Quantitative test of general theories of the intrinsic laser linewidth
Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Johnson, Steven G; Stone, A Douglas
2015-01-01
We perform a first-principles calculation of the quantum-limited laser linewidth, testing the predictions of recently developed theories of the laser linewidth based on fluctuations about the known steady-state laser solutions against traditional forms of the Schawlow-Townes linewidth. The numerical study is based on finite-difference time-domain simulations of the semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch lasing equations, augmented with Langevin force terms, and thus includes the effects of dispersion, losses due to the open boundary of the laser cavity, and non-linear coupling between the amplitude and phase fluctuations ($\\alpha$ factor). We find quantitative agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the noisy steady-state ab initio laser theory (N-SALT), both in the variation of the linewidth with output power, as well as the emergence of side-peaks due to relaxation oscillations.
Generalization Rough Set Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Di; ZHANG Jun-feng; HU Shou-song
2008-01-01
In order to avoid the discretization in the classical rough set theory, a generlization rough set theory is proposed.At first, the degree of general importance of an attribute and attribute subsets are presented.Then, depending on the degree of general importance of attribute, the space distance can be measured with weighted method.At last, a generalization rough set theory based on the general near neighborhood relation is proposed.The proposed theory partitions the universe into the tolerant modules, and forms lower approximation and upper approximation of the set under general near neighborhood relationship, which avoids the discretization in Pawlak's rough set theory.
Generalized Higher Gauge Theory
Ritter, Patricia; Schmidt, Lennart
2015-01-01
We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid $TM\\oplus T^*M$ over some manifold $M$ and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and their infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.
Generalized etale cohomology theories
Jardine, John F
1997-01-01
A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra. This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the maximally symmetric space-time, we perform the Hessian and Hamiltonian analysis and show the presence of a second-class constraint that removes the would-be ghost associated with the temporal component of the vector field. Furthermore, we study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar per...
Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. G(o)n(ǖ)l
2004-01-01
@@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.
Quantitative methods in classical perturbation theory.
Giorgilli, A.
Poincaré proved that the series commonly used in Celestial mechanics are typically non convergent, although their usefulness is generally evident. Recent work in perturbation theory has enlightened this conjecture of Poincaré, bringing into evidence that the series of perturbation theory, although non convergent in general, furnish nevertheless valuable approximations to the true orbits for a very large time, which in some practical cases could be comparable with the age of the universe. The aim of the author's paper is to introduce the quantitative methods of perturbation theory which allow to obtain such powerful results.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavinia Heisenberg
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar–tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes–Langlois–Piazza–Vernizzi (GLPV theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-09-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications
Dehmer, Matthias
2014-01-01
The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat
General Theories of Regulation
Hertog, J.A. den
1999-01-01
This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor
Robertson, Amy D; Scherr, Rachel E
2013-01-01
Qualitative research incorporates distinct methods for selecting data for analysis, generalizing results, and making causal claims. Unanswered questions about these methods may constrain researchers more familiar with quantitative methods from participating in or critically engaging with qualitative research. We use results from interviews with physics education researchers, a synthesis of the literature on research methodologies, and published examples of qualitative and quantitative research to answer hard-hitting questions that quantitative researchers may pose.
Quantitative Robust Control Engineering: Theory and Applications
2006-09-01
1992). Discrete quantitative feedback technique, Capítulo 16 en el libro : Digital Control Systems: theory, hardware, software, 2ª edicion. McGraw...Rasmussen S.J., Garcia-Sanz, M. (2001, 2005), Software de diseño del libro Quantitative Feedback Theory: Fundamentals and Applications. Edición 2ª. CRCPress
Generalized Heisenberg theory of turbulence
Uberoi, M. S.; Narain, J. P.
1974-01-01
Solutions of the generalized theory are obtained which are consistent with the previous work on energy transfer measurements. They also agree with the measurements of turbulent energy spectrum for wave numbers in the universal equilibrium range.
Generalized quasi-dilaton theory
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2013-01-01
Recently the first example of a unitary theory of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity allowing for stable self-accelerating de Sitter solutions was found, extending the quasidilaton theory. In this paper we further generalize this new action for the quasidilaton field by introducing general Lagrangian terms which are consistent with the quasidilaton symmetry while leading to second order equations of motion. We find that the structure of the theory, compared to the simplest stable example, does not change on introducing these new terms.
The Quantitative Theory of Information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topsøe, Flemming; Harremoës, Peter
2008-01-01
Information Theory as developed by Shannon and followers is becoming more and more important in a number of sciences. The concepts appear to be just the right ones with intuitively appealing operational interpretations. Furthermore, the information theoretical quantities are connected by powerful...... identities and inequalities. The article introduces the concepts code, entropy, divergence, redundancy and mutual information which are considered to be the most important ones....
Generalized SU(2) Proca Theory
Allys, Erwan; Rodriguez, Yeinzon
2016-01-01
Following previous works on generalized Abelian Proca theory, also called vector galileon, we investigate the massive extension of a SU(2) gauge theory, i.e. the generalized SU(2) Proca model, which could be dubbed non-Abelian vector galileon. This particular symmetry group permits fruitful applications in cosmology such as inflation driven by gauge fields. Our approach consists in building in a exhaustive way all the Lagrangians containing up to six contracted Lorentz indices. For this purpose, and after identifying by group theoretical considerations all the independent Lagrangians which can be written at these orders, we consider the only linear combinations propagating three degrees of freedom and having healthy dynamics for their longitudinal mode, i.e. whose pure St\\"uckelberg contribution turns into the SU(2) multi-galileon dynamics. Finally, and after having considered the curved space-time expansion of these Lagrangians, we discuss the form of the theory at all subsequent orders.
Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theories
Gouesbet, Gérard
2011-01-01
The Lorenz-Mie theory, describing the interaction between a homogeneous sphere and an electromagnetic plane wave, is likely to be one of the most famous theories in light scattering. But, with the advent of lasers and their increasing development in various fields, it has become too old-fashioned to meet most of the modern requisites. The book deals with generalized Lorenz-Mie theories when the illuminating beam is an electromagnetic arbitrary shaped beam, relying on the method of separation of variables. A particular emphasis is stressed on the case of the homogeneous sphere but other regular particles are considered too. An extensive discussion of the methods available to the evaluation of beam shape coefficients describing the illuminating beam is provided, and several methods are discussed. Applications concern many fields such as optical particle sizing and, more generally, optical particle characterization, morphology-dependent resonances, or mechanical effects of light for optical trapping, optical twe...
Generalized SU(2) Proca theory
Allys, Erwan; Peter, Patrick; Rodríguez, Yeinzon
2016-10-01
Following previous works on generalized Abelian Proca theory, also called vector Galileon, we investigate the massive extension of an SU(2) gauge theory, i.e., the generalized SU(2) Proca model, which could be dubbed non-Abelian vector Galileon. This particular symmetry group permits fruitful applications in cosmology such as inflation driven by gauge fields. Our approach consists in building, in an exhaustive way, all the Lagrangians containing up to six contracted Lorentz indices. For this purpose, and after identifying by group theoretical considerations all the independent Lagrangians which can be written at these orders, we consider the only linear combinations propagating 3 degrees of freedom and having healthy dynamics for their longitudinal mode, i.e., whose pure Stückelberg contribution turns into the SU(2) multi-Galileon dynamics. Finally, and after having considered the curved space-time expansion of these Lagrangians, we discuss the form of the theory at all subsequent orders.
Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1. Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136. The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result is methodological confusion and an often unconscious remodelling of the original methodology (Glaser, 2003. Given the various interpretations and approaches that have been popularised under the rubric of grounded theory, this paper addresses the important distinction between grounded theory as a general methodology and its popularisation as a qualitative research method. The paper begins with a brief overview of grounded theory’s origins and its philosophical foundations then continues by addressing the basic distinction between abstract conceptualisation as employed in classic grounded theory and the conceptual description approach as adopted by many qualitative researchers. The paper continues with a brief overview of the criteria for judging the quality of classic grounded theory and concludes by detailing its methodological principles.
Doing Quantitative Grounded Theory: A theory of trapped travel consumption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark S. Rosenbaum, Ph.D.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available All is data. Grounded theorists employ this sentence in their quest to create original theoretical frameworks. Yet researchers typically interpret the word gdatah to mean qualitative data or, more specifically, interview data collected from respondents. This is not to say that qualitative data is deficient; however, grounded theorists may be missing vast opportunities to create pioneering theories from quantitative data. Indeed, Glaser and Strauss (1967 argued that researchers would use qualitative and/or quantitative data to fashion original frameworks and related hypotheses, and Glaserfs (2008 recently published book, titledDoing Quantitative Grounded Theory, is an attempt to help researchers understand how to use quantitative data for grounded theory (GT.
Solitons in generalized Galileon theories
Carrillo González, Mariana; Masoumi, Ali; Solomon, Adam R.; Trodden, Mark
2016-12-01
We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized Galileons, scalar-field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single Galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized Galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (anti-)de Sitter Galileons. For the case of Dirac-Born-Infeld and conformal Galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.
Solitons in generalized galileon theories
Carrillo-Gonzalez, Mariana; Solomon, Adam R; Trodden, Mark
2016-01-01
We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized galileons, scalar field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations, or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (A)dS galileons. For the case of DBI and conformal galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.
A Contextualised General Systems Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirsty Kitto
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A system is something that can be separated from its surrounds, but this definition leaves much scope for refinement. Starting with the notion of measurement, we explore increasingly contextual system behaviour and identify three major forms of contextuality that might be exhibited by a system: (1 between components; (2 between system and experimental method; and (3 between a system and its environment. Quantum theory is shown to provide a highly useful formalism from which all three forms of contextuality can be analysed, offering numerous tests for contextual behaviour, as well as modelling possibilities for systems that do indeed display it. I conclude with the introduction of a contextualised general systems theory based on an extension of this formalism
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
General Theory of Algebraic Equations
Bezout, Etienne
2008-01-01
This book provides the first English translation of Bezout's masterpiece, the General Theory of Algebraic Equations. It follows, by almost two hundred years, the English translation of his famous mathematics textbooks. Here, Bézout presents his approach to solving systems of polynomial equations in several variables and in great detail. He introduces the revolutionary notion of the "polynomial multiplier," which greatly simplifies the problem of variable elimination by reducing it to a system of linear equations. The major result presented in this work, now known as "Bézout's theorem," is stat
Generalized Lorenz-Mie theories
Gouesbet, Gérard
2017-01-01
This book explores generalized Lorenz–Mie theories when the illuminating beam is an electromagnetic arbitrary shaped beam relying on the method of separation of variables. The new edition includes an additional chapter covering the latest advances in both research and applications, which are highly relevant for readers. Although it particularly focuses on the homogeneous sphere, the book also considers other regular particles. It discusses in detail the methods available for evaluating beam shape coefficients describing the illuminating beam. In addition it features applications used in many fields such as optical particle sizing and, more generally, optical particle characterization, morphology-dependent resonances and the mechanical effects of light for optical trapping, optical tweezers and optical stretchers. Furthermore, it provides various computer programs relevant to the content.
Cosmology in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-06-01
We consider a massive vector field with derivative interactions that propagates only the 3 desired polarizations (besides two tensor polarizations from gravity) with second-order equations of motion in curved space-time. The cosmological implications of such generalized Proca theories are investigated for both the background and the linear perturbation by taking into account the Lagrangian up to quintic order. In the presence of a matter fluid with a temporal component of the vector field, we derive the background equations of motion and show the existence of de Sitter solutions relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also obtain conditions for the absence of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations in the small-scale limit. Our results are applied to concrete examples of the general functions in the theory, which encompass vector Galileons as a specific case. In such examples, we show that the de Sitter fixed point is always a stable attractor and study viable parameter spaces in which the no-ghost and stability conditions are satisfied during the cosmic expansion history.
Cosmology in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-01-01
We consider a massive vector field with derivative interactions that propagates only the 3 desired polarizations (besides two tensor polarizations from gravity) with second-order equations of motion in curved space-time. The cosmological implications of such generalized Proca theories are investigated for both the background and the linear perturbation by taking into account the Lagrangian up to quintic order. In the presence of a matter fluid with a temporal component of the vector field, we derive the background equations of motion and show the existence of de Sitter solutions relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also obtain conditions for the absence of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations in the small-scale limit. Our results are applied to concrete examples of the general functions in the theory, which encompass vector Galileons as a specific case. In such examples, we show that the de Sitter fixed point is always a stable attractor and study viable ...
Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models
Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz
2017-01-01
The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...
Generalized Liquid Film Atomization Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HeraldoS.Couto; DemetrioBastos－Netto
2000-01-01
The increase of the fuel burning area required by most practical combustion processes in order to guarantee the minimum energy density rate release for their start up and operation is normally achieved by the proper choice among several existing types of atomizers.For instance.impinging and multi-impinging jets atomizers are used in rocket combustion chambers.while splash-plate atomizers find their use when wall film cooling is required.Pressure swirl atomizers,either of simplex or duplex kind,along with Y-jet or SPider Jet atomizers are used in industrial applications and in turbine combustion chambers.Notice.however,that all the types of atomizing devices listed above have one point in common:they are of pre-filming kind.i.e.,befor the droplet spray is generated,a liquid film is formed.This liquid film is broken into unstable ligaments which contract under the action of surface tension forming the droplets.Once the film thickness is estimated.the droplets'SMD(Sauter Mean Diameter)can be calculated.yielding a crucial prameter for the combustion chamber design.However,although this mechanism of droplet fromation has been under study for several decades.most of the available results.are based upon experimental data.valid for a special type of atomizer under the given sepcific conditions only.This work offers a generalized theory for theoretically estimating the SMD of sprays generated by liquid pre-filming atomizers in gereral.
Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree
Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...
Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree
Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...
Quantitative metric theory of continued fractions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J Hančl; A Haddley; P Lertchoosakul; R Nair
2016-05-01
Quantitative versions of the central results of the metric theory of continued fractions were given primarily by C. De Vroedt. In this paper we give improvements of the bounds involved . For a real number , let $$x=c_0+\\dfrac{1}{c_1+\\dfrac{1}{c_2+\\dfrac{1}{c_3+\\dfrac{1}{c_4+_\\ddots}}}}.$$ A sample result we prove is that given $\\epsilon > 0$, $$(c_1(x)\\cdots c_n(x))^{\\frac{1}{n}}=\\prod^\\infty_{k=1}\\left( 1+\\frac{1}{k(k+2)}\\right)^{\\frac{\\log \\, k}{\\log \\, 2}}+o\\left(n^{-\\frac{1}{2}}(\\log \\, n)^{\\frac{3}{2}}(\\log \\, \\log \\, n)^{\\frac{1}{2}+\\epsilon}\\right)$$
Cosmology in beyond-generalized Proca theories
Nakamura, Shintaro; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2017-05-01
The beyond-generalized Proca theories are the extension of second-order massive vector-tensor theories (dubbed generalized Proca theories) with two transverse vector modes and one longitudinal scalar besides two tensor polarizations. Even with this extension, the propagating degrees of freedom remain unchanged on the isotropic cosmological background without an Ostrogradski instability. We study the cosmology in beyond-generalized Proca theories by paying particular attention to the dynamics of late-time cosmic acceleration and resulting observational consequences. We derive conditions for avoiding ghosts and instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations and discuss viable parameter spaces in concrete models allowing the dark energy equation of state smaller than -1 . The propagation speeds of those perturbations are subject to modifications beyond the domain of generalized Proca theories. There is a mixing between scalar and matter sound speeds, but such a mixing is suppressed during most of the cosmic expansion history without causing a new instability. On the other hand, we find that derivative interactions arising in beyond-generalized Proca theories give rise to important modifications to the cosmic growth history. The growth rate of matter perturbations can be compatible with the redshift-space distortion data due to the realization of gravitational interaction weaker than that in generalized Proca theories. Thus, it is possible to distinguish the dark energy model in beyond-generalized Proca theories from the counterpart in generalized Proca theories as well as from the Λ CDM model.
General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.
Salisbury, David F.
The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…
Kaluza's theory in generalized coordinates
García-Perciante, A L; García-Colin, L S; Garcia-Perciante, Ana Laura; Sandoval-Villalbazo, Alfredo
2001-01-01
Maxwell's equations can be obtained in generalized coordinates by considering the electromagnetic field as an external agent. The work here presented shows how to obtain the electrodynamics for a charged particle in generalized coordinates eliminating the concept of external force. Based on Kaluza's formalism, the one here presented extends the 5x5 metric into a 6x6 space-time giving enough room to include magnetic monopoles in a very natural way.
A Contextualised General Systems Theory
Kirsty Kitto
2014-01-01
A system is something that can be separated from its surrounds, but this definition leaves much scope for refinement. Starting with the notion of measurement, we explore increasingly contextual system behaviour and identify three major forms of contextuality that might be exhibited by a system: (1) between components; (2) between system and experimental method; and (3) between a system and its environment. Quantum theory is shown to provide a highly useful formalism from which all three forms...
Quantitative cell biology: the essential role of theory.
Howard, Jonathon
2014-11-05
Quantitative biology is a hot area, as evidenced by the recent establishment of institutes, graduate programs, and conferences with that name. But what is quantitative biology? What should it be? And how can it contribute to solving the big questions in biology? The past decade has seen very rapid development of quantitative experimental techniques, especially at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. In this essay, I argue that quantitative biology is much more than just the quantitation of these experimental results. Instead, it should be the application of the scientific method by which measurement is directed toward testing theories. In this view, quantitative biology is the recognition that theory and models play critical roles in biology, as they do in physics and engineering. By tying together experiment and theory, quantitative biology promises a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms, when the theory works, or to new discoveries, when it does not.
A general theory of rotorcraft trim
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David A. Peters
1996-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we offer a general theory of rotorcraft trim. The theory is set in the context of control theory. It allows for completely arbitrary trim controls and trim settings for multi-rotor aircraft with tests to ensure that a system is trimmable. In addition, the theory allows for “optimal trim” in which some variable is minimized or maximized rather than set to a specified value. The theory shows that sequential trim cannot work for free flight. The theory is not tied to any particular trim algorithm; but, in this paper, it is exercised with periodic shooting to show how free-flying rotorcraft can be trimmed in a variety of ways (zero yaw, zero pitch, zero roll, minimum power, etc. by use of the general theory. The paper also discusses applications to harmonic balance and auto-pilot trim techniques.
Generalizing Boolean Satisfiability II: Theory
Dixon, H E; Luks, E M; Parkes, A J; 10.1613/jair.1555
2011-01-01
This is the second of three planned papers describing ZAP, a satisfiability engine that substantially generalizes existing tools while retaining the performance characteristics of modern high performance solvers. The fundamental idea underlying ZAP is that many problems passed to such engines contain rich internal structure that is obscured by the Boolean representation used; our goal is to define a representation in which this structure is apparent and can easily be exploited to improve computational performance. This paper presents the theoretical basis for the ideas underlying ZAP, arguing that existing ideas in this area exploit a single, recurring structure in that multiple database axioms can be obtained by operating on a single axiom using a subgroup of the group of permutations on the literals in the problem. We argue that the group structure precisely captures the general structure at which earlier approaches hinted, and give numerous examples of its use. We go on to extend the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-...
Teaching Evolutionary Theory as General Education.
Todd, Paul
1984-01-01
Provides a rationale for including evolution as part of a college general education curriculum, discussing the content of evolutionary theory, instructional principles, Darwin's contributions, evolution and religion, and the relationship of evolution with current events. (DMM)
General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory
Palenik, Mark C
2016-01-01
Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. We develop the fully general degenerate perturbation theory for DFT without assuming that the degeneracy is required by symmetry. The resulting methodology is applied to the iron atom ground state in order to demonstrate the effects of degeneracy that appears both due to symmetry requirements and accidentally, between different representations of the symmetry group.
Superfield quantization of general gauge theories
Lavrov, P M
1995-01-01
A superfield version on superspace (x^\\mu,\\theta^a) is proposed for the Sp(2)-- covariant Lagrangian quantization of general gauge theories. The BRST- and antiBRST- transformations are realized on superfields as supertranslations in the \\theta^a-- directions. A new (geometric) interpretation of the Ward identities in the quantum gauge theory is given.
BRST symmetry in the general gauge theories
Hyuk-Jae, Lee; Jae, Hyung, Yee
1994-01-01
By using the residual gauge symmetry interpretation of BRST invariance we have constructed a new BRST formulation for general gauge theories including those with open algebras. For theories with open gauge algebra the formulation leads to a BRST invariant effective action which does not contain any higher order terms in the ghost fields.
Theory and Practice in Quantitative Genetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Posthuma, Daniëlle; Beem, A Leo; de Geus, Eco J C
2003-01-01
With the rapid advances in molecular biology, the near completion of the human genome, the development of appropriate statistical genetic methods and the availability of the necessary computing power, the identification of quantitative trait loci has now become a realistic prospect for quantitative...... geneticists. We briefly describe the theoretical biometrical foundations underlying quantitative genetics. These theoretical underpinnings are translated into mathematical equations that allow the assessment of the contribution of observed (using DNA samples) and unobserved (using known genetic relationships......) genetic variation to population variance in quantitative traits. Several statistical models for quantitative genetic analyses are described, such as models for the classical twin design, multivariate and longitudinal genetic analyses, extended twin analyses, and linkage and association analyses. For each...
A quantitative theory of human color choices.
Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A
2013-01-01
The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different
Mass Renormalization in String Theory: General States
Pius, Roji; Sen, Ashoke
2014-01-01
In a previous paper we described a procedure for computing the renormalized masses and S-matrix elements in bosonic string theory for a special class of massive states which do not mix with unphysical states under renormalization. In this paper we extend this result to general states in bosonic string theory, and argue that only the squares of renormalized physical masses appear as the locations of the poles of the S-matrix of other physical states. We also discuss generalizations to Neveu-Schwarz sector states in heterotic and superstring theories.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2013-01-01
in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...... and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies...
A nonlinear theory of generalized functions
1990-01-01
This book provides a simple introduction to a nonlinear theory of generalized functions introduced by J.F. Colombeau, which gives a meaning to any multiplication of distributions. This theory extends from pure mathematics (it presents a faithful generalization of the classical theory of C? functions and provides a synthesis of most existing multiplications of distributions) to physics (it permits the resolution of ambiguities that appear in products of distributions), passing through the theory of partial differential equations both from the theoretical viewpoint (it furnishes a concept of weak solution of pde's leading to existence-uniqueness results in many cases where no distributional solution exists) and the numerical viewpoint (it introduces new and efficient methods developed recently in elastoplasticity, hydrodynamics and acoustics). This text presents basic concepts and results which until now were only published in article form. It is in- tended for mathematicians but, since the theory and applicati...
Sturmians and generalized sturmians in quantum theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil
2012-01-01
The theory of Sturmians and generalized Sturmians is reviewed. It is shown that when generalized Sturmians are used as basis functions, calculations on the spectra and physical properties of few-electron atoms can be performed with great ease and good accuracy. The use of many-center Coulomb Stur...
Toward A Practical General Systems Methodological Theory
Nagib Callaos; Belkis Sánchez de Callaos
2003-01-01
Our main purpose in this paper is to describe the way in which we have been relating General System Theory (GST) to practice and to the design of a General Systems Methodology (GSM). Our first step was to apply GST to design a methodology for software development. Then, in a second step, by means of the experience/knowledge learned from applying the methodology to developing specific information systems, a continuous designing and re-designing process started, which simultaneously generalized...
Theory and practice in quantitative genetics.
Posthuma, Daniëlle; Beem, A Leo; de Geus, Eco J C; van Baal, G Caroline M; von Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Iachine, Ivan; Boomsma, Dorret I
2003-10-01
With the rapid advances in molecular biology, the near completion of the human genome, the development of appropriate statistical genetic methods and the availability of the necessary computing power, the identification of quantitative trait loci has now become a realistic prospect for quantitative geneticists. We briefly describe the theoretical biometrical foundations underlying quantitative genetics. These theoretical underpinnings are translated into mathematical equations that allow the assessment of the contribution of observed (using DNA samples) and unobserved (using known genetic relationships) genetic variation to population variance in quantitative traits. Several statistical models for quantitative genetic analyses are described, such as models for the classical twin design, multivariate and longitudinal genetic analyses, extended twin analyses, and linkage and association analyses. For each, we show how the theoretical biometrical model can be translated into algebraic equations that may be used to generate scripts for statistical genetic software packages, such as Mx, Lisrel, SOLAR, or MERLIN. For using the former program a web-library (available from http://www.psy.vu.nl/mxbib) has been developed of freely available scripts that can be used to conduct all genetic analyses described in this paper.
Simple Recursion Relations for General Field Theories
Cheung, Clifford; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-...
A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: bimetric theories
Lagos, Macarena
2016-01-01
We implement the method developed in [1] to construct the most general parametrised action for linear cosmological perturbations of bimetric theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background, and identify the complete form of the action invariant under diffeomorphism transformations, as well as the number of free parameters characterising this cosmological class of theories. We discuss, in detail, the case without derivative interactions, and compare our results with those found in massive bigravity.
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny;
2016-01-01
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact cal...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.......Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch...
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2014-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, in
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory
Hahne, G. E.
1992-01-01
A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.
On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories
Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori
2015-01-01
We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is useful in estimating the expansion law of the universe and also the particle production rate due to the oscillation of the Hubble parameter.
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations.
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L C; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten
2016-04-20
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.
Development of a quantitative theory of polycondensation
Kuchanov, S.; Slot, J.J.M.; Stroeks, A.
2004-01-01
This review presents the first systematic treatment of the voluminous literature on the theory of polycondensation. Processes for obtaining homo- and copolymers with linear and branched macromolecules are considered. Emphasis is on a thorough discussion of various polycondensation models, and the me
General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.
Salisbury, David F.
1990-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)
General Systems Theory and Counterplan Competition.
Madsen, Arnie
1989-01-01
Discusses the trend in academic debate on policy questions toward a wide acceptance of counterplans, encouraging combinations of proposals which appear at face value able to coexist but upon deeper analysis are incompatible. Argues in opposition to this trend by applying concepts from general systems theory to competition. (KEH)
Educational Interpretations of General Systems Theory.
Hug, William E.; King, James E.
This chapter discusses General Systems Theory as it applies to education, classrooms, innovations, and instructional design. The principles of equifinality, open and closed systems, the individual as the key system, hierarchical structures, optimization, stability, cooperation, and competition are discussed, and their relationship to instructional…
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse...
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2006-01-01
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. At zero temperature and zero frequency...
Schumpeter's general theory of social evolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Esben Sloth
The recent neo-Schumpeterian and evolutionary economics appears to cover a much smaller range of topics than Joseph Schumpeter confronted. Thus, it has hardly been recognised that Schumpeter wanted to develop a general theory that served the analysis of evolution in any sector of social life as w...
On Kramers' general theory of Brownian motion
Brinkman, H.C.
1957-01-01
Kramer's general theory of Brownian motion 1) based on a diffusion equation in phase space is discussed from the standpoint of statistical thermodynamics. It is concluded that for particles moving in a medium in equilibrium the restrictions imposed by the second law of thermodynamics limit Kramer's
General Relativity As an Aether Theory
Dupre, Maurice J
2010-01-01
Most early twentieth century relativists --- Lorentz, Einstein, Eddington, for examples --- claimed that general relativity was merely a theory of the aether. We shall confirm this claim by deriving the Einstein equations using aether theory. We shall use a combination of Lorentz's and Kelvin's conception of the aether. Our derivation of the Einstein equations will not use the vanishing of the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor, but instead equate the Ricci tensor to the sum of the usual stress-energy tensor and a stress-energy tensor for the aether, a tensor based on Kelvin's aether theory. A crucial first step is generalizing the Cartan formalism of Newtonian gravity to allow spatial curvature, as conjectured by Gauss and Riemann.
Generalized locally Toeplitz sequences theory and applications
Garoni, Carlo
2017-01-01
Based on their research experience, the authors propose a reference textbook in two volumes on the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz sequences and their applications. This first volume focuses on the univariate version of the theory and the related applications in the unidimensional setting, while the second volume, which addresses the multivariate case, is mainly devoted to concrete PDE applications. This book systematically develops the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz (GLT) sequences and presents some of its main applications, with a particular focus on the numerical discretization of differential equations (DEs). It is the first book to address the relatively new field of GLT sequences, which occur in numerous scientific applications and are especially dominant in the context of DE discretizations. Written for applied mathematicians, engineers, physicists, and scientists who (perhaps unknowingly) encounter GLT sequences in their research, it is also of interest to those working in the fields of...
General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory
Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.
2017-07-01
Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. Herein, we develop the fully general perturbation theory for open-shell, degenerate systems in Kohn-Sham DFT, without assuming the presence of symmetry or equal occupation of degenerate orbitals. To demonstrate the resulting methodology, we apply it to the iron atom in the central field approximation, perturbed by an electric quadrupole. This system was chosen because it displays both symmetry required degeneracy, between the five 3 d orbitals, as well as accidental degeneracy, between the 3 d and 4 s orbitals. The quadrupole potential couples the degenerate 3 d and 4 s states, serving as an example of the most general perturbation.
Performativity: The Special and the General Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Reverter-Bañón
2017-07-01
Full Text Available If in Gender Trouble (1990 Butler presented a proposal of the theory of performativity of speech acts applied to the construction of gender, in her last book, Notes towards a Performative Theory of Assembly (2015, she articulates a theory of performativity applied to collective and concerted action of minorities or populations that are estimated to be “disposable”. The interest of the proposal that we present in this paper is to analyze how the theory of performativity of gender is now extended to the forms of democratic action; going from being a structure that explains the possibilities of gender to explain the possibilities for a livable life. It is what we call here the extension of performativity, from the special case of gender to the general case of a livable life.
Manifest Covariant Hamiltonian Theory of General Relativity
Cremaschini, Claudio
2016-01-01
The problem of formulating a manifest covariant Hamiltonian theory of General Relativity in the presence of source fields is addressed, by extending the so-called "DeDonder-Weyl" formalism to the treatment of classical fields in curved space-time. The theory is based on a synchronous variational principle for the Einstein equation, formulated in terms of superabundant variables. The technique permits one to determine the continuum covariant Hamiltonian structure associated with the Einstein equation. The corresponding continuum Poisson bracket representation is also determined. The theory relies on first-principles, in the sense that the conclusions are reached in the framework of a non-perturbative covariant approach, which allows one to preserve both the 4-scalar nature of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian densities as well as the gauge invariance property of the theory.
A quantitative theory of human color choices
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A
2013-01-01
... color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color...
Quantitative generalizations for catchment sediment yield following forest logging
James C. Bathurst; Andrés Iroumé
2014-01-01
Published data for temperate forests across the world are analyzed to investigate the potential for generalized quantitative expressions of catchment sediment yield impact in the years immediately following logging. Such generalizations would be useful in a variety of forestry and engineering tasks and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant...
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.
Relativity the special and the general theory
Einstein, Albert
2015-01-01
After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was "to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics." The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. This new edition of Einstein's celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with an introduction and a reading companion by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examines the evolution of Einstein's thinking and casts his ideas in a broader present-day context. A special chapter explores the history...
Eleven theses of general systems theory (GST)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waelchli, F. [Defense Systems Management College, Fort Belvoir, VA (United States)
1992-12-31
This paper chronicles an effort to distill and order (for purposes of discussion and elaboration) frequently mentioned and significant ideas encountered in the literature of General Systems theory (GST). The product is a set of eleven theses, representing the author`s selection and collation of seminal and recurrent GST themes. The author argues that attention to theory could aid the effort to develop practical applications of systems thinking. (Remember that a thesis is a statement or assertion, offered originally without proof, as the basis for an argument, discussion, or empirical test). 10 refs.
The general principles of quantum theory
Temple, George
2014-01-01
Published in 1934, this monograph was one of the first introductory accounts of the principles which form the physical basis of the Quantum Theory, considered as a branch of mathematics. The exposition is restricted to a discussion of general principles and does not attempt detailed application to the wide domain of atomic physics, although a number of special problems are considered in elucidation of the principles. The necessary fundamental mathematical methods - the theory of linear operators and of matrics - are developed in the first chapter so this could introduce anyone to the new theor
Toward a Holographic Theory for General Spacetimes
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2016-01-01
We study a holographic theory of general spacetimes that does not rely on the existence of asymptotic regions. This theory is to be formulated in a holographic space. When a semiclassical description is applicable, the holographic space is assumed to be a holographic screen: a codimension-1 surface that is capable of encoding states of the gravitational spacetime. Our analysis is guided by conjectured relationships between gravitational spacetime and quantum entanglement in the holographic description. To understand basic features of this picture, we catalog predictions for the holographic entanglement structure of cosmological spacetimes. We find that qualitative features of holographic entanglement entropies for such spacetimes differ from those in AdS/CFT but that the former reduce to the latter in the appropriate limit. The Hilbert space of the theory is analyzed, and two plausible structures are found: a direct sum and "spacetime equals entanglement" structure. The former preserves a naive relationship b...
General Conceptual View on Resource Advantage Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilal Yalcin
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In order to continue for an organization to exist it needs to finance itself for its own resource on the other hand service with considering consumers need and expectations by present them lowest price and highest quality also. Under these conditions these kind of organizations need to analyze the behaviour (nature of the rival organizations and position themselves accordingly in order to get advantage on the rival organizations. In this study, a general conceptual view on resource advantage theory is developed. Theory explains having the lowest cost resources than rival organisations geting advantage with organisation resources, market position, financial performance and evironmental factors. Theory is able to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the organisations and use to have strategic marketing decisions.
[Towards the general theory of immunity].
D'iakov, Iu T
2005-01-01
The molecular studies of plant immunity resulted in revealing general pattern in the mechanisms of innate resistance of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. These studies removed an ambiguity in the estimate of the role of different immunomodulators (supressors, specific and non-specific elicitors) of plant parasites, and allowed approaching the general theory of immunity. Such theory could be based on guard model of Biezen and Jones (1999), according to which the specific elicitors of parasites work as a factor of pathogens. Their ability to suppress the immune response to infection is determined by bounding of signal proteins of plants and stopping the transmission of signal to the factors that regulate transcription. Resistance proteins recognize the complex and interacting with it turn the cellular metabolism to the induction of defense response.
Dual symmetry in a generalized Maxwell theory
Brandt, F T; McKeon, D G C
2016-01-01
We examine Podolsky's electrodynamics, which is noninvariant under the usual duality transformation. We deduce a generalization of Hodge's star duality, which leads to a dual gauge field and restores to a certain extent the dual symmetry. The model becomes fully dual symmetric asymptotically when it reduces to the Maxwell theory. We argue that this strict dual symmetry directly implies the existence of the basic invariants of the electromagnetic fields.
Non-signalling Theories and Generalized Probability
Tylec, Tomasz I.; Kuś, Marek; Krajczok, Jacek
2016-09-01
We provide mathematically rigorous justification of using term probability in connection to the so called non-signalling theories, known also as Popescu's and Rohrlich's box worlds. No only do we prove correctness of these models (in the sense that they describe composite system of two independent subsystems) but we obtain new properties of non-signalling boxes and expose new tools for further investigation. Moreover, it allows strightforward generalization to more complicated systems.
