be eaten that has been exposed to...zfYx~r its firat uzje by the Germanic before tile first Allied mustard gas at- $ack took place, This was made by the Franch in the vicinity of Com...of bicarbonate of soda &Uxr and their eyes, ears, mouth and nasal pasa gee washed with the same, PROTECTING FOOD FROM MUSTARD GAS, ‘9 It was very

  1. Gas assisted Mechanical Expression of oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.

    2007-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to show the general applicability of the Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) process for recovery of oil from oilseeds with high yields. In this process, the oilseeds are saturated with supercritical CO2 before mechanical pressing. The CO2 displaces part of

  2. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  3. Gas market is today strategical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darricarrere, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  4. The origin of gas in the Changxing–Feixianguan gas pools in the Longgang gas field in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the origin of natural gas in the formations of the Changxing–Feixianguan within the Longgang gas field was studied in detail using geochemical methods. The gas discovered has a very high dryness coefficient, yet low ethane and other less heavy hydrocarbons content. Apart from a small amount of N2 and CO2 gasses it generally contains H2S. In the field location, the Changxing–Feixianguan formations itself does not have a hydrocarbon generation potential. Nearing the edge of the Kaijiang-Liangping Trough, there developed the Dalong Formation. However, it also has a very low TOC content in the area of the Longgang gas field, and it cannot act as an effective source rock. The geochemistry of natural gas is much different from the gasses generated by the Silurian and Cambrian source rocks. Therefore, it is impossible that the gas in the Longgang gas field is from the Silurian and Cambrian source rocks. Gas reservoirs generally contain bitumen which is considered a product of crude oil cracking. The carbon isotope fractionation between the bitumen and methane is not distinct, and it indicates that the gas is not directly from oil cracking. The carbon of methane and ethane has isotopically less negative value, which is considered to be in a high-overmature coal-formed gas, mainly from the Longtan Formation coal measures. In comparison to the gas from high overmature stage obtained from the Xujiahe coal measure source rock in the Western Sichuan Depression. The methane in the Longgang gas field has abnormal less negative carbon isotopic value. It is due to the superposition of these two factors together: higher evolution of source rocks and mixing of gas degassing from the water. It is not caused by TSR that most researchers believed at present because the methane carbon isotopic values have no relationship with H2S content.

  5. Joule-Thomson Coefficient for Strongly Interacting Unitary Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Kai; Chen Jisheng; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson effect reflects the interaction among constituent particles of macroscopic system. For classical ideal gas, the corresponding Joule-Thomson coefficient is vanishing while it is non-zero for ideal quantum gas due to the quantum degeneracy. In recent years, much attention is paid to the unitary Fermi gas with infinite two-body scattering length. According to universal analysis, the thermodynamical law of unitary Fermi gas is similar to that of non-interacting ideal gas, which can be explored by the virial theorem P = 2E/3V. Based on previous works, we further study the unitary Fermi gas properties. The effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the nonlinear levels crossing effects in a strongly interacting medium. The changing behavior of the rescaled Joule-Thomson coefficient according to temperature manifests a quite different behavior from that for ideal Fermi gas. (general)

  6. Thermal analysis elements of liquefied gas storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanvarev, I. A.; Krupnikov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Tasks of solving energy and resource efficient usage problems, both for oil producing companies and for companies extracting and transporting natural gas, are associated with liquefied petroleum gas technology development. Improving the operation efficiency of liquefied products storages provides for conducting structural, functional, and appropriate thermal analysis of tank parks in the general case as complex dynamic thermal systems.

  7. State and trends of ionization gas analysis. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Grosse, H.J.; Popp, P.

    1980-01-01

    The ionization gas analysis makes use of the fact that the ionization-induced conductivity of gases and gas mixtures changes with the composition of such mixtures. A general description is given of ionization detectors based on this principle and theory, properties, and main fields of application of electron capture detectors are discussed

  8. The vehicular natural gas - The new motor era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The natural gas is the new proposal of ECOPETROL, it is to replace the use of the gasoline and other self-driven fuels for natural gas, taking advantage of the big reserves which Colombia has; the project contemplates to generalize its use in places different to the Atlantic Coast, place where it operates since 1982

