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Sample records for general purpose cross-section

  1. CRSEC: a general purpose Hauser--Feshbach code for the calculation of nuclear cross-sections and thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.; Fowler, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    CRSEC is a FORTRAN IV computer code designed for the efficient calculation of average nuclear cross sections in situations where a statistical theory of nuclear reactions is applicable and where compound nuclear formation is the dominant reaction mechanism. This code generates cross sections of roughly factor of 2 accuracy for incident particle energies in the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV for most target nuclei from magnesium to bismuth. Exceptions usually involve reactions that enter the compound nucleus at such a low energy that fewer than 10 levels are present in the ''energy window of interest.'' The incident particle must be a neutron, proton, or alpha particle, and only binary reactions resulting in the emission of a single n, p, α, or γ (cascade) are calculated. CRSEC is quite fast, a complete calculation of 12 different reactions over a grid of roughly 150 energy points and the generation of Maxwellian averaged rates taking about 30 seconds of CDC7600 time. Also the semi-empirical parameterization of nuclear properties contained in CRSEC is very general. Greater accuracy may be obtained, however, by furnishing specific low-lying excited states, level density parameterization, and nuclear strength functions. A more general version of CRSEC, called CRSECI, is available that conserves isospin properly in all reactions and allows the user to specify a given degree of isospin mixing in the highly excited states of the compound nucleus. Besides the cross section as a function of center-of-mass energy, CRSEC also generates the Maxwell--Boltzmann averaged thermonuclear reaction rate and temperature dependent nuclear partition function for a grid of temperatures from 10 8 to 10 10 0 K. Sections of this report describe in greater detail the physics employed in CRSEC and how to use the code. 2 tables

  2. Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development

  3. A general algorithm for calculating jet cross sections in NLO QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S.; Catani, Stefano; Seymour, Michael H

    1997-01-01

    We present a new general algorithm for calculating arbitrary jet cross sections in arbitrary scattering processes to next-to-leading accuracy in perturbative QCD. The algorithm is based on the subtraction method. The key ingredients are new factorization formulae, called dipole formulae, which implement in a Lorentz covariant way both the usual soft and collinear approximations, smoothly interpolating the two. The corresponding dipole phase space obeys exact factorization, so that the dipole contributions to the cross section can be exactly integrated analytically over the whole of phase space. We obtain explicit analytic results for any jet observable in any scattering or fragmentation process in lepton, lepton-hadron or hadron-hadron collisions. All the analytical formulae necessary to construct a numerical program for next-to-leading order QCD calculations are provided. The algorithm is straightforwardly implementable in general purpose Monte Carlo programs.

  4. Implementation of the rapid cross section adjustment approach at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Kujawski, E.; Protsik, R.

    1978-01-01

    The General Electric rapid cross section adjustment approach was developed to use the shielding factor method for formulating multigroup cross sections. In this approach, space- and composition-dependent cross sections for a particular reactor or shield design are prepared from a generalized cross section library by the use of resonance self-shielding factors, and by the adjustment of elastic scattering cross sections for the local neutron flux spectra. The principal tool in the cross section adjustment package is the data processing code TDOWN. This code was specified to give the user a high degree of flexibility in the analysis of advanced reactor designs. Of particular interest in the analysis of critical experiments is the ability to carry out cell heterogeneity self-shielding calculations using a multiregion equivalence relationship, and the homogenization of the cross sections over the specified cell with the flux weighting obtained from transport theory calculations. Extensive testing of the rapid cross section adjustment approach, including comparisons with Monte Carlo methods, indicated that this approach can be utilized with a high degree of confidence in the design analysis of complex fast reactor systems. 2 figures, 1 table

  5. Uncertainty Analysis of Few Group Cross Sections Based on Generalized Perturbation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the methodology of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code based on GPT was described and the preliminary verification calculations on the PMR200 pin cell problem were carried out. As a result, they are in a good agreement when compared with the results by TSUNAMI. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code based on GPT can produce the uncertainty of the homogenized few group microscopic cross sections for a core simulator. For sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for general core responses, a two-step method is available and it utilizes the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for homogenized few group cross sections in the first step and stochastic sampling method for general core responses in the second step. The uncertainty analysis procedure based on GPT in the first step needs the generalized adjoint solution from a cell or lattice code. For this, the generalized adjoint solver has been integrated into DeCART in our previous work. In this paper, MUSAD (Modues of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART) code based on the classical perturbation theory was expanded to the function of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for few group cross sections based on GPT. First, the uncertainty analysis method based on GPT was described and, in the next section, the preliminary results of the verification calculation on a VHTR pin cell problem were compared with the results by TSUNAMI of SCALE 6.1