Possibilistic systems within a general information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joslyn, C.
1999-06-01
The author surveys possibilistic systems theory and place it in the context of Imprecise Probabilities and General Information Theory (GIT). In particular, he argues that possibilistic systems hold a distinct position within a broadly conceived, synthetic GIT. The focus is on systems and applications which are semantically grounded by empirical measurement methods (statistical counting), rather than epistemic or subjective knowledge elicitation or assessment methods. Regarding fuzzy measures as special provisions, and evidence measures (belief and plausibility measures) as special fuzzy measures, thereby he can measure imprecise probabilities directly and empirically from set-valued frequencies (random set measurement). More specifically, measurements of random intervals yield empirical fuzzy intervals. In the random set (Dempster-Shafer) context, probability and possibility measures stand as special plausibility measures in that their distributionality (decomposability) maps directly to an aggregable structure of the focal classes of their random sets. Further, possibility measures share with imprecise probabilities the ability to better handle open world problems where the universe of discourse is not specified in advance. In addition to empirically grounded measurement methods, possibility theory also provides another crucial component of a full systems theory, namely prediction methods in the form of finite (Markov) processes which are also strictly analogous to the probabilistic forms.
General principles of quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogolubov, N.N.; Logunov, A.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR) Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (USSR)); Oksak, A.I. (Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow (USSR)); Todorov, I.T. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria) Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria))
1990-01-01
This major volume provides a account of general quantum field theory, with an emphasis on model-independent methods. The important aspects of the development of the subject are described in detail and are shown to have promising links with many branches of modern mathematics and theoretical physics, such as random fields (probability), statistical physics, and elemantary particles. The material is presented in a thorough, systematic way and the mathematical methods of quantum field theory are also given. The text is self-contained and contains numerous exercises. Topics of independent interest are given in appendices. The book also contains a large bibliography. (author). 1181 refs. Includes index of notation and subject index; includes 1181 refs.
Module theory, extending modules and generalizations
Tercan, Adnan
2016-01-01
The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...
Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory
Maroun, Michael Anthony
This dissertation is divided into two main topics. The first is the generalization of quantum dynamics when the Schrodinger partial differential equation is not defined even in the weak mathematical sense because the potential function itself is a distribution in the spatial variable, the same variable that is used to define the kinetic energy operator, i.e. the Laplace operator. The procedure is an extension and broadening of the distributional calculus and offers spectral results as an alternative to the only other two known methods to date, namely a) the functional calculi; and b) non-standard analysis. Furthermore, the generalizations of quantum dynamics presented within give a resolution to the time asymmetry paradox created by multi-particle quantum mechanics due to the time evolution still being unitary. A consequence is the randomization of phases needed for the fundamental justification Pauli master equation. The second topic is foundations of the quantum theory of fields. The title is phrased as ``foundations'' to emphasize that there is no claim of uniqueness but rather a proposal is put forth, which is markedly different than that of constructive or axiomatic field theory. In particular, the space of fields is defined as a space of generalized functions with involutive symmetry maps (the CPT invariance) that affect the topology of the field space. The space of quantum fields is then endowed the Frechet property and interactions change the topology in such a way as to cause some field spaces to be incompatible with others. This is seen in the consequences of the Haag theorem. Various examples and discussions are given that elucidate a new view of the quantum theory of fields and its (lack of) mathematical structure.
Proceedings First Workshop on Quantitative Formal Methods: Theory and Applications
Andova, Suzana; D'Argenio, Pedro; Cuijpers, Pieter; Markovski, Jasen; Morgan, Caroll; Núñez, Manuel; 10.4204/EPTCS.13
2009-01-01
This volume contains the papers presented at the 1st workshop on Quantitative Formal Methods: Theory and Applications, which was held in Eindhoven on 3 November 2009 as part of the International Symposium on Formal Methods 2009. This volume contains the final versions of all contributions accepted for presentation at the workshop.
Measurement Invariance: A Foundational Principle for Quantitative Theory Building
Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.
2011-01-01
This article describes why measurement invariance is a critical issue to quantitative theory building within the field of human resource development. Readers will learn what measurement invariance is and how to test for its presence using techniques that are accessible to applied researchers. Using data from a LibQUAL+[TM] study of user…
Schumpeter's general theory of social evolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Esben Sloth
The recent neo-Schumpeterian and evolutionary economics appears to cover a much smaller range of topics than Joseph Schumpeter confronted. Thus, it has hardly been recognised that Schumpeter wanted to develop a general theory that served the analysis of evolution in any sector of social life...... as well as the analysis of the evolution of social life as a whole. This paper demonstrates this ambition by studying his first two books (from 1908 and 1912, partly available in recent English translations). Schumpeter's starting point was the Walrasian System, which he generalised for the study of any...
Almost Hadamard matrices: general theory and examples
Banica, Teodor; Zyczkowski, Karol
2012-01-01
We develop a general theory of "almost Hadamard matrices". These are by definition the matrices $H\\in M_N(\\mathbb R)$ having the property that $U=H/\\sqrt{N}$ is orthogonal, and is a local maximum of the 1-norm on O(N). Our study includes a detailed discussion of the circulant case ($H_{ij}=\\gamma_{j-i}$) and of the two-entry case ($H_{ij}\\in\\{x,y\\}$), with the construction of several families of examples, and some 1-norm computations.
2d Gauge Theories and Generalized Geometry
Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas
2014-01-01
We show that in the context of two-dimensional sigma models minimal coupling of an ordinary rigid symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{g}$ leads naturally to the appearance of the "generalized tangent bundle" $\\mathbb{T}M \\equiv TM \\oplus T^*M$ by means of composite fields. Gauge transformations of the composite fields follow the Courant bracket, closing upon the choice of a Dirac structure $D \\subset \\mathbb{T}M$ (or, more generally, the choide of a "small Dirac-Rinehart sheaf" $\\cal{D}$), in which the fields as well as the symmetry parameters are to take values. In these new variables, the gauge theory takes the form of a (non-topological) Dirac sigma model, which is applicable in a more general context and proves to be universal in two space-time dimensions: A gauging of $\\mathfrak{g}$ of a standard sigma model with Wess-Zumino term exists, \\emph{iff} there is a prolongation of the rigid symmetry to a Lie algebroid morphism from the action Lie algebroid $M \\times \\mathfrak{g}\\to M$ into $D\\to M$ (or the algebra...
Recent developments in quantitative graph theory: information inequalities for networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Dehmer
Full Text Available In this article, we tackle a challenging problem in quantitative graph theory. We establish relations between graph entropy measures representing the structural information content of networks. In particular, we prove formal relations between quantitative network measures based on Shannon's entropy to study the relatedness of those measures. In order to establish such information inequalities for graphs, we focus on graph entropy measures based on information functionals. To prove such relations, we use known graph classes whose instances have been proven useful in various scientific areas. Our results extend the foregoing work on information inequalities for graphs.
General Theory of the Plasmoid Instability
Comisso, L; Huang, Y -M; Bhattacharjee, A
2016-01-01
A general theory of the onset and development of the plasmoid instability is formulated by means of a principle of least time. The scaling relations for the final aspect ratio, transition time to rapid onset, growth rate, and number of plasmoids are derived, and shown to depend on the initial perturbation amplitude $\\left({\\hat w}_0\\right)$, the characteristic rate of current sheet evolution $\\left(1/\\tau\\right)$, and the Lundquist number $\\left(S\\right)$. They are not simple power laws, and are proportional to $S^{\\alpha} \\tau^{\\beta} \\left[\\ln f(S,\\tau,{\\hat w}_0)\\right]^\\sigma$. The detailed dynamics of the instability is also elucidated, and shown to comprise of a period of quiescence followed by sudden growth over a short time scale.
Screening fifth forces in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2016-01-01
For a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions, the breaking of the gauge invariance allows the propagation of a longitudinal mode in addition to the two transverse modes. We consider generalized Proca theories with second-order equations of motion in a curved space-time and study how the longitudinal scalar mode of the vector field gravitates on a spherically symmetric background. We show explicitly that cubic-order self-interactions lead to the suppression of the longitudinal mode through the Vainshtein mechanism. Provided that the dimensionless coupling of the interaction is not negligible, this screening mechanism is sufficiently efficient to give rise to tiny corrections to gravitational potentials consistent with solar-system tests of gravity. We also study the quartic interactions with the presence of non-minimal derivative coupling with the Ricci scalar and find the existence of solutions where the longitudinal mode completely vanishes. Finally, we discuss the case in which the effect of...
Generalized theory of diffusion based on kinetic theory
Schäfer, T.
2016-10-01
We propose to use spin hydrodynamics, a two-fluid model of spin propagation, as a generalization of the diffusion equation. We show that in the dense limit spin hydrodynamics reduces to Fick's law and the diffusion equation. In the opposite limit spin hydrodynamics is equivalent to a collisionless Boltzmann treatment of spin propagation. Spin hydrodynamics avoids unphysical effects that arise when the diffusion equation is used to describe to a strongly interacting gas with a dilute corona. We apply spin hydrodynamics to the problem of spin diffusion in a trapped atomic gas. We find that the observed spin relaxation rate in the high-temperature limit [Sommer et al., Nature (London) 472, 201 (2011), 10.1038/nature09989] is consistent with the diffusion constant predicted by kinetic theory.
A generalized Theory of Diffusion based on Kinetic Theory
Schaefer, Thomas
2016-01-01
We propose to use spin hydrodynamics, a two-fluid model of spin propagation, as a generalization of the diffusion equation. We show that in the dense limit spin hydrodynamics reduces to Fick's law and the diffusion equation. In the opposite limit spin hydrodynamics is equivalent to a collisionless Boltzmann treatment of spin propagation. Spin hydrodynamics avoids unphysical effects that arise when the diffusion equation is used to describe to a strongly interacting gas with a dilute corona. We apply spin hydrodynamics to the problem of spin diffusion in a trapped atomic gas. We find that the observed spin relaxation rate in the high temperature limit [Sommer et al., Nature 472, 201 (2011)] is consistent with the diffusion constant predicted by kinetic theory.
Screening fifth forces in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2016-05-01
For a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions, the breaking of the gauge invariance allows the propagation of a longitudinal mode in addition to the two transverse modes. We consider generalized Proca theories with second-order equations of motion in a curved space-time and study how the longitudinal scalar mode of the vector field gravitates on a spherically symmetric background. We show explicitly that cubic-order self-interactions lead to the suppression of the longitudinal mode through the Vainshtein mechanism. Provided that the dimensionless coupling of the interaction is not negligible, this screening mechanism is sufficiently efficient to give rise to tiny corrections to gravitational potentials consistent with solar-system tests of gravity. We also study the quartic interactions with the presence of nonminimal derivative coupling with the Ricci scalar and find the existence of solutions where the longitudinal mode completely vanishes. Finally, we discuss the case in which the effect of the quartic interactions dominates over the cubic one and show that local gravity constraints can be satisfied under a mild bound on the parameters of the theory.
A Generalized Theory of Varying Alpha
Barrow, John D
2011-01-01
In this paper, we formulate a generalization of the simple Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo (BSBM) theory of varying alpha by allowing the coupling constant, \\omega, for the corresponding scalar field \\psi\\ to depend on \\psi. We focus on the situation where \\omega\\ is exponential in \\psi\\ and find the late-time behaviours that occur in matter-dominated and dark-energy dominated cosmologies. We also consider the situation when the background expansion scale factor of the universe evolves in proportion to an arbitrary power of the cosmic time. We find the conditions under which the fine structure `constant' increases with time, as in the BSBM theory, and establish a cosmic no-hair behaviour for accelerating universes. We also find the conditions under which the fine structure `constant' can decrease with time and compare the whole family of models with astronomical data from quasar absorption spectra. Finally, we show that spatial variations on sub-horizon scales can dominate over the cosmological time evolut...
From information theory to quantitative description of steric effects.
Alipour, Mojtaba; Safari, Zahra
2016-07-21
Immense efforts have been made in the literature to apply the information theory descriptors for investigating the electronic structure theory of various systems. In the present study, the information theoretic quantities, such as Fisher information, Shannon entropy, Onicescu information energy, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, have been used to present a quantitative description for one of the most widely used concepts in chemistry, namely the steric effects. Taking the experimental steric scales for the different compounds as benchmark sets, there are reasonable linear relationships between the experimental scales of the steric effects and theoretical values of steric energies calculated from information theory functionals. Perusing the results obtained from the information theoretic quantities with the two representations of electron density and shape function, the Shannon entropy has the best performance for the purpose. On the one hand, the usefulness of considering the contributions of functional groups steric energies and geometries, and on the other hand, dissecting the effects of both global and local information measures simultaneously have also been explored. Furthermore, the utility of the information functionals for the description of steric effects in several chemical transformations, such as electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions and host-guest chemistry, has been analyzed. The functionals of information theory correlate remarkably with the stability of systems and experimental scales. Overall, these findings show that the information theoretic quantities can be introduced as quantitative measures of steric effects and provide further evidences of the quality of information theory toward helping theoreticians and experimentalists to interpret different problems in real systems.
Generalized interferometry - I: theory for interstation correlations
Fichtner, Andreas; Stehly, Laurent; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian
2017-02-01
We develop a general theory for interferometry by correlation that (i) properly accounts for heterogeneously distributed sources of continuous or transient nature, (ii) fully incorporates any type of linear and nonlinear processing, such as one-bit normalization, spectral whitening and phase-weighted stacking, (iii) operates for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media, (iv) enables the exploitation of complete correlation waveforms, including seemingly unphysical arrivals, and (v) unifies the earthquake-based two-station method and ambient noise correlations. Our central theme is not to equate interferometry with Green function retrieval, and to extract information directly from processed interstation correlations, regardless of their relation to the Green function. We demonstrate that processing transforms the actual wavefield sources and actual wave propagation physics into effective sources and effective wave propagation. This transformation is uniquely determined by the processing applied to the observed data, and can be easily computed. The effective forward model, that links effective sources and propagation to synthetic interstation correlations, may not be perfect. A forward modelling error, induced by processing, describes the extent to which processed correlations can actually be interpreted as proper correlations, that is, as resulting from some effective source and some effective wave propagation. The magnitude of the forward modelling error is controlled by the processing scheme and the temporal variability of the sources. Applying adjoint techniques to the effective forward model, we derive finite-frequency Fréchet kernels for the sources of the wavefield and Earth structure, that should be inverted jointly. The structure kernels depend on the sources of the wavefield and the processing scheme applied to the raw data. Therefore, both must be taken into account correctly in order to make accurate inferences on
The Emergence of Quantitative Sintering Theory from 1945 to 1955
German, Randall M.
2017-04-01
Particles flow and pack under stress, allowing shaping of the particles into target engineering geometries. Subsequently, in a process termed sintering, the particles are heated to induce bonding that results in a strong solid. Although first practiced 26,000 years ago, sintering was largely unexplained until recent times. Sintering science moved from an empirical and largely qualitative notion into a quantitative theory over a relatively short time period following World War II. That conceptual transition took place just as commercial applications for sintered materials underwent significant growth. This article highlights the key changes in sintering concepts that occurred in the 1945-1955 time period. This time span starts with the first quantitative neck growth model from Frenkel and ends with the quantitative shrinkage model from Kingery and Berg that includes several transport mechanisms.
The Emergence of Quantitative Sintering Theory from 1945 to 1955
German, Randall M.
2017-01-01
Particles flow and pack under stress, allowing shaping of the particles into target engineering geometries. Subsequently, in a process termed sintering, the particles are heated to induce bonding that results in a strong solid. Although first practiced 26,000 years ago, sintering was largely unexplained until recent times. Sintering science moved from an empirical and largely qualitative notion into a quantitative theory over a relatively short time period following World War II. That conceptual transition took place just as commercial applications for sintered materials underwent significant growth. This article highlights the key changes in sintering concepts that occurred in the 1945-1955 time period. This time span starts with the first quantitative neck growth model from Frenkel and ends with the quantitative shrinkage model from Kingery and Berg that includes several transport mechanisms.
Generalized PSF modeling for optimized quantitation in PET imaging
Ashrafinia, Saeed; Mohy-ud-Din, Hassan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Casey, Michael E.; Kadrmas, Dan J.; Rahmim, Arman
2017-06-01
modeling does not offer optimized PET quantitation, and that PSF overestimation may provide enhanced SUV quantitation. Furthermore, generalized PSF modeling may provide a valuable approach for quantitative tasks such as treatment-response assessment and prognostication.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Quantitative analysis of non-equilibrium phase transition process by the catastrophe theory
Liang, Xiao; Wu, Jiu Hui; Zhong, H. B.
2017-08-01
Catastrophe theory is a highly generalized mathematical theory that summarizes the rules of non-equilibrium phase transition by several catastrophe models. This paper investigates the general non-equilibrium phase transition process quantitatively using catastrophe theory for the first time, to our knowledge. First, a new approach is proposed by combining the catastrophe theory with dimensionless analysis. Second, the new approach is applied to two classic examples: one is the turbulent phase transition and the other is the bottleneck effect of particle flow. For the turbulence phase transition process, the quantitative relationships are obtained. Comparing with Kolmogorov's turbulent theory, the new method proposed in this paper is able to evaluate not only the complete turbulence condition but also the development of turbulence, and Kolmogorov's turbulent theory is only a special case of our results by this new approach. For the particle flow bottleneck effect, the results obtained by this new method correspond with the empirical formulated results. Therefore, the proposed method can solve non-equilibrium phase transition process problems and has the potential to extend to fluid, aerodynamics, and so forth.
Incorporation of generalized uncertainty principle into Lifshitz field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, 382424 (India)
2015-06-15
In this paper, we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bosonic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into a non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations. We will also perform the stochastic quantization of this Lifshitz fermionic theory based generalized uncertainty principle.
Observational constraints on generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2017-06-01
In a model of the late-time cosmic acceleration within the framework of generalized Proca theories, there exists a de Sitter attractor preceded by the dark energy equation of state wDE=-1 -s , where s is a positive constant. We run the Markov-chain-Monte Carlo code to confront the model with the observational data of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae type Ia, and local measurements of the Hubble expansion rate for the background cosmological solutions and obtain the bound s =0.254-0.097+0.118 at 95% confidence level (C.L.). Existence of the additional parameter s to those in the Λ -cold-dark-matter (Λ CDM ) model allows to reduce tensions of the Hubble constant H0 between the CMB and the low-redshift measurements. Including the cosmic growth data of redshift-space distortions in the galaxy power spectrum and taking into account no-ghost and stability conditions of cosmological perturbations, we find that the bound on s is shifted to s =0.1 6-0.08+0.08 (95% C.L.) and hence the model with s >0 is still favored over the Λ CDM model. Apart from the quantities s ,H0 and the today's matter density parameter Ωm 0, the constraints on other model parameters associated with perturbations are less stringent, reflecting the fact that there are different sets of parameters that give rise to a similar cosmic expansion and growth history.
A generalization of the theory of Coleman power series
Ota, Kazuto
2014-01-01
Shinichi Kobayashi found a generalization of the Coleman power series theory to formal groups of elliptic curves and applied it to a study of $p$-adic height pairings. In this paper, we generalize his theory of Coleman power series to general formal groups.
Optimality theory as a general cognitive architecture
Biró, T.; Gervain, J.
2011-01-01
It was exactly 25 years ago that Paul Smolensky introduced Harmony Theory (Smolensky, 1986), a framework that would pursue an exciting, but certainly not straight path through linguistics (namely, Optimality Theory) and other cognitive domains. The goal of this workshop is not so much to look back t
Optimality theory as a general cognitive architecture
Biró, T.; Gervain, J.
2011-01-01
It was exactly 25 years ago that Paul Smolensky introduced Harmony Theory (Smolensky, 1986), a framework that would pursue an exciting, but certainly not straight path through linguistics (namely, Optimality Theory) and other cognitive domains. The goal of this workshop is not so much to look back t
Optimality theory as a general cognitive architecture
Biró, T.; Gervain, J.
2011-01-01
It was exactly 25 years ago that Paul Smolensky introduced Harmony Theory (Smolensky, 1986), a framework that would pursue an exciting, but certainly not straight path through linguistics (namely, Optimality Theory) and other cognitive domains. The goal of this workshop is not so much to look back to this path, but rather to discuss its potential continuation(s).
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diederik eAerts
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro
2016-01-01
Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro
2016-01-01
Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436
Bell's Nonlocality in a General Nonsignaling Case: Quantitatively and Conceptually
Loubenets, Elena R.
2017-03-01
Quantum violation of Bell inequalities is now used in many quantum information applications and it is important to analyze it both quantitatively and conceptually. In the present paper, we analyze violation of multipartite Bell inequalities via the local probability model—the LqHV (local quasi hidden variable) model (Loubenets in J Math Phys 53:022201, 2012), incorporating the LHV model only as a particular case and correctly reproducing the probabilistic description of every quantum correlation scenario, more generally, every nonsignaling scenario. The LqHV probability framework allows us to construct nonsignaling analogs of Bell inequalities and to specify parameters quantifying violation of Bell inequalities—Bell's nonlocality—in a general nonsignaling case. For quantum correlation scenarios on an N-qudit state, we evaluate these nonlocality parameters analytically in terms of dilation characteristics of an N-qudit state and also, numerically—in d and N. In view of our rigorous mathematical description of Bell's nonlocality in a general nonsignaling case via the local probability model, we argue that violation of Bell inequalities in a quantum case is not due to violation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) locality conjectured by Bell but due to the improper HV modelling of "quantum realism".
Absence of conical singularities in beyond-generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
In Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) scalar-tensor theories, which are outside the domain of second-order Horndeski theories, it is known that there exists a conical singularity in the case where the parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a non-vanishing constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body. Meanwhile, it was recently shown that second-order generalized Proca theories with a massive vector field $A^{\\mu}$ can be consistently extended to beyond-generalized Proca theories, which recover the shift-symmetric GLPV theories in the scalar limit $A^{\\mu} \\to \
A General Review of Register Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王航
2014-01-01
<正>Register theory is important in the study of linguistic.It is developed by Halliday who defined it as a variety of language according to use.According to Halliday,language is strained by three variables:field,tenor and mode,which are the three variables of register.Nowadays,more and more researchers are focusing on the application of register theory on specific English
Analysis of generalized interictal discharges using quantitative EEG.
da Silva Braga, Aline Marques; Fujisao, Elaine Keiko; Betting, Luiz Eduardo
2014-12-01
Experimental evidence from animal models of the absence seizures suggests a focal source for the initiation of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges. Furthermore, clinical studies indicate that patients diagnosed with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) exhibit focal electroencephalographic abnormalities, which involve the thalamo-cortical circuitry. This circuitry is a key network that has been implicated in the initiation of generalized discharges, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of GSW discharges. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) analysis may be able to detect abnormalities associated with the initiation of GSW discharges. The objective of this study was to determine whether interictal GSW discharges exhibit focal characteristics using qEEG analysis. In this study, 75 EEG recordings from 64 patients were analyzed. All EEG recordings analyzed contained at least one GSW discharge. EEG recordings were obtained by a 22-channel recorder with electrodes positioned according to the international 10-20 system of electrode placement. EEG activity was recorded for 20 min including photic stimulation and hyperventilation. The EEG recordings were visually inspected, and the first unequivocally confirmed generalized spike was marked for each discharge. Three methods of source imaging analysis were applied: dipole source imaging (DSI), classical LORETA analysis recursively applied (CLARA), and equivalent dipole of independent components with cluster analysis. A total of 753 GSW discharges were identified and spatiotemporally analyzed. Source evaluation analysis using all three techniques revealed that the frontal lobe was the principal source of GSW discharges (70%), followed by the parietal and occipital lobes (14%), and the basal ganglia (12%). The main anatomical sources of GSW discharges were the anterior cingulate cortex (36%) and the medial frontal gyrus (23%). Source analysis did not reveal a common focal source of GSW discharges. However
General Relativity Revisited: Generalized Nordstr\\"om Theory
Bengtsson, Johan
2016-01-01
In 1945 Einstein concluded that [1]: 'The present theory of relativity is based on a division of physical reality into a metric field (gravitation) on the one hand, and into an electromagnetic field and matter on the other hand. In reality space will probably be of a uniform character and the present theory be valid only as a limiting case. For large densities of field and of matter, the field equations and even the field variables which enter into them will have no real significance.'. The dichotomy can be resolved by introducing a scalar field/potential algebraically related to the Ricci tensor for which the corresponding metric is free of additional singularities. Hence, although a fundamentally nonlinear theory, the scalar field/potential provides an analytic framework for interacting particles; described by linear superposition. The stress tensor for the scalar field includes both the sources of and the energy-momentum for the gravitational field, and has zero covariant and ordinary divergence. Hence, th...
Molecular vibrational generalized inverse theory and its software
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑重德
1995-01-01
The general concept of flexibility and activity are presented,the generalized inverse theory of molecular vibrations is set up,and the computation software of molecular flexibilities and normal coordinates(MFNC)is elaborately programed.
The Fixed Point Theory for Some Generalized Nonexpansive Mappings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique Llorens Fuster
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We study some aspects of the fixed point theory for a class of generalized nonexpansive mappings, which among others contain the class of generalized nonexpansive mappings recently defined by Suzuki in 2008.
Multisymplectic effective General Boundary Field Theory
Arjang, Mona
2013-01-01
The transfer matrix in lattice field theory connects the covariant and the initial data frameworks; in spin foam models, it can be written as a composition of elementary cellular amplitudes/propagators. We present a framework for discrete spacetime classical field theory in which solutions to the field equations over elementary spacetime cells may be amalgamated if they satisfy simple gluing conditions matching the composition rules of cellular amplitudes in spin foam models. Furthermore, the formalism is endowed with a multisymplectic structure responsible for local conservation laws. Some models within our framework are effective theories modeling a system at a given scale. Our framework allows us to study coarse graining and the continuum limit.
GENERAL RELATIVITY AND THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the theory of the electromagnetic type of rocket motor. The apparatus consists of a magnetron and a conical cavity in which electromagnetic oscillations are excited. We explain the mechanism of trust in such a device based on Maxwell's theory and the Abraham force. We built a dynamic model of the motor and calculated the optimal parameters. It is shown, that the laws of conservation of momentum and energy for the rocket motor of electromagnetic type are true, taking into account the gravitational field. In simulation, the movement used the theory of relativity. The source of the motion in an electromagnetic drive is the mass conversion in various kinds of radiation. The optimization of the operating parameters of the device is done, namely by the excitation frequency, the magnitude of heat losses of electromagnetic energy by thermal radiation in the IR spectrum, the parameters of heat transfer and forced from the temperature dependence of the resistance of the material of the cavity walls. It was found that the effective conversion of electromagnetic energy in the trust force necessary to minimize the deviation of the excitation frequency of the primary resonance frequency of the cavity. The mechanism of formation of trust under change the metrics of space-time, taking into account the contribution of the Yang-Mills theory and electromagnetic field tensor of energymomentum has been proposed
General autocatalytic theory and simple model of financial markets
Thuy Anh, Chu; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2015-06-01
The concept of autocatalytic theory has become a powerful tool in understanding evolutionary processes in complex systems. A generalization of autocatalytic theory was assumed by considering that the initial element now is being some distribution instead of a constant value as in traditional theory. This initial condition leads to that the final element might have some distribution too. A simple physics model for financial markets is proposed, using this general autocatalytic theory. Some general behaviours of evolution process and risk moment of a financial market also are investigated in framework of this simple model.
Generalized Homotopy theory in Categories with a Natural Cone
Díaz, Francisco J
2012-01-01
In proper homotopy theory, the original concept of point used in the classical homotopy theory of topological spaces is generalized in order to obtain homotopy groups that study the infinite of the spaces. This idea: "Using any arbitrary object as base point" and even "any morphism as zero morphism" can be developed in most of the algebraic homotopy theories. In particular, categories with a natural cone have a generalized homotopy theory obtained through the relative homotopy relation. Generalized homotopy groups and exact sequences of them are built so that respective classical pointed ones are a particular case of these.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冉鹏; 王亚瑟
2013-01-01
Based on the analysis of the structure feature of PWR nuclear power plants, graph theory are introduced in the thermal economy analysis fields. According to the abstraction rule of the thermal system in PWR nuclear power plants, the boundary delimitation of a power plant thermal system is determined, and the thermal system of PWR nuclear power plants is expressed as the form of graph theory. A new unified rules for analyzing the thermal system are established. Combined with the first thermodynamics law and mass conservation law, weighted diagraph adjacency matrix is deducted. An example is given to illustrate the validity of the method.%在深入研究压水堆(PWR)核电机组热力系统结构特点的基础上,将图论思想引入热力系统节能分析,规定核电机组热力系统的划分原则及其基于图的表达方法,确定核电机组热力系统的有向图带权邻接矩阵填写规则.根据回热加热器系统的能量守恒定律、质量守恒定律,确定核电机组主、辅系统的有向图带权邻接矩阵表达规则以及矩阵的运算规则,推导出通用PWR核电机组热力系统的有向图带权邻接矩阵方程,并用实例验证本方法的正确性.
A Quantitative Theory Model of a Photobleaching Mechanism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈同生; 曾绍群; 周炜; 骆清铭
2003-01-01
A photobleaching model:D-P(dye-photon interaction)and D-O(Dye-oxygen oxidative reaction)photobleaching theory,is proposed.The quantitative power dependences of photobleaching rates with both one-and two-photon excitations(1 PE and TPE)are obtained.This photobleaching model can be used to elucidate our and other experimental results commendably.Experimental studies of the photobleaching rates for rhodamine B with TPE under unsaturation conditions reveals that the power dependences of photobleaching rates increase with the increasing dye concentration,and that the photobleaching rate of a single molecule increases in the second power of the excitation intensity,which is different from the high-order(＞ 3)nonlinear dependence of ensemble molecules.
A general theory of comic entertainment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodal, Torben Kragh
2014-01-01
The article claims that comic entertainment consists of five elements 1. priming of the comic events to come 2. some comic entertainment inputs that creates arousal 3. Entertainment-internal signals of the playful nature of the comic input 4. Appraisal processes in audience members that evaluate...... the input as 'not real but playful', 5. this leads to a change in hedonic tone, and arousal is combined with the release of endorphins (a morphine-based neurotransmitter) that makes the arousal pleasant. The theory of comic entertainment accords with the PECMA flow theory proposed in Grodal: Embodied...... Visions, because the evaluation: playful, not real, influences the muscular directness towards the world that drops. Comic entertainment is further linked to human bonding....
Dynamical Systems On Weighted Lattices: General Theory
Maragos, Petros
2016-01-01
In this work a theory is developed for unifying large classes of nonlinear discrete-time dy- namical systems obeying a superposition of a weighted maximum or minimum type. The state vectors and input-output signals evolve on nonlinear spaces which we call complete weighted lat- tices and include as special cases the nonlinear vector spaces of minimax algebra. Their algebraic structure has a polygonal geometry. Some of the special cases unified include max-plus, max- product, and probabilistic...
General Theory versus ENA Theory: Comparing Their Predictive Accuracy and Scope.
Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony; Hartley, Richard; Walsh, Anthony; Widmayer, Alan; Ratnasingam, Malini
2015-12-01
General theory attributes criminal behavior primarily to low self-control, whereas evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory envisions criminality as being a crude form of status-striving promoted by high brain exposure to androgens. General theory predicts that self-control will be negatively correlated with risk-taking, while ENA theory implies that these two variables should actually be positively correlated. According to ENA theory, traits such as pain tolerance and muscularity will be positively associated with risk-taking and criminality while general theory makes no predictions concerning these relationships. Data from Malaysia and the United States are used to test 10 hypotheses derived from one or both of these theories. As predicted by both theories, risk-taking was positively correlated with criminality in both countries. However, contrary to general theory and consistent with ENA theory, the correlation between self-control and risk-taking was positive in both countries. General theory's prediction of an inverse correlation between low self-control and criminality was largely supported by the U.S. data but only weakly supported by the Malaysian data. ENA theory's predictions of positive correlations between pain tolerance, muscularity, and offending were largely confirmed. For the 10 hypotheses tested, ENA theory surpassed general theory in predictive scope and accuracy.
General Open Systems Theory and the Substrata-Factor Theory of Reading.
Kling, Martin
This study was designed to extend the generality of the Substrata-Factor Theory by two methods of investigation: (1) theoretically, to est"blish the validity of the hypothesis that an isomorphic relationship exists between the Substrata-Factor Theory and the General Open Systems Theory, and (2) experimentally, to disc"ver through a…
A general theory of multimetric indices and their properties
Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William
2012-01-01
1. Stewardship of biological and ecological resources requires the ability to make integrative assessments of ecological integrity. One of the emerging methods for making such integrative assessments is multimetric indices (MMIs). These indices synthesize data, often from multiple levels of biological organization, with the goal of deriving a single index that reflects the overall effects of human disturbance. Despite the widespread use of MMIs, there is uncertainty about why this approach can be effective. An understanding of MMIs requires a quantitative theory that illustrates how the properties of candidate metrics relates to MMIs generated from those metrics. 2. We present the initial basis for such a theory by deriving the general mathematical characteristics of MMIs assembled from metrics. We then use the theory to derive quantitative answers to the following questions: Is there an optimal number of metrics to comprise an index? How does covariance among metrics affect the performance of the index derived from those metrics? And what are the criteria to decide whether a given metric will improve the performance of an index? 3. We find that the optimal number of metrics to be included in an index depends on the theoretical distribution of signal of the disturbance gradient contained in each metric. For example, if the rank-ordered parameters of a metric-disturbance regression can be described by a monotonically decreasing function, then an optimum number of metrics exists and can often be derived analytically. We derive the conditions by which adding a given metric can be expected to improve an index. 4. We find that the criterion defining such conditions depends nonlinearly of the signal of the disturbance gradient, the noise (error) of the metric and the correlation of the metric errors. Importantly, we find that correlation among metric errors increases the signal required for the metric to improve the index. 5. The theoretical framework presented in this
A historical approach to the general theory of systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esther María Pino Guzmán
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is intended to examine the epistemological development of the theory or systems, focus the change of its scientific paradigm and points out its main implications for the development of research methodology and design. The theoretical methods being used makes possible to go deeper into the analysis of regularities and essential qualities in the construction and development of the scientific theory. The system approach is one of the most frequently used method and the one of further reaching effect in Pedagogy. The system approach or systemic thinking is a requirement for the general direction of pedagogy problem studies. This paper explores the ways of interconnecting the theory of systems to the theory of complexity in the field of pedagogy. The findings include a historical approach to the theory of systems up to the spring up of the theory of complexity. Key words: general theory of systems, interdisciplinary relations, complexity.
Doing more with less: General quantitative properties of urban metabolism
Bettencourt, L. M.