  9. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  10. Panorama 2010: Update on hydrocarbon resources. 2 - Natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Current gas reserves could sustain a slight increase in world production until 2020. The development of all existing conventional resources would bring them up to about 4.5 Tm 3 by 2030. The effect of a generalized development of unconventional gas resources would be to slow down rather than postpone the decline in production. (author)

  11. World Gas Conference 1997. Working committee D. Distribution of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume deals with the work undertaken by Committee D during the Triennium 1994-1997. The subjects relating to gas distribution studied in this volume are as follows: Cost Management; Safety; Human Resource Development; Emerging Systems and General Subjects. Surveys were also conducted on these subjects and results included. Other gas distribution subjects are being addressed during the poster session. (EG)

  12. Gas conditioning and gas balance in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Bonnel, P.; Grosman, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Bardon, J.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate barometry is very helpful in analysing the plasma wall interaction processes in controlled fusion devices. In Tore Supra, residual gas analysis and various types of pressure gauges allow to monitor the various conditioning processes and the global particle balance. In this paper, measurements are described and analysis of two examples is given [fr

  13. Eskişehir’de Hava Kirliliği ve Doğal Gazın Tarihçesi: Genel Değerlendirme / History of Air Pollution and Natural Gas Usage in Eskişehir: A General Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Oruç

    2012-12-01

    şehir temiz hava planı (2011-2014 hazırlanmıştır. Partikül Madde ve SO2 yanında NO2,O3 ve PAH gibi kirleticilerin ve ulaşım araçlarının neden olduğu kirliliğin de irdelendiği bu raporda, Eskişehir için ulusal yasal sınır değerleri zorlayan bir durum söz konusu olmasa da geniş ölçekte Avrupa Birliği ve Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (DSÖ gibi kuruluşların oluşturmuş olduğu standartların üzerinde değerlere rastlandığı kaydedilmektedir. Hava kirliliğinin önlenmesi amacıyla doğal gaz kullanımına ilk kez Eskişehir Organize Sanayi Bölgesinde (EOSB Botaş bünyesinde 1990 yılında başlanılmış daha sonra bu hizmet özelleştirme kapsamı içerisinde 2004 yılında Eskişehir Doğal Gaz Dağıtım A.Ş. (ESGAZ firmasına devredilmiştir. ESGAZ, Büyükşehir Belediyesi mücavir alanlarda yer alan imara açık tüm cadde ve sokaklara doğal gaz hizmeti vermekte olup 2004 yılında devir alınan 107.000 bağımsız birim sayısını 2011 yılı sonu itibariyle 300.000’e çıkartmıştır. EOSB bölgesi hariç evsel ve şehir içi sanayi tüketimi de 2005 yılında 211.756.888 m3 iken, 2011 yılında 348.974.147 m3’e çıkmıştır. Tüm bu olumlu gelişmelere karşın doğal gaz alt yapısı bulunan bazı semt ve apartmanlarda günümüzde de ithal ve yerli kömür kullanılması zaman zaman hava kirliliğine neden olmaktadır. İlk aşamada kent merkezinde özellikle kış aylarında kömür yerine tamamen doğal gaza geçilmesi ve ulaşım kaynaklı hava kirliğinin azaltılması için gereken önlemlerin alınması önerilmiştir. History of Air Pollution and Natural Gas Usage in Eskişehir: A General Review The aim of this study is to investigate the use of natural gas and air pollution levels in Eskişehir City Center in the last 30 years. Air pollution has been phenomena in Eskişehir since the beginning of 1980s, due to the use of low quality coal, unplanned and irregular urbanization and negative climate factors. First air

  14. The emerging role of natural gas on the African economy : the case study of the Nigerian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndubuisi, E.N.; Amanetu, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the African gas market, gas development, distribution, and utilization in Africa with particular emphasis on investment opportunities in Nigeria. Africa's non-renewable energy sources include fossil fuel such as coal, oil and natural gas. These fuels can be used to generate electricity. Their abundance is required for economic development and their efficient exploitation results in expansion of markets and industrialization, both of which are essential for Africa's social and economic progress. Natural gas is a premium fuel in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors because of its unique characteristics. In Nigeria, the gas market is relatively untapped in the domestic sector, but much progress has been made in the past decade to develop and use natural gas as an energy feedstock for the cement and fertilizer industries. Some major gas transmission systems have been developed along with export oriented projects. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  16. Fission gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by failed fuel rods which device uses a filter adapted to pass coolant but to block passage of fission gas bubbles due to the surface tension of the bubbles. The coolant may be liquid metal. (author)