  6. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  7. Double Differential Cross Sections and Generalized Oscillator Strength Distributions of Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Karin; Nogami, Keisuke; Hino, Yuta; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The absolute double differential cross section (DDCS), the generalized oscillator strength distribution (GOSD), and the ionization efficiency of ammonia (NH 3 ) were investigated from the threshold to 40 eV under the condition of 200 and 400 eV incident electron energies and 6 and 8 degree scattering angles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron- ion coincidence techniques. To determine the absolute values, we used a mixture of helium (He) and NH 3 and normalized the measured relative DDCS spectrum by the differential cross section for 2 1 P excitation of He. Our results are in close agreement with previous dipole (e, e) spectroscopy, although the incident electron energy is lower. The ionization efficiency curve obtained from coincidence measurements indicated the existence of doubly excited states that cause neutral dissociation.

  8. General Physicians’ Viewpoints Towards Nutrition Course in the Medical School: a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Fallahi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Although nutrition has a very important role in individual and society’s health and disease, it has not yet received proper attention in the medical curricula. The objective of this study is to assess the opinions of general physician who worked at private offices in Khorramabadcity about nutrition course in Iranian medical schools.Methods: In this cross-sectional study the data were collected by posting a self-administrated questionnaire to all GPs who worked at private offices in Khorramabad city of Lorestan province in 2005. Participants were asked to state their opinions about each topic considering the following issues: the appropriate phase for introduction of the topic (in basic sciences, pathophysiology, or clinical training; need for learning it (low, moderate, high; and the time devoted to instruction of that topic (inadequate, appropriate, or excessive.GPs opinions were also surveyed to determinetheir reference for the topics not included in current nutrition course. Study data were processed by SPSS version 11 software and analyzed using descriptive and Chi-square statistics with a level of significance of less than 0.05. Results Most of participants believed that clinical teaching periods (clerkship and internship are the appropriate stage for teaching disease- related or clinical aspects of nutrition. They also valued most of the topics listed in the questionnaire as important learning needs as well as 15 new nutrition topicsConclusions: Our results clearly indicate that there is a need to include clinical nutritional topics in the clinical training of medical students. New topics such as nutritional consideration in hypelipidemia, and heart disease should also be included in the nutrition education of physicians.Key words: NUTRITION EDUCATION, MEDICAL CURRICULUM. GENERAL PHYSICIANt 

  9. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rivera, Andres, E-mail: Camilo.Alfredo.Garcia.Cely@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: afelipe.rivera@udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2017-03-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  10. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Rivera, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  11. The generalized nuclear contact and its application to the photoabsorption cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Ronen; Barnea, Nir [The Hebrew University, The Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel); Bazak, Betzalel [The Hebrew University, The Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel); Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2016-04-15

    Using the zero-range model, it was demonstrated recently that Levinger's quasi-deuteron model can be utilized to extract the nuclear neutron-proton contact. Going beyond the zero-range approximation and considering the full nuclear contact formalism, we rederive here the quasi-deuteron model for the nuclear photoabsorption cross-section and utilize it to establish relations and constraints for the general contact matrix. We also define and demonstrate the importance of the diagonalized nuclear contacts, which can be also relevant to further applications of the nuclear contacts. (orig.)

  12. Assessment and comparison of different multigroup neutron cross section libraries for dosimetry purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erradi, L.; Karouani, K.

    1994-01-01

    Many multigroup neutron cross section libraries have been processed from basic evaluated nuclear data for use in neutron dosimetry, reactor shielding calculation and in the development of fusion reactors. Most of these libraries have been tested only for fission spectra and were not validated for fusion spectra. Fifteen of these libraries such as DOSCROS84, IRDF85 and ENDFB5 have been used along with the neutron spectra unfolding code SAND II to evaluate about fifteen threshold detector saturated activities. The comparison between these computed activities and the measured ones of a set of foils placed in different places along the axis of a paraffin cylinder and irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons generated by a D-T source, hence giving rise to complex spectra, leads to different types of discrepancies. The analysis of these discrepancies allows to select from these libraries the ones that can be recommended. 1 fig., 4 refs. (author)

  13. Interference generalized cross-section for the multiphoton detachment of H- in dichromatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercouris, Theodoros; Haritos, Costas; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports results from the application of the many-electron, many-photon theory on the system 'H - 1s 2 1 S state plus two fields of weak strengths, F 1 and F 2 '. The two fields have commensurate frequencies (ω, 2ω) and (ω, 3ω), with ω ranging from 0.011 au to 0.028 au, field strengths from 5 x 10 -5 au to 1.7 x 10 -3 au and a phase difference ψ. It is possible to determine the regime where the dichromatic field is weak and to define and compute a corresponding 'interference generalized cross-section'. This cross-section is an intrinsic property of each state as a function of the pair (ω, mω), m = 2, 3,.... Its knowledge is directly relevant to deciding on the degree of effectiveness of coherent quantum control. The calculations show that, with respect to ψ, H - is more receptive to control if frequencies are low. The computed effects are large enough so as to be measurable