2011-12-01
The fast urbanization of human societies worldwide is bringing about some of the greatest historic changes in our relationship with the Earth's natural environments, with potentially irreversible and unpredictable consequences. From the human point of view urbanization is intimately connected to socio-economic development, transitioning people away from subsistence agriculture and integrating them into large-scale diversified economies. These processes change the demands placed by human societies on natural environments in terms of energy and material flows, land use and other effects associated with climate change (CO2 emissions) and loss of biodiversity. Urbanization offers at once a host of new problems and solutions. On the one hand living standards associated with developed urbanized societies are higher, usually implying greater consumption of energy and materials. On the other hand cities allow and encourage the pursuit of more efficient solutions to human settlement and transportation and emphasize to a growing extent information and creativity as measures of human socioeconomic wellbeing. The concept of urban metabolism - the relationship between energy and material resource use to socioeconomic output - offers an integrated view of these tradeoffs. While the metaphor has a long history, the increasing availability of data on urban systems worldwide is opening new opportunities in making the concept quantitative and a useful instrument of scientific analysis. In this talk I will discuss a large amount of quantitative evidence from urban systems worldwide showing general patterns in energy use, infrastructure and socioeconomic output, which together define what cities are. I will show how cities can save on material infrastructure by using distribution networks more intensely and will detail some of the emerging patterns in urban energy usage and CO2 emissions for several nations. I will also show that larger cities show on average display higher
Flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization theory and methods
Lodwick, Weldon A
2017-01-01
This book presents the theory and methods of flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization. Particularly, it describes the theory of generalized uncertainty in the context of optimization modeling. The book starts with an overview of flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization. It covers uncertainties that are both associated with lack of information and that more general than stochastic theory, where well-defined distributions are assumed. Starting from families of distributions that are enclosed by upper and lower functions, the book presents construction methods for obtaining flexible and generalized uncertainty input data that can be used in a flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization model. It then describes the development of such a model in detail. All in all, the book provides the readers with the necessary background to understand flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization and develop their own optimization model. .
Abelian Chern-Simons theory, Stokes' Theorem, and generalized connections
Sahlmannn, Hanno
2010-01-01
Generalized connections and their calculus have been developed in the context of quantum gravity. Here we apply them to abelian Chern-Simons theory. We derive the expectation values of holonomies in U(1) Chern-Simons theory using Stokes' Theorem, flux operators and generalized connections. A framing of the holonomy loops arises in our construction, and we show how, by choosing natural framings, the resulting expectation values nevertheless define a functional over gauge invariant cylindrical functions. The abelian theory considered in the present article is test case for our method. It can also be applied to the non-abelian theory. Results for that case will be reported elsewhere.
An Alternative Topological Field Theory of Generalized Complex Geometry
Ikeda, Noriaki
2007-01-01
We propose a new topological field theory on generalized complex geometry in two dimension using AKSZ formulation. Zucchini's model is $A$ model in the case that the generalized complex structuredepends on only a symplectic structure. Our new model is $B$ model in the case that the generalized complex structure depends on only a complex structure.
Generalized Einstein-Aether theories and the Solar System
Bonvin, Camille; Ferreira, Pedro G; Starkman, Glenn; Zlosnik, Tom G
2007-01-01
It has been shown that generalized Einstein-Aether theories may lead to significant modifications to the non-relativistic limit of the Einstein equations. In this paper we study the effect of a general class of such theories on the Solar System. We consider corrections to the gravitational potential in negative and positive powers of distance from the source. Using measurements of the perihelion shift of Mercury and time delay of radar signals to Cassini, we place constraints on these corrections. We find that a subclass of generalized Einstein-Aether theories are compatible with these constraints.
Generalized Courant-Snyder theory for charged-particle dynamics in general focusing lattices.
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C; Chung, Moses; Burby, Joshua W
2013-09-06
The Courant-Snyder (CS) theory for one degree of freedom is generalized to the case of coupled transverse dynamics in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D sympletic rotation. The envelope equation, the transfer matrix, and the CS invariant of the original CS theory all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory.
Towards a general theory of optimal testing
Pericchi, Luis R. G.; Pereira, Carlos A. B.
2012-10-01
In Pericchi and Pereira [1] it is argued against the traditional way on which testing is based on fixed significance level, either using p-values (with fixed levels of evidence, like the 5% rule) or α values. We instead, follow an approach put forward by [2], on which an optimal test is chosen by minimizing type I and type II errors. Morris DeGroot in his authoritative book [2], Probability and Statistics 2nd Edition, stated that it is more reasonable to minimize a weighted sum of Type I and Type II error than to specify a value of type I error and then minimize Type II error. He showed it beyond reasonable doubt, but only in the very restrictive scenario of simple VS simple hypothesis, and it is not clear how to generalize it. We propose here a very natural generalization for composite hypothesis, by using general weight functions in the parameter space. This was also the position taken by [3, 4, 5]. We show, in a parallel manner to DeGroot's proof and Pereira's discussion, that the optimal test statistics are Bayes Factors, when the weighting functions are priors with mass on the whole parameter space. On the other hand when the weight functions are point masses in specific parameter values of practical significance, then a procedure is designed for which the sum of Type I error and Type II error in the specified points of practical significance is minimized. This can be seen as bridge between Bayesian Statistics and a new version of Hypothesis testing, more in line with statistical consistency and scientific insight.
The mathematical theory of general relativity
Katkar, L N
2014-01-01
This book is prepared for M. Sc. Students of Mathematics and Physics. The aim of writing this book is to give the reader a feeling for the necessity and beauty of the laws of general relativity. The contents of the book will attract both mathematicians and physicists which provides motivation and applications of many ideas and powerful mathematical methods of modern analysis and differential geometry. An attempt has been made to make the presentation comprehensive, rigorous and yet simple. Most calculations and transformations have been carried out in great detail. KEY FEATURE: Numerous solved examples using the well known mathematical techniques viz., the tensors and the differential forms in each chapter.
A proof theory for general unification
Snyder, Wayne
1991-01-01
In this monograph we study two generalizations of standard unification, E-unification and higher-order unification, using an abstract approach orig inated by Herbrand and developed in the case of standard first-order unifi cation by Martelli and Montanari. The formalism presents the unification computation as a set of non-deterministic transformation rules for con verting a set of equations to be unified into an explicit representation of a unifier (if such exists). This provides an abstract and mathematically elegant means of analysing the properties of unification in various settings by providing a clean separation of the logical issues from the specification of procedural information, and amounts to a set of 'inference rules' for unification, hence the title of this book. We derive the set of transformations for general E-unification and higher order unification from an analysis of the sense in which terms are 'the same' after application of a unifying substitution. In both cases, this results in a...
Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.
Kondraske, George V
2010-01-01
General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).
The general theory of relativity a mathematical exposition
Das, Anadijiban
2012-01-01
The General Theory of Relativity: A Mathematical Exposition will serve readers as a modern mathematical introduction to the general theory of relativity. Throughout the book, examples, worked-out problems, and exercises (with hints and solutions) are furnished. Topics in this book include, but are not limited to: • tensor analysis • the special theory of relativity • the general theory of relativity and Einstein’s field equations • spherically symmetric solutions and experimental confirmations • static and stationary space-time domains • black holes • cosmological models • algebraic classifications and the Newman-Penrose equations • the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations • appendices covering mathematical supplements and special topics Mathematical rigor, yet very clear presentation of the topics make this book a unique text for both university students and research scholars. Anadijiban Das has taught courses on Relativity Theory at The University College of Dublin, Irelan...
Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don
The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…
Gravitational duality in General Relativity and Supergravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehouck, F. [Service de physique mathematique et interactions fondamentales. Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine CP-231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-07-15
We quickly review the current status of gravitational duality in General Relativity. We summarize and comment some recent work on constructing dual (topological) charges and understanding how this duality acts in supergravity theories.
A generalized theory of chromatography and multistep liquid extraction
Chizhkov, V. P.; Boitsov, V. N.
2017-03-01
A generalized theory of chromatography and multistep liquid extraction is developed. The principles of highly efficient processes for fine preparative separation of binary mixture components on a fixed sorbent layer are discussed.
JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O P Mishra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.
Towards a general theory of driver behaviour.
Fuller, Ray
2005-05-01
Taylor [Taylor, D.H., 1964. Drivers' galvanic skin response and the risk of accident. Ergonomics 7, 439-451] argued that drivers attempt to maintain a constant level of anxiety when driving which Wilde [Wilde, G.J.S., 1982. The theory of risk homeostasis: implications for safety and health. Risk Anal. 2, 209-225] interpreted to be coupled to subjective estimates of the probability of collision. This theoretical paper argues that what drivers attempt to maintain is a level of task difficulty. Naatanen and Summala [Naatanen, R., Summala, H., 1976. Road User Behaviour and Traffic Accidents. North Holland/Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York] similarly rejected the concept of statistical risk as a determinant of driver behaviour, but in so doing fell back on the learning process to generate a largely automatised selection of appropriate safety margins. However it is argued here that driver behaviour cannot be acquired and executed principally in such S-R terms. The concept of task difficulty is elaborated within the framework of the task-capability interface (TCI) model, which describes the dynamic interaction between the determinants of task demand and driver capability. It is this interaction which produces different levels of task difficulty. Implications of the model are discussed regarding variation in performance, resource allocation, hierarchical decision-making and the interdependence of demand and capability. Task difficulty homeostasis is proposed as a key sub-goal in driving and speed choice is argued to be the primary solution to the problem of keeping task difficulty within selected boundaries. The relationship between task difficulty and mental workload and calibration is clarified. Evidence is cited in support of the TCI model, which clearly distinguishes task difficulty from estimates of statistical risk. However, contrary to expectation, ratings of perceived risk depart from ratings of statistical risk but track difficulty ratings almost perfectly. It now
General Strain Theory, Peer Rejection, and Delinquency/Crime
Higgins, George E.; Piquero, Nicole L.; Piquero, Alex R.
2011-01-01
The development of general strain theory (GST) has led to a renewed focus on the influence of negative life experiences on antisocial behavior. Although a number of studies have generated an impressive array of support for the theory, several avenues remain open for research. In this article, we examine how a specific noxious stimuli, peer…
General systems theory and scientific interpretation of social reality
Kaluzhsky, Mikhail
2001-01-01
An article about the use of the methodology of general systems theory and the theory of self-organization as a methodological basis of scientific interpretation of social reality. The author analyzes the role of ideology and propaganda in the different concepts of interpretation of social reality (social Darwinism, Marxism, etc.). The main conclusion of the paper is the need deideologization scientific knowledge.
General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application
Peery, Newman S., Jr.
1975-01-01
Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…
Get with the System: General Systems Theory for Business Officials.
Graczyk, Sandra L.
1993-01-01
An introduction to general systems theory and an overview of vocabulary and concepts are presented to introduce school business officials to systems thinking and to foster its use as an analytical tool. The theory is then used to analyze a sample problem: planning changes to a district's administrative computer system. (eight references) (MLF)
A simplified approach to general scalar-tensor theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloomfield, Jolyon, E-mail: jkb84@cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 (United States)
2013-12-01
The most general covariant action describing gravity coupled to a scalar field with only second order equations of motion, Horndeski's theory (also known as ''Generalized Galileons''), provides an all-encompassing model in which single scalar dark energy models may be constrained. However, the generality of the model makes it cumbersome to manipulate. In this paper, we demonstrate that when considering linear perturbations about a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background, the theory is completely specified by only six functions of time, two of which are constrained by the background evolution. We utilise the ideas of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation/Dark Energy to explicitly construct these six functions of time in terms of the free functions appearing in Horndeski's theory. These results are used to investigate the behavior of the theory in the quasistatic approximation. We find that only four functions of time are required to completely specify the linear behavior of the theory in this limit, which can further be reduced if the background evolution is fixed. This presents a significantly reduced parameter space from the original presentation of Horndeski's theory, giving hope to the possibility of constraining the parameter space. This work provides a cross-check for previous work on linear perturbations in this theory, and also generalizes it to include spatial curvature.
A QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; KOU Li-Na
2007-01-01
Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative,which contains both vector and scalar gauge bosons.Based on this theory,we construct a strong interaction model by using the group U(4).By using this U(4)generalized Yang-Mills model,we also obtain a gauge potential solution,which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.
Behavior, Organization, Substance: Three Gestalts of General Systems Theory
De Florio, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
The term gestalt, when used in the context of general systems theory, assumes the value of "systemic touchstone", namely a figure of reference used to categorize the properties or qualities of a set of systems. Typical gestalts used in biology are those based on anatomical or physiological characteristics, which correspond respectively to architectural and organizational design choices in natural and artificial systems. In this paper we discuss three gestalts of general systems theory: behavi...
A New Theory of Capitalism: Key Moments and General Logic
Zheleznyak, Anatoliy
2015-01-01
A new theory of capitalism is suggested. Its key moments and general logic are presented. This theory is based on the distinction between two market types – the simple commodity market and the capitalist one. Disequilibrium and "imperfect competition" are admitted to be a functional norm of capitalism. Respectively, an equilibrium and "perfect competition" are admitted to be a functional anomaly; crises are considered as the result of such an anomaly. General principles and concrete measures ...
A generalized theory of preferential linking
Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan
2014-12-01
There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.
Bitopological spaces theory, relations with generalized algebraic structures and applications
Dvalishvili, Badri
2005-01-01
This monograph is the first and an initial introduction to the theory of bitopological spaces and its applications. In particular, different families of subsets of bitopological spaces are introduced and various relations between two topologies are analyzed on one and the same set; the theory of dimension of bitopological spaces and the theory of Baire bitopological spaces are constructed, and various classes of mappings of bitopological spaces are studied. The previously known results as well the results obtained in this monograph are applied in analysis, potential theory, general topology, a
Do People Use Their Implicit Theories of Creativity as General Theories?
Lee, Hong; Kim, Jungsik; Ryu, Yeonjae; Song, Seokjong
2015-01-01
This study examines whether people use the general implicit theories of creativity or not when applying them to themselves and others. On the basis of the actor-observer asymmetry theory, the authors propose that conception of creativity would be differently constructed depending on the targets of attention: general, self, and other. Three studies…
Do People Use Their Implicit Theories of Creativity as General Theories?
Lee, Hong; Kim, Jungsik; Ryu, Yeonjae; Song, Seokjong
2015-01-01
This study examines whether people use the general implicit theories of creativity or not when applying them to themselves and others. On the basis of the actor-observer asymmetry theory, the authors propose that conception of creativity would be differently constructed depending on the targets of attention: general, self, and other. Three studies…
Evolution of curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)
2009-07-21
Using the cosmological perturbation theory in terms of the deltaN formalism, we find the simple formulation of the evolution of the curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories. Compared with the standard gravity theory, a crucial difference appears in the end-boundary of the inflationary stage, which is due to the non-ideal form of the energy-momentum tensor that depends explicitly on the curvature scalar. Recent study shows that ultraviolet-complete quantum theory of gravity (Horava-Lifshitz gravity) can be approximated by using a generalized gravity action. Our paper may give an important step in understanding the evolution of the curvature perturbation during inflation, where the energy-momentum tensor may not be given by the ideal form due to the corrections from the fundamental theory.
Classical hair in string theory; 1, general formulation
Larsen, F; Larsen, Finn; Wilczek, Frank
1996-01-01
We discuss why classical hair is desirable for the description of black holes, and show that it arises generically in a wide class of field theories involving extra dimensions. We develop the canonical formalism for theories with the matter content that arises in string theory. General covariance and duality are used to determine the form of surface terms. We derive an effective theory (reduced Hamiltonian) for the hair in terms of horizon variables. Solution of the constraints expresses these variables in terms of hair accessible to an observer at infinity. We exhibit some general properties of the resulting theory, including a formal identification of the temperature and entropy. The Cveti\\v{c}-Youm dyon is described in some detail, as an important example.
Quantum mechanical generalization of the balistic electron wind theory
Lacina, A.
1980-06-01
The Fiks' quasiclassical theory of the electron wind force is quantum mechanically generalized. Within the framework of this generalization the space dependence of the electron wind force is calculated in the vicinity of an interface between two media. It is found that quantum corrections may be comparable with or even greater than corresponding quasiclassical values.
Generalized functions, volume 5 integral geometry and representation theory
Gel′fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya; Vilenkin, N Ya
2016-01-01
The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. The unif
Generalized functions, volume 6 representation theory and automorphic functions
Gel′fand, I M; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I
2016-01-01
The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. The unif
Generalized functions, volume 3 theory of differential equations
Gel′fand, I M
2016-01-01
The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. In Volum
General systems theory: implications for theory and action in occupational therapy.
Kielhofner, G
1978-11-01
This paper presents a description of the transformation of science under General Systems Theory, and the relationship of this transformation to the field of occupational therapy. Changes in scientific methods of proof and in scientific laws that underlie theory are discussed. The paper presents a scale for recognizing complexity in phenomena and for analyzing the appropriateness of theories designed to explain the phenomena. It also presents the theory of open systems as an alternative to mechanistic explanations of human behavior.
Generalized Møller-Plesset Partitioning in Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory.
Kobayashi, Masato; Szabados, Ágnes; Nakai, Hiromi; Surján, Péter R
2010-07-13
Two perturbation (PT) theories are developed starting from a multiconfiguration (MC) zero-order function. To span the configuration space, the theories employ biorthogonal vector sets introduced in the MCPT framework. At odds with previous formulations, the present construction operates with the full Fockian corresponding to a principal determinant, giving rise to a nondiagonal matrix of the zero-order resolvent. The theories provide a simple, generalized Møller-Plesset (MP) second-order correction to improve any reference function, corresponding either to a complete or incomplete model space. Computational demand of the procedure is determined by the iterative inversion of the Fockian, similarly to the single reference MP theory calculated in a localized basis. Relation of the theory to existing multireference (MR) PT formalisms is discussed. The performance of the present theories is assessed by adopting the antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminal (APSG) wave functions as the reference function.
Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiuping A. Wang
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.
Gauge Theory of the Generalized Symmetry on the Torus Membrane
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO WeiZhong; WANG Hong; ZHANG Jun
2001-01-01
The SDIFF(T2)local-generalized Kac-Moody G(T2) symmetry is an infinite-dimensional group on the torus membrane, whose Lie algebra is the semi-direct sum of the SDIFF(T2)local algebra and the generalized KacMoody algebra g(T2). In this paper, we construct the linearly realized gauge theory of the SDIFF(T2)loc1al-generalized Kac-Moody G(T2) symmetry.``
Three Dimensional Topological Field Theory induced from Generalized Complex Structure
Ikeda, N
2004-01-01
We construct a three-dimensional topological sigma model which is induced from a generalized complex structure on a target generalized complex manifold. This model is constructed from maps from a three-dimensional manifold $X$ to an arbitrary generalized complex manifold $M$. The theory is invariant under the diffeomorphism on the world volume and the $b$-transformation on the generalized complex structure. Moreover the model is manifestly invariant under the mirror symmetry. We derive from this model the Zucchini's two dimensional topological sigma model with a generalized complex structure as a boundary action on $\\partial X$. As a special case, we obtain three dimensional realization of a WZ-Poisson manifold.
General theory of light propagation and imaging through the atmosphere
McKechnie, T Stewart
2016-01-01
This book lays out a new, general theory of light propagation and imaging through Earth’s turbulent atmosphere. Current theory is based on the – now widely doubted – assumption of Kolmogorov turbulence. The new theory is based on a generalized atmosphere, the turbulence characteristics of which can be established, as needed, from readily measurable properties of point-object, or star, images. The pessimistic resolution predictions of Kolmogorov theory led to lax optical tolerance prescriptions for large ground-based astronomical telescopes which were widely adhered to in the 1970s and 1980s. Around 1990, however, it became clear that much better resolution was actually possible, and Kolmogorov tolerance prescriptions were promptly abandoned. Most large telescopes built before 1990 have had their optics upgraded (e.g., the UKIRT instrument) and now achieve, without adaptive optics (AO), almost an order of magnitude better resolution than before. As well as providing a more comprehensive and precise under...
Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory
Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L
2016-01-01
We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.
An extended Coleman-Noll procedure for generalized continuum theories
Hütter, Geralf
2016-11-01
Within rational continuum mechanics, the Coleman-Noll procedure is established to derive requirements to constitutive equations. Aiming in particular at generalized continuum theories, the present contribution demonstrates how this procedure can be extended to yield additionally the underlying balance equations of stress-type quantities. This is demonstrated for micromorphic and strain gradient media as well as for the microforce theory. The relation between the extended Coleman-Noll procedure and the method of virtual powers is pointed out.
General exact theory of autoresonance in nonautonomous systems
Chacon, Ricardo
2003-01-01
A general exact theory of autoresonance (self-sustained resonance) in both dissipative and Hamiltonian nonautonomous systems is presented. The equations that together govern the autoresonance solutions and excitations are derived with the aid of a variational principle concerning the power functional. The theory is applied to Duffing oscillators to obtain exact analytical expressions for autoresonance excitations and solutions which explain all the phenomenological and approximate results ari...
Generalized conservation laws in non-local field theories
Kegeles, Alexander; Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalized conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalization of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity.
The quantitation of buffering action II. Applications of the formal & general approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schmitt Bernhard M
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The paradigm of "buffering" originated in acid-base physiology, but was subsequently extended to other fields and is now used for a wide and diverse set of phenomena. In the preceding article, we have presented a formal and general approach to the quantitation of buffering action. Here, we use that buffering concept for a systematic treatment of selected classical and other buffering phenomena. Results H+ buffering by weak acids and "self-buffering" in pure water represent "conservative buffered systems" whose analysis reveals buffering properties that contrast in important aspects from classical textbook descriptions. The buffering of organ perfusion in the face of variable perfusion pressure (also termed "autoregulation" can be treated in terms of "non-conservative buffered systems", the general form of the concept. For the analysis of cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration transients (also termed "muffling", we develop a related unit that is able to faithfully reflect the time-dependent quantitative aspect of buffering during the pre-steady state period. Steady-state buffering is shown to represent the limiting case of time-dependent muffling, namely for infinitely long time intervals and infinitely small perturbations. Finally, our buffering concept provides a stringent definition of "buffering" on the level of systems and control theory, resulting in four absolute ratio scales for control performance that are suited to measure disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking, and both their static and dynamic aspects. Conclusion Our concept of buffering provides a powerful mathematical tool for the quantitation of buffering action in all its appearances.
The global formulation of generalized Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell theories
Lazaroiu, C
2016-01-01
We summarize the global geometric formulation of Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell theories twisted by flat symplectic vector bundle which encodes the duality structure of the theory. We describe the scalar-electromagnetic symmetry group of such models, which consists of flat unbased symplectic automorphisms of the flat symplectic vector bundle lifting those isometries of the scalar manifold which preserve the scalar potential. The Dirac quantization condition for such models involves a local system of integral symplectic spaces, giving rise to a bundle of polarized Abelian varieties equipped with a symplectic flat connection, which is defined over the scalar manifold of the theory. Generalized Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell models arise as the bosonic sector of the effective theory of string/M-theory compactifications to four-dimensions, and they are characterized by having non-trivial solutions of "U-fold" type.
A General Theory for Gauge-Free Lifting
Morrison, P. J.
2010-11-01
Given a Hamiltonian set of orbit equations, defined on a phase space of arbitrary dimension, with `forces' that depend explicitly on given electric and magentic fields and possibly all of their derivatives, how does one lift to a Hamiltonian kinetic theory coupled to Maxwell's equations? A general theory that answers this question will be presented. The theory produces magnetization and polarization effects in Maxwell's equations via a noncanonical Poisson bracket that generalizes that for the Vlasov-Maxwell systemootnotetextP.J. Morrison, Phys. Lett. 80A, 383 (1980); AIP Conference Proceedings 88, 13 (1982); J. Marsden and A. Weinstein, Physica 4D, 394 (1982).. Several examples will be treated, including the generalized guiding-center kinetic theory of Pfirsch and the authorootnotetextD. Pfirsch and P. J. Morrison, Phys. Rev. 32A, 1714 (1985); Phys. Fluids 3B, 271 (1991)., which relies on the introduction of redundant variables via Dirac constraint theory. Theories without the redundant variables are also being investigatedootnotetextA. Brizard et al., adjacent poster; P.J. Morrison and M. Vittot, research in progress..
Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamic in Modified Teleparallel Theory
Zubair, M
2016-01-01
This study is conducted to examine the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) in modified teleparallel gravity involving coupling between a scalar field with the torsion scalar and a boundary term. This theory is very useful since it can reproduce other well-known theories in suitable limits. The power law solution is employed to develop the constraints on coupling parameters for different theories of gravity in the background of thermodynamics properties for all potentials. We have also considered the logarithmic entropy corrected relation and discuss the GSLT both on apparent and event horizons. In case of entropy correction, we have constrained the coupling parameters for quartic and inverse potentials.
General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki
1998-03-01
The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)
Report on the second SEMAT workshop on general theory of software engineering (GTSE 2013)
Johnson, Pontus; Ralph, Paul; Goedicke, Michael; Ng, Pan-Wei; Stol, Klaas-Jan; Smolander, Kari; Exman, Iaakov; Perry, Dewayne E.
2013-01-01
peer-reviewed Software engineering needs a general theory, i.e., a theory that applies across the field and unifies existing empirical and theoretical work. General theories are common in other domains, such as physics. While many software engineering theories exist, no general theory of software engineering is evident. Consequently, this report reviews the emerging consensus on a general theory in software engineering from the Second SEMAT General Theory of Software E...
Lázaro-Lázaro, Edilio; Mendoza-Méndez, Patricia; Elizondo-Aguilera, Luis Fernando; Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Ramírez-González, Pedro Ezequiel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno
2017-05-01
A fundamental challenge of the theory of liquids is to understand the similarities and differences in the macroscopic dynamics of both colloidal and atomic liquids, which originate in the (Newtonian or Brownian) nature of the microscopic motion of their constituents. Starting from the recently discovered long-time dynamic equivalence between a colloidal and an atomic liquid that share the same interparticle pair potential, in this work we develop a self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory for the dynamics of equilibrium multicomponent atomic liquids, applicable as an approximate but quantitative theory describing the long-time diffusive dynamical properties of simple equilibrium atomic liquids. When complemented with a Gaussian-like approximation, this theory is also able to provide a reasonable representation of the passage from a ballistic to diffusive behavior. We illustrate the applicability of the resulting theory with three particular examples, namely, a monodisperse and a polydisperse monocomponent hard-sphere liquid and a highly size-asymmetric binary hard-sphere mixture. To assess the quantitative accuracy of our results, we perform event-driven molecular dynamics simulations, which corroborate the general features of the theoretical predictions.
1998-01-01
We systematically study the exclusion statistics for quasi-particles for Conformal Field Theory spectra by employing a method based on recursion relations for truncated spectra. Our examples include generalized fermions in c
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alba Lucero López Díaz
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Objetivos: caracterizar y analizar artículos que utilizan la Teoría General de Enfermería de Orem en el período de 1992 a 2001. Diseño y metodología: estudio documental sobre 108 artículos encontrados en las bases de datos: MEDLINE, OVID, PROQUEST y el Catálogo Colectivo Nacional de Publicaciones Seriadas- Hemeroteca Nacional (Colombia. Fueron seleccionados 74 artículos que utilizaron alguna de las teorías de Orem o conceptos de la Teoría General de Orem. Resultados: la Teoría General de Orem ha sido utilizada en cuatro continentes; 38 (51,3% estudios la aplican en el ámbito institucional y 21 (28,4% en la comunidad. Los adultos y ancianos son los grupos de edad con mayor reporte en los estudios (47,3%. Los métodos cuantitativos de investigación son los más utilizados (69 estudios, 93,2%. Conclusión: los estudios exploran o correlacionan conceptos de la Teoría General de Orem, el desarrollo de instrumentos y la validación de constructos teóricos. La evidencia empírica sobre la aplicación de la Teoría General de Orem muestra su importancia en el desarrollo del conocimiento en enfermería e indica su gran utilidad para la investigación y práctica de enfermería.Objective: analysis and characterization of articles about Orem General Theory used between 1992 to 2001. Methodology and Materials: documental study about 108 articles recorded in Medline, Ovid, Proquest databases and in the National Colective Catalogue of Periodicals Colombian newspapers library. Seventy four articles using some Orem’s General Theory were selected. Results: Orem’s General Theory has been applied in four continents. Thirty eight studies (51.3% use it in the institutional environment and 21 (28.4% in the community. Adults and senior citizens are the age groups more reported (47.3%. Quantitative research methods are the most common. Conclusions: sixty nine studies explore or correlate concepts from Orem’s General Theory, the development of
A Quantitative Causal Model Theory of Conditional Reasoning
Fernbach, Philip M.; Erb, Christopher D.
2013-01-01
The authors propose and test a causal model theory of reasoning about conditional arguments with causal content. According to the theory, the acceptability of modus ponens (MP) and affirming the consequent (AC) reflect the conditional likelihood of causes and effects based on a probabilistic causal model of the scenario being judged. Acceptability…
Generalized metric formulation of double field theory on group manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Bosque, Pascal du [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center für Theoretische Physik,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Hassler, Falk [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Lüst, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center für Theoretische Physik,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); CERN, PH-TH,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2015-08-13
We rewrite the recently derived cubic action of Double Field Theory on group manifolds http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)001 in terms of a generalized metric and extrapolate it to all orders in the fields. For the resulting action, we derive the field equations and state them in terms of a generalized curvature scalar and a generalized Ricci tensor. Compared to the generalized metric formulation of DFT derived from tori, all these quantities receive additional contributions related to the non-trivial background. It is shown that the action is invariant under its generalized diffeomorphisms and 2D-diffeomorphisms. Imposing additional constraints relating the background and fluctuations around it, the precise relation between the proposed generalized metric formulation of DFT{sub WZW} and of original DFT from tori is clarified. Furthermore, we show how to relate DFT{sub WZW} of the WZW background with the flux formulation of original DFT.
Generalized Metric Formulation of Double Field Theory on Group Manifolds
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Hassler, Falk; Lust, Dieter
2015-01-01
We rewrite the recently derived cubic action of Double Field Theory on group manifolds [arXiv:1410.6374] in terms of a generalized metric and extrapolate it to all orders in the fields. For the resulting action, we derive the field equations and state them in terms of a generalized curvature scalar and a generalized Ricci tensor. Compared to the generalized metric formulation of DFT derived from tori, all these quantities receive additional contributions related to the non-trivial background. It is shown that the action is invariant under its generalized diffeomorphisms and 2D-diffeomorphisms. Imposing additional constraints relating the background and fluctuations around it, the precise relation between the proposed generalized metric formulation of DFT${}_\\mathrm{WZW}$ and of original DFT from tori is clarified. Furthermore we show how to relate DFT${}_\\mathrm{WZW}$ of the WZW background with the flux formulation of original DFT.
Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Subenoy Chakraborty; Batul Chandra Santra; Nabajit Chakravarty
2003-10-01
In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous ﬂuid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been studied and some assumptions among the physical parameters and solutions have been discussed.
Towards a General Theory of Bilingual Legal Lexicography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Sandro
2003-01-01
As the need for intercultural communication in the field of law has increased, the foundation of a general theory of bilingual legal lexicography must be given priority. This paper introduces, describes and explains the elements necessary for compiling the optimal bilingual law dictionary. The th...
Confluence of general Schlesinger systems and Twistor theory
Kimura, Hironobu; Tseveennamjil, Damiran
2016-01-01
We give a description of confluence for the general Schlesinger systems (GSS) from the view point of twistor theory. GSS is a system of nonlinear di¤erential equations on the Grassmannian manifold $G_{2,N}(\\mathbf{C}$ which is obtained, for any partition $\\lambda$ of $N$, as the integrability condition of a connection $\
[General systems theory, analog models and essential arterial hypertension].
Indovina, I; Bonelli, M
1991-02-15
The application of the General System Theory to the fields of biology and particularly of medicine is fraught with many difficulties deriving from the mathematical complexities of application. The authors suggest that these difficulties can be overcome by applying analogical models, thus opening new prospects for the resolution of the manifold problems involved in connection with the study of arterial hypertension.
What Should Instructional Designers Know about General Systems Theory?
Salisbury, David F.
1989-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and explains the relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and GST. Benefits of integrating GST into the curriculum of ISD graduate programs are discussed, and a short bibliography on GST is included. (LRW)
Elements of the Theory of Generalized Inverses for Matrices.
Cline, Randall E.
This document is designed to provide a concise introduction to the theory of generalized inverses of matrices that is accessible to undergraduate mathematics majors. The approach used is to: (1) develop the material in terms of full-rank factorizations and to relegate all discussions using eigenvalues and eigenvectors to exercises, and (2) include…
Towards a General Theory of Bilingual Legal Lexicography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Sandro
2003-01-01
As the need for intercultural communication in the field of law has increased, the foundation of a general theory of bilingual legal lexicography must be given priority. This paper introduces, describes and explains the elements necessary for compiling the optimal bilingual law dictionary...
Variational analysis and generalized differentiation I basic theory
Mordukhovich, Boris S
2006-01-01
Contains a study of the basic concepts and principles of variational analysis and generalized differentiation in both finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces. This title presents many applications to problems in optimization, equilibria, stability and sensitivity, control theory, economics, mechanics, and more.
Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavela, Belen; Merlo, Luca [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States); CERN TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2016-09-15
We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in d dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χPT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to d dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to ℎ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χPT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT. (orig.)
Eu, Byung Chan
2016-01-01
This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...
Generalized information theory: aims, results, and open problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klir, George J
2004-09-01
The principal purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of generalized information theory (GIT): a research program whose objective is to develop a broad treatment of uncertainty-based information, not restricted to classical notions of uncertainty. After a brief overview of classical information theories, a broad framework for formalizing uncertainty and the associated uncertainty-based information of a great spectrum of conceivable types is sketched. The various theories of imprecise probabilities that have already been developed within this framework are then surveyed, focusing primarily on some important unifying principles applying to all these theories. This is followed by introducing two higher levels of the theories of imprecise probabilities: (i) the level of measuring the amount of relevant uncertainty (predictive, retrodictive, prescriptive, diagnostic, etc.) in any situation formalizable in each given theory, and (ii) the level of some methodological principles of uncertainty, which are contingent upon the capability to measure uncertainty and the associated uncertainty-based information. Various issues regarding both the measurement of uncertainty and the uncertainty principles are discussed. Again, the focus is on unifying principles applicable to all the theories. Finally, the current status of GIT is assessed and future research in the area is discussed.
A general theory of phase noise in electrical oscillators
Hajimiri, Ali; Lee, Thomas H.
1998-01-01
A general model is introduced which is capable of making accurate, quantitative predictions about the phase noise of different types of electrical oscillators by acknowledging the true periodically time-varying nature of all oscillators. This new approach also elucidates several previously unknown design criteria for reducing close-in phase noise by identifying the mechanisms by which intrinsic device noise and external noise sources contribute to the total phase noise. In particular, it expl...