  17. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  18. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  19. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  20. 1962 : Bay City gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1962, a major natural gas export system from Alberta to San Francisco was brought online. The $300 million, 2,200 km Alberta and Southern system was expected to transport 584 million cubic feet daily in its first year of operation, more than one-third the total volume of gas sold by Canadian producers the previous year. The new gas export market also served to create more gas for the Canadian market because the incentive to serve a large export market also encouraged producers to explore for and develop more gas. The pipeline system started in the foothills belt 200 km northwest of Edmonton, and spanned through Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. One month before its official opening, a gas line explosion occurred during pressure testing of a lateral line. The Alberta portion of the Alberta and Southern system was also used 2 decades later as a tie-in to the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project. Other key events in 1962 included approval of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited; the manufacture of the first rock drill bits in western Canada; production of 90 million cubic feet of natural gas from 12 wells in Quebec; and, an increase in oil production from the Soviet Union. 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  2. GasAttack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQuillin, I.

    1998-01-01

    A recent Landfill Directive, which aims to reduce the amount of biodegradable materials being disposed of in landfill sites, must necessarily, it is argued, cause gas supply problems for the fledgling landfill gas industry in the United Kingdom. Prospects for the new industry over the next twenty years are explored in the light of this setback. (UK)

  3. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  4. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  6. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  7. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/3V is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions. (general)

  8. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  9. Electric Engines to Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental pollution and specially air pollution, it is produced in a wide range by exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, those which are used to generate energy. Direct use of fossil combustibles as petroleum derivatives and coal produces large quantities of harmful elements to ecology equilibrium. Whit the objective of reducing this pollutant load has been development thermoelectric plants whit turbine to gas or to steam, those which are moved by internal combustion engines. Gas engines can burn most of available gases, as both solid waste and wastewater treatment plants biogas, propane gas, oil-liquefied gas or natural gas. These gases are an alternative and clean energy source, and its efficiency in internal combustion engines is highest compared whit other combustibles as gasoline-motor or diesel

  10. Having the last gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, N P; Phillips, P S; Hall, R [Nene College of Higher Education, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Millions of visitors to the 1985 International Garden Festival in Liverpool were probably unaware that the landscape gardens they had come to enjoy were on top of approximately 10m t of domestic rubbish. Nor were they aware that this rubbish was generating a methane-rich gas that had necessitated installing a special extraction system to remove it from the site. At first this gas - landfill gas - was simply flared (burnt), but once it was realised that extraction would be need for at least 15 years it was decided to use the gas to generate electricity. This development is a good example of the potential, especially in the developed world, for using landfill gas produced in refuse tips as an additional and versatile energy source. This potential is analysed and the problems of exploitation examined. (2 figures). (author)

  11. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  12. Gas information campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, D.

    The second Federal German experts' meeting on Gas Consulting from 2nd to 5th June 1981 in Saarbruecken documents the importance attached by the gas industry to a qualified energy consulting. The consumers are informed of natural gas by country-wide and regional PR- and marketing activities. This information is the basis for sales promotion measures in the regional and local sphere. All communicative measures end with the consulting. It is the most important sales-political instrument which helps the supply companies to win interested and informed customers. The action gas consulting shows possibilities of how to effect an advisory service in cooperation between Information on Natural Gas and local suppliers.

  13. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  14. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  15. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  16. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  17. Emergency gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruishi, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the reduction of radioactive substances released out of reactor buildings irrespective of the aging change in the buildings. Constitution: There are provided an exhaust gas flow channel for cleaning contaminated airs within a reactor building by way of a series of filters and exhausting the cleaned airs by means of exhaust fans to the outside and a gas recycling flow channel having a cooler in connection with the exhaust gas flow channel at a position downstream of the exhaust fans for returning the cleaned airs in the exhaust gas flow channel to the inside of the reactor buildings. The pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the reactor buildings is made constant by controlling the air flow channel within the gas recycling flow channel by a flow control valve. The airs cleaned by the series of the filters are recycled to the inside of the buildings to decrease the radioactive substance within the buildings. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  19. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  1. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  2. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  3. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  4. Strain engineering on structures and properties in ferroelectric thin films with perovskite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Yanxue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The class of Chaplygin gas models regarded as a candidate of dark energy can be realized by a scalar field,which could drive the variation of the fine structure constant α during the cosmic time.This phenomenon has been observed for almost ten years ago from the quasar absorption spectra and attracted many attentions.In this paper, the authors reconstruct the class of Chaplygin gas models to a kind of scalar fields and confront the resulting Δα/α with the observational constraints.It is found that if the present observational value of the equation of state of the dark energy was not exactly equal to -1, various parameters of the class of Chaplygin gas models are allowed to satisfy the observational constraints,as well as the equivalence principle is also respected.