Dynamical Gravitational Coupling as a Modified Theory of General Relativity
Finster, Felix
2016-01-01
A modified theory of general relativity is proposed, where the gravitational constant is replaced by a dynamical variable in space-time. The dynamics of the gravitational coupling is described by a family of parametrized null geodesics, implying that the gravitational coupling at a space-time point is determined by solving transport equations along all null geodesics through this point. General relativity with dynamical gravitational coupling (DGC) is introduced. We motivate DGC from general considerations and explain how it arises in the context of causal fermion systems. The underlying physical idea is that the gravitational coupling is determined by microscopic structures on the Planck scale which propagate with the speed of light. In order to clarify the mathematical structure, we analyze the conformal behavior and prove local existence and uniqueness of the time evolution. The differences to Einstein's theory are worked out in the examples of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and the spherically symme...
Theory of generalized tautology in revised Kleene system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper is a complement and extension of the theory of generalized tautology which was first proposed by Wang Guojun in revised Kleene system, Some interesting results are obtained: (i) accessible α+-tautology and generalized contradiction which are dual theory to generalized tautology have been introduced; (ii) congruence partition about has been given in logic system , W, Wk; (iii) in logic system Wk, tautologies can be obtained by employing the upgrade algorithm at most (k+1)/(2) times to an arbitrary formula; (iv) in logic system (W), tautologies cannot be obtained by employing upgrade algorithm to non-tautologies within finitely many times; (v) the deduction rule (1)/(2)+-MP holds in logic system (W).
Quantitative study of kinetic ballooning mode theory in simple geometry
Aleynikova, Ksenia; Zocco, Alessandro
2017-09-01
The theory of kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) in a magnetically confined toroidal plasma is studied analytically and numerically by means of gyrokinetic simulations. A physics-based ordering for β (the ratio of kinetic to magnetic plasma pressure) with small asymptotic parameters is found. This allows us to derive several simplified limits of previously known theories. We introduce a variational approach which provides explicit dispersion relations in terms of integrals of quadratic forms constructed from numerical eigenfunctions. It is found that, for large pressure gradients, the growth rate and frequencies computed by gyrokinetic codes show excellent agreement with those evaluated by using a diamagnetic modification of ideal magnetohydrodynamic if geometric drifts are kept consistent with the equilibrium pressure gradient. For moderate pressure gradients, a new finite-β formulation of the KBM theory is proposed. Also in this case, a good agreement between numerical simulations and analytical theory is found.
Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory (extended version)
Arnold, F.; Pieters, W.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, in
Generalization of Computer Assisted Prosody Training: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debra M. Hardison
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Two experiments investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted prosody training, its generalization to novel sentences and segmental accuracy, and the relationship between prosodic and lexical information in long-term memory. Experiment 1, using a pretest-posttest design, provided native English-speaking learners of French with 3 weeks of training focused on prosody using a real-time computerized pitch display. Multiple exemplars produced by native speakers (NSs of French and stored on hard disk provided training feedback. Learners' recorded pre- and posttest productions were presented to NSs for evaluation in two conditions: filtered (unintelligible segmental information and unfiltered. Ratings using 7-point scales for the prosody and segmental accuracy of unfiltered samples revealed significant improvement in prosody with generalization to segmental production and novel sentences. Comparison of prosody ratings for filtered and unfiltered samples revealed some segmental influence on the pretest ratings of prosody. In Experiment 2, involving a memory recall task using filtered stimuli of reduced intelligibility, learners identified the exact lexical content of an average of 80% of the training sentences based on prosodic cues consistent with exemplar-based learning models. Questionnaire responses indicated a greater awareness of the various aspects of speech and increased confidence in producing another language.
Gravitation experiments at Stanford. [using general relativity theory
Lipa, J. A.
1980-01-01
The experimental situation in post-Newtonian gravitation is briefly reviewed in order to reexamine the extent to which experiment supports or refutes general relativity. A description is given of the equivalence principle project, the gyroscope experiment, and the search for gravity waves. It is noted that even though some doubt has been cast on the value of the perihelion advance and the gravitational redshift as precise tests of general relativity in the past few years, many competing theories have been ruled out; in particular, the results from the Viking mission significantly reduce the credibility of the Brans-Dicke theory (Brans and Dicke, 1961). The dimensionless constant omega in this theory is now forced to exceed 50, while the value originally proposed was 6 (omega being infinity in general relativity). It is noted that the gyro experiment described is capable of putting much tighter limits on this parameter, and together with the other experiments in progress will help place gravitational theory on a firmer experimental footing.
On a Geometric Theory of Generalized Chiral Elasticity with Discontinuities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we develop, in a somewhat extensive manner, a geometric theory of chiral elasticity which in general is endowed with geometric discontinuities (sometimes referred to as defects. By itself, the present theory generalizes both Cosserat and void elasticity theories to a certain extent via geometrization as well as by taking intoaccount the action of the electromagnetic field, i.e., the incorporation of the electromagnetic field into the description of the so-called microspin (chirality also forms the underlying structure of this work. As we know, the description of the electromagnetic field as a unified phenomenon requires four-dimensional space-time rather than three-dimensional space as its background. For this reason we embed the three-dimensional material space in four-dimensional space-time. This way, the electromagnetic spin is coupled to the non-electromagnetic microspin, both being parts of the completemicrospin to be added to the macrospin in the full description of vorticity. In short, our objective is to generalize the existing continuum theories by especially describing microspin phenomena in a fully geometric way.
On a Geometric Theory of Generalized Chiral Elasticity with Discontinuities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we develop, in a somewhat extensive manner, a geometric theory of chiral elasticity which in general is endowed with geometric discontinuities (sometimes re- ferred to as defects . By itself, the present theory generalizes both Cosserat and void elasticity theories to a certain extent via geometrization as well as by taking into ac- count the action of the electromagnetic field, i.e., the incorporation of the electromag- netic field into the description of the so-called microspin ( chirality also forms the un- derlying structure of this work. As we know, the description of the electromagnetic field as a unified phenomenon requires four-dimensional space-time rather than three- dimensional space as its background. For this reason we embed the three-dimensional material space in four-dimensional space-time. This way, the electromagnetic spin is coupled to the non-electromagnetic microspin, both being parts of the complete mi- crospin to be added to the macrospin in the full description of vorticity. In short, our objective is to generalize the existing continuum theories by especially describing mi- crospin phenomena in a fully geometric way.
Entropy and information causality in general probabilistic theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnum, Howard; Leifer, Matthew; Spekkens, Robert [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Barrett, Jonathan [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Clark, Lisa Orloff; Stepanik, Nicholas; Wilce, Alex [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, PA 17870 (United States); Wilke, Robin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)], E-mail: hbarnum@perimeterinstitute.ca
2010-03-15
We investigate the concept of entropy in probabilistic theories more general than quantum mechanics, with particular reference to the notion of information causality (IC) recently proposed by Pawlowski et al (2009 arXiv:0905.2292). We consider two entropic quantities, which we term measurement and mixing entropy. In the context of classical and quantum theory, these coincide, being given by the Shannon and von Neumann entropies, respectively; in general, however, they are very different. In particular, while measurement entropy is easily seen to be concave, mixing entropy need not be. In fact, as we show, mixing entropy is not concave whenever the state space is a non-simplicial polytope. Thus, the condition that measurement and mixing entropies coincide is a strong constraint on possible theories. We call theories with this property monoentropic. Measurement entropy is subadditive, but not in general strongly subadditive. Equivalently, if we define the mutual information between two systems A and B by the usual formula I(A: B)=H(A)+H(B)-H(AB), where H denotes the measurement entropy and AB is a non-signaling composite of A and B, then it can happen that I(A:BC)theory in which measurement entropy is strongly subadditive, and also satisfies a version of the Holevo bound, is informationally causal, and on the other hand we observe that Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, which violate IC, also violate strong subadditivity. We also explore the interplay between measurement and mixing entropy and various natural conditions on theories that arise in quantum axiomatics.
Decoherence in Field Theory General Couplings and Slow Quenches
Lombardo, F C; Rivers, R J
2003-01-01
We study the onset of a classical order parameter after a second-order phase transition in quantum field theory. We consider a quantum scalar field theory in which the system-field (long-wavelength modes), interacts with its environment, represented both by a set of scalar fields and by its own short-wavelength modes. We compute the decoherence times for the system-field modes and compare them with the other time scales of the model. We analyze different couplings between the system and the environment for both instantaneous and slow quenches. Within our approximations decoherence is in general a short time event.
General System theory, Like-Quantum Semantics and Fuzzy Sets
Licata, Ignazio
2006-01-01
It is outlined the possibility to extend the quantum formalism in relation to the requirements of the general systems theory. It can be done by using a quantum semantics arising from the deep logical structure of quantum theory. It is so possible taking into account the logical openness relationship between observer and system. We are going to show how considering the truth-values of quantum propositions within the context of the fuzzy sets is here more useful for systemics . In conclusion we propose an example of formal quantum coherence.
Generalized absorber theory and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cramer, J.G.
1980-07-15
A generalized form of Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory is used to explain the quantum-mechanical paradox proposed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR). The advanced solutions of the electromagnetic wave equation and of relativistic quantum-mechanical wave equations are shown to play the role of ''verifier'' in quantum-mechanical ''transactions,'' providing microscopic communication paths between detectors across spacelike intervals in violation of the EPR locality postulate. The principle of causality is discussed in the context of this approach, and possibilities for experimental tests of the theory are examined.
Generalized absorber theory and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox
Cramer, John G.
1980-07-01
A generalized form of Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory is used to explain the quantum-mechanical paradox proposed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR). The advanced solutions of the electromagnetic wave equation and of relativistic quantum-mechanical wave equations are shown to play the role of "verifier" in quantum-mechanical "transactions," providing microscopic communication paths between detectors across spacelike intervals in violation of the EPR locality postulate. The principle of causality is discussed in the context of this approach, and possibilities for experimental tests of the theory are examined.
General Relativity as AN ÆTHER Theory
Dupré, Maurice J.; Tipler, Frank J.
Most early twentieth century relativists — Lorentz, Einstein, Eddington, for examples — claimed that general relativity was merely a theory of the æther. We shall confirm this claim by deriving the Einstein equations using æther theory. We shall use a combination of Lorentz's and Kelvin's conception of the æther. Our derivation of the Einstein equations will not use the vanishing of the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor, but instead equate the Ricci tensor to the sum of the usual stress-energy tensor and a stress-energy tensor for the æther, a tensor based on Kelvin's æther theory. A crucial first step is generalizing the Cartan formalism of Newtonian gravity to allow spatial curvature, as conjectured by Gauss and Riemann. In essence, we shall show that the Einstein equations are a special case of Newtonian gravity coupled to a particular type of luminiferous æther. Our derivation of general relativity is simple, and it emphasizes how inevitable general relativity is, given the truth of Newtonian gravity and the Maxwell equations.
Léon Rosenfeld's general theory of constrained Hamiltonian dynamics
Salisbury, Donald; Sundermeyer, Kurt
2017-01-01
This commentary reflects on the 1930 general theory of Léon Rosenfeld dealing with phase-space constraints. We start with a short biography of Rosenfeld and his motivation for this article in the context of ideas pursued by W. Pauli, F. Klein, E. Noether. We then comment on Rosenfeld's General Theory dealing with symmetries and constraints, symmetry generators, conservation laws and the construction of a Hamiltonian in the case of phase-space constraints. It is remarkable that he was able to derive expressions for all phase space symmetry generators without making explicit reference to the generator of time evolution. In his Applications, Rosenfeld treated the general relativistic example of Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac theory. We show, that although Rosenfeld refrained from fully applying his general findings to this example, he could have obtained the Hamiltonian. Many of Rosenfeld's discoveries were re-developed or re-discovered by others two decades later, yet as we show there remain additional firsts that are still not recognized in the community.
A Quantitative Theory of Information and Unsecured Credit
Kartik Athreya
2008-01-01
Over the past three decades four striking features of aggregates in the unsecured credit market have been documented: (1) rising availability of credit along both the intensive and extensive margins, (2) rising debt accumulation, (3) rising bankruptcy rates and discharge in bankruptcy, and (4) rising dispersion in interest rates across households. We provide a quantitative model of unsecured credit to interpret these facts; a novel contribution is that we allow for asymmetric information with...
Suggestions on Quantitative Business Cycle Theory (Annual Survey)
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
1935-01-01
textabstractThe aim of business cycle theory is to explain certain movements of economic variables. Therefore, the basic question to be answered is in what ways movements of variables may be generated. In answering this question it is useful to distinguish between exogen and endogen movements, the
General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters
Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank
2014-01-01
In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.
A General Theory of Markovian Time Inconsistent Stochastic Control Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Björk, Tomas; Murgochi, Agatha
We develop a theory for stochastic control problems which, in various ways, are time inconsistent in the sense that they do not admit a Bellman optimality principle. We attach these problems by viewing them within a game theoretic framework, and we look for Nash subgame perfect equilibrium points...... examples of time inconsistency in the literature are easily seen to be special cases of the present theory. We also prove that for every time inconsistent problem, there exists an associated time consistent problem such that the optimal control and the optimal value function for the consistent problem....... For a general controlled Markov process and a fairly general objective functional we derive an extension of the standard Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, in the form of a system of on-linear equations, for the determination for the equilibrium strategy as well as the equilibrium value function. All known...
Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malterud, Kirsti
2016-01-01
Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches. Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...
Generalized energy conditions in Extended Theories of Gravity
Capozziello, Salvatore; Mimoso, José P
2014-01-01
Theories of physics can be considered viable if the initial value problem and the energy conditions are formulated self-consistently. The former allow a uniquely determined dynamical evolution of the system, and the latter guarantee that causality is preserved and that "plausible" physical sources have been considered. In this work, we consider the further degrees of freedom related to curvature invariants and scalar fields in Extended Theories of Gravity (ETG). These new degrees of freedom can be recast as effective perfect fluids that carry different meanings with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. It is thus somewhat misleading to apply the standard general relativistic energy conditions to this effective energy-momentum, as the latter contains the matter content and a geometrical quantity, which arises from the ETG considered. Here, we explore this subtlety, extending on previous work, in particular, to cases with the contracted Bianchi identities wi...
General theories for the electrical transport properties of carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, L T; Nanda, K K, E-mail: nanda@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)
2011-08-05
We have shown that the general theories of metals and semiconductors can be employed to understand the diameter and voltage dependency of current through metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes, respectively. The current through a semiconducting multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is associated with the energy gap that is different for different shells. The contribution of the outermost shell is larger as compared to the inner shells. The general theories can also explain the diameter dependency of maximum current through nanotubes. We have also compared the current carrying ability of a MWCNT and an array of the same diameter of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and found that MWCNTs are better suited and deserve further investigation for possible applications as interconnects.
Unification of General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NI Jun
2011-01-01
In the frame of quantum field theory, instead of using the action principle, we deduce the Einstein equation from purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime. The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation. Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum. In the action of quantum field theory, only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.%In the frame of quantum field theory,instead of using the action principle,we deduce the Einstein equation trom purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime.The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation.Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum.In the action of quantum field theory,only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.An unified physical theory of all interactions is a long pursued goal for physicists.The unification of electricity and magnetism by Maxwell was a great step in this direction.It is believed that in nature,there are four types of fundamental interactions:the electromagnetic interaction,weak interaction,strong interaction and gravity.Now the electromagnetic,weak and strong interactions are unified using the so-called standard model,[1] based on the Yang-Mills gauge field theory.[2] However,researchers are still not be able to unify gravitation with the other three interactions.
A Possible Modification of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Shang-Wu
2004-01-01
This article suggests a new metric theory of gravitation, in which metric field is determined not only by matter and nongravitational field but also by vector graviton field, and in principle there is no need to introduce the Einstein's tensor. In order to satisfy automatically the geodesic postulate, an additional coordinate condition is needed.For the spherically symmetric static field, it leads us to quite different conclusions from those of Einstein's general relativity in the interior region of the surface of infinite redshift. Accurate to the first order of GM/r, it obtains the same results about the four experimental tests of general relativity.
A Generalized Sampling Theory without Band-Limiting Constraints
Unser, M.; Zerubia, J.
1998-01-01
We consider the problem of the reconstruction of a continuous-time function f(x) ∈ H from the samples of the responses of m linear shift-invariant systems sampled at 1 ⁄ m the reconstruction rate. We extend Papoulis' generalized sampling theory in two important respects. First, our class of admissible input signals (typ. H = $ L _{ 2 } $ ) is considerably larger than the subspace of bandlimited functions. Second, we use a more general specification of the reconstruction subspace V(φ), so that...
[General systems theory, a mental frame for geriatric psychiatry].
Lit, A C
1984-12-01
Though psychogeriatrics is becoming a word of common usage, it is not a word of common meaning. This is a consequence of the lack of a generally accepted theoretical model regarding the complex and multiple pathology of the psychiatric disturbances of older people. On epistemological grounds the author stresses the necessity of a common theoretical concept and as such introduces the General System Theory. The systems approach then shows that the word 'psychogeriatrics' is rooted in a reductionistic concept of man. In order to avoid this the author prefers 'psychiatry of old age' to cover the broad field of the psychiatric disturbances of the elderly.
Entropy, majorization and thermodynamics in general probabilistic theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Howard Barnum
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this note we lay some groundwork for the resource theory of thermodynamics in general probabilistic theories (GPTs. We consider theories satisfying a purely convex abstraction of the spectral decomposition of density matrices: that every state has a decomposition, with unique probabilities, into perfectly distinguishable pure states. The spectral entropy, and analogues using other Schur-concave functions, can be defined as the entropy of these probabilities. We describe additional conditions under which the outcome probabilities of a fine-grained measurement are majorized by those for a spectral measurement, and therefore the "spectral entropy" is the measurement entropy (and therefore concave. These conditions are (1 projectivity, which abstracts aspects of the Lueders-von Neumann projection postulate in quantum theory, in particular that every face of the state space is the positive part of the image of a certain kind of projection operator called a filter; and (2 symmetry of transition probabilities. The conjunction of these, as shown earlier by Araki, is equivalent to a strong geometric property of the unnormalized state cone known as perfection: that there is an inner product according to which every face of the cone, including the cone itself, is self-dual. Using some assumptions about the thermodynamic cost of certain processes that are partially motivated by our postulates, especially projectivity, we extend von Neumann's argument that the thermodynamic entropy of a quantum system is its spectral entropy to generalized probabilistic systems satisfying spectrality.
A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens
We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose......-valued and smooth in their arguments. We also give sufficient conditions for integrability of perturbed demand. Our analysis provides a foundation for applications of consumer theory to problems with nonlinear budget constraints....
Renormalization in general theories with inter-generation mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Sirlin, Alberto [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
2011-11-15
We derive general and explicit expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of fermions in parity-nonconserving theories with inter-generation mixing. The mass eigenvalues, the corresponding mass counterterms, and the effect of inter-generation mixing on their determination are discussed. Invoking the Aoki-Hioki-Kawabe-Konuma-Muta renormalization conditions and employing a number of very useful relations from Matrix Algebra, we show explicitly that the renormalized dressed propagators satisfy important physical properties. (orig.)
CONCEPTS OF GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY APPLIED ON GOODS
Bogdan Onete
2007-01-01
The General Systems Theory is one of the most important points of view nowadays. Now, its concepts could be applied in a various number of sciences including Consumer Sciences. The complexity of the product, the different way in which it can be seen and also the exponentially diversifying assortment requires another approach to the product, through models. This approach must take into account certain particularities which do not appear in a regular modelling
The concept of hierarchy in general systems theory.
Gasparski, W
1994-01-01
The paper reviews main ideas related to the concept of hierarchy as they are discussed in contemporary general systems theory. After presenting a dictionary definition of the concept, the author examines the intuitive idea of hierarchy quoting Mario Bunge's notion of level structure. Then relationship between two other concepts: a system and a hierarchy is characterised on the bases of Bowler's, Bunge's again, Klir's, and the author's studies. Finally, the paper is concluded that hierarchy is not an otological concept but epistemological one.
Generalized Poisson processes in quantum mechanics and field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Faculte des Sciences de Luminy); Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.
1981-11-01
In section 2 we describe more carefully the generalized Poisson processes, giving a realization of the underlying probability space, and we characterize these processes by their characteristic functionals. Section 3 is devoted to the proof of the previous formula for quantum mechanical systems, with possibly velocity dependent potentials and in section 4 we give an application of the previous theory to some relativistic Bose field models.
Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Tessarotto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.
Gallo, Emanuel
2016-01-01
We present a general approach for the formulation of equations of motion for compact objects in general relativistic theories. The particle is assumed to be moving in a geometric background which in turn is asymptotically flat. By construction, the model incorporates the back reaction due to gravitational radiation generated by the motion of the particle. Our approach differs from other constructions tackling the same kind of problem.
Stringy horizons and generalized FZZ duality in perturbation theory
Giribet, Gaston
2017-02-01
We study scattering amplitudes in two-dimensional string theory on a black hole bakground. We start with a simple derivation of the Fateev-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov (FZZ) duality, which associates correlation functions of the sine-Liouville integrable model on the Riemann sphere to tree-level string amplitudes on the Euclidean two-dimensional black hole. This derivation of FZZ duality is based on perturbation theory, and it relies on a trick originally due to Fateev, which involves duality relations between different Selberg type integrals. This enables us to rewrite the correlation functions of sine-Liouville theory in terms of a special set of correlators in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) theory, and use this to perform further consistency checks of the recently conjectured Generalized FZZ (GFZZ) duality. In particular, we prove that n-point correlation functions in sine-Liouville theory involving n - 2 winding modes actually coincide with the correlation functions in the SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZW model that include n - 2 oscillator operators of the type described by Giveon, Itzhaki and Kutasov in reference [1]. This proves the GFZZ duality for the case of tree level maximally winding violating n-point amplitudes with arbitrary n. We also comment on the connection between GFZZ and other marginal deformations previously considered in the literature.
Stringy horizons and generalized FZZ duality in perturbation theory
Giribet, Gaston
2016-01-01
We study scattering amplitudes in two-dimensional string theory on a black hole bakground. We start with a simple derivation of the Fateev-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov (FZZ) duality, which associates correlation functions of the sine-Liouville integrable model on the Riemann sphere to tree-level string amplitudes on the Euclidean two-dimensional black hole. This derivation of FZZ duality is based on perturbation theory, and it relies on a trick originally due to Fateev, which involves duality relations between different Selberg type integrals. This enables us to rewrite the correlation functions of sine-Liouville theory in terms of a special set of correlators in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) theory, and use this to perform further consistency checks of the recently conjectured Generalized FZZ (GFZZ) duality. In particular, we prove that n-point correlation functions in sine-Liouville theory involving n-2 winding modes actually coincide with the correlation functions in the SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZW model ...
Quantitative results of stellar evolution and pulsation theories.
Fricke, K.; Stobie, R. S.; Strittmatter, P. A.
1971-01-01
The discrepancy between the masses of Cepheid variables deduced from evolution theory and pulsation theory is examined. The effect of input physics on evolutionary tracks is first discussed; in particular, changes in the opacity are considered. The sensitivity of pulsation masses to opacity changes and to the ascribed values of luminosity and effective temperature are then analyzed. The Cepheid mass discrepancy is discussed in the light of the results already obtained. Other astronomical evidence, including the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars, the solar neutrino flux, and cluster ages are also considered in an attempt to determine the most likely source of error in the event that substantial mass loss has not occurred.
Smalley, L. L.
1983-01-01
The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.
LeGare, M
1987-04-01
The general designations of neural systems and their levels of organization as presently applied in the neurosciences are described as being at variance with rigorous systems thinking. It is proposed that the rule-driven use of systems terminology and hierarchies would facilitate investigations of neural functioning in the natural case. General systems theory with its major propositions for hierarchical organization, open systems, and equifinality, is presented as providing the guidelines for developing systems-type theories for neuroscience investigations. General systems theory as metatheory is also used to evaluate hierarchies and systems designations in the neurosciences as these concepts are now applied in theories, models, and research. The metatheory is comprised of three sets of rules: the criteria for hierarchies; the properties of the open biological system; the criteria for the final conditions of open biological systems. The notion of the discovery of neural systems is contrasted with the apparent design of systems as frequently practiced by neuroscientists. The metatheory is summarized as directions for developing theories and as questions directed toward any neuroscience theory proposing levels of organization and systems.
Martin, Guillaume; Aguilée, Robin; Ramsayer, Johan; Kaltz, Oliver; Ronce, Ophélie
2013-01-19
Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population genetically adapts to a new stressful environment that would otherwise cause its extinction. Forecasting the probability of persistence under stress, including emergence of drug resistance as a special case of interest, requires experimentally validated quantitative predictions. Here, we propose general analytical predictions, based on diffusion approximations, for the probability of evolutionary rescue. We assume a narrow genetic basis for adaptation to stress, as is often the case for drug resistance. First, we extend the rescue model of Orr & Unckless (Am. Nat. 2008 172, 160-169) to a broader demographic and genetic context, allowing the model to apply to empirical systems with variation among mutation effects on demography, overlapping generations and bottlenecks, all common features of microbial populations. Second, we confront our predictions of rescue probability with two datasets from experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (bacterium). The tests show the qualitative agreement between the model and observed patterns, and illustrate how biologically relevant quantities, such as the per capita rate of rescue, can be estimated from fits of empirical data. Finally, we use the results of the model to suggest further, more quantitative, tests of evolutionary rescue theory.
A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories
Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G; Noller, Johannes
2016-01-01
We present a method for parametrizing linear cosmological perturbations of theories of gravity, around homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds. The method is sufficiently general and systematic that it can be applied to theories with any degrees of freedom (DoFs) and arbitrary gauge symmetries. In this paper, we focus on scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, invariant under linear coordinate transformations. In the case of scalar-tensor theories, we use our framework to recover the simple parametrizations of linearized Horndeski and "Beyond Horndeski" theories, and also find higher-derivative corrections. In the case of vector-tensor theories, we first construct the most general quadratic action for perturbations that leads to second-order equations of motion, which propagates two scalar DoFs. Then we specialize to the case in which the vector field is time-like (\\`a la Einstein-Aether gravity), where the theory only propagates one scalar DoF. As a result, we identify the complete forms of the quadratic act...
Quantitative genetics theory for non-inbred populations in linkage disequilibrium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Marcelo Soriano Viana
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Although linkage disequilibrium, epistasis and inbreeding are common phenomena in genetic systems that control quantitative traits, theory development and analysis are very complex, especially when they are considered together. The objective of this study is to offer additional quantitative genetics theory to define and analyze, in relation to non-inbred cross pollinating populations, components of genotypic variance, heritabilities and predicted gains, assuming linkage disequilibrium and absence of epistasis. The genotypic variance and its components, additive and due to dominance genetic variances, are invariant over the generations only in regard to completely linked genes and to those in equilibrium. When the population is structured in half-sib families, the additive variance in the parents' generation and the genotypic variance in the population can be estimated. When the population is structured in full-sib families, none of the components of genotypic variance can be estimated. The narrow sense heritability level at plant level can be estimated from the parent-offspring or mid parent-offspring regression. When there is dominance, the narrow sense heritability estimate in the in F2 is biased due to linkage disequilibrium when estimated by the Warner method, but not when estimated by means of the plant F2-family F3 regression. The bias is proportional to the number of pairs of linked genes, without independent assortment, and to the degree of dominance, and tends to be positive when genes in the coupling phase predominate or negative and of higher value when genes in the repulsion phase predominate. Linkage disequilibrium is also cause of bias in estimates of the narrow sense heritabilities at full-sib family mean and at plant within half-sib and full-sib families levels. Generally, the magnitude of the bias is proportional to the number of pairs of genes in disequilibrium and to the frequency of recombining gametes.
Gauge-ready formulation of the cosmological kinetic theory in generalized gravity theories
Hwang, J
2002-01-01
We present cosmological perturbations of kinetic components based on relativistic Boltzmann equations in the context of generalized gravity theories. Our general theory considers an arbitrary number of scalar fields generally coupled with the gravity, an arbitrary number of mutually interacting hydrodynamic fluids, and components described by the relativistic Boltzmann equations like massive/massless collisionless particles and the photon. The model includes the general background spatial curvature and the cosmological constant. We consider three different types of perturbations, and all the scalar-type perturbation equations are arranged in a gauge-ready form so that one can implement easily the convenient gauge conditions depending on the situation. In the numerical calculation of the Boltzmann equations we found two new gauge conditions (the uniform-expansion gauge and the uniform-curvature gauge) which show better behavior than the previously employed gauge conditions in the literature. In particular, we ...
Prospect theory in the health domain: a quantitative assessment.
Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F; I'Haridon, Olivier
2013-12-01
It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, CPT's full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in this domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilistic pessimism. Utility for gains is almost linear. For losses, we find less weighting of probability 1/2 and concave utility. This contrasts with the common finding of convex utility for monetary losses. However, CPT was proposed to explain choices among lotteries involving monetary outcomes. Life years are arguably very different from monetary outcomes and need not generate convex utility for losses. Moreover, utility of life duration reflects discounting, causing concave utility.
Subsonic potential aerodynamics for complex configurations - A general theory
Morino, L.; Kuo, C.-C.
1974-01-01
A general theory of subsonic potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green function method, an integral representation for the velocity potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. Under the small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body. On the surface of the body, this representation reduces to an integro-differential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative (which is known from the boundary conditions) on the surface. The theory is applied to finite-thickness wings in subsonic steady and oscillatory flows.
Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Yangping; LU Dechun; ZHOU Annan; ZOU Bo
2004-01-01
Based on the test data of frictional materials and previous research achievements in this field, a generalized non-linear strength theory (GNST) is proposed. It describes non-linear strength properties on the π-plane and the meridian plane using a unified formula, and it includes almost all the present non-linear strength theories, which can be used in just one material. The shape of failure function of the GNST is a smooth curve between the SMP criterion and the Mises criterion on the π-plane, and an exponential curve on the meridian plane. Through the transformed stress space based on the GNST, the combination of the GNST and various constitutive models using p and q as stress parameters can be realized simply and rationally in three-dimensional stress state.
Generalized cable theory for neurons in complex and heterogeneous media.
Bédard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain
2013-08-01
Cable theory has been developed over the last decade, usually assuming that the extracellular space around membranes is a perfect resistor. However, extracellular media may display more complex electrical properties due to various phenomena, such as polarization, ionic diffusion, or capacitive effects, but their impact on cable properties is not known. In this paper, we generalize cable theory for membranes embedded in arbitrarily complex extracellular media. We outline the generalized cable equations, then consider specific cases. The simplest case is a resistive medium, in which case the equations recover the traditional cable equations. We show that for more complex media, for example, in the presence of ionic diffusion, the impact on cable properties such as voltage attenuation can be significant. We illustrate this numerically, always by comparing the generalized cable to the traditional cable. We conclude that the nature of intracellular and extracellular media may have a strong influence on cable filtering as well as on the passive integrative properties of neurons.
Potential Performance Theory (PPT): A General Theory of Task Performance Applied to Morality
Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen
2008-01-01
People can use a variety of different strategies to perform tasks and these strategies all have two characteristics in common. First, they can be evaluated in comparison with either an absolute or a relative standard. Second, they can be used at varying levels of consistency. In the present article, the authors develop a general theory of task…
Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes
Fiorini, Samuel; Massar, Serge; Patra, Manas K.; Tiwary, Hans Raj
2015-01-01
Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in {{{R}}n}, the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by log n. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization.
General Theory of Spontaneous Emission Near Exceptional Points
Pick, Adi; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljacic, Marin; Johnson, Steven G
2016-01-01
Exceptional points (EPs)---non-Hermitian degeneracies where both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors coalesce---have recently been realized in various optical systems. Here we present a general theory of spontaneous emission near such degeneracies, where standard mode-expansion methods lead to erroneous divergent results. We show that significant (and finite) enhancements for light-matter interaction can occur in systems with gain, whereas in passive systems the enhancement is at most four-fold. Under special conditions, the emission spectral lineshape near the EP becomes a squared Lorentzian, and the enhancement scales quadratically with the resonance lifetime.
Fracton topological order, generalized lattice gauge theory, and duality
Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan; Fu, Liang
2016-12-01
We introduce a generalization of conventional lattice gauge theory to describe fracton topological phases, which are characterized by immobile, pointlike topological excitations, and subextensive topological degeneracy. We demonstrate a duality between fracton topological order and interacting spin systems with symmetries along extensive, lower-dimensional subsystems, which may be used to systematically search for and characterize fracton topological phases. Commutative algebra and elementary algebraic geometry provide an effective mathematical tool set for our results. Our work paves the way for identifying possible material realizations of fracton topological phases.
Branes from Moyal Deformation Quantization of Generalized Yang Mills Theories
Castro, C
1999-01-01
It is shown that a Moyal deformation quantization of the SO(4k) Generalized Yang-Mills (GYM) theory action in D=4k dimensions, for spacetime independent field configurations, in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit, yields the Dolan-Tchrakian p-brane action after fixing the conformal and world volume reparametrization invariance, associated with the p-brane world volume dimension p+1=4k, embedded in a D=4k target spacetime background. The gauge fields/target spacetime coordinates correspondence is required but no large N limit is necessary.
The arrow of electromagnetic time and the generalized absorber theory
Cramer, John G.
1983-09-01
The problem of the direction of electromagnetic time, i.e., the complete dominance of retarded electromagnetic radiation over advanced radiation in the universe, is considered in the context of a generalized form of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in an open expanding universe with a singularity at T=0. It is shown that the application of a four-vector reflection boundary condition at the singularity leads to the observed dominance of retarded radiation; it also clarifies the role of advanced and retarded waves in the emission of very weakly absorbed radiation such as neutrinos.
Arrow of electromagnetic time and the generalized absorber theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cramer, J.G.
1983-09-01
The problem of the direction of electromagnetic time, i.e., the complete dominance of retarded electromagnetic radiation over advanced radiation in the universe, is considered in the context of a generalized form of the Wheeler--Feynman absorber theory in an open expanding universe with a singularity at T = 0. It is shown that the application of a four-vector reflection boundary condition at the singularity leads to the observed dominance of retarded radiation; it also clarifies the role of advanced and retarded waves in the emission of very weakly absorbed radiation such as neutrinos.
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2016-01-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize t...
The Main General Didactical Principles of Glotoeducological Theory and Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Regina Juškienė
2011-04-01
Full Text Available As a pedagogical discipline glotoeducology is related to didactics, i. e. teaching theory. Three concepts of didactics are being distinguished: teaching, teaching principles and types of teaching activity. The authors limited themselves in their paper on one of them, namely: teaching principles that determine the usage of teaching regularities in the course of implementation of the objectives of teaching and education. The article also provides analysis of interaction of linguodidactical principles with general didactical principles, the impact thereof to teaching of foreign languages.
Noncommutative Field Theory With General Translation Invariant Star Products
Rivera, Manolo
2015-01-01
We compute the two-point and four-point Green's function of the noncommutative $\\phi^{4}$ field theory; first with the s-ordered star products and then with a general translation invariant star product. We derive the differential expression for any translation invariant star product, and with the help of this expression we show that any of these products can be written in terms of a twist. Finally, using the notion of the twisted action of the infinitesimal Poincar\\'e transformations, we show that the commutator between the coordinate functions is invariant under Poincar\\'e transformations at a deformed level.
General theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the linear transport theory.
Kanal, M.
1972-01-01
A general theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the one-speed neutron transport theory is presented. The formulation is also applicable to the 'gray' problems of radiative transfer. The Green's function for the purely absorbing medium is utilized in obtaining the normal mode expansion of the angular densities for both interior and exterior problems. As the integral equations for unknown coefficients are regular, a general class of reduction operators is introduced to reduce such regular integral equations to singular ones with a Cauchy-type kernel. Such operators then permit one to solve the singular integral equations by the standard techniques due to Muskhelishvili. We discuss several spherically symmetric problems. However, the treatment is kept sufficiently general to deal with problems lacking azimuthal symmetry. In particular the procedure seems to work for regions whose boundary coincides with one of the coordinate surfaces for which the Helmholtz equation is separable.
Application of Neutrosophic Set Theory in Generalized Assignment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Kar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Neutrosophic Set Theory (NST in solving Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP. GAP has been solved earlier under fuzzy environment. NST is a generalization of the concept of classical set, fuzzy set, interval-valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set. Elements of Neutrosophic set are characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity and also indeterminacy which is a more realistic way of expressing the parameters in real life problem. Here the elements of the cost matrix for the GAP are considered as neutrosophic elements which have not been considered earlier by any other author. The problem has been solved by evaluating score function matrix and then solving it by Extremum Difference Method (EDM [1] to get the optimal assignment. The method has been demonstrated by a suitable numerical example.
The trouble with psychopathy as a general theory of crime.
Walters, Glenn D
2004-04-01
The concept of psychopathy, as defined by Robert Hare, is reviewed with respect to its status as a general theory of crime. A hybrid of the medical pathology model and personality trait approach, the psychopathy concept proposes that a significant portion of serious crime is committed by psychopathic individuals. Hare's version of psychopathy, besides demonstrating weak applicability and a propensity for tautology, is subject to labeling effects, oversimplicity, reductionism, the fundamental attributional error, inattention to context, and disregard for the dynamic nature of human behavior. It is concluded that the psychopathy concept is substantially limited with respect to its ability to describe and clarify general criminal behavior but that it may still have value as a partial explanation for certain types of non-criminal predatory behavior.
General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.
2006-01-01
The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.
Tensor perturbations in a general class of Palatini theories
Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Olmo, Gonzalo J
2015-01-01
We study a general class of gravitational theories formulated in the Palatini approach and derive the equations governing the evolution of tensor perturbations. In the absence of torsion, the connection can be solved as the Christoffel symbols of an auxiliary metric which is non-trivially related to the space-time metric. We then consider background solutions corresponding to a perfect fluid and show that the tensor perturbations equations (including anisotropic stresses) for the auxiliary metric around such a background take an Einstein-like form. This facilitates the study in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological scenario where we explicitly establish the relation between the auxiliary metric and the space-time metric tensor perturbations. As a general result, we show that both tensor perturbations coincide in the absence of anisotropic stresses.
Tensor perturbations in a general class of Palatini theories
Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Olmo, Gonzalo J.
2015-06-01
We study a general class of gravitational theories formulated in the Palatini approach and derive the equations governing the evolution of tensor perturbations. In the absence of torsion, the connection can be solved as the Christoffel symbols of an auxiliary metric which is non-trivially related to the space-time metric. We then consider background solutions corresponding to a perfect fluid and show that the tensor perturbations equations (including anisotropic stresses) for the auxiliary metric around such a background take an Einstein-like form. This facilitates the study in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological scenario where we explicitly establish the relation between the auxiliary metric and the space-time metric tensor perturbations. As a general result, we show that both tensor perturbations coincide in the absence of anisotropic stresses.
Extended Theories of Gravity with Generalized Energy Conditions
Mimoso, José P; Capozziello, Salvatore
2014-01-01
We address the problem of the energy conditions in modified gravity taking into account the additional degrees of freedom related to scalar fields and curvature invariants. The latter are usually interpreted as generalized {\\it geometrical fluids} that differ in meaning with respect to the matter fluids generally considered as sources of the field equations. In extended gravity theories the curvature terms are encapsulated in a tensor $H^{ab}$ and a coupling $g(\\Psi^i)$ that can be recast as effective Einstein field equations, with corrections to the energy-momentum tensor of matter. The formal validity of standard energy inequalities does not assure basic requirements such as the attractive nature of gravity, so we argue that the energy conditions have to be considered in a wider sense.
Barbosa-Cendejas, Nandinii; Kanakoglou, Konstantinos; Paschalis, Joannis E
2011-01-01
In this paper we recall a simple formulation of the stationary electrovacuum theory in terms of the famous complex Ernst potentials, a pair of functions which allows one to generate new exact solutions from known ones by means of the so-called nonlinear hidden symmetries of Lie-Backlund type. This formalism turned out to be very useful to perform a complete classification of all 4D solutions which present two spacetime symmetries or possess two Killing vectors. Curiously enough, the Ernst formalism can be extended and applied to stationary General Relativity as well as the effective heterotic string theory reduced down to three spatial dimensions by means of a (real) matrix generalization of the Ernst potentials. Thus, in this theory one can also make use of nonlinear matrix hidden symmetries in order to generate new exact solutions from seed ones. Due to the explicit independence of the matrix Ernst potential formalism of the original theory (prior to dimensional reduction) on the dimension D, in the case wh...
Einstein's general theory of relativity with modern applications in cosmology
Grøn, Øyvind
2007-01-01
Many of us have experienced the same; fallen and broken something. Yet supposedly, gravity is the weakest of the fundamental forces; it is claimed to be 10-15 times weaker than electromagnetism. Still, every one of us has more or less had a personal relationship with gravity. Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity: With Modern Applications in Cosmology by Oyvind Gron and Sigbjorn Hervik is about gravity and the concept of gravity as Albert Einstein saw it- curved spaces, four-dimensional manifolds and geodesics. The book starts with the 1st principals of relativity and an introduction to Einstein’s field equations. Next up are the three classical tests of the relativity theory and an introduction to black holes. The book contains several topics not found in other textbooks, such as Kaluza-Klein theory, anisotropic models of the universe, and new developments involving brane cosmology. Gron and Hervik have included a part in the book called "Advanced Topics." These topics range from the very edge of resea...
A general theory of mechanical instabilities in soft solids
Hohlfeld, Evan; Mahadevan, L.
2011-03-01
Some instabilities in soft solids, e.g. buckling and wrinkling, can be detected in linearized analysis. Surprisingly, linearly stable configurations can still have nonlinear instabilities with strictly zero energy barrier. Two examples are cavitation (formation of voids) and sulcification (formation of sharply creased free surface folds), wherein singularities nucleate and grow when a critical strain is achieved. Here we present the first general theory of stability in nonlinearly elastic materials. The theory predicts when singularities spontaneously form, irrespective of linearized analysis, and how these can be controlled with geometry. Such ``hidden'' instabilities arise from the scale-free geometric and constitutive nonlinearities common in soft materials, and can be understood as scale symmetry breaking processes in simple cases. More deeply, even buckling and wrinkling can be traced back to scale-free linear instabilities (loss of ellipticity at an interface) as was first explained by M. A. Biot. We illustrate the theory with simulations and experiments on sulcification. Time allowing we will also discuss fracture and delamination.
Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.
2014-01-01
This paper describes the quantitative application of the theory of System Health Management and its operational subset, Fault Management, to the selection of Abort Triggers for a human-rated launch vehicle, the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the theory to assess the effectiveness of candidate failure detection and response mechanisms to protect humans from time-critical and severe hazards. The quantitative method was successfully used on the SLS to aid selection of its suite of Abort Triggers.
Functional integration and gauge ambiguities in generalized abelian gauge theories
Kelnhofer, Gerald
2007-01-01
We consider the covariant quantization of generalized abelian gauge theories on a closed and compact n-dimensional manifold whose space of gauge invariant fields is the abelian group of Cheeger-Simons differential characters. The space of gauge fields is shown to be a non-trivial bundle over the orbits of the subgroup of smooth Cheeger-Simons differential characters. Furthermore each orbit itself has the structure of a bundle over a multi-dimensional torus. As a consequence there is a topological obstruction to the existence of a global gauge fixing condition. A functional integral measure is proposed on the space of gauge fields which takes this problem into account and provides a regularization of the gauge degrees of freedom. For the generalized p-form Maxwell theory closed expressions for all physical observables are obtained. The Greens functions are shown to be affected by the non-trivial bundle structure. Finally the vacuum expectation values of circle-valued homomorphisms, including the Wilson operato...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Long
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Considering the lack of quantitative criteria for the selection of elements in cartographic generalization, this study divided the hotspot areas of passengers into parts at three levels, gave them different weights, and then classified the elements from the different hotspots. On this basis, a method was proposed to quantify the priority of elements selection. Subsequently, the quantitative priority of different cartographic elements was summarized based on this method. In cartographic generalization, the method can be preferred to select the significant elements and discard those that are relatively non-significant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aldo Merlino
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219
Pfalzgraff, William C; Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E
2015-12-03
The development of methods that can efficiently and accurately treat nonadiabatic dynamics in quantum systems coupled to arbitrary atomistic environments remains a significant challenge in problems ranging from exciton transport in photovoltaic materials to electron and proton transfer in catalysis. Here we show that our recently introduced MF-GQME approach, which combines Ehrenfest mean field theory with the generalized quantum master equation framework, is able to yield quantitative accuracy over a wide range of charge-transfer regimes in fully atomistic environments. This is accompanied by computational speed-ups of up to 3 orders of magnitude over a direct application of Ehrenfest theory. This development offers the opportunity to efficiently investigate the atomistic details of nonadiabatic quantum relaxation processes in regimes where obtaining accurate results has previously been elusive.
Qin, Hong; Burby, J W; Chung, Moses
2015-01-01
The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parameterized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or an U(2) element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetr...
General Systems Theory: Application To The Design Of Speech Communication Courses
Tucker, Raymond K.
1971-01-01
General systems theory can be applied to problems in the teaching of speech communication courses. The author describes general systems theory as it is applied to the designing, conducting and evaluation of speech communication courses. (Author/MS)
Theory of quantitative trend analysis and its application to the South African elections
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
2006-02-28
Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses a quantitative theory of trend analysis. Often trends are based on qualitative considerations and subjective assumptions. In the current approach the author makes use of extensive data bases to optimise the so...
Theory of generalized tautology in revised Kleene system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU; Hongbo
2001-01-01
Karman, Th., Zur theorie der spanungszustnde in plastischen und sandartigen medion, Nachr. Gesellsch. Wissensch., Gttingen, 1909.［17］Szczepinski, W., Introduction to the Mechanics of Plastic Forming of Metals, Netherlands: Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979.［18］Chen, W. F., Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity, New York: Elsevier, 1975.［19］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., A new model and theory on yield and failure of materials under complex stress state, Mechanical Behaviors of Materials～6, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991, 3: 841—846.［20］Yu, M. H., New System of Strength Theory (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong Universitry Press, 1992.［21］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Song, L. Y., Twin shear stress theory and its generalization, Scientia Sinica (Science in China), Series A, 1985, 28(11): 1174—1183.［22］Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y. et al., Unified elasto-plastic associated and non-associated constitutive model and its engineering applications, Computers and Structures, 1999, 71: 627—636.［23］Ma, G. W., Shoji, I., Plastic limit analysis of circular plates with respect to unified yield criterion, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1998, 40(10): 963.［24］Ma, G. W., Hao, H., Unified plastic limit analyses of circular plates under arbitrary load, Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, 1999, 66(2): 568.［25］Qiang, H. F., Lu, N., Liu, B. J., Unified solutions of crack tip plastic zone under small scale yielding, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 35(1): 34—38.［26］Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., Constitutive descriptions of multiphase poropus media, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(1):11—24.［27］Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., An elasto-plastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated geomaterials, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(2): 198—206.［28］Cheng, H. X., Li, J. J., Zhang, G. S. et al., Finite element analysis program system HAJIF(X), Chinese Journal of
Hubert, David A.; Lewis, Kati J.
2014-01-01
This essay presents the findings of an authentic and holistic assessment, using a random sample of one hundred student General Education ePortfolios, of two of Salt Lake Community College's (SLCC) college-wide learning outcomes: quantitative literacy (QL) and information literacy (IL). Performed by four faculty from biology, humanities, and…
Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vuksanović Đorđe M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.
On truncated generalized Gibbs ensembles in the Ising field theory
Essler, F. H. L.; Mussardo, G.; Panfil, M.
2017-01-01
We discuss the implementation of two different truncated Generalized Gibbs Ensembles (GGE) describing the stationary state after a mass quench process in the Ising Field Theory. One truncated GGE is based on the semi-local charges of the model, the other on regularized versions of its ultra-local charges. We test the efficiency of the two different ensembles by comparing their predictions for the stationary state values of the single-particle Green’s function G(x)= of the complex fermion field \\psi (x) . We find that both truncated GGEs are able to recover G(x), but for a given number of charges the semi-local version performs better.
A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds
Selvam, A M
2012-01-01
A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable co...
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-01-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to non-trivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling $G_{\\rm eff}$ with matter density perturbations under a quasi-static approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility ...
Generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon in baryon chiral perturbation theory
Lensky, Vadim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2017-02-01
The nucleon generalized polarizabilities (GPs), probed in virtual Compton scattering (VCS), describe the spatial distribution of the polarization density in a nucleon. They are accessed experimentally via the process of electron-proton bremsstrahlung (ep→ epγ ) at electron-beam facilities, such as MIT-Bates, CEBAF (Jefferson Lab), and MAMI (Mainz). We present the calculation of the nucleon GPs and VCS observables at next-to-leading order in baryon chiral perturbation theory (Bχ PT), and confront the results with the empirical information. At this order our results are predictions, in the sense that all the parameters are well known from elsewhere. Within the relatively large uncertainties of our calculation we find good agreement with the experimental observations of VCS and the empirical extractions of the GPs. We find large discrepancies with previous chiral calculations - all done in heavy-baryon χ PT (HBχ PT) - and discuss the differences between Bχ PT and HBχ PT responsible for these discrepancies.
The linear model and hypothesis a general unifying theory
Seber, George
2015-01-01
This book provides a concise and integrated overview of hypothesis testing in four important subject areas, namely linear and nonlinear models, multivariate analysis, and large sample theory. The approach used is a geometrical one based on the concept of projections and their associated idempotent matrices, thus largely avoiding the need to involve matrix ranks. It is shown that all the hypotheses encountered are either linear or asymptotically linear, and that all the underlying models used are either exactly or asymptotically linear normal models. This equivalence can be used, for example, to extend the concept of orthogonality in the analysis of variance to other models, and to show that the asymptotic equivalence of the likelihood ratio, Wald, and Score (Lagrange Multiplier) hypothesis tests generally applies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Qin
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U(2 element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function β. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2016-01-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g., the INMDF [O. Izacard, Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504 (2016)]). One of the main dif...
General Relativity as a SO(3) Gauge-Theory
Mattes, M
2003-01-01
The Einsteinian Theory of Gravitation ("General Theory of Relativity") is founded essentially; on the reception that the geometrical properties of the 4-dimensional space-time continuum are defined from the matter in it. Contrary to this, in the Newtonian Mechanics space and time obey a absolute, matter-independent meaning. This thesis offers a compromise between the two conceptions: The spontaneous splitting of space-time in a "universal time" and a "absolute space" in the sense of Newton is accepted, but this (1+3)-splitting will receive the status of a dynamical object in the sense of Einstein. Herein, the (large scale) dynamics of the (1+3) splitting is coupled only weakly to the (local) fluctuation of the matter density with the help of the Einsteinian equations, so that these will keep their validity, regarding the gravitational phenomena, in a bounded domain of space (planets, stars, galaxies). However, at a cosmic scale, the properties of the universe as whole will be determined essentially from the s...
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-08-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to nontrivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff with matter density perturbations under a quasistatic approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility for reducing Geff. In fact, within the parameter space, Geff can be even smaller than the Newton gravitational constant G at the late cosmological epoch, with a peculiar phantom dark energy equation of state (without ghosts). The modifications to the slip parameter η and the evolution of the growth rate f σ8 are discussed as well. Thus, dark energy models in the framework of generalized Proca theories can be observationally distinguished from the Λ CDM model according to both cosmic growth and expansion history. Furthermore, we study the evolution of vector perturbations and show that outside the vector sound horizon the perturbations are nearly frozen and start to decay with oscillations after the horizon entry.
Huang, C; Zhou, B H
2016-01-01
This paper gives general intrinsic theory of general large $N_{c}$ QCD, SU(3) QCD, SU(2) hadron-dynamics and U(1) QED gauge field theories in general field theory and progress towards solving the nucleon spin crisis, i.e., presents general large $N_{c}$ QCD's inner structures, gauge invariant angular momenta and new corresponding Coulomb theorem in quark-gluon field interaction systems based on general field theory, and naturally deduces the gauge invariant spin and orbital angular momentum operators of quark and gauge fields with $SU(N_{c})$ gauge symmetry by Noether theorem in general field theory. In the general large $N_{c}$ QCD, we discover not only the general covariant transverse and parallel conditions ( namely, non-Abelian divergence and curl ), but also that this general system has good intrinsic symmetry characteristics. Specially, this paper's generally decomposing gauge potential theory presents a new technique, it should play a votal role in future physics research. Therefore, this paper breakth...
Generalized theory of mixed pole machines with a general rotor configuration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayman S. Abdel-khalik
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a generalized theory for the operation of mixed pole machines (MPMs. The MPM has two stator windings, namely the main winding with pole pairs P1 and the control winding with pole pairs P2. The MPM has shown promise in the field of adjustable speed drives for large machines and in the field of wind energy electrical generation. The operation of MPM relies on the interaction between the two fields produced by the two stator windings through the intermediate action of a specially designed rotor (nested-cage or reluctance rotor. The machine theory is described from a physical aspect rather than mathematical derivations. A simple representation is also presented, from which the machine d–q model can be readily deduced. The effect of mechanical loading on the relative positions of the machine fields is also presented.
2010-12-02
general system theory. Ludwig von Bertalanffy , the father of general system theory, said that a system is defined as “sets of elements standing in...advocated that the relationship between organizations or living systems and the environment make the system complex and interdependent. Bertalanffy ... Bertalanffy , General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications (New York: Braziller, 1993), 38. 160 Alex J. Ryan, “A Multidisciplinary
A General Method for Targeted Quantitative Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry
Chavez, Juan D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Schweppe, Devin K.; Cilia, Michelle; Rivera, Keith; Zhong, Xuefei; Wu, Xia; Allen, Terrence; Khurgel, Moshe; Kumar, Akhilesh; Lampropoulos, Athanasios; Larsson, Mårten; Maity, Shuvadeep; Morozov, Yaroslav; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Perez-Neut, Mathew; Pineyro-Ruiz, Coriness; Polina, Elizabeth; Post, Stephanie; Rider, Mark; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Tyson, Katherine; Vieira Parrine Sant'Ana, Debora; Bruce, James E.
2016-01-01
Chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) provides protein structural information by identifying covalently linked proximal amino acid residues on protein surfaces. The information gained by this technique is complementary to other structural biology methods such as x-ray crystallography, NMR and cryo-electron microscopy[1]. The extension of traditional quantitative proteomics methods with chemical cross-linking can provide information on the structural dynamics of protein structures and protein complexes. The identification and quantitation of cross-linked peptides remains challenging for the general community, requiring specialized expertise ultimately limiting more widespread adoption of the technique. We describe a general method for targeted quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked peptide pairs. We report the adaptation of the widely used, open source software package Skyline, for the analysis of quantitative XL-MS data as a means for data analysis and sharing of methods. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of the method with a cross-laboratory study and present data that is supported by and validates previously published data on quantified cross-linked peptide pairs. This advance provides an easy to use resource so that any lab with access to a LC-MS system capable of performing targeted quantitative analysis can quickly and accurately measure dynamic changes in protein structure and protein interactions. PMID:27997545
No-Go Theorems for Generalized Chameleon Field Theories
Wang, Junpu; Khoury, Justin
2012-01-01
The chameleon, or generalizations thereof, is a light scalar that couple to matter with gravitational strength, but whose manifestation depends on the ambient matter density. A key feature is that the screening mechanism suppressing its effects in high-density environments is determined by the local scalar field value. Under very general conditions, we prove two theorems limiting its cosmological impact: i) the Compton wavelength of such a scalar can be at most Mpc at present cosmic density, which restricts its impact to non-linear scales; ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time, which precludes the possibility of self-acceleration. These results imply that chameleon-like scalar fields have a negligible effect on the linear-scale growth history; theories that invoke a chameleon-like scalar to explain cosmic acceleration rely on a form of dark energy rather than a genuine modified gravity effect. Our analysis applies to a broa...
Kinetic derivation of generalized phase space Chern-Simons theory
Hayata, Tomoya
2016-01-01
We study a kinetic theory in $2d$ phase space when all abelian Berry curvatures are nonzero. We derive the complete form of the Poisson brackets, and calculate transports induced by Berry curvatures. Then we construct the low-energy effective theory to reproduce the transports. Such an effective theory is given by the Chern-Simons theory in $1+2d$ dimensions. Some implications of the Chern-Simons theory are also discussed.
Generalized eikonal of partially coherent beams and its use in quantitative imaging.
Gureyev, T E; Paganin, D M; Stevenson, A W; Mayo, S C; Wilkins, S W
2004-08-06
The generalized eikonal of a partially coherent paraxial wave is introduced via a differential equation describing the evolution of the time-averaged intensity. The theoretical formalism provides an analytical tool for the study of partially coherent imaging systems. It also makes possible quantitative phase retrieval and compositional mapping of weakly absorbing samples using phase-contrast imaging with broadband polychromatic radiation of known spectral distribution. An experimental demonstration is presented of the quantitative reconstruction of the projected thickness of a sample, given a phase-contrast image obtained using a polychromatic microfocus x-ray source.
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2017-04-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results
Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C
2016-01-01
One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted
On the general theory of the origins of retroviruses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wayengera Misaki
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The order retroviridae comprises viruses based on ribonucleic acids (RNA. Some, such as HIV and HTLV, are human pathogens. Newly emerged human retroviruses have zoonotic origins. As far as has been established, both repeated infections (themselves possibly responsible for the evolution of viral mutations (Vm and host adaptability (Ha; along with interplay between inhibitors and promoters of cell tropism, are needed to effect retroviral cross-species transmissions. However, the exact modus operadi of intertwine between these factors at molecular level remains to be established. Knowledge of such intertwine could lead to a better understanding of retrovirology and possibly other infectious processes. This study was conducted to derive the mathematical equation of a general theory of the origins of retroviruses. Methods and results On the basis of an arbitrarily non-Euclidian geometrical "thought experiment" involving the cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus (sfv from a non-primate species Xy to Homo sapiens (Hs, initially excluding all social factors, the following was derived. At the port of exit from Xy (where the species barrier, SB, is defined by the Index of Origin, IO, sfv shedding is (1 enhanced by two transmitting tensors (Tt, (i virus-specific immunity (VSI and (ii evolutionary defenses such as APOBEC, RNA interference pathways, and (when present expedited therapeutics (denoted e2D; and (2 opposed by the five accepting scalars (At: (a genomic integration hot spots, gIHS, (b nuclear envelope transit (NMt vectors, (c virus-specific cellular biochemistry, VSCB, (d virus-specific cellular receptor repertoire, VSCR, and (e pH-mediated cell membrane transit, (↓pH CMat. Assuming As and Tt to be independent variables, IO = Tt/As. The same forces acting in an opposing manner determine SB at the port of sfv entry (defined here by the Index of Entry, IE = As/Tt. Overall, If sfv encounters no unforeseen effects on
Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, Kiet A., E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Pachter, Ruth, E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States)
2014-06-28
We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.
[The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].
Golubev, A G
2009-01-01
Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.
A Specific Case of Generalized Einstein-aether Theories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟新河; 杜小龙
2012-01-01
With the dark energy phenomena explored over a decade, in this present work we discuss a specific case of the generalized Einstein-aether theories, in which the modified Friedmann equation is similar to that in the Dvali- Gabadadze-Porrati （DGP） brahe world model. We compute the joint statistic constraints on model parameters in this specific case by using the recent type Ia supernovae （SNe Ia） data, the cosmic microwave background （CMB） shift parameter data, and the baryonic acoustic oscillations （BAOs） data traced by the S1oan Digital Sky Survey （SDSS）. Furthermore, we analyze other constrains from the observational Hubble parameter data （OHD）. The comparison with the standard cosmological model （cosmological constant A cold dark matter （ACDM） model） is dearly shown; also we comment on the interesting relation between the coupling constant M in this model and the special accelerate scale in the modified Newtonian dynamies （MOND） model initially given by Milgrom with the hope for interpreting the galaxy rotation curves without introducing mysterious dark matter.
Simple Space-Time Symmetries: Generalizing Conformal Field Theory
Mack, G; Mack, Gerhard; Riese, Mathias de
2004-01-01
We study simple space-time symmetry groups G which act on a space-time manifold M=G/H which admits a G-invariant global causal structure. We classify pairs (G,M) which share the following additional properties of conformal field theory: 1) The stability subgroup H of a point in M is the identity component of a parabolic subgroup of G, implying factorization H=MAN, where M generalizes Lorentz transformations, A dilatations, and N special conformal transformations. 2) special conformal transformations in N act trivially on tangent vectors to the space-time manifold M. The allowed simple Lie groups G are the universal coverings of SU(m,m), SO(2,D), Sp(l,R), SO*(4n) and E_7(-25) and H are particular maximal parabolic subgroups. All these groups G admit positive energy representations. It will also be shown that the classical conformal groups SO(2,D) are the only allowed groups which possess a time reflection automorphism; in all other cases space-time has an intrinsic chiral structure.
General systems theory, brain organization, and early experiences.
Denenberg, V H
1980-01-01
Three hypothetical brain processes--interhemispheric coupling, hemispheric activation, and interhemispheric inhibition--are derived from an equation characterizing general systems theory. To investigate these processes, experimental rats were reared under differing early experience conditions. When adult, they had their right or left neocortex lesioned, had a sham operation, or were left undisturbed. Interhemispheric coupling was measured by means of a correlation coefficient between the right and left hemispheres. The presence of a significant positive correlation is taken as evidence of a negative feedback loop between the hemispheres. In one experimental population, in which rats did not receive any extra stimulation in infancy, the correlation was not significantly different from zero, thus implying that the two hemispheres were operating independently. In another population, in which rats had received handling stimulation in infancy, the correlation coefficient was significant (0.543), indicating that the hemispheres were coupled in a systems arrangement. The processes of hemispheric activation and interhemispheric inhibition were assessed by comparing the mean performance of the two unilateral lesion groups and the group with intact brain. The two rat populations had different forms of brain organizations as measured by these processes. These analyses show that the behavior of the isolated hemisphere cannot be directly extrapolated to the behavior of the connected hemisphere. If there is hemispheric coupling via a negative feedback loop or if there is interhemispheric inhibition, then the disconnected hemisphere may show behaviors that are not evident in the normal connected condition.
Does the General Strain Theory Explain Gambling and Substance Use?
Greco, Romy; Curci, Antonietta
2016-11-22
General Strain Theory (GST: Agnew Criminology 30:47-87, 1992) posits that deviant behaviour results from adaptation to strain and the consequent negative emotions. Empirical research on GST has mainly focused on aggressive behaviours, while only few research studies have considered alternative manifestations of deviance, like substance use and gambling. The aim of the present study is to test the ability of GST to explain gambling behaviours and substance use. Also, the role of family in promoting the adoption of gambling and substance use as coping strategies was verified. Data from 266 families with in mean 8 observations for each group were collected. The multilevel nature of the data was verified before appropriate model construction. The clustered nature of gambling data was analysed by a two-level Hierarchical Linear Model while substance use was analysed by Multivariate Linear Model. Results confirmed the effect of strain on gambling and substance use while the positive effect of depressive emotions on these behaviours was not supported. Also, the impact of family on the individual tendency to engage in addictive behaviours was confirmed only for gambling.
A generalization to the Rastall theory and cosmic eras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moradpour, H. [Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salako, Ines G. [Universite de Porto-Novo, Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), 01 BP 613, Porto-Novo (Benin); Universite d' Agriculture de Ketou, Departement de Physique, BP 13, Ketou (Benin); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences(AIMS), Muizenberg (South Africa)
2017-04-15
A generalized version for the Rastall theory is proposed showing the agreement with the cosmic accelerating expansion. In this regard, a coupling between geometry and the pressureless matter fields is derived which may play the role of dark energy, responsible for the current accelerating expansion phase. Moreover, our study also shows that the radiation field may not be coupled to the geometry in a non-minimal way which represents that the ordinary energy-momentum conservation law is respected by the radiation source. It is also shown that the primary inflationary era may be justified by the ability of the geometry to couple to the energy-momentum source in an empty flat FRW universe. In fact, this ability is independent of the existence of the energy-momentum source and may compel the empty flat FRW universe to expand exponentially. Finally, we consider a flat FRW universe field by a spatially homogeneous scalar field evolving in potential V(φ), and study the results of applying the slow-roll approximation to the system which may lead to an inflationary phase for the universe expansion. (orig.)
Generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon in baryon chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lensky, Vadim [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Cluster of Excellence PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Cluster of Excellence PRISMA, Mainz (Germany)
2017-02-15
The nucleon generalized polarizabilities (GPs), probed in virtual Compton scattering (VCS), describe the spatial distribution of the polarization density in a nucleon. They are accessed experimentally via the process of electron-proton bremsstrahlung (ep → epγ) at electron-beam facilities, such as MIT-Bates, CEBAF (Jefferson Lab), and MAMI (Mainz). We present the calculation of the nucleon GPs and VCS observables at next-to-leading order in baryon chiral perturbation theory (BχPT), and confront the results with the empirical information. At this order our results are predictions, in the sense that all the parameters are well known from elsewhere. Within the relatively large uncertainties of our calculation we find good agreement with the experimental observations of VCS and the empirical extractions of the GPs. We find large discrepancies with previous chiral calculations - all done in heavy-baryon χPT (HBχPT) - and discuss the differences between BχPT and HBχPT responsible for these discrepancies. (orig.)
General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical operators
Inoue, H.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we introduce a general theory of regular biorthogonal sequences and its physical operators. Biorthogonal sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are said to be regular if Span {ϕn} and Span {ψn} are dense in H . The first purpose is to show that there exists a non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf in H defined by an orthonormal basis (ONB) f ≡ {fn} in H such that ϕn = Tffn and ψ n = Tf - 1 f n , n = 0, 1, …, and such an ONB f is unique. The second purpose is to define and study the lowering operators Af and Bf † , the raising operators Bf and Af † , and the number operators Nf and Nf † determined by the non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics and its relatives. This paper clarifies and simplifies the mathematical structure of this framework and minimizes the required assumptions.
Saeedghalati, Mohammadkarim; Farahpour, Farnoush; Lange, Anja; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Seifert, Marc; Küppers, Ralf
2017-01-01
The community, the assemblage of organisms co-existing in a given space and time, has the potential to become one of the unifying concepts of biology, especially with the advent of high-throughput sequencing experiments that reveal genetic diversity exhaustively. In this spirit we show that a tool from community ecology, the Rank Abundance Distribution (RAD), can be turned by the new MaxRank normalization method into a generic, expressive descriptor for quantitative comparison of communities in many areas of biology. To illustrate the versatility of the method, we analyze RADs from various generalized communities, i.e. assemblages of genetically diverse cells or organisms, including human B cells, gut microbiomes under antibiotic treatment and of different ages and countries of origin, and other human and environmental microbial communities. We show that normalized RADs enable novel quantitative approaches that help to understand structures and dynamics of complex generalized communities. PMID:28114391
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M D Sharma
2007-08-01
Anisotropic wave propagation is studied in a fluid-saturated porous medium, using two different approaches. One is the dynamic approach of Biot’s theories. The other approach known as homogenisation theory, is based on the averaging process to derive macroscopic equations from the microscopic equations of motion. The medium considered is a general anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid with a viscous fluid saturating its pores of anisotropic permeability. The wave propagation phenomenon in a saturated porous medium is explained through two relations. One defines modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic waves in the medium. The other defines a matrix to relate the relative displacement of fluid particles to the displacement of solid particles. The modified Christoffel equations are solved further to get a quartic equation whose roots represent complex velocities of the four attenuating quasi-waves in the medium. These complex velocities define the phase velocities of propagation and quality factors for attenuation of all the quasi-waves propagating along a given phase direction in three-dimensional space. The derivations in the mathematical models from different theories are compared in order to work out the equivalence between them. The variations of phase velocities and attenuation factors with the direction of phase propagation are computed, for a realistic numerical model. Differences between the velocities and attenuations of quasi-waves from the two approaches are exhibited numerically.
Set Matrix Theory as a Physically Motivated Generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory
Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F
2012-01-01
Recently, the Elementary Process Theory (EPT) has been developed as a set of fundamental principles that might underlie a gravitational repulsion of matter and antimatter. This paper presents set matrix theory (SMT) as the foundation of the mathematical-logical framework in which the EPT has been formalized: Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF), namely, cannot be used as such. SMT is a generalization of ZF: whereas ZF uses only sets as primitive objects, in the framework of SMT finite matrices with set-valued entries are objects sui generis, with a 1\\times1 set matrix [x] being identical to the set x. It is proved that every set that can be constructed in ZF can also be constructed in SMT: as a mathematical foundation, SMT is thus not weaker than ZF. In addition, it is shown that SMT is more suitable han ZF for the intended application to physics. The conclusion is that SMT, contrary to ZF, is acceptable as the mathematical-logical foundation of the framework for physics that is determined by the EPT.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernández, Ariel, E-mail: ariel@afinnovation.com [Argentine Institute of Mathematics (I. A. M.), National Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1083 (Argentina); Collegium Basilea – Institute for Advanced Study, Basel CH4053 (Switzerland)
2015-10-16
The spontaneous negative charging of aqueous nonpolar interfaces has eluded quantitative first-principle prediction, possibly because it steadfastly challenges the classical Debye dielectric picture. In this work we show that quantitative prediction requires a substantive revision of Debye's linear dielectric ansatz to incorporate an anomalous polarization component yielding electrostatic energy stored as interfacial tension and detailed enough to account for the differences in electronic structure between water and its ionized states. The minimization of this interfacial tension is due to a quantum effect resulting in the reduction in hydrogen-bond frustration that takes place upon hydroxide ion adsorption. The quantitative predictions are validated vis-à-vis measurements of the free energy change associated with hydroxide adsorption obtained using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Spontaneous charging of aqueous nonpolar interfaces challenges Debye dielectrics. • A quantum non-Debye theory of interfacial tension is developed. • The minimization of the interfacial tension promotes hydroxide ion adsorption.
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izacard, Olivier
2017-03-29
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker–Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas.
Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model
Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.
2007-01-01
Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…
Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model
Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.
2007-01-01
Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…
Solvation of polymers as mutual association. I. General theory
Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.
2013-04-01
A Flory-Huggins (FH) type lattice theory of self-assembly is generalized to describe the equilibrium solvation of long polymer chains B by small solvent molecules A. Solvation is modeled as a thermally reversible mutual association between the polymer and a relatively low molar mass solvent. The FH Helmholtz free energy F is derived for a mixture composed of the A and B species and the various possible mutual association complexes AiB, and F is then used to generate expressions for basic thermodynamic properties of solvated polymer solutions, including the size distribution of the solvated clusters, the fraction of solvent molecules contained in solvated states (an order parameter for solvation), the specific heat (which exhibits a maximum at the solvation transition), the second and the third osmotic virial coefficients, and the boundaries for phase stability of the mixture. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the "entropic" contribution χs to the FH interaction parameter χ of polymer solutions, both with and without associative interactions. The entropic χs parameter arises from correlations associated with polymer chain connectivity and disparities in molecular structure between the components of the mixture. Our analysis provides the first explanation of the longstanding enigma of why χs for polymer solutions significantly exceeds χs for binary polymer blends. Our calculations also reveal that χs becomes temperature dependent when interactions are strong, in sharp contrast to models currently being used for fitting thermodynamic data of associating polymer-solvent mixtures, where χs is simply assumed to be an adjustable constant based on experience with solutions of homopolymers in nonassociating solvents.
Generalized BRST symmetry for arbitrary spin conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)
2015-05-11
We develop the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for arbitrary spin-s conformal field theories. We discuss the novel features of the FFBRST transformation in these systems. To illustrate the results we consider the spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in two examples. Within the formalism we found that FFBRST transformation connects the generating functionals of spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, the conformal field theories in the framework of FFBRST transformation are also analyzed in Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation to establish the results.
Extension of nano-confined DNA: quantitative comparison between experiment and theory
Iarko, V; Nyberg, L K; Müller, V; Fritzsche, J; Ambjörnsson, T; Beech, J P; Tegenfeldt, J O; Mehlig, K; Westerlund, F; Mehlig, B
2015-01-01
The extension of DNA confined to nanochannels has been studied intensively and in detail. Yet quantitative comparisons between experiments and model calculations are difficult because most theoretical predictions involve undetermined prefactors, and because the model parameters (contour length, Kuhn length, and effective width) are difficult to compute reliably, leading to a substantial uncertainties. Here we use a recent asymptotically exact theory for the DNA extension in the "extended de Gennes regime" that allows to determine the model parameters by comparing experimental results with theory. We obtained new experimental results for this purpose, for the mean DNA extension and its standard deviation, varying the channel geometry, dye intercalation ratio, and ionic buffer strength. The experimental results agree very well with theory at high ionic strengths, indicating that the model parameters are reliable. At low ionic strengths the agreement is less good. We discuss possible reasons. Our approach allows...
Numerical solutions of a generalized theory for macroscopic capillarity
Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.; Hilfer, R.
2010-01-01
A recent macroscopic theory of biphasic flow in porous media [R. Hilfer, Phys. Rev. E 73, 016307 (2006)] has proposed to treat microscopically percolating fluid regions differently from microscopically nonpercolating regions. Even in one dimension the theory reduces to an analytically intractable se
Scanning probe microscopy beyond imaging: a general tool for quantitative analysis.
Liscio, Andrea
2013-04-15
A simple, fast and general approach for quantitative analysis of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) images is reported. As a proof of concept it is used to determine with a high degree of precision the value of observables such as 1) the height, 2) the flowing current and 3) the corresponding surface potential (SP) of flat nanostructures such as gold electrodes, organic semiconductor architectures and graphenic sheets. Despite histogram analysis, or frequency count (Fc), being the most common mathematical tool used to analyse SPM images, the analytical approach is still lacking. By using the mathematical relationship between Fc and the collected data, the proposed method allows quantitative information on observable values close to the noise level to be gained. For instance, the thickness of nanostructures deposited on very rough substrates can be quantified, and this makes it possible to distinguish the contribution of an adsorbed nanostructure from that of the underlying substrate. Being non-numerical, this versatile analytical approach is a useful and general tool for quantitative analysis of the Fc that enables all signals acquired and recorded by an SPM data array to be studied with high precision.
Li, Dafa
2016-05-01
The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.
Crossno, S. K.; Kalbus, L. H.; Kalbus, G. E.
1996-02-01
The determination of mixtures containing NaOH and Na2CO3 or Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 by titration is a common experiment in a Quantitative Analysis course. This determination can be adapted for the analysis of CO2 within a sample. The CO2 is released and absorbed in a solution containing excess NaOH. Titration with standard HCl leads to the determination of CO2 present in the sample. A number of interesting experiments in Quantitative Analysis, General and/or Physical Chemistry have been developed. Among these are the following determinations: CO2 content in carbonated beverages, carbonate and bicarbonate in various real life samples, and the molecular weight of CO2.
Quantum corrections to the generalized Proca theory via a matter field
Amado, André; Haghani, Zahra; Mohammadi, Azadeh; Shahidi, Shahab
2017-09-01
We study the quantum corrections to the generalized Proca theory via matter loops. We consider two types of interactions, linear and nonlinear in the vector field. Calculating the one-loop correction to the vector field propagator, three- and four-point functions, we show that the non-linear interactions are harmless, although they renormalize the theory. The linear matter-vector field interactions introduce ghost degrees of freedom to the generalized Proca theory. Treating the theory as an effective theory, we calculate the energy scale up to which the theory remains healthy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhi-Min; WANG Qing
2001-01-01
Bosonic part of SU(2)L U(1)Y effective chiral Lagrangian for electroweak symmetry breaking is derived from an underlying technicolor theory with no approximation. The underlying theory is assumed to be the most general gauge theory without fundamental scalars. A condensate is required to exist in the theory which breaks SU(2)L U(1)Y dynamically to U(1)em and the anomaly of the theory caused by gauge interaction must be cancelled. The formulation offers general definitions in terms of underlying theory for the low energy constants in effective chiral Lagrangian.``
Chemical Principles Revisited: Updating the Atomic Theory in General Chemistry.
Whitman, Mark
1984-01-01
Presents a descriptive overview of recent achievements in atomic structure to provide instructors with the background necessary to enhance their classroom presentations. Topics considered include hadrons, quarks, leptons, forces, and the unified fields theory. (JN)
Dynamical Cobordisms in General Relativity and String Theory
Hellerman, Simeon
2010-01-01
We describe a class of time-dependent solutions in string- or M-theory that are exact with respect to alpha-prime and curvature corrections and interpolate in physical space between regions in which the low energy physics is well-approximated by different string theories and string compactifications. The regions are connected by expanding "domain walls" but are not separated by causal horizons, and physical excitations can propagate between them. As specific examples we construct solutions that interpolate between oriented and unoriented string theories, and also between type II and heterotic theories. Our solutions can be weakly curved and under perturbative control everywhere and can asymptote to supersymmetric at late times.
String theory, scale relativity and the generalized uncertainty principle
Castro, C
1995-01-01
An extension/ modification of the Stringy Heisenberg Uncertainty principle is derived within the framework of the theory of Special Scale-Relativity proposed by Nottale. Based on the fractal structure of two dimensional Quantum Gravity which has attracted considerable interest recently we conjecture that the underlying fundamental principle behind String theory should be based on an extension of Scale Relativity where both dynamics as well as scales are incorporated in the same footing.
A historical approach to the general theory of systems
Esther María Pino Guzmán
2015-01-01
The paper is intended to examine the epistemological development of the theory or systems, focus the change of its scientific paradigm and points out its main implications for the development of research methodology and design. The theoretical methods being used makes possible to go deeper into the analysis of regularities and essential qualities in the construction and development of the scientific theory. The system approach is one of the most frequently used method and the one of further r...
Sender-receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology.
Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark
2015-02-01
Sender-receiver (S-R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S-R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning.
Sender–receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology
Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark
2015-01-01
Sender–receiver (S–R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S–R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning. PMID:25282688
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Hollands
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new framework for quantum field theory in terms of consistency conditions. The consistency conditions that we consider are ''associativity'' or ''factorization'' conditions on the operator product expansion (OPE of the theory, and are proposed to be the defining property of any quantum field theory. Our framework is presented in the Euclidean setting, and is applicable in principle to any quantum field theory, including non-conformal ones. In our framework, we obtain a characterization of perturbations of a given quantum field theory in terms of a certain cohomology ring of Hochschild-type. We illustrate our framework by the free field, but our constructions are general and apply also to interacting quantum field theories. For such theories, we propose a new scheme to construct the OPE which is based on the use of non-linear quantized field equations.
General time-independent theory of ionization and breakup reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenberg, Leonard [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)], E-mail: lr1@nyu.edu
2008-08-14
A rigorous formulation of non-relativistic time-dependent multiparticle collision theory was developed some time ago, in which the effect of long-range Coulomb forces was accounted for by a modification of the standard wave operator that appears in treatments of neutral-particle scattering. This theory is here converted to a time-independent form, with the wave-operator modification replaced by the use of Coulomb-modified plane waves in the construction of the wave packets that appear in the theory. This provides a convenient basis for the development of approximation techniques in configuration space, including the use of variational methods of calculation, based on integral identities for the transition amplitudes. In many cases oscillatory divergences appear in the integrals representing the ionization or breakup amplitudes. A method for removing such divergences by an averaging of the integrand at great distances is defined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Zeng-Ping, E-mail: zpchen2002@hotmail.com; Cui, Yin-Yin; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Yu, Ru-Qin
2016-05-19
PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensor encapsulating an intensity-based fluorescence indicator and an inert reference fluorescence dye inside the pores of stable matrix can be used as a generalized wavelength-ratiometric probe. However, the lack of an efficient quantitative model render the choices of inert reference dyes and intensity-based fluorescence indicators used in PEBBLEs based generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes rather limited. In this contribution, an extended quantitative fluorescence model was derived specifically for generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes based on PEBBLE technique (QFM{sub GRP}) with a view to simplify the design of PEBBLEs and hence further extend their application potentials. The effectiveness of QFM{sub GRP} has been tested on the quantitative determination of free Ca{sup 2+} in both simulated and real turbid media using a Ca{sup 2+} sensitive PEBBLE nanosensor encapsulating Rhod-2 and eosin B inside the micropores of stable polyacrylamide matrix. Experimental results demonstrated that QFM{sub GRP} could realize precise and accurate quantification of free Ca{sup 2+} in turbid samples, even though there is serious overlapping between the fluorescence excitation peaks of eosin B and Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2. The average relative predictive error value of QFM{sub GRP} for the test simulated turbid samples was 5.9%, about 2–4 times lower than the corresponding values of partial least squares calibration model and the empirical ratiometric model based on the ratio of fluorescence intensities at the excitation peaks of Ca{sup 2+} bound Rhod-2 and eosin B. The recovery rates of QFM{sub GRP} for the real and spiked turbid samples varied from 93.1% to 101%, comparable to the corresponding results of atomic absorption spectrometry. - Highlights: • An advanced model was derived for generalized wavelength-ratiometric PEBBLEs. • The model can simplify the design of generalized wavelength
A general theory of wave interactions in layered flows
Guha, Anirban
2016-01-01
Using kinematics, we propose a theory of non-modal interactions between the interfaces of a 2D, inviscid, multi-layered fluid system. Specifically, a $3$-interface problem with kinematic and geometric symmetry is explored. Repetitive, extremely short bursts of very high wave growth/decay-rates are observed in the parameter ranges where normal-mode theory predicts stability. The underlying dynamical system predicts chaotic outcomes for some initial conditions. For realistic multi-layered flows, such instabilities of finite amplitude may alter the mean flow to a noisy, unpredictable state.
Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using general pedigree data.
He, Hai-Qiang; Mao, Wei-Gao; Pan, Dongdong; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Fung, Wing Kam
2014-08-01
Genomic imprinting is a genetic phenomenon in which certain alleles are differentially expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, and plays an important role in the study of complex traits. For a diallelic marker locus in human, the parentalasymmetry tests Q-PAT(c) with any constant c were developed to detect parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits. However, these methods can only be applied to deal with nuclear families and thus are not suitable for extended pedigrees. In this study, by making no assumption about the distribution of the quantitative trait, we first propose the pedigree parentalasymmetry tests Q-PPAT(c) with any constant c for quantitative traits to test for parent-of-origin effects based on nuclear families with complete information from general pedigree data, in the presence of association between marker alleles under study and quantitative traits. When there are any genotypes missing in pedigrees, we utilize Monte Carlo (MC) sampling and estimation and develop the Q-MCPPAT(c) statistics to test for parent-of-origin effects. Various simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed methods, for different sample sizes, genotype missing rates, degrees of imprinting effects and population models. Simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects and Q-PPAT(c) are robust to population stratification. In addition, the power comparison demonstrates that Q-PPAT(c) and Q-MCPPAT(c) for pedigree data are much more powerful than Q-PAT(c) only using two-generation nuclear families selected from extended pedigrees.
Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using general pedigree data
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hai-Qiang He; Wei-Gao Mao; Dongdong Pan; Ji-Yuan Zhou; Ping-Yan Chen; Wing Kam Fung
2014-08-01
Genomic imprinting is a genetic phenomenon in which certain alleles are differentially expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, and plays an important role in the study of complex traits. For a diallelic marker locus in human, the parental-asymmetry tests Q-PAT() with any constant were developed to detect parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits. However, these methods can only be applied to deal with nuclear families and thus are not suitable for extended pedigrees. In this study, by making no assumption about the distribution of the quantitative trait, we first propose the pedigree parental-asymmetry tests Q-PPAT() with any constant for quantitative traits to test for parent-of-origin effects based on nuclear families with complete information from general pedigree data, in the presence of association between marker alleles under study and quantitative traits. When there are any genotypes missing in pedigrees, we utilize Monte Carlo (MC) sampling and estimation and develop the Q-MCPPAT() statistics to test for parent-of-origin effects. Various simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed methods, for different sample sizes, genotype missing rates, degrees of imprinting effects and population models. Simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects and Q-PPAT() are robust to population stratification. In addition, the power comparison demonstrates that Q-PPAT() and Q-MCPPAT() for pedigree data are much more powerful than Q-PAT() only using two-generation nuclear families selected from extended pedigrees.
Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory
Hess, R. A.
1994-01-01
Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.
Kiracofe, Daniel; Raman, Arvind
2011-12-02
The use of a piezoelectric element (acoustic excitation) to vibrate the base of microcantilevers is a popular method for dynamic atomic force microscopy. In air or vacuum, the base motion is so small (relative to tip motion) that it can be neglected. However, in liquid environments the base motion can be large and cannot be neglected. Yet it cannot be directly observed in most AFMs. Therefore, in liquids, quantitative force and energy dissipation spectroscopy with acoustic AFM relies on theoretical formulae and models to estimate the magnitude of the base motion. However, such formulae can be inaccurate due to several effects. For example, a significant component of the piezo excitation does not mechanically excite the cantilever but rather transmits acoustic waves through the surrounding liquid, which in turn indirectly excites the cantilever. Moreover, resonances of the piezo, chip and holder can obscure the true cantilever dynamics even in well-designed liquid cells. Although some groups have tried to overcome these limitations (either by theory modification or better design of piezos and liquid cells), it is generally accepted that acoustic excitation is unsuitable for quantitative force and dissipation spectroscopy in liquids. In this paper the authors present a careful study of the base motion and excitation forces and propose a method by which quantitative analysis is in fact possible, thus opening this popular method for quantitative force and dissipation spectroscopy using dynamic AFM in liquids. This method is validated by experiments in water on mica using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, which can measure the actual base motion. Finally, the method is demonstrated by using small-amplitude dynamic AFM to extract the force gradients and dissipation on solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) molecules on mica.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Qin
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The Courant-Snyder theory gives a complete description of the uncoupled transverse dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic focusing lattices. In this paper, the Courant-Snyder theory is generalized to the case of coupled transverse dynamics with two degrees of freedom. The generalized theory has the same structure as the original Courant-Snyder theory for one degree of freedom. The four basic components of the original Courant-Snyder theory, i.e., the envelope equation, phase advance, transfer matrix, and the Courant-Snyder invariant, all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory presented here. In the generalized theory, the envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the envelope equation becomes a matrix envelope equation with matrix operations that are noncommutative. The generalized theory gives a new parametrization of the 4D symplectic transfer matrix that has the same structure as the parametrization of the 2D symplectic transfer matrix in the original Courant-Snyder theory. All of the parameters used in the generalized Courant-Snyder theory correspond to physical quantities of importance, and this parametrization can provide a valuable framework for accelerator design and particle simulation studies. A time-dependent canonical transformation is used to develop the generalized Courant-Snyder theory. Applications of the new theory to strongly and weakly coupled dynamics are given. It is shown that the stability of coupled dynamics can be determined by the generalized phase advance developed. Two stability criteria are given, which recover the known results about sum and difference resonances in the weakly coupled limit.
Noether's theory of generalized linear nonholonomic mechanical systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Wen-Shan; Huang Bao-Xin; Fang Jian-Hui
2011-01-01
By introducing the quasi-symmetry of the infinitesimal transformation of the transformation group Gr, the Noether's theorem and the Noether's inverse theorem for generalized linear nonholonomic mechanical systems are obtained in a generalized compound derivative space. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.
Inflationary Phase in a Generalized Brans-Dicke Theory
Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.
2009-07-01
We find a solution for exponential inflation in a Brans-Dicke generalized model, where the coupling “constant” is variable. While in General Relativity the equation of state is p=- ρ, here we find p= α ρ, where α<-2/3. The negativity of cosmic pressure implies acceleration of the expansion, even with Λ<0.
Density functional Theory Based Generalized Effective Fragment Potential Method (Postprint)
2014-07-01
45432 General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc. Dayton, Ohio 45431 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39...45432, USA 3General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 , USA (Received 30 January 2014; accepted 3 June 2014; published online
Bf and Anti-Bf Theories in the Generalized Connection Formalism
Aidaoui, A.; Doebner, H.-D.; Tahiri, M.
We present a generalized connection formalism to explicitly determine an off-shell BRST-anti-BRST algebra for BF theories. This results in the construction of anti-BF theories based on an anti-BRST exact quantum action. These are not fundamentally different from BF theories, since they are in complete duality with respect to a mirror symmetry of the ghost numbers.
Where has entropy gone theory of general system, 2
Zhen, W
1996-01-01
A pair of symmetric expressions for the second law of thermodynamics is put forward. The conservation and transfer of entropy is discussed and applied to problems like biology, culture and life itself. A new explanation is given to the cosmic expansion with the concept of diversity in this theory. The problem of contingency and necessity is also discussed.
On the construction of a psychologically based, general theory of observation: an introduction
Nyman, Göte
2013-01-01
The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.
The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.
Miller, James G.
General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…
Osp(1,2)-covariant Lagrangian quantization of general gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geyer, B.; Lavrov, P.M. [Universitat Leipzig, Naturwissenschaftlich-Theoretisches Zentrum, Leipzig (Germany); Muelsch, D. [Wissenschaftszentrum Leipzig e.V., Leipzig (Germany)
1998-10-01
An osp(1, 2)-covariant Lagrangian quantization of general gauge theories is introduced which also applies to massive fields. It generalizes the Batalin-Vilkovisky and the Sp(2)-covariant field-antifield approach and guarantees symplectic invariance of the quantized action. Massive gauge theories with closed algebra are considered as an example. (author)
Ling, Chris D.; Bridgeman, Adam J.
2011-01-01
Titration experiments are ideal for generating large data sets for use in quantitative-analysis activities that are meaningful and transparent to general chemistry students. We report the successful implementation of a sophisticated quantitative exercise in which the students identify a series of unknown acids by determining their molar masses…
Generalized second law of thermodynamic in modified teleparallel theory
Zubair, M.; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Jamil, Mubasher
2017-07-01
This study is conducted to examine the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) in flat FRW for modified teleparallel gravity involving coupling between a scalar field with the torsion scalar T and the boundary term B=2\
A New Look at Generalized Rewriting in Type Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthieu Sozeau
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Rewriting is an essential tool for computer-based reasoning, both automated and assisted. This is because rewriting is a general notion that permits modeling a wide range of problems and provides a means to effectively solve them. In a proof assistant, rewriting can be used to replace terms in arbitrary contexts, generalizing the usual equational reasoning to reasoning modulo arbitrary relations. This can be done provided the necessary proofs that functions appearing in goals are congruent with respect to specific relations. We present a new implementation of generalized rewriting in the Coq proof assistant, making essential use of the expressive power of dependent types and the recently implemented type class mechanism. The new rewrite tactic improves on and generalizes previous versions by natively supporting higher-order functions, polymorphism and subrelations. The type class system inspired by Haskell provides a perfect interface between the user and the tactic, making it easily extensible.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Lukierski, J
2002-01-01
We describe generalized D=11 Poincar\\'{e} and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with $OSp(1|64)$ superspinors describing BPS preons. The $\\frac{k}{32}$ BPS states as composed out of $n=32 - k$ preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author$^1$.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Iajkierski, Jerzy
2002-11-01
We describe generalized D = 11 Poincaré and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with OSp(l|64) superspinors describing BPS preons. The (k)/(32) BPS states as composed out of n = 32 - k preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author.
Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems
Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M. C.
2008-01-01
In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Markov strings are strong Markov processes with the cadlag property. We then show how a very general class of stochastic hybrid processes can be embedded in the framework of Markov strings. This class,...
Generalized topological spaces in evolutionary theory and combinatorial chemistry.
Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F
2002-01-01
The search spaces in combinatorial chemistry as well as the sequence spaces underlying (molecular) evolution are conventionally thought of as graphs. Recombination, however, implies a nongraphical structure of the combinatorial search spaces. These structures, and their implications for search process itself, are heretofore not well understood in general. In this contribution we review a very general formalism from point set topology and discuss its application to combinatorial search spaces, fitness landscapes, evolutionary trajectories, and artificial chemistries.
Generally covariant vs. gauge structure for conformal field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campigotto, M., E-mail: martacostanza.campigotto@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy); Fatibene, L. [Dipartimento di Matematica, University of Torino, Via C. Alberto 10, 10123, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy)
2015-11-15
We introduce the natural lift of spacetime diffeomorphisms for conformal gravity and discuss the physical equivalence between the natural and gauge natural structure of the theory. Accordingly, we argue that conformal transformations must be introduced as gauge transformations (affecting fields but not spacetime point) and then discuss special structures implied by the splitting of the conformal group. -- Highlights: •Both a natural and a gauge natural structure for conformal gravity are defined. •Global properties and natural lift of spacetime transformations are described. •The possible definitions of physical state are considered and discussed. •The gauge natural theory has less physical states than the corresponding natural one. •The dynamics forces to prefer the gauge natural structure over the natural one.
Geometrical hyperbolic systems for general relativity and gauge theories
Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W
1996-01-01
The evolution equations of Einstein's theory and of Maxwell's theory---the latter used as a simple model to illustrate the former--- are written in gauge covariant first order symmetric hyperbolic form with only physically natural characteristic directions and speeds for the dynamical variables. Quantities representing gauge degrees of freedom [the spatial shift vector \\beta^{i}(t,x^{j}) and the spatial scalar potential \\phi(t,x^{j}), respectively] are not among the dynamical variables: the gauge and the physical quantities in the evolution equations are effectively decoupled. For example, the gauge quantities could be obtained as functions of (t,x^{j}) from subsidiary equations that are not part of the evolution equations. Propagation of certain (``radiative'') dynamical variables along the physical light cone is gauge invariant while the remaining dynamical variables are dragged along the axes orthogonal to the spacelike time slices by the propagating variables. We obtain these results by (1) taking a furth...
Matrix theory from generalized inverses to Jordan form
Piziak, Robert
2007-01-01
Each chapter ends with a list of references for further reading. Undoubtedly, these will be useful for anyone who wishes to pursue the topics deeper. … the book has many MATLAB examples and problems presented at appropriate places. … the book will become a widely used classroom text for a second course on linear algebra. It can be used profitably by graduate and advanced level undergraduate students. It can also serve as an intermediate course for more advanced texts in matrix theory. This is a lucidly written book by two authors who have made many contributions to linear and multilinear algebra.-K.C. Sivakumar, IMAGE, No. 47, Fall 2011Always mathematically constructive, this book helps readers delve into elementary linear algebra ideas at a deeper level and prepare for further study in matrix theory and abstract algebra.-L'enseignement Mathématique, January-June 2007, Vol. 53, No. 1-2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safarzadeh, O., E-mail: O_Safarzadeh@sbu.ac.ir [Shahid Beheshti University, P.O. Box: 19839-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki-Sedigh, A. [K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, A.S. [Shahid Beheshti University, P.O. Box: 19839-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-09-15
Highlights: {yields} A robust water level controller for steam generators (SGs) is designed based on the Quantitative Feedback Theory. {yields} To design the controller, fairly accurate linear models are identified for the SG. {yields} The designed controller is verified using a developed novel global locally linear neuro-fuzzy model of the SG. {yields} Both of the linear and nonlinear models are based on the SG mathematical thermal-hydraulic model developed using the simulation computer code. {yields} The proposed method is easy to apply and guarantees desired closed loop performance. - Abstract: In this paper, a robust water level control system for the horizontal steam generator (SG) using the quantitative feedback theory (QFT) method is presented. To design a robust QFT controller for the nonlinear uncertain SG, control oriented linear models are identified. Then, the nonlinear system is modeled as an uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) system. The robust designed controller is applied to the nonlinear plant model. This nonlinear model is based on a locally linear neuro-fuzzy (LLNF) model. This model is trained using the locally linear model tree (LOLIMOT) algorithm. Finally, simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the designed QFT level controller. It is shown that it will ensure the entire designer's water level closed loop specifications.
Austrian Economics as a Basis for a General Marketing Theory
Broeckelmann, Philipp
2004-01-01
Im Marketing konkurrieren eine Reihe von Theorien um Aufmerksamkeit, Unterstützung durch akademische Forschung und theoretische Glaubwürdigkeit. Es gibt z.B. Ansätze aus so unterschiedlichen Bereichen wie der Volkswirtschaftslehre, Psychologie und Soziologie. Alles in allem ist die Marketing-Forschung stark zersplittert. Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Marktprozesstheorie (Österreichische Schule der Nationalökonomie) - eine Theorie, die die Rolle der Informa...
Ageing of trees: application of general ageing theories.
Brutovská, Eva; Sámelová, Andrea; Dušička, Jozef; Mičieta, Karol
2013-09-01
The main questions posed in ageing theories are how ageing evolved and whether or not it is programmed. While these questions have not yet been clearly resolved, several groups of possible theories have been published on this topic. However, most of these theories do not consider plants, and the specific traits involved in their ageing mechanisms. The first trait covers clonality and sectoriality and the second concerns the lack of a differentiated germ line. The lack of a germ line prevents telomere shortening which can lead to the transfer of somatic mutations into sexual offspring, while sectoriality in trees causes isolation of potentially catastrophic events in one tree part, thus creating a population of more or less independent modules within one axis. The processes of population dynamics, including ageing, can act within the framework of an individual tree as well as in that of the population as a whole, although the processes involved differ and consequently result in different effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Generalized invariance principles and the theory of stability.
Lasalle, J. P.
1971-01-01
Description of some recent extensions of the invariance principle to more generalized dynamical systems where the state space is not locally compact and the flow is unique only in the forward direction of time. A sufficient condition for asymptotic stability of an invariant set is obtained which does not require that the Liapunov function be positive-definite. A recently developed generalized invariance principle is described which is applicable to functional differential equations, partial differential equations, and, in particular, to certain stability problems arising in thermoelasticity, viscoelasticity, and distributed nonlinear networks.
Generalizations of the Nash Equilibrium Theorem in the KKM Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Sehie
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The partial KKM principle for an abstract convex space is an abstract form of the classical KKM theorem. In this paper, we derive generalized forms of the Ky Fan minimax inequality, the von Neumann-Sion minimax theorem, the von Neumann-Fan intersection theorem, the Fan-type analytic alternative, and the Nash equilibrium theorem for abstract convex spaces satisfying the partial KKM principle. These results are compared with previously known cases for -convex spaces. Consequently, our results unify and generalize most of previously known particular cases of the same nature. Finally, we add some detailed historical remarks on related topics.
Generalizations of the Nash Equilibrium Theorem in the KKM Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sehie Park
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The partial KKM principle for an abstract convex space is an abstract form of the classical KKM theorem. In this paper, we derive generalized forms of the Ky Fan minimax inequality, the von Neumann-Sion minimax theorem, the von Neumann-Fan intersection theorem, the Fan-type analytic alternative, and the Nash equilibrium theorem for abstract convex spaces satisfying the partial KKM principle. These results are compared with previously known cases for G-convex spaces. Consequently, our results unify and generalize most of previously known particular cases of the same nature. Finally, we add some detailed historical remarks on related topics.
Instability of Static Semi-Closed Worlds in Generalized Galileon Theories
Evseev, O A
2016-01-01
We consider generalized Galileon theories within general relativity in four-dimensional space-time. We provide the argument showing that the generalized Galileons described by a wide class of Lagrangians do not admit stable, static, spherically symmetric semi-closed worlds. We also show that in a class of theories with $p_{\\perp} = - \\rho$ (where $p_{\\perp}$ is transverse pressure and $\\rho$ is energy density), semi-closed worlds, if exist, would be observed as objects of negative mass.
Bose-Einstein condensation of light: general theory.
Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich
2013-08-01
A theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of light in a dye-filled optical microcavity is presented. The theory is based on the hierarchical maximum entropy principle and allows one to investigate the fluctuating behavior of the photon gas in the microcavity for all numbers of photons, dye molecules, and excitations at all temperatures, including the whole critical region. The master equation describing the interaction between photons and dye molecules in the microcavity is derived and the equivalence between the hierarchical maximum entropy principle and the master equation approach is shown. The cases of a fixed mean total photon number and a fixed total excitation number are considered, and a much sharper, nonparabolic onset of a macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensation of light in the latter case is demonstrated. The theory does not use the grand canonical approximation, takes into account the photon polarization degeneracy, and exactly describes the microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensation of light. Under certain conditions, it predicts sub-Poissonian statistics of the photon condensate and the polarized photon condensate, and a universal relation takes place between the degrees of second-order coherence for these condensates. In the macroscopic case, there appear a sharp jump in the degrees of second-order coherence, a sharp jump and kink in the reduced standard deviations of the fluctuating numbers of photons in the polarized and whole condensates, and a sharp peak, a cusp, of the Mandel parameter for the whole condensate in the critical region. The possibility of nonclassical light generation in the microcavity with the photon Bose-Einstein condensate is predicted.
Contest dynamics general biomechanical theory of contest sports
Sacripanti, Attilio
2008-01-01
In this report it is approched the Contest dynamics as mathematical theory, therefore applicable to all contest sports. Starting with the physical definition of Athlete and Couple of Athlete systems and after singling out the interaction basic parameter, there are analyzed the classes of possible potentials describing the interaction. At the end there are specified the physical bases of mutual interaction between athletes and the trajectories of flight motion. All the matter will be connected to measurable quantities or parameters useful for researchers and trainers.
General proof of entropy principle in Einstein-Maxwell theory
Fang, Xiongjun
2015-01-01
We consider a static self-gravitating charged perfect fluid system in the Einstein-Maxwell theory. Assume Maxwell's equation and the Einstein constraint equation are satisfied, and the temperature of the fluid obeys Tolman's law. Then we prove that the total entropy of the fluid achieves an extremum implies other components of Einstein's equation for any variations of metric and electrical potential with fixed boundary values. Conversely, if Einstein's equation and Maxwell's equations hold, the total entropy achieves an extremum. Our work suggests that the maximum entropy principle is consistent with Einstein's equation when electric field is taken into account.
The Impact of Labov's Contribution to general Linguistic Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Frans; Cornips, Leonie
2016-01-01
century which is Chomskyan theoretical linguistics, i.e. as either a supplement or an alternative. Variation at the level of closely related languages, at the level of the language community, and at the level of the individual, have all been treated by Chomskyans under various headings, thus giving...... evidence that empirical results stemming from variationist sociolinguistics cannot be ignored. However, the treatment has not led to an integration of variation into Chomskyan theory, nor could it. In the final section we outline what a Labovian materialist alternative to Chomskyan idealism could be. We...
Nonequilibrium optical conductivity: General theory and application to transient phases
Kennes, D. M.; Wilner, E. Y.; Reichman, D. R.; Millis, A. J.
2017-08-01
A nonequilibrium theory of optical conductivity of dirty-limit superconductors and commensurate charge density wave is presented. We discuss the current response to different experimentally relevant light-field probe pulses and show that a single frequency definition of the optical conductivity σ (ω )≡j (ω )/E (ω ) is difficult to interpret out of the adiabatic limit. We identify characteristic time-domain signatures distinguishing between superconducting, normal-metal, and charge density wave states. We also suggest a route to directly address the instantaneous superfluid stiffness of a superconductor by shaping the probe light field.
The General Theory of Homogenization A Personalized Introduction
Tartar, Luc
2010-01-01
Homogenization is not about periodicity, or Gamma-convergence, but about understanding which effective equations to use at macroscopic level, knowing which partial differential equations govern mesoscopic levels, without using probabilities (which destroy physical reality); instead, one uses various topologies of weak type, the G-convergence of Sergio Spagnolo, the H-convergence of Francois Murat and the author, and some responsible for the appearance of nonlocal effects, which many theories in continuum mechanics or physics guessed wrongly. For a better understanding of 20th century science,
The general theory of porcupines, perfect and imperfect
Boyle, Latham
2010-01-01
Porcupines are networks of gravitational wave detectors in which the detectors and the distances between them are short relative to the gravitational wavelengths of interest. Perfect porcupines are special configurations whose sensitivity to a gravitational plane wave is independent of the propagation direction or polarization of the wave. I develop the theory of porcupines, including the optimal estimator \\hat{h}^{ij} for the gravitational wave field; useful formulae for the spin-averaged and rotationally-averaged SNR^{2}; and a simple derivation of the properties of perfect porcupines. I apply these results to the interesting class of ``simple'' porcupines, and mention some open problems.
Hu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Shi, Cai-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin
2016-05-06
In this contribution, a multiplicative effects model for generalized multiple-internal-standard method (MEMGMIS) was proposed to solve the signal instability problem of LC-MS over time. MEMGMIS model seamlessly integrates the multiple-internal-standard strategy with multivariate calibration method, and takes full use of all the information carried by multiple internal standards during the quantification of target analytes. Unlike the existing methods based on multiple internal standards, MEMGMIS does not require selecting an optimal internal standard for the quantification of a specific analyte from multiple internal standards used. MEMGMIS was applied to a proof-of-concept model system: the simultaneous quantitative analysis of five edible artificial colorants in two kinds of cocktail drinks. Experimental results demonstrated that MEMGMIS models established on LC-MS data of calibration samples prepared with ultrapure water could provide quite satisfactory concentration predictions for colorants in cocktail samples from their LC-MS data measured 10days after the LC-MS analysis of the calibration samples. The average relative prediction errors of MEMGMIS models did not exceed 6.0%, considerably better than the corresponding values of commonly used univariate calibration models combined with multiple internal standards. The advantages of good performance and simple implementation render MEMGMIS model a promising alternative tool in quantitative LC-MS assays.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李永; 宋健; 张志民
2002-01-01
FGM structure is defined as a kind of generalized equivalent structure according to the structure and properties of materials. This paper uses the mature plate theory and the composite material laminate theory in the analysis of FGM structure and thus puts forward a kind of new concept and a new idea. A brand-new theory, the generalized equivalent antisymmetry bending theory, which can be used to analyze the structure and properties of FGM, is formed. In addition, the correctness, reliability and foresightedness of the theory are testified through concrete analysis and calculation of the applicable FGM structure by utilizing the generalized double Fourier series solution on one hand; on the other hand, it is compared with the existing theories and experiments.
Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems
Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M.C.
2008-01-01
In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Mark
Toward a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems
Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Blom, H.A.P.; Lygeros, J.
2006-01-01
In this chapter we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Ma
Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory
Tuong, Ha-Duong
Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.
Generalized semi-infinite programming: Theory and methods
Still, G.
1999-01-01
Generalized semi-infinite optimization problems (GSIP) are considered. The difference between GSIP and standard semi-infinite problems (SIP) is illustrated by examples. By applying the `Reduction Ansatz', optimality conditions for GSIP are derived. Numerical methods for solving GSIP are considered i
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel L. Tunstall
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the process at Michigan State University whereby we have created two courses, Math 101 and 102, designed to foster numeracy and alleviate mathematics anxiety. The courses--which are not sequential--provide a means of satisfying the University's general education requirement without taking college algebra or calculus, among other options. They are context-driven and broken into modules such as "The World and Its People" and "Health and Risk." They have been highly successful thus far, with students providing positive feedback on their interest in the material and the utility they see of it in their daily lives. We include background on the courses' history, their current status, and present and future challenges, ending with suggestions for others as they attempt to implement quantitative literacy courses at their own institution.
Einstein-aether theory with a Maxwell field: General formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balakin, Alexander B., E-mail: Alexander.Balakin@kpfu.ru [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya str. 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Lemos, José P.S., E-mail: joselemos@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica-CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico-IST, Universidade de Lisboa-UL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2014-11-15
We extend the Einstein-aether theory to include the Maxwell field in a nontrivial manner by taking into account its interaction with the time-like unit vector field characterizing the aether. We also include a generic matter term. We present a model with a Lagrangian that includes cross-terms linear and quadratic in the Maxwell tensor, linear and quadratic in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector, linear in its second covariant derivative and in the Riemann tensor. We decompose these terms with respect to the irreducible parts of the covariant derivative of the aether velocity, namely, the acceleration four-vector, the shear and vorticity tensors, and the expansion scalar. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of an aether non-uniform motion on the polarization and magnetization of the matter in such an aether environment, as well as on its dielectric and magnetic properties. The total self-consistent system of equations for the electromagnetic and the gravitational fields, and the dynamic equations for the unit vector aether field are obtained. Possible applications of this system are discussed. Based on the principles of effective field theories, we display in an appendix all the terms up to fourth order in derivative operators that can be considered in a Lagrangian that includes the metric, the electromagnetic and the aether fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azadeh Pishdad
2014-11-01
Full Text Available There is a wide agreement that IT projects have disappointing success rates and often generate less value than originally promised. In the context of ERP systems, the same statistical reports exist which demonstrate an overwhelming number of failures in ERP implementations. A thorough review of IS literature, however, leads us to believe that organisations that broadly deploy and routinise IT (in particular, ERPs into their day-to-day work procedures realise the greatest productivity benefit and business values, and in return perceive to be more successful. The stage wherein ERP is fully assimilated, widely accepted and routinised is also referred to as institutionalised ERP in the extant IS literature of institutional theory. As a result, the authors of this paper believe that studying the influence of various social, environmental, technological and organisational factors on ERP institutionalisation has significant potential in improving the chance of successful ERP projects. In doing so, this paper introduces an integrative framework of IS theories based on an in-depth review of IS literature. The survey instrument is developed to gather data on possible impacts of factors derived from each theory on ERP institutionalisation. The gathered data is then analysed using quantitative data analysis methods to shape the final hypothetical inferences. Finally, based on the data analysis results, this paper proposed valuable suggestions to business and IT managers to improve the chance of ERP success in their organisations.
Consistent truncations of M-theory for general SU(2) structures
Triendl, Hagen
2015-01-01
In seven dimensions any spin manifold admits an SU(2) structure and therefore very general M-theory compactifications have the potential to allow for a reduction to N=4 gauged supergravity. We perform this general SU(2) reduction and give the relation of SU(2) torsion classes and fluxes to gaugings in the N=4 theory. We furthermore show explicitly that this reduction is a consistent truncation of the eleven-dimensional theory, in other words classical solutions of the reduced theory also solve the eleven-dimensional equations of motion. This reduction generalizes previous M-theory reductions on Tri-Sasakian manifolds and type IIA reductions on Calabi-Yau manifolds of vanishing Euler number. Moreover, it can also be applied to compactifications on certain G2 holonomy manifolds and to more general flux backgrounds.
Generalized ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory
Sheykhi, A; Yosefi, Y
2013-01-01
It was argued that the vacuum energy of the Veneziano ghost field of QCD, in a time-dependent background, can be written in the general form, $H + O(H^2)$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter. Based on this, a phenomenological dark energy model whose energy density is of the form $\\rho=\\alpha H+\\beta H^{2}$ was recently proposed to explain the dark energy dominated universe. In this paper, we investigate this generalized ghost dark energy model in the setup of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy model. It is shown that the equation of state parameter of the new ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ($w_D=-1$) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably.
A generalized theory on the penetrating boundary conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵振海; 洪伟; 周健义
2000-01-01
A generalized formula for penetrating boundary conditions is derived based on the Z-transform. The well-known absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs), such as the Mur’s ABC, and Liao’s ABC, can be deduced from the formula. Furthermore, some new ABCs can also be deduced from it. The stability of these ABCs are demonstrated via Von Neumann method and their validity is verified by numerical examples.
A generalized theory on the penetrating boundary conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A generalized formula for penetrating boundary conditions is derived based on the Z-transform. The well-known absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs), such as the Mur's ABC, and Liao's ABC, can be deduced from the formula. Furthermore, some new ABCs can also be deduced from it. The stability of these ABCs are demonstrated via Von Neumann method and their validity is verified by numerical examples.
General Neveu-Schwarz Correlators in Super Liouville Theory
Abdalla, Elcio; Dalmazi, D; Harada, K; Harada, Koji
1991-01-01
In this paper we compute the N-point correlation functions of the tachyon operator from the Neveu Schwarz sector of super Liouville theory coupled to matter fields (with $\\hat c\\le 1$) in the super Coulomb gas formulation, on world sheets with spherical topology. We first integrate over the zero mode assuming that the $s$ parameter takes an integer value, subsequently we continue the parameter to an arbitrary real number. We included an arbitrary number of screening charges (s.c.) and as a result, after renormalizing the s.c., the external legs and the cosmological constant, the form of the final amplitudes do not modify. Remarkably, the result is completely parallel to the bosonic case. We also completed a discussion on the calculation of bosonic correlators including arbitrary screening charges.
Generalized Potts-Models and their Relevance for Gauge Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Wipf
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We study the Polyakov loop dynamics originating from finite-temperature Yang-Mills theory. The effective actions contain center-symmetric terms involving powers of the Polyakov loop, each with its own coupling. For a subclass with two couplings we perform a detailed analysis of the statistical mechanics involved. To this end we employ a modified mean field approximation and Monte Carlo simulations based on a novel cluster algorithm. We find excellent agreement of both approaches. The phase diagram exhibits both first and second order transitions between symmetric, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with phase boundaries merging at three tricritical points. The critical exponents ν and γ at the continuous transition between symmetric and antiferromagnetic phases are the same as for the 3-state spin Potts model.
Univariate and multivariate general linear models theory and applications with SAS
Kim, Kevin
2006-01-01
Reviewing the theory of the general linear model (GLM) using a general framework, Univariate and Multivariate General Linear Models: Theory and Applications with SAS, Second Edition presents analyses of simple and complex models, both univariate and multivariate, that employ data sets from a variety of disciplines, such as the social and behavioral sciences.With revised examples that include options available using SAS 9.0, this expanded edition divides theory from applications within each chapter. Following an overview of the GLM, the book introduces unrestricted GLMs to analyze multiple regr
Absence of solid angle deficit singularities in beyond-generalized proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-12-01
In Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) scalar-tensor theories, which are outside the domain of second-order Horndeski theories, it is known that there exists a solid angle deficit singularity in the case where the parameter αH characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a nonvanishing constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body. Meanwhile, it was recently shown that second-order generalized Proca theories with a massive vector field Aμ can be consistently extended to beyond-generalized Proca theories, which recover shift-symmetric GLPV theories in the scalar limit Aμ→∇μχ . In beyond-generalized Proca theories up to quartic-order Lagrangians, we show that solid angle deficit singularities are generally absent due to the existence of a temporal vector component. We also derive the vector-field profiles around a compact object and show that the success of the Vainshtein mechanism operated by vector Galileons is not prevented by new interactions in beyond generalized Proca theories.
A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity
Everitt, C. W. F.
1978-01-01
Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.
Density Functional Theory for General Hard-Core Lattice Gases
Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, José A.
2004-09-01
We put forward a general procedure to obtain an approximate free-energy density functional for any hard-core lattice gas, regardless of the shape of the particles, the underlying lattice, or the dimension of the system. The procedure is conceptually very simple and recovers effortlessly previous results for some particular systems. Also, the obtained density functionals belong to the class of fundamental measure functionals and, therefore, are always consistent through dimensional reduction. We discuss possible extensions of this method to account for attractive lattice models.
Some open questions in the theory of generalized permutable subgroups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
A subgroup H of a group G is said to be weakly s-supplemented in G if H has a supplement T in G such that H ∩ T HsG, where HsG is the largest s-permutable subgroup of G contained in H. This paper constructs an example to show that the open questions 6.3 and 6.4 in J Algebra, 315: 192–209 (2007) have negative solutions, and shows that in many cases Question 6.4 is positive. A series of known results are unified and generalized.
End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhuan Wen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end‐point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end‐effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system’s inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one‐link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.
Quantitative theory of thermal fluctuations and disorder in the vortex matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Dingping Li; Rosenstein Baruch; P Lin
2006-01-01
A metastable supercooled homogeneous vortex liquid state exists down to zero fluctuation temperature in systems of mutually repelling objects. The zero-temperature liquid state therefore serves as a (pseudo) `fixed point' controlling the properties of vortex liquid below and even around the melting point. Based on this picture, a quantitative theory of vortex melting and glass transition in Type II superconductors in the framework of Ginzburg-Landau approach is presented. The melting line location is determined and magnetization and specific heat jumps are calculated. The point-like disorder shifts the line downwards and joins the order{disorder transition line. On the other hand, the disorder induces irreversible effects via replica symmetry breaking. The irreversibility line can be calculated within the Gaussian variational method. Therefore, the generic phase diagram contains four phases divided by the irreversibility line and melting line: liquid, solid, vortex glass and Bragg glass. We compare various experimental results with the theoretical formula.
End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhuan Wen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.
IMPROVED QUANTITATIVE FEEDBACK THEORY TECHNIQUE AND APPLICATION TO THREE-AXIS HYDRAULIC SIMULATOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Jinying; ZHAO Keding; CAO Jian
2006-01-01
In order to meet tracking performance index of three-axis hydraulic simulator, based on classical quantitative feedback theory (QFT), an improved QFT technique is used to synthesize controller of low gain and bandwidth. By choosing a special nominal plant, the improved method assigns relative magnitude and phase tracking error between system uncertainty and nominal control plant.Relative tracking error induced by system uncertainty is transformed into sensitivity problem and relative tracking error induced by nominal plant forms into a region on Nichols chart. The two constraints further form into a combined bound which is fit for magnitude and phase loop shaping. Because of leaving out pre-filter of classical QFT controller structure, tracking performance is enhanced greatly. Furthermore, a cascaded two-loop control strategy is proposed to heighten control effect. The improved technique's efficacy is validated by simulation and experiment results.
Temperature of critical clusters in nucleation theory: generalized Gibbs' approach.
Schmelzer, Jürn W P; Boltachev, Grey Sh; Abyzov, Alexander S
2013-07-21
According to the classical Gibbs' approach to the description of thermodynamically heterogeneous systems, the temperature of the critical clusters in nucleation is the same as the temperature of the ambient phase, i.e., with respect to temperature the conventional macroscopic equilibrium conditions are assumed to be fulfilled. In contrast, the generalized Gibbs' approach [J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6166 (2003); and ibid. 124, 194503 (2006)] predicts that critical clusters (having commonly spatial dimensions in the nanometer range) have, as a rule, a different temperature as compared with the ambient phase. The existence of a curved interface may lead, consequently, to an equilibrium coexistence of different phases with different temperatures similar to differences in pressure as expressed by the well-known Laplace equation. Employing the generalized Gibbs' approach, it is demonstrated that, for the case of formation of droplets in a one-component vapor, the temperature of the critical droplets can be shown to be higher as compared to the vapor. In this way, temperature differences between critically sized droplets and ambient vapor phase, observed in recent molecular dynamics simulations of argon condensation by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)], can be given a straightforward theoretical interpretation. It is shown as well that - employing the same model assumptions concerning bulk and interfacial properties of the system under consideration - the temperature of critical bubbles in boiling is lower as compared to the bulk liquid.
Demonstration of a viable quantitative theory for interplanetary type II radio bursts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, J. M., E-mail: jschmidt@physics.usyd.edu.au; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, Physics Road, Building A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)
2016-03-25
Between 29 November and 1 December 2013 the two widely separated spacecraft STEREO A and B observed a long lasting, intermittent, type II radio burst for the extended frequency range ≈ 4 MHz to 30 kHz, including an intensification when the shock wave of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) reached STEREO A. We demonstrate for the first time our ability to quantitatively and accurately simulate the fundamental (F) and harmonic (H) emission of type II bursts from the higher corona (near 11 solar radii) to 1 AU. Our modeling requires the combination of data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations for the CME and plasma background, carried out with the BATS-R-US code, with an analytic quantitative kinetic model for both F and H radio emission, including the electron reflection at the shock, growth of Langmuir waves and radio waves, and the radiations propagation to an arbitrary observer. The intensities and frequencies of the observed radio emissions vary hugely by factors ≈ 10{sup 6} and ≈ 10{sup 3}, respectively; the theoretical predictions are impressively accurate, being typically in error by less than a factor of 10 and 20 %, for both STEREO A and B. We also obtain accurate predictions for the timing and characteristics of the shock and local radio onsets at STEREO A, the lack of such onsets at STEREO B, and the z-component of the magnetic field at STEREO A ahead of the shock, and in the sheath. Very strong support is provided by these multiple agreements for the theory, the efficacy of the BATS-R-US code, and the vision of using type IIs and associated data-theory iterations to predict whether a CME will impact Earth’s magnetosphere and drive space weather events.
A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory
Gorder, Peter James
1993-01-01
Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.
A quantitative quasispecies theory-based model of virus escape mutation under immune selection.
Woo, Hyung-June; Reifman, Jaques
2012-08-07
Viral infections involve a complex interplay of the immune response and escape mutation of the virus quasispecies inside a single host. Although fundamental aspects of such a balance of mutation and selection pressure have been established by the quasispecies theory decades ago, its implications have largely remained qualitative. Here, we present a quantitative approach to model the virus evolution under cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response. The virus quasispecies dynamics are explicitly represented by mutations in the combined sequence space of a set of epitopes within the viral genome. We stochastically simulated the growth of a viral population originating from a single wild-type founder virus and its recognition and clearance by the immune response, as well as the expansion of its genetic diversity. Applied to the immune escape of a simian immunodeficiency virus epitope, model predictions were quantitatively comparable to the experimental data. Within the model parameter space, we found two qualitatively different regimes of infectious disease pathogenesis, each representing alternative fates of the immune response: It can clear the infection in finite time or eventually be overwhelmed by viral growth and escape mutation. The latter regime exhibits the characteristic disease progression pattern of human immunodeficiency virus, while the former is bounded by maximum mutation rates that can be suppressed by the immune response. Our results demonstrate that, by explicitly representing epitope mutations and thus providing a genotype-phenotype map, the quasispecies theory can form the basis of a detailed sequence-specific model of real-world viral pathogens evolving under immune selection.
Calculation of positron binding energies using the generalized any particle propagator theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero, Jonathan; Charry, Jorge A. [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 #45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Flores-Moreno, Roberto [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, Guadalajara Jal., C. P. 44430 (Mexico); Varella, Márcio T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reyes, Andrés, E-mail: areyesv@unal.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 #45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2014-09-21
We recently extended the electron propagator theory to any type of quantum species based in the framework of the Any-Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) approach [J. Romero, E. Posada, R. Flores-Moreno, and A. Reyes, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074105 (2012)]. The generalized any particle molecular orbital propagator theory (APMO/PT) was implemented in its quasiparticle second order version in the LOWDIN code and was applied to calculate nuclear quantum effects in electron binding energies and proton binding energies in molecular systems [M. Díaz-Tinoco, J. Romero, J. V. Ortiz, A. Reyes, and R. Flores-Moreno, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194108 (2013)]. In this work, we present the derivation of third order quasiparticle APMO/PT methods and we apply them to calculate positron binding energies (PBEs) of atoms and molecules. We calculated the PBEs of anions and some diatomic molecules using the second order, third order, and renormalized third order quasiparticle APMO/PT approaches and compared our results with those previously calculated employing configuration interaction (CI), explicitly correlated and quantum Montecarlo methodologies. We found that renormalized APMO/PT methods can achieve accuracies of ∼0.35 eV for anionic systems, compared to Full-CI results, and provide a quantitative description of positron binding to anionic and highly polar species. Third order APMO/PT approaches display considerable potential to study positron binding to large molecules because of the fifth power scaling with respect to the number of basis sets. In this regard, we present additional PBE calculations of some small polar organic molecules, amino acids and DNA nucleobases. We complement our numerical assessment with formal and numerical analyses of the treatment of electron-positron correlation within the quasiparticle propagator approach.
Calculation of positron binding energies using the generalized any particle propagator theory
Romero, Jonathan; Charry, Jorge A.; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Reyes, Andrés
2014-09-01
We recently extended the electron propagator theory to any type of quantum species based in the framework of the Any-Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) approach [J. Romero, E. Posada, R. Flores-Moreno, and A. Reyes, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074105 (2012)]. The generalized any particle molecular orbital propagator theory (APMO/PT) was implemented in its quasiparticle second order version in the LOWDIN code and was applied to calculate nuclear quantum effects in electron binding energies and proton binding energies in molecular systems [M. Díaz-Tinoco, J. Romero, J. V. Ortiz, A. Reyes, and R. Flores-Moreno, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194108 (2013)]. In this work, we present the derivation of third order quasiparticle APMO/PT methods and we apply them to calculate positron binding energies (PBEs) of atoms and molecules. We calculated the PBEs of anions and some diatomic molecules using the second order, third order, and renormalized third order quasiparticle APMO/PT approaches and compared our results with those previously calculated employing configuration interaction (CI), explicitly correlated and quantum Montecarlo methodologies. We found that renormalized APMO/PT methods can achieve accuracies of ˜0.35 eV for anionic systems, compared to Full-CI results, and provide a quantitative description of positron binding to anionic and highly polar species. Third order APMO/PT approaches display considerable potential to study positron binding to large molecules because of the fifth power scaling with respect to the number of basis sets. In this regard, we present additional PBE calculations of some small polar organic molecules, amino acids and DNA nucleobases. We complement our numerical assessment with formal and numerical analyses of the treatment of electron-positron correlation within the quasiparticle propagator approach.
Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.
2014-01-01
SHM/FM theory has been successfully applied to the selection of the baseline set Abort Triggers for the NASA SLS center dot Quantitative assessment played a useful role in the decision process ? M&FM, which is new within NASA MSFC, required the most "new" work, as this quantitative analysis had never been done before center dot Required development of the methodology and tool to mechanize the process center dot Established new relationships to the other groups ? The process is now an accepted part of the SLS design process, and will likely be applied to similar programs in the future at NASA MSFC ? Future improvements center dot Improve technical accuracy ?Differentiate crew survivability due to an abort, vs. survivability even no immediate abort occurs (small explosion with little debris) ?Account for contingent dependence of secondary triggers on primary triggers ?Allocate "? LOC Benefit" of each trigger when added to the previously selected triggers. center dot Reduce future costs through the development of a specialized tool ? Methodology can be applied to any manned/unmanned vehicle, in space or terrestrial
Babbs, Charles F
2011-01-01
To explore the fundamental biomechanics of sound frequency transduction in the cochlea, a two-dimensional analytical model of the basilar membrane was constructed from first principles. Quantitative analysis showed that axial forces along the membrane are negligible, condensing the problem to a set of ordered one-dimensional models in the radial dimension, for which all parameters can be specified from experimental data. Solutions of the radial models for asymmetrical boundary conditions produce realistic deformation patterns. The resulting second-order differential equations, based on the original concepts of Helmholtz and Guyton, and including viscoelastic restoring forces, predict a frequency map and amplitudes of deflections that are consistent with classical observations. They also predict the effects of an observation hole drilled in the surrounding bone, the effects of curvature of the cochlear spiral, as well as apparent traveling waves under a variety of experimental conditions. A quantitative rendition of the classical Helmholtz-Guyton model captures the essence of cochlear mechanics and unifies the competing resonance and traveling wave theories.
Quantitative Reappraisal of the Helmholtz-Guyton Resonance Theory of Frequency Tuning in the Cochlea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles F. Babbs
2011-01-01
Full Text Available To explore the fundamental biomechanics of sound frequency transduction in the cochlea, a two-dimensional analytical model of the basilar membrane was constructed from first principles. Quantitative analysis showed that axial forces along the membrane are negligible, condensing the problem to a set of ordered one-dimensional models in the radial dimension, for which all parameters can be specified from experimental data. Solutions of the radial models for asymmetrical boundary conditions produce realistic deformation patterns. The resulting second-order differential equations, based on the original concepts of Helmholtz and Guyton, and including viscoelastic restoring forces, predict a frequency map and amplitudes of deflections that are consistent with classical observations. They also predict the effects of an observation hole drilled in the surrounding bone, the effects of curvature of the cochlear spiral, as well as apparent traveling waves under a variety of experimental conditions. A quantitative rendition of the classical Helmholtz-Guyton model captures the essence of cochlear mechanics and unifies the competing resonance and traveling wave theories.
Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.
2014-01-01
The theory of System Health Management (SHM) and of its operational subset Fault Management (FM) states that FM is implemented as a "meta" control loop, known as an FM Control Loop (FMCL). The FMCL detects that all or part of a system is now failed, or in the future will fail (that is, cannot be controlled within acceptable limits to achieve its objectives), and takes a control action (a response) to return the system to a controllable state. In terms of control theory, the effectiveness of each FMCL is estimated based on its ability to correctly estimate the system state, and on the speed of its response to the current or impending failure effects. This paper describes how this theory has been successfully applied on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of proposed abort triggers so as to select the most effective suite to protect the astronauts from catastrophic failure of the SLS. The premise behind this process is to be able to quantitatively provide the value versus risk trade-off for any given abort trigger, allowing decision makers to make more informed decisions. All current and planned crewed launch vehicles have some form of vehicle health management system integrated with an emergency launch abort system to ensure crew safety. While the design can vary, the underlying principle is the same: detect imminent catastrophic vehicle failure, initiate launch abort, and extract the crew to safety. Abort triggers are the detection mechanisms that identify that a catastrophic launch vehicle failure is occurring or is imminent and cause the initiation of a notification to the crew vehicle that the escape system must be activated. While ensuring that the abort triggers provide this function, designers must also ensure that the abort triggers do not signal that a catastrophic failure is imminent when in fact the launch vehicle can successfully achieve orbit. That is
A generalized plane strain theory for transversely isotropic piezoelectric plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Si-peng; WANG Wei
2005-01-01
Study of generalized plane strain has so far been limited to elasticity. The present is aimed at parallel development of transversely isotropic piezoelasticity. By assuming that the along depth distribution of electric potential is linear, and that commonly used Kane-Mindlin kinematical assumption is valid, two dimensional solution systems were deduced, for which, explicit solutions of the out-of-plane constraint factor, as well as the stress resultant concentration factor around a circular hole in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric plate subjected to remote biaxial tension are obtained. Comparisons of these formulas with their counterparts for elastic case yielded suggestions that whether the piezoelectric effect exacerbates or mitigates the stress resultant concentration greatly depends on material properties, particularly, the piezoelectric coefficients;the effect of plate thickness was extensively investigated.
Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity?
Krori, K.; Dutta, S.
2011-11-01
Since the 1960s the general relativists have been deeply obsessed with the possibilities of GTR singularities - blackhole as well as cosmological singularities. Senovilla, for the first time, followed by others, showed that there are cylindrically symmetric cosmological space-times which are free of singularities. On the other hand, Krori et al. have presently shown that spherically symmetric cosmological space-times - which later reduce to FRW space-times may also be free of singularities. Besides, Mitra has in the mean-time come forward with some realistic calculations which seem to rule out the possibility of a blackhole singularity. So whether singularities are integral to GTR seems to come under a shadow.
Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamdollah Ravand
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Multilevel models (MLMs are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation studies with a methodological focus. Although the methodological direction was necessary as a first step to show how MLMs can be utilized and extended to model item response data, the emphasis needs to be shifted towards providing evidence on how applications of MLMs in educational testing can provide the benefits that have been promised. The present study uses foreign language reading comprehension data to illustrate application of hierarchical generalized models to estimate person and item parameters, differential item functioning (DIF, and local person dependence in a three-level model.
A General Theory of Additive State Space Abstractions
Yang, Fan; Holte, Robert; Zahavi, Uzi; Felner, Ariel; 10.1613/jair.2486
2011-01-01
Informally, a set of abstractions of a state space S is additive if the distance between any two states in S is always greater than or equal to the sum of the corresponding distances in the abstract spaces. The first known additive abstractions, called disjoint pattern databases, were experimentally demonstrated to produce state of the art performance on certain state spaces. However, previous applications were restricted to state spaces with special properties, which precludes disjoint pattern databases from being defined for several commonly used testbeds, such as Rubiks Cube, TopSpin and the Pancake puzzle. In this paper we give a general definition of additive abstractions that can be applied to any state space and prove that heuristics based on additive abstractions are consistent as well as admissible. We use this new definition to create additive abstractions for these testbeds and show experimentally that well chosen additive abstractions can reduce search time substantially for the (18,4)-TopSpin puz...
On the algebraic structure of isotropic generalized elasticity theories
Auffray, Nicolas
2013-01-01
In this paper the algebraic structure of the isotropic nth-order gradient elasticity is investigated. In the classical isotropic elasticity it is well-known that the constitutive relation can be broken down into two uncoupled relations between elementary part of the strain and the stress tensors (deviatoric and spherical). In this paper we demonstrate that this result can not be generalized and since 2nd-order isotropic elasticity there exist couplings between elementary parts of higher-order strain and stress tensors. Therefore, and in certain way, nth-order isotropic elasticity have the same kind of algebraic structure as anisotropic classical elasticity. This structure is investigated in the case of 2nd-order isotropic elasticity, and moduli characterizing the behavior are provided.
Second-order hyperbolic Fuchsian systems. I. General theory
Beyer, Florian
2010-01-01
We introduce a class of singular partial differential equations, the second-order hyperbolic Fuchsian systems, and we investigate the associated initial value problem when data are imposed on the singularity. First of all, we analyze a class of equations in which hyperbolicity is not assumed and we construct asymptotic solutions of arbitrary order. Second, for the proposed class of second-order hyperbolic Fuchsian systems, we establish the existence of solutions with prescribed asymptotic behavior on the singularity. Our proof is based on a new scheme which is also suitable to design numerical approximations. Furthermore, as shown in a follow-up paper, the second-order Fuchsian framework is appropriate to handle Einstein's field equations for Gowdy symmetric spacetimes and allows us to recover (and slightly generalize) earlier results by Rendall and collaborators, while providing a direct approach leading to accurate numerical solutions. The proposed framework is also robust enough to encompass matter models ...
Temperature of critical clusters in nucleation theory: Generalized Gibbs' approach
Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Boltachev, Grey Sh.; Abyzov, Alexander S.
2013-07-01
According to the classical Gibbs' approach to the description of thermodynamically heterogeneous systems, the temperature of the critical clusters in nucleation is the same as the temperature of the ambient phase, i.e., with respect to temperature the conventional macroscopic equilibrium conditions are assumed to be fulfilled. In contrast, the generalized Gibbs' approach [J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6166 (2003), 10.1063/1.1602066; J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 194503 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2196412 predicts that critical clusters (having commonly spatial dimensions in the nanometer range) have, as a rule, a different temperature as compared with the ambient phase. The existence of a curved interface may lead, consequently, to an equilibrium coexistence of different phases with different temperatures similar to differences in pressure as expressed by the well-known Laplace equation. Employing the generalized Gibbs' approach, it is demonstrated that, for the case of formation of droplets in a one-component vapor, the temperature of the critical droplets can be shown to be higher as compared to the vapor. In this way, temperature differences between critically sized droplets and ambient vapor phase, observed in recent molecular dynamics simulations of argon condensation by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)], 10.1063/1.2752154, can be given a straightforward theoretical interpretation. It is shown as well that - employing the same model assumptions concerning bulk and interfacial properties of the system under consideration - the temperature of critical bubbles in boiling is lower as compared to the bulk liquid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oren, T.I.
1982-01-01
Simulation is viewed within the model management paradigm. Major components of simulation systems as well as elements of model management are outlined. Possible synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories are systematized. 21 references.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Huan-Wu
2005-01-01
Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004)703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h as well as Boltzmann's kB by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.
Marris, C; Langford, I H; O'Riordan, T
1998-10-01
This paper seeks to compare two frameworks which have been proposed to explain risk perceptions, namely, cultural theory and the psychometric paradigm. A structured questionnaire which incorporated elements from both approaches was administered to 129 residents of Norwich, England. The qualitative risk characteristics generated by the psychometric paradigm explained a far greater proportion of the variance in risk perceptions than cultural biases, though it should be borne in mind that the qualitative characteristics refer directly to risks whereas cultural biases are much more distant variables. Correlations between cultural biases and risk perceptions were very low, but the key point was that each cultural bias was associated with concern about distinct types of risks and that the pattern of responses was compatible with that predicted by cultural theory. The cultural approach also provided indicators for underlying beliefs regarding trust and the environment; beliefs which were consistent within each world view but divergent between them. An important drawback, however, was that the psychometric questionnaire could only allocate 32% of the respondents unequivocally to one of the four cultural types. The rest of the sample expressed several cultural biases simultaneously, or none at all. Cultural biases are therefore probably best interpreted as four extreme world views, and a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies would generate better insights into who might defend these views in what circumstances, whether there are only four mutually exclusive world views or not, and how these views are related to patterns of social solidarity, and judgments on institutional trust.
GENERALIZED LANDSCAPE THEORY: AGENT-BASED APPROACH TO ALLIANCE FORMATIONS IN CIVIL AVIATION INDUSTRY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kyoichi Kijima
2001-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to generalize Landscape theory proposed by R.Axelrod and, then, to apply it to the civil aviation industry for simulating alliance formations in it. Landscape theory provides a well-known agent-based simulation model for analyzing alliance (or coalition) formation process. When a set N of agents or autonomous decision makers is given, the theory assumes that each agent tries to make a coalition in such a way that the resulting alliance minimizes its frustration. The theory is essentially based on two premises. One is that a propensity is symmetric,i.e., the propensity of agent i toward j is exactly the same as that of j toward i for anyagents i and j in N. The other is that the number of alliances is restricted to two, i.e., at any moment N is partitioned into two parties. Though the two basic premises underpin the theory and make the model simple and operational, they do not always reflect alliance formation processes in a realistic way. A generalized Landscape theory that this paper proposes removes them and allows asymmetric propensity and existence of alliances of any number. Since the premises are essential for the model, the generalization requires a drastic reconstruction of the whole idea of the theory. Finally, we analyze a real alliance formation process in the civil aviation industry.This analysis provides interesting insights about the industry as well as some validation of our generalized Landscape theory.
Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration
Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard
1978-01-01
Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)
A U(4) QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; ZHONG Hai-Yang
2008-01-01
Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative which contains both vector and pseudoscalar gauge bosons.Based on this theory,we construct a U(4) strong interaction model By using this U(4) generalized Yang-Mills model,we obtain that mesons can be realized as the colorless pseudoscalar gauge bosons.We also obtain a gauge potential solution which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.
The general theory of secondary weak gravitational lensing
Clarkson, Chris
2015-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is normally assumed to have only two principle effects: a magnification of a source and a distortion of the sources shape in the form of a shear. However, further distortions are actually present owing to changes in the gravitational field across the scale of the ray bundle of light propagating to us, resulting in the familiar arcs in lensed images. This is normally called the flexion, and is approximated by Taylor expanding the shear and magnification across the image plane. However, the physical origin of this effect arises from higher-order corrections in the geodesic deviation equation governing the gravitational force between neighbouring geodesics - so involves derivatives of the Riemann tensor. We show that integrating the second-order geodesic deviation equation results in a 'Hessian map' for gravitational lensing, which is a higher-order addition to the Jacobi map. We derive the general form of the Hessian map in an arbitrary spacetime paying particular attention to the sep...
Gelso, Charles J.; Carter, Jean A.
1994-01-01
Responds to comments by Greenberg and by Patton (both this issue) addressing ambiguities in Gelso and Carter's article (this issue) on components of psychotherapy relationship. In reply, discusses issue of how general theory ought to be to have maximal impact on research and practice. Questions number of Greenberg's assertions about Gelso and…
Arun, K G
2013-01-01
Gravitational Wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test General Relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories like Scalar-Tensor theories, Dynamical Chern-Simons theory and Massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrised gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA config...