  5. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  6. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  8. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  9. A general model for membrane-based separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soni, Vipasha; Abildskov, Jens; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2009-01-01

    behaviour will play an important role. In this paper, modelling of membrane-based processes for separation of gas and liquid mixtures are considered. Two general models, one for membrane-based liquid separation processes (with phase change) and another for membrane-based gas separation are presented....... The separation processes covered are: membrane-based gas separation processes, pervaporation and various types of membrane distillation processes. The specific model for each type of membrane-based process is generated from the two general models by applying the specific system descriptions and the corresponding...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  11. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  12. Russian gas in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas output in Russia fell by 3.5% in 1993. This followed decades of rapid growth in production reaching a peak in 1991 and a minor fall in 1993. Gas consumption also peaked in 1991 and fell by 5% over the two following years. The major cause of the decline in consumption is the fall in electricity demand which has accompanied the economic recession. Gas has accounted for about 60% of the reduction in fuel consumption by power stations. Gas consumption by industrial and municipal boilers has also dropped steeply although household and other municipal consumption has increased. The fall in demand does not wholely account for the fall in production, however. Apart from Yamburg, all operational gas fields have now reached the stage of declining production. Government officials are talking tentatively of 1997 as the turning point for the Russian economy and following this, the demand for gas will rise again. It is not certain, however, that the industry will be able to meet the increased demand which is anticipated. Most of the increased production will have to come from new fields in the Yamal Peninsular the development of which is proceeding much more slowly than planned. In the longer term, possibly in the early years of the next century, the Shtokmanovsk gasfield in the Barents Sea may be developed. Other aspects of the Russian gas industry briefly covered are reserves, financing of exploratory drilling, investment, intra-CIS trade and exports and privatisation of the state owned company Garyprom. (UK)

  13. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  14. Kara-Kum gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudz, A.

    1975-05-01

    Natural gas from the Shatlyk gas field in the Kara Kum Desert, Turkmenia, U.S.S.R., will soon be available to the European section of the U.S.S.R. with the recent completion of the 291-mi Shatlyk-Khiva gas pipeline and the completion of all associated production units by the end of the year. The gas field, with explored reserves of (1.5 trillion m/sup 3/), is expected to be producing (100 million m/sup 3//day) at the end of 1975. Diagonal profiling was used in the exploration stage to reduce the number of boreholes required from 16 to 11, saving about $6.7 million (5 million rubles) and cutting the exploration time by almost 2 y. Most of the boreholes, drilled within the contour of the gas-bearing structure, can be used for gas production. The gas, produced at 2352 psi and 205/sup 0/F, is cooled to 113/sup 0/F, stripped of condensate and moisture, metered, and treated before transmission.

  15. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  16. Gas supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: When injecting gas during plasma discharge, to prevent erronous operation of the piezoelectric valves due to vibrations and to inject gas into the vacuum vessel by accurately controlling gas flow. Constitution: The piezoelectric valve designed to control the flow of gas when charging vacuum vessels is installed between the vacuum vessel and the gas cylinder and a pulse voltage generator to control the valve (open/close) and the reverse voltage generator to apply a reverse current to the valve element are also provided. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric element, the piezoelectric element bends. However, when the polarity is changed, the direction of the bend is also reversed. The seat portion is pressed in proportion to the degree of bending. When gas is injected while plasma is being discharged, the gap created, due to vibrations, between the piezoelectric element and the sealing material is prevented by the application of a reverse current. This allows precise control of the gas injection volume as well as the injection interval. This assures maintenance of precise test conditions when testing thermonuclear devices. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Effect of overpressure on gas hydrate distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, G.; Chapman, W.G.; Hirasaki, G.J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Dickens, G.R.; Dugan, B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas hydrate systems can be characterized by high sedimentation rates and/or low permeability sediments, which can lead to pore pressure higher than hydrostatic. This paper discussed a study that examined this effect of overpressure on gas hydrate and free gas distribution in marine sediments. A one-dimensional numerical model that coupled sedimentation, fluid flow, and gas hydrate formation was utilized. In order to quantify the relative importance of sedimentation rates and low permeability sediments, a dimensionless sedimentation-compaction group (scN) was defined, that compared the absolute permeability of the sediments to the sedimentation rate. Higher values of scN mean higher permeability or low sedimentation rate which generally yield hydrostatic pore pressure while lower values of scN normally create pore pressure greater than hydrostatic. The paper discussed non-hydrostatic consolidation in gas hydrate systems, including mass balances; constitutive relationships; normalized variables; and dimensionless groups. A numerical solution to the problem was presented. It was concluded that simulation results demonstrated that decreasing scN not only increased pore pressure above hydrostatic values, but also lowered the lithostatic stress gradient and gas hydrate saturation. This occurred because overpressure resulted in lower effective stress, causing higher porosity and lower bulk density of the sediment. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 appendix.

  18. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  19. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiset, Stian

    1998-12-31

    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. The main uncertainties in computerized simulation of gas explosions are the assumptions of the gas cloud, the location of the ignition point and the properties of the simulator itself. This thesis quantifies the levels of these uncertainties by performing a large number of simulations on three offshore modules and one onshore plant. It is found that (1) there is an approximate linear relation between pressure and gas volume, (2) it may be possible to find a linear relation between pressure and impulse, (3) there is an inverse relation between pressure and duration, (4) the response of offshore structures exposed to gas explosions are rarely in the impulsive regime, (5) loading rates vary widely in magnitude, (6) an assumption of a triangular explosion pulse is often correct, (7) louvres increase pressure, impulse and duration of an explosion. The effect of ignition point location is studied in detail. It is possible to derive an ignition point uncertainty load factor that shows predictable behaviour by generalizing the non-parametric properties of the explosion pressure. A model for taking into account the uncertainties regarding gas volume, ignition point location and simulator imperfectness is proposed. The model is intended to produce a characteristic load for structural design. 68 refs., 51 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Economics of gas to liquids manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The last year has seen a great deal in the literature about the rebirth of gas to liquids processes, most notably, Fischer Tropsch processes. This renewed interest has been brought about by a technology that is said to have been so improved that it is now a commercially attractive option for natural gas monetization. No one single reason can be cited for this positive economic change. Rather, it is the result of several technological improvements that together have cut the capital cost of Fischer-Tropsch gas to liquids projects in half. Among these technological improvements are lower cost syngas preparation and lower cost gas to liquids reactors. This paper examines the economics of Fischer-Tropsch gas to liquids manufacture, using recent literature articles to develop process capital costs, operating expenses, liquid product value parameters, and other economic factors, to paint a general picture of the technology's current economic status. While manufacturing economics are reviewed, the answer to the question of gas to liquids project profitability is left to the individual investor whose economic thresholds must, in the final analysis, be met. 15 refs

  1. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of tbc effects of tbc European Union (EU) Gas Directive on the EU natural gas industry in the next ten years. First, it briefly reviews the current driving factors for increasing competition in the EU gas markets. Second, the different directions of implementation of EU Gas Directive are discussed. Finally we give an assessment of impacts of the different directions of implementation of the Gas Directive, thereby focusing on structural changes of the gas industry and the scope for reduction of consumer gas prices. Note that our assessment of the impacts is partly based on an analysis of recent trends in the EU gas market and partly on calculations with a recently developed model of the EU gas market on company level. The paper summarises the main observations of a study conducted by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) last year in the framework of a larger scenario study for the European Committee, Directorate-General 17, in the Shared Analysis Project, 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy in Europe to 2020' managed by FhG-ISI. For the complete results of the ECN study, see report 'Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the EU Gas Industry', September 1999, forthcoming. Note that the analysis is limited to the gas market and does not include other impacts, i.c. on energy conservation, emissions, etc. 21 refs