General Stationary, Spherically-Symmetric Solutions in the Gauge Theory of Gravity
Francis, M R; Francis, Matthew R.; Kosowsky, Arthur
2003-01-01
This paper provides a concise overview of the gauge theory of gravity, as recently formulated by Lasenby, Doran, and Gull. Instead of representing gravitation via spacetime curvature, the effects of gravity are given by gauge fields in flat spacetime; the gauge group is that of Lorentz transformations plus covariance under diffeomorphisms. The resulting theory is formally similar to the Cartan formulation of general relativity, and we make detailed comparisons with conventional representations of general relativity. We provide a constructive method for solving the field equations in gauge theory gravity, and apply this method to the spherically symmetric case. The most general vacuum solution results, which explicitly displays all coordinate freedom in terms of free functions of radius. Through particular choices of these functions, our general solution reduces to all known metric representations of spherically symmetric, stationary vacuum spacetime. We also obtain the corresponding generalization of the Reis...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yujing Sun
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The module temperature is the most important parameter influencing the output power of solar photovoltaic (PV systems, aside from solar irradiance. In this paper, we focus on the interdisciplinary research that combines the correlation analysis, mutual information (MI and heat transfer theory, which aims to figure out the correlative relations between different meteorological impact factors (MIFs and PV module temperature from both quality and quantitative aspects. The identification and confirmation of primary MIFs of PV module temperature are investigated as the first step of this research from the perspective of physical meaning and mathematical analysis about electrical performance and thermal characteristic of PV modules based on PV effect and heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the quantitative description of the MIFs influence on PV module temperature is mathematically formulated as several indexes using correlation-based feature selection (CFS and MI theory to explore the specific impact degrees under four different typical weather statuses named general weather classes (GWCs. Case studies for the proposed methods were conducted using actual measurement data of a 500 kW grid-connected solar PV plant in China. The results not only verified the knowledge about the main MIFs of PV module temperatures, more importantly, but also provide the specific ratio of quantitative impact degrees of these three MIFs respectively through CFS and MI based measures under four different GWCs.
Skinner, Brian
2011-01-01
When facing a heavily-favored opponent, an underdog must be willing to assume greater-than-average risk. In statistical language, one would say that an underdog must be willing to adopt a strategy whose outcome has a larger-than-average variance. The difficult question is how much risk a team should be willing to accept. This is equivalent to asking how much the team should be willing to sacrifice from its mean score in order to increase the score's variance. In this paper a general, analytical method is developed for addressing this question quantitatively. Under the assumption that every play in a game is statistically independent, both the mean and the variance of a team's offensive output can be described using the binomial distribution. This description allows for direct calculations of the winning probability when a particular strategy is employed, and therefore allows one to calculate optimal offensive strategies. This paper develops this method for calculating optimal strategies exactly and then prese...
Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel
2016-09-01
Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy.
Stationary Black Holes in a Generalized Three-Dimensional Theory of Gravity
Sá, P M
1998-01-01
We consider a generalized three-dimensional theory of gravity which is specified by two fields, the graviton and the dilaton, and one parameter. This theory contains, as particular cases, three-dimensional General Relativity and three-dimensional String Theory. Stationary black hole solutions are generated from the static ones using a simple coordinate transformation. The stationary black holes solutions thus obtained are locally equivalent to the corresponding static ones, but globally distinct. The mass and angular momentum of the stationary black hole solutions are computed using an extension of the Regge and Teitelboim formalism. The causal structure of the black holes is described.
General aspects of effective field theories and few-body applications
Hammer, H -W
2016-01-01
Effective field theory provides a powerful framework to exploit a separation of scales in physical systems. In these lectures, we discuss some general aspects of effective field theories and their application to few-body physics. In particular, we consider an effective field theory for non-relativistic particles with resonant short-range interactions where certain parts of the interaction need to be treated nonperturbatively. As an application, we discuss the so-called pionless effective field theory for low-energy nuclear physics. The extension to include long-range interactions mediated by photon and pion-exchange is also addressed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Zhilin
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Map is a kind of powerful means to help people in understanding the objective world. The key function of map is to transmit spatial information. The measurement of spatial information of maps dates back to 1960s, when the information theory of communication was introduced to the field of cartography. The introduction led to a new branch of cartography, i.e. cartographic information theory. This paper provides a review of the development of cartographic information theory over the past 50 years. Emphasis is on the evolution from the special to the general cartographic information theory.
On the spatial behavior in two-temperature generalized thermoelastic theories
Miranville, Alain; Quintanilla, Ramon
2017-10-01
This paper investigates the spatial behavior of the solutions of two generalized thermoelastic theories with two temperatures. To be more precise, we focus on the Green-Lindsay theory with two temperatures and the Lord-Shulman theory with two temperatures. We prove that a Phragmén-Lindelöf alternative of exponential type can be obtained in both cases. We also describe how to obtain a bound on the amplitude term by means of the boundary conditions for the Green-Lindsay theory with two temperatures.
On quantitative analysis of interband recombination dynamics: Theory and application to bulk ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lettieri, S. [Institute for Superconductors, Oxides and Innovative Materials, National Research Council (CNR-SPIN), U.O.S. Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Capello, V.; Santamaria, L. [Physics Department, University of Naples “Federico II,” Via Cintia I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Maddalena, P. [Institute for Superconductors, Oxides and Innovative Materials, National Research Council (CNR-SPIN), U.O.S. Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Physics Department, University of Naples “Federico II,” Via Cintia I-80126 Napoli (Italy)
2013-12-09
The issue of the quantitative analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence experiments is addressed by developing and describing two approaches for determination of unimolecular lifetime, bimolecular recombination coefficient, and equilibrium free-carrier concentration, based on a quite general second-order expression of the electron-hole recombination rate. Application to the case of band-edge emission of ZnO single crystals is reported, evidencing the signature of sub-nanosecond second-order recombination dynamics for optical transitions close to the interband excitation edge. The resulting findings are in good agreement with the model prediction and further confirm the presence, formerly evidenced in literature by non-optical methods, of near-surface conductive layers in ZnO crystals with sheet charge densities of about 3–5×10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}.
Gravitational Wave Spectrums from Pole-like Inflations based on Generalized Gravity Theories
Hwang, J
1998-01-01
We present a general and unified formulation which can handle the classical evolution and quantum generation processes of the cosmological gravitational wave in a broad class of generalized gravity theories. Applications are made in several inflation models based on the scalar-tensor theory, the induced gravity, and the low energy effective action of string theory. The gravitational wave power spectrums based on the vacuum expectation value of the quantized fluctuating metric during the pole-like inflation stages are derived in analytic forms. Assuming that the gravity theory transits to Einstein one while the relevant scales remain in the superhorizon scale, we derive the consequent power spectrums and the directional fluctuations of the relic radiation produced by the gravitational wave. The spectrums seeded by the vacuum fluctuations in the pole-like inflation models based on the generalized gravity show a distinguished common feature which differs from the scale invariant spectrum generated in an exponent...
A general theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid-protein fluid membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Miao, L.
2005-01-01
We present a general and systematic theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of multi-component fluid membranes, in general, and membranes containing transmembrane proteins, in particular. Developed based on a minimal number of principles of statistical physics and designed to be a meso...
General relativity the most beautiful of theories : applications and trends after 100 years
2015-01-01
Generalising Newton's law of gravitation, general relativity is one of the pillars of modern physics. On the occasion of general relativity's centennial, leading scientists in the different branches of gravitational research review the history and recent advances in the main fields of applications of the theory, which was referred to by Lev Landau as “the most beautiful of the existing physical theories”.
Quantum Information as a Non-Kolmogorovian Generalization of Shannon’s Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Federico Holik
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the formal structure of a generalized information theory based on the extension of the probability calculus of Kolmogorov to a (possibly non-commutative setting. By studying this framework, we argue that quantum information can be considered as a particular case of a huge family of non-commutative extensions of its classical counterpart. In any conceivable information theory, the possibility of dealing with different kinds of information measures plays a key role. Here, we generalize a notion of state spectrum, allowing us to introduce a majorization relation and a new family of generalized entropic measures.
Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.
2008-01-01
The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Huan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives or G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac＇s Large Number Hypothesis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENGHuan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives of G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
Organisational change theory and the use of indicators in general practice.
Rhydderch, M; Elwyn, G; Marshall, M; Grol, R
2004-06-01
General practices are making greater use of indicators to help shape and develop organisational arrangements supporting the delivery of health care. Debate continues concerning what exactly such indicators should measure and how they should be used to achieve improvement. Organisational theories can provide an analytical backdrop to inform the design of indicators, critique their construction, and evaluate their use. Systems theory, organisational development, social worlds theory, and complexity theory each has a practical contribution to make to our understanding of how indicators work in prompting quality improvements and why they sometimes don't. This paper argues that systems theory exerts the most influence over the use of indicators. It concludes that a strategic framework for quality improvement should take account of all four theories, recognising the multiple realities that any one approach will fail to reflect.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masharawi, Y; Kjær, Per; Bendix, T
2008-01-01
STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in children were taken twice and analyzed for intra- and intertester reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of a variety of lumbar quantitative measurements taken from MRIs of children from the ge...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by John R. Hicks (1939, Kenneth J.Arrow (1951 and Gerard Debreu (1954 and second frames of general equilibrium belongs to Paul A. Samuelson (1958. To highlight the contributions of these Nobel laureates in the development of the theory of general equilibrium have been selected and are presented in the paper some views, estimates and assumptions that have contributed not only in solving concrete problems, but also to the development of economic science in general. Their works represent a synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects of treatment of general equilibrium which are the starting point for further research in this field.
Arun, K. G.; Pai, Archana
2013-01-01
Gravitational wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test general relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories such as scalar-tensor theories, dynamical Chern-Simons theory and massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrized gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA configuration. We also compare the expected bounds on alternative theories of gravity from ground-based and space-based detectors and find that space-based GW detectors can test GR and other theories of gravity with unprecedented accuracies. We then focus on a recent proposal to use singular value decomposition of the Fisher information matrix to improve the accuracies with which post-Newtonian theory can be tested. We extend those results to the case of space-based detector eLISA and discuss its implications.
The parasite-stress theory may be a general theory of culture and sociality.
Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy
2012-04-01
In the target article, we presented the hypothesis that parasite-stress variation was a causal factor in the variation of in-group assortative sociality, cross-nationally and across the United States, which we indexed with variables that measured different aspects of the strength of family ties and religiosity. We presented evidence supportive of our hypothesis in the form of analyses that controlled for variation in freedom, wealth resources, and wealth inequality across nations and the states of the USA. Here, we respond to criticisms from commentators and attempt to clarify and expand the parasite-stress theory of sociality used to fuel our research presented in the target article.
Rotorcraft flight control design using quantitative feedback theory and dynamic crossfeeds
Cheng, Rendy P.
1995-01-01
A multi-input, multi-output controls design with robust crossfeeds is presented for a rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Decoupling criteria are developed for dynamic crossfeed design and implementation. Frequency dependent performance metrics focusing on piloted flight are developed and tested on 23 flight configurations. The metrics show that the resulting design is superior to alternative control system designs using conventional fixed-gain crossfeeds and to feedback-only designs which rely on high gains to suppress undesired off-axis responses. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets current handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensator successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective.
Controls design with crossfeeds for hovering rotorcraft using quantitative feedback theory
Tischler, Mark B.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Cheng, Rendy
1996-01-01
A multi-input, multi-output controls design with dynamic crossfeed pre-compensation is presented for rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). The resulting closed-loop control system bandwidth allows the rotorcraft to be considered for use as an inflight simulator. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets most handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. Handling qualities are Level 1 for both low-gain tasks and high-gain tasks in the roll, pitch, and yaw axes except for the 10 deg/sec moderate-amplitude yaw command where the rotorcraft exhibits Level 2 handling qualities in the yaw axis caused by phase lag. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensators successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective. This is an area to be investigated in future research.
Recent advances with generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in polymers
Freed, Karl
The generalized entropy theory (GET) of glass-formation in polymers is a combination of the lattice cluster theory (LCT) for the configurational entropy density with the Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory for the structural relaxation time. A greatly simplified form of the GET (whose expression for the free energy is roughly double that of Flory-Huggins theory) accurately reproduces the four characteristic temperatures of glass-formation (the onset, crossover, glass transition, and Kauzmann temperatures) of the full GET to within 4K for a series of models of polymers composed of semi-flexible chains having the structure of poly(n-alpha olefins). The theory is now simple enough to be used in courses in polymer physics. Although the successes of the GET provide a strong validation of the final form of the AG theory provided the configurational entropy is used, the physical basis of the AG theory has remained an enigma. Hence, we have developed a new, more general, statistical mechanical derivation of AG theory that explains the previously perplexing observations that the string-like elementary excitations have the mass and temperature dependence of systems undergoing equilibrium self-assembly. This work is supported by the (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE- SC0008631.
Age- and Parkinson's disease-related evaluation of gait by General Tau Theory.
Zhang, Shutao; Qian, Jinwu; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Linyong; Wu, Xi; Hu, Xiaowu
2016-10-01
The degeneration of postural control in the elderly and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be debilitating and may lead to increased fall risk. This study evaluated the changes in postural control during gait affected by PD and aging using a new method based on the General Tau Theory. Fifteen patients with PD, 11 healthy old adults (HOs), and 15 healthy young adults (HYs) were recruited. Foot trajectories of each participant were monitored during walking by a three-camera Optotrak Certus(®) motion capture system. The anteroposterior direction of foot movement during stepping was analyzed by tau-G and tau-J guidance strategies. Two linear regression analyses suggested that the tau of the step-gap was strongly coupled onto the tau-J guidance during walking. The regression slope K could estimate the coupling ratio in the tau-coupling equation which reflects the performance of postural control during gait. The mean K value for the PD group, which was highest among the three groups, was approximately 0.5. Therefore, participants in the PD group walked with the poorest postural control and exhibited a relatively hard contact with the endpoint during stepping when compared with those in the HO and HY groups. The HY and HO groups obtained mean K values significantly lower than 0.5, which indicated that the gait was well controlled and ended at low speed with low deceleration. However, the HO group showed a decreased tendency for postural control, in which the mean K value was significantly higher than that of the HY group. The K value was moderately positively correlated with the double support time and negatively correlated with the stride length and walking speed. The tau-J coupling ratio can provide additional insight into gait disturbances and may serve as a reliable, objective, and quantitative tool to evaluate dynamic postural control during walking.
Towards the understanding of social reality in general theory of institutional facts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Alexander Giraldo Chavarriaga
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a critical interpretation of the general theory of institutional facts, which intents to comprehend, on the basis of a basic regulatory structure with functions assignments, how objective social reality is constructed. We discuss problems, approaches, and theoretical methods employed by Searle, in contrast to sociological constructivism, examining the issues of autoreferentiality of the concept of institutionality, the search for objectivity, the adoption of external realism, the concept of truth, the role of language, and intentionality in the theory. Finally, the author verifies if the theory in question complies with some of the features that a general theory of regulation should have, according to the criteria of René Thom.
Park, J S
1992-01-01
We re-examine the geometry and algebraic structure of BRST's of Topological Yang-Mills theory based on the universal bundle formalism of Atiyah and Singer. This enables us to find a natural generalization of the {\\it Russian formula and descent equations\\/}, which can be used as algebraic method to find the non-Abelian anomalies counterparts in Topological Yang-Mills theory. We suggest that the presence of the non-Abelian anomaly obstructs the proper definition of Donaldson's invariants.
Beyond This Point There Be Dragons: Developing General Theory in Music Therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolyn B. Kenny
2003-07-01
Full Text Available This article attempts to address the topic of "general theory" in music therapy. If we look at the history of ideas which serve practice, we know that fields do not survive without substantive theories or maps, which represent unique features, characteristics, attributes of the specific practice. Creative ideas are born out of practice. And we come upon these creative ideas in the territory of discourse.
The deconfinement phase transition in Yang-Mills theory with general Lie group G
Holland, K; Wiese, U J
2004-01-01
We present numerical results for the deconfinement phase transition in Sp(2) and Sp(3) Yang-Mills theories in (2+1)-D and (3+1)-D. We then make a conjecture on the order of this phase transition in Yang-Mills theories with general Lie groups G = SU(N), SO(N), Sp(N) and with exceptional groups G = G(2), F(4), E(6), E(7), E(8).
Radioscience simulations in General Relativity and in alternative theories of gravity
Hees, A; Reynaud, S; Jaekel, M -T; Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; Lainey, V; Füzfa, A; Courty, J -M; Dehant, V; Wolf, P
2012-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the possibility to test General Relativity in the Solar System with radioscience measurements. To this aim, we present a new software that simulates Range and Doppler signals directly from the space-time metric. This flexible approach allows one to perform simulations in General Relativity and in alternative metric theories of gravity. In a second step, a least-squares fit of the different initial conditions involved in the situation is performed in order to compare anomalous signals produced by a given alternative theory with the ones obtained in General Relativity. This software provides orders of magnitude and signatures stemming from hypothetical alternative theories of gravity on radioscience signals. As an application, we present some simulations done for the Cassini mission in Post-Einsteinian Gravity and in the context of MOND External Field Effect. We deduce constraints on the Post-Einsteinian parameters but find that the considered arc of the Cassini mission is not useful ...
Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I
2012-01-01
"Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...
Janardhan, Sujatha
2012-01-01
We present a short review of geometric and algebraic approach to causal cones and describe cone preserving transformations and their relationship with causal structure related to special and general theory of relativity. We describe Lie groups, especially matrix Lie groups, homogeneous and symmetric spaces and causal cones and certain implications of these concepts in special and general theory of relativity related to causal structure and topology of space-time. We compare and contrast the results on causal relations with those in the literature for general space-times and compare these relations with K-causal maps. We also describe causal orientations and their implications for space-time topology and discuss some more topologies on space-time which arise as an application of domain theory.
Keldysh theory re-examined: Application of the generalized Bessel functions
Bauer, J H
2015-01-01
A derivation of the ionization rate for the hydrogen-like ion in the strong linearly polarized laser field is presented. This derivation utilizes the famous Keldysh probability amplitude in the length gauge (in the dipole approximation) and without Coulomb effects in the final state of the ionized electron. No further approximations are being made, because the amplitude has been expanded in the double Fourier series in a time domain (with the help of the generalized Bessel functions). Thus, our theory has no other limitations characteristic of the original Keldysh theory. We compare our "exact" theory with the original Keldysh one, studying photoionization energy spectra and total ionization rates. We show breakdown of the original Keldysh theory for higher frequencies. In the barrier-suppresion regime the "exact" Keldysh theory gives results closer to well-known numerical or other analytical results.
On a possible approach to general field theories with nonpolynomial interactions
Ferrari, Franco
2009-01-01
In this work a class of massive scalar field theories with self-interactions described by a general potential is studied. Under the sole condition that the potential admits the Fourier representation, it is shown that such theories may be mapped into a standard field theory, in which the interaction of the new fields is a polynomial of fourth degree. With some restrictions, this mapping allows the perturbative treatment of models that are otherwise intractable with standard field theoretical methods. A nonperturbative approach to these theories is attempted. The original scalar field is integrated out exactly at the price of introducing auxiliary vector fields. The latter are treated in a mean field theory approximation. The singularities that arise after the elimination of the auxiliary fields are cured using the dimensional regularization. The expression of the counterterms to be subtracted is computed.
Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields
Giannakeas, P; Robicheaux, F
2016-01-01
A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local frame transformation theory (GLFT). A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local frame transformation theory developed initially by Fano and Harmin. This revised GLFT theory yields non-trivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semi-analytical GLFT Stark spectra with {\\it ab initio} numerical simulations yields errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.
Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serna, A [Dept. Fisica y Computacion, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E03202-Elche (Spain); Alimi, J-M [LAEC, CNRS-UMR 8631, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F92195-Meudon (France); Navarro, A [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E30071-Murcia (Spain)
2002-03-07
In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function {alpha} (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field ({phi}) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, {alpha}{sub 0}, strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} |{phi}| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -19}). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} {phi} much larger limits on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -7}) are found.
Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerner, Boris S. [Physics of Transportation and Traffic, University Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2015-03-10
It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliable used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular stochastic value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory, we discuss three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.
Kerner, Boris S.
2013-11-01
It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliably used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that the generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular (fixed or stochastic) value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory, we discuss the three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.
Unitary theories in the work of Mira Fernandes (beyond general relativity and differential geometry)
Lemos, José P S
2010-01-01
An analysis of the work of Mira Fernandes on unitary theories is presented. First it is briefly mentioned the Portuguese scientific context of the 1920s. A short analysis of the extension of Riemann geometries to new generalized geometries with new affine connections, such as those of Weyl and Cartan, is given. Based on these new geometries, the unitary theories of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, proposed by Weyl, Eddington, Einstein, and others are then explained. Finally, the book and one paper on connections and two papers on unitary theories, all written by Mira Fernandes, are analyzed and put in context.
A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
锁要红; 黄虎
2004-01-01
Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.
Numerical validation of the generalized Harvey-Shack surface scatter theory
Choi, Narak; Harvey, James E.
2013-11-01
The generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory is numerically compared to the classical small perturbation method, the Kirchhoff approximation method, and the rigorous method of moments for one-dimensional ideally conducting surfaces whose surface power spectral density function is Gaussian or exhibits an inverse power law (fractal) behavior. In spite of its simple analytic form, our numerical comparison shows that the new GHS theory is valid (with reasonable accuracy) over a broader range of surface parameter space than either of the two classical surface scatter theories.
Siegert pseudostate formulation of scattering theory: General three-dimensional case
Krainov, Lev O.; Batishchev, Pavel A.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.
2016-04-01
This paper generalizes the Siegert pseudostate (SPS) formulation of scattering theory to arbitrary finite-range potentials without any symmetry in the three-dimensional (3D) case. The orthogonality and completeness properties of 3D SPSs are established. The SPS expansions for scattering states, outgoing-wave Green's function, scattering matrix, and scattering amplitude, that is, all major objects of scattering theory, are derived. The theory is illustrated by calculations for several model potentials. The results enable one to apply 3D SPSs as a purely discrete basis capable of representing both discrete and continuous spectra in solving various stationary and time-dependent quantum-mechanical problems.
General Medical Practitioners Need to Be Aware of the Theories on Which Our Work Depend
Thomas, Paul
2006-01-01
When general practitioners and family physicians listen, reflect, and diagnose, we use 3 different theories of knowledge. This essay explores these theories to highlight an approach to clinical practice, inquiry, and learning that can do justice to the complex and uncertain world we experience. The following points are made: (1) A variety of approaches to research and audit are needed to illuminate the richness of experience witnessed by general medical practitioners. (2) Evidence about the past cannot predict the future except in simple, short-term, or slowly changing situations. (3) We consciously or unconsciously weave together evidence generated through 3 fundamental theories of knowledge, termed postpositivism, critical theory, and constructivism, to make sense of everyday experience. We call it listening, reflecting, and diagnosing. (4) These 3 fundamental theories of knowledge highlight different aspects within a world that is more complex, integrated, and changing than any single theory can reveal on its own; they frame what we see and how we act in everyday situations. (5) Moving appropriately between these different theories helps us to see a fuller picture and provides a framework for improving our skills as clinicians, researchers, and learners. (6) Narrative unity offers a way to bring together different kinds of evidence to understand the overall health of patients and of communities; evidence of all kinds provides discrete snapshots of more complex stories in evolution. (7) We need to understand these issues so we can create an agenda for clinical practice, inquiry, and learning appropriate to our discipline. PMID:17003147
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)
2012-11-01
Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Gilson, Erik; Davidson, Ronald C.
2013-01-01
By extending the recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled transverse beam dynamics, we have constructed the Gaussian beam distribution and its projections with arbitrary mode emittance ratios. The new formulation has been applied to a continuously-rotating quadrupole focusing channel because the basic properties of this channel are known theoretically and could also be investigated experimentally in a compact setup such as the linear Paul trap configuration. The new formulation retains a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory, and thus provides a powerful theoretical tool to investigate coupled transverse beam dynamics in general and more complex linear focusing channels.
Generalized Sparling-Thirring form in the Brans-Dicke theory
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Baykal, Ahmet [Nigde University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bor Yolu, Nigde (Turkey); Delice, Oezguer [Marmara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey)
2015-02-01
The definition of the Sparling-Thirring form is extended to Brans-Dicke theory. By writing the Brans-Dicke field equations in a formally Maxwell-like form, a superpotential and a corresponding pseudo-energy-momentum form are defined. The general energy expression provided by the superpotential in the Jordan frame is discussed in relation to the corresponding expression in the Einstein frame. In order to substantiate its formal definition, the generalized Sparling-Thirring form is used to calculate the energy for the spherically symmetric vacuum solution in Brans-Dicke theory. (orig.)
The most general second-order field equations of bi-scalar-tensor theory in four dimensions
Ohashi, Seiju; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2015-07-01
The Horndeski theory is known as the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In this paper, we explore the bi-scalar extension of the Horndeski theory. Following Horndeski's approach, we determine all the possible terms appearing in the second-order field equations of the bi-scalar-tensor theory. We compare the field equations with those of the generalized multi-Galileons, and confirm that our theory contains new terms that are not included in the latter theory. We also discuss the construction of the Lagrangian leading to our most general field equations.
The most general second-order field equations of bi-scalar-tensor theory in four dimensions
Ohashi, Seiju; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2015-01-01
The Horndeski theory is known as the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In this paper, we explore the bi-scalar extension of the Horndeski theory. Following Horndeski's approach, we determine all the possible terms appearing in the second-order field equations of the bi-scalar-tensor theory. We compare the field equations with those of the generalized multi-Galileons, and confirm that our theory contains new terms that are not included in the latter theory. We also discuss the construction of the Lagrangian leading to our most general field equations.
A Unified Theory of Impact Crises and Mass Extinctions: Quantitative Tests
Rampino, Michael R.; Haggerty, Bruce M.; Pagano, Thomas C.
1997-01-01
Several quantitative tests of a general hypothesis linking impacts of large asteroids and comets with mass extinctions of life are possible based on astronomical data, impact dynamics, and geological information. The waiting of large-body impacts on the Earth derive from the flux of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets, and the estimated size of impacts capable of causing large-scale environmental disasters, predict that impacts of objects greater than or equal to 5 km in diameter (greater than or equal to 10 (exp 7) Mt TNT equivalent) could be sufficient to explain the record of approximately 25 extinction pulses in the last 540 Myr, with the 5 recorded major mass extinctions related to impacts of the largest objects of greater than or equal to 10 km in diameter (greater than or equal to 10(exp 8) Mt Events). Smaller impacts (approximately 10 (exp 6) Mt), with significant regional environmental effects, could be responsible for the lesser boundaries in the geologic record.
Mass bounds for compact spherically symmetric objects in generalized gravity theories
Burikham, Piyabut; Lake, Matthew J
2016-01-01
We derive upper and lower bounds on the mass-radius ratio of stable compact objects in extended gravity theories, in which modifications of the gravitational dynamics via-{\\' a}-vis standard general relativity are described by an effective contribution to the matter energy-momentum tensor. Our results include the possibility of a variable coupling between the matter sector and the gravitational field and are valid for a large class of generalized gravity models. The generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are expressed in terms of the effective mass, density and pressure, given by the bare values plus additional contributions from the total energy-momentum tensor, and general theoretical limits for the maximum and minimum mass-radius ratios are explicitly obtained. As an applications of the formalism developed herein, we consider compact bosonic objects, described by scalar-tensor gravitational theories with self-interacting scalar field potentials, and charged compact objects, respect...
Lompay, Robert R
2013-01-01
Arbitrary diffeomorphically invariant metric-torsion theories of gravity are considered. It is assumed that Lagrangians of such theories contain derivatives of field variables (tensor densities of arbitrary ranks and weights) up to a second order only. The generalized Klein-Noether methods for constructing manifestly covariant identities and conserved quantities are developed. Manifestly covariant expressions are constructed without including auxiliary structures like a background metric. In the Riemann-Cartan space, the following \\emph{manifestly generally covariant results} are presented: (a) The complete generalized system of differential identities (the Klein-Noether identities) is obtained. (b) The generalized currents of three types depending on an arbitrary vector field displacements are constructed: they are the canonical Noether current, symmetrized Belinfante current and identically conserved Hilbert-Bergmann current. In particular, it is stated that the symmetrized Belinfante current does not depen...
Quantized Brans-Dicke theory: Phase transition, strong coupling limit, and general relativity
Pal, Sridip
2016-10-01
We show that Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry with a flat spatial section in quantized (Wheeler deWitt quantization) Brans-Dicke (BD) theory reveals a rich phase structure owing to anomalous breaking of a classical symmetry, which maps the scale factor a ↦λ a for some constant λ . In the weak coupling (ω ) limit, the theory goes from a symmetry preserving phase to a broken phase. The existence of a phase boundary is an obstruction to another classical symmetry [see V. Faraoni, Phys. Rev. D 59, 084021 (1999).] (which relates two BD theories with different couplings) admitted by BD theory with scale invariant matter content, i.e., Tμμ=0 . Classically, this prohibits the BD theory from reducing to general relativity (GR) for scale invariant matter content. We show that a strong coupling limit of both BD and GR preserves the symmetry involving the scale factor. We also show that with scale invariant matter content (radiation, i.e., P =1/3 ρ ), the quantized BD theory does reduce to GR as ω →∞ , which is in sharp contrast to classical behavior. This is a first known illustration of a scenario where quantized BD theory provides an example of anomalous symmetry breaking and resulting binary phase structure. We make a conjecture regarding the strong coupling limit of the BD theory in a generic scenario.
On a Generalization of GKO Coset Construction of Conformal Field Theories
Kumar, Dushyant
2015-01-01
We introduce a generalization of Goddard-Kent-Olive (GKO) coset construction of two dimensional conformal field theories based on a choice of a scaled affine subalgebra $\\hat{\\mathfrak{h}}^s$ of a given affine Lie algebra $\\hat{\\mathfrak{h}}$. We study some aspects of the construction through the example of Ising CFT as a generalized GKO coset of $\\text{su(2)}_1$ with a scaling factor $s=2$.
Generalized Theory of One-Dimensional Steady-State Optical Spatial Solitons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong-Cheng; WANG Xiao-Sheng; SHE Wei-Long
2004-01-01
@@ We present a generalized soliton theory based on the one-dimensional generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation,from which one can easily obtain the bright, dark, and grey soliton waveforms, and their existence curves. We show that the forming conditions of spatial solitons are directly dependent on the relationship between the index perturbation and the intensity, no matter whether the index perturbation is positive or negative. Some relevant examples are presented when the solitons are supported by the photoisomerization nonlinearity.
Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics.
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M
2016-02-01
Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from-and we bound the work cost of creating-a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.
Zemanian, AH
2010-01-01
This well-known text provides a relatively elementary introduction to distribution theory and describes generalized Fourier and Laplace transformations and their applications to integrodifferential equations, difference equations, and passive systems. Suitable for a graduate course for engineering and science students or for an advanced undergraduate course for mathematics majors. 1965 edition.
THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR GRANT YEAR 2004
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
PROJECT STAFF
2004-12-01
The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance our scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).
A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael
2009-01-01
A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave e...
PARADIGM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF CYCLES (CRISES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laptev V. N.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The article considers the special role of paradigms in the study (writing of the General theory of cycles. The authors ' task is systematization of knowledge in this area and obtain an objective assessment by means of retrospective material, which shows the change of one paradigm to another
Large-Sample Theory for Generalized Linear Models with Non-natural Link and Random Variates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie-li Ding; Xi-ru Chen
2006-01-01
For generalized linear models (GLM), in the case that the regressors are stochastic and have different distributions and the observations of the responses may have different dimensionality, the asymptotic theory of the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the parameters are studied under the assumption of a non-natural link function.
Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan
2010-01-01
A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found...
Quaternion based generalization of Chern-Simons theories in arbitrary dimensions
D'Adda, Alessandro; Shimode, Naoki; Tsukioka, Takuya
2016-01-01
A generalization of Chern-Simons gauge theory is formulated in any dimension and arbitrary gauge group where gauge fields and gauge parameters are differential forms of any degree. The quaternion algebra structure of this formulation is shown to be equivalent to a three Z(2)-gradings structure, thus clarifying the quaternion role in a previous formulation.
General theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, M.;
1997-01-01
Measurements of the radiance distribution and fluence rate within turbid samples with fiber-optic radiance microprobes contain a large variable instrumental error caused by the nonuniform directional sensitivity of the microprobes. A general theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements...
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Torsten
2009-05-13
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Vos, Hans J.
1994-01-01
Describes the construction of a model of computer-assisted instruction using a qualitative block diagram based on general systems theory (GST) as a framework. Subject matter representation is discussed, and appendices include system variables and system equations of the GST model, as well as an example of developing flexible courseware. (Contains…
Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.
2002-01-01
Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…
A Test of Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime in African American Adolescents
Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Crosswhite, Jennifer M.
2004-01-01
Considerable empirical support exists for "The General Theory of Crime". However, little work has been completed on members of minority populations in the United States. The current investigation examined whether low self-control predicted deviance in a sample of African American adolescents (n = 661; 55.1 percent female; mean age = 15.7 years).…
Superfield generalization of the classical action-at-a-distance theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tugai, V.V. (Scientific Physicotechnological Center, 310145 Kharkov (Ukraine)); Zheltukhin, A.A. (Kharkov Physicotechnical Institute, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine))
1995-04-15
A generalization of the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode-Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetic theory onto superspace is considered. The classical vector and spinor fields belonging to the Maxwell supermultiplet are built of the world-line coordinates of the charged particles in superspace.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Nobili
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Three generalizations of the Timoshenko beam model according to the linear theory of micropolar elasticity or its special cases, that is, the couple stress theory or the modified couple stress theory, recently developed in the literature, are investigated and compared. The analysis is carried out in a variational setting, making use of Hamilton’s principle. It is shown that both the Timoshenko and the (possibly modified couple stress models are based on a microstructural kinematics which is governed by kinosthenic (ignorable terms in the Lagrangian. Despite their difference, all models bring in a beam-plane theory only one microstructural material parameter. Besides, the micropolar model formally reduces to the couple stress model upon introducing the proper constraint on the microstructure kinematics, although the material parameter is generally different. Line loading on the microstructure results in a nonconservative force potential. Finally, the Hamiltonian form of the micropolar beam model is derived and the canonical equations are presented along with their general solution. The latter exhibits a general oscillatory pattern for the microstructure rotation and stress, whose behavior matches the numerical findings.
Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.
Seeger, Matthew W.
2002-01-01
Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…
A superfield generalization of the classical action-at-a-distance theory
Tugai, V. V.; Zheltukhin, A. A.
1994-07-01
A generalization of the Fokker-Schwarzschild- Tetrode-Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetic theory onto superspace is considered. The classical vector and spinor fields belonging to the Maxwell supermultiplet are built of the world-line coordinates of the charged particles in superspace.
Superfield generalization of the classical action-at-a-distance theory
Tugai, V. V.; Zheltukhin, A. A.
1995-04-01
A generalization of the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode-Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetic theory onto superspace is considered. The classical vector and spinor fields belonging to the Maxwell supermultiplet are built of the world-line coordinates of the charged particles in superspace.
Generalized WDVV equations for F4 pure N=2 super-Yang–Mills theory
Hoevenaars, L.K.; Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, R.
2001-01-01
An associative algebra of holomorphic differential forms is constructed associated with pure N=2 super-Yang–Mills theory for the Lie algebra F4. Existence and associativity of this algebra, combined with the general arguments in the work of Marshakov, Mironov and Morozov, proves that the prepotentia
Generalized WDVV equations for $F_4$ pure N=2 Super-Yang-Mills theory
Hoevenaars, L.K.; Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, R.
2000-01-01
An associative algebra of holomorphic differential forms is constructed associated with pure N=2 Super-Yang-Mills theory for the Lie algebra $F_4$ . Existence and associativity of this algebra, combined with the general arguments in the work of Marshakov, Mironov and Morozov, proves that the prepote