  2. Electricity and gas market observatory 1. Quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1. of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on March 31, 2009, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2009), The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market). B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on March 31. 2009, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2009), The wholesale gas market (Main steps in the French Wholesale gas market, Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Concentration of the French gas market) C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  3. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  4. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  5. The use of natural gas in the catering kitchen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive use is made of electricity in professional catering. Yet, the advantages of natural gas are obvious: energy costs are considerably lower as well as nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emissions. Generally, the amortization period of natural gas appliances is two years, sometimes even less than six months. In co-operation with the energy utilities and within the framework of the Marketing Plan for the Public Gas Supply (MOG), Gasunie informs the various target groups, including caterers, of the advantages of natural gas. At the moment five projects have already been carried out. 4 ills

  6. Dosimetry for combustion flue gas treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K.; Bułka, S.; Sun, Y. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The electron beam treatment of flue gas is one of the new technologies. There are several reasons for carrying out dosimetry at various phases of the project as understanding the process and optimizing the equipment, for process control and for troubleshooting in case of malfunction etc. The main challenge in measuring dose for flue gas applications is that the medium being irradiated is gaseous. Two general approaches for dose measurements are: adding/placing some dosimeters in the reaction vessel (gas) and using the components of the gas itself as a dosimeter. Various techniques and methods have been tried which are discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Approximation of the characteristics of ion drift in parent gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyatina, R. I.; Maiorov, S. A., E-mail: mayorov-sa@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The drift velocities of noble-gas and mercury ions in a constant homogeneous electric field are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The ion mobility is analyzed as a function of the field strength and gas temperature. The fitting parameters for calculating the drift velocity by the Frost formula at gas temperatures of 4.2, 77, 300, 1000, and 2000 K are obtained. A general approximate formula for the drift velocity as a function of the reduced field and gas temperature is derived.

  8. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  9. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  10. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  11. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  12. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  13. Opening up to gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing number of gas-fired generation projects in Eastern Europe, and the need for the different countries who wish to join the European Union to approximate their laws with EU legislation which requires the opening up of each member's gas market. Projects in Poland, Croatia, Turkey, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are considered, and project financing, the financial backing provided by the European Bank for Restructuring and Development (EBRD), and the anticipated growth in gas are discussed. (uk)

  14. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  15. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  16. A new understanding of inert gas narcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meng; Gao Yi; Fang Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics are extremely important in modern surgery to greatly reduce the patient’s pain. The understanding of anesthesia at molecular level is the preliminary step for the application of anesthetics in clinic safely and effectively. Inert gases, with low chemical activity, have been found to cause anesthesia for centuries, but the mechanism is unclear yet. In this review, we first summarize the progress of theories about general anesthesia, especially for inert gas narcosis, and then propose a new hypothesis that the aggregated rather than the dispersed inert gas molecules are the key to trigger the narcosis to explain the steep dose-response relationship of anesthesia. (topical review)

  17. The photoionization of the diffuse galactic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) component of the interstellar medium, it is attempted to see if the general properties of dilute gas ionized by O stars are similar to observations and to what extent the observations of the DIG can be used to determine the nature of the ionizing radiation field at great distances above the plane of the Galaxy. It has been suggested by Reynolds (1985) that either shocks or photoionization might be responsible for the DIG. The photoionization model seems required by the observations.

  18. Natural gas fuelling stations installation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrigar, C; Burford, G; Adragna, M; Hawryn, S

    2004-07-01

    This Canadian Standard applies to natural gas fuelling stations that can be used for fleet and public dispensing operations. This document is divided into 11 sections that address the scope of the Standard; definitions and reference publications; general requirements; compressors; storage; dispensing; flow control devices; storage vessel dispatch and receiving; design, installation and testing of piping, tubing and fittings; and installation of vehicle refuelling appliances (VRAs) connected to storage piping. The most recent revision to the Standard includes requirements for indoor fuelling of natural gas vehicles. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2004. tabs., figs.

  19. Systems of quasilinear equations and their applications to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Roždestvenskiĭ, B L; Schulenberger, J R

    1983-01-01

    This book is essentially a new edition, revised and augmented by results of the last decade, of the work of the same title published in 1968 by "Nauka." It is devoted to mathematical questions of gas dynamics. Topics covered include Foundations of the Theory of Systems of Quasilinear Equations of Hyperbolic Type in Two Independent Variables; Classical and Generalized Solutions of One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics; Difference Methods for Solving the Equations of Gas Dynamics; and Generalized Solutions of Systems of Quasilinear Equations of Hyperbolic Type.

  20. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)