  14. [A cross-sectional study on iodine nutrition in general population from Zhejiang province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhe; Lou, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Wen-ming; Wang, Xiao-feng; Mao, Guang-ming; Zhou, Jin-shui; Ding, Gang-qiang

    2013-05-01

    To understand the current status of iodine nutrition among the community residents to compare the level of iodine nutrition in different areas and groups of populations in Zhejiang province. Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted and residents from twenty-two communities in Zhejiang province were selected. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using questionnaires, laboratory tests, on urinary iodine, water iodine and the concentration of the iodine in salt, which had played positive roles in the calculation of the level of iodine nutrition. of the iodine nutrition in this cross-sectional survey were as follows: the median water iodine and salt iodine of Zhejiang were 2.42 µg/L and 28.8 mg/kg, respectively. The coverage of iodized salts was 79.54%, with the ingesting rate of qualified iodized-salt as 76.65% and the median content of urinary iodine in the population of Zhejiang was 161 µg/L. The average iodine content among pregnant women was 138 µg/L, with the percentage of samples less than 100 µg/L as 25.92%, more than 300 µg/L as 15.30%. The proportions of iodine intake through water, salt and other foods were 1.70%, 76.41% and 21.89%, respectively. The status of iodine nutrition in Zhejiang province in general seemed to be appropriate, but the level of iodine nutrition in pregnant women was less than the requirement, which should call for attention.

  15. Cross Sections for the Exclusive Photon Electroproduction on the Proton and Generalized Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, H. S.; Girod, F. X.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V. D.; Garçon, M.; Guidal, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Unpolarized and beam-polarized fourfold cross sections (d4σ /d Q2d xBd t d ϕ ) for the e p →e'p'γ reaction were measured using the CLAS detector and the 5.75-GeV polarized electron beam of the Jefferson Lab accelerator, for 110 (Q2,xB,t ) bins over the widest phase space ever explored in the valence-quark region. Several models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describe the data well at most of our kinematics. This increases our confidence that we understand the GPD H , expected to be the dominant contributor to these observables. Through a leading-twist extraction of Compton form factors, these results support the model predictions of a larger nucleon size at lower quark-momentum fraction xB.

  16. Provision of medical student teaching in UK general practices: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve

  17. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  18. Investigation of fatigue by Australian general practice registrars: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Thomson, Allison; Wilson, Jessica; Scott, John; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie; van Driel, Mieke L; Magin, Parker J

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue is the most common undifferentiated problem presenting in general practice. Previous studies have shown that this presentation leads to multiple investigations. There is no published literature describing the management of patients with fatigue by general practice (GP) registrars. To document the investigation-ordering behaviour of GP registrars in managing patients with a new diagnosis of unexplained fatigue. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT), an ongoing cohort study of GP registrars' consultations. We established the prevalence of new diagnoses of unexplained fatigue and associations with that diagnosis, the rate of test ordering and the number and types of investigations ordered. 644 registrars contributed data from 68 986 encounters. In 0.78% of patient encounters, a new diagnosis of unexplained fatigue was made. Pathology was ordered in 78.4% of these problems (versus 18.1% in non-fatigue problems), at a rate of 488 tests per 100 new fatigue problems. Our study suggests that unexplained fatigue elicits a non-rational approach to test ordering by registrars. These findings contribute to the understanding of GP registrar management of fatigue, and undifferentiated presentations more broadly, and suggest educational approaches to improve practice, including dealing with uncertainty.

  19. Burnout syndrome in surgical oncology and general surgery nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Ilona; Stefaniak, Tomasz J; Stadnyk, Magdalena; Książek, Janina

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome is strongly associated with and modulated by multiple personality and environmental factors. In Poland, nurses experience a discrepancy between the demands, expectations and social status of the position of their profession and low salaries. Such a situation provokes frustration and depression, and further leads to problems of adaptation including burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout syndrome among nurses working in general surgery and surgical oncology specialties. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It was undertaken in the largest Hospital in the Pomeranian region of Poland. The participants included 60 nurses working in two departments: General Surgery and Surgical Oncology. The study was based upon an anonymous self-test composed of a questionnaire and three psychological measures: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Psychological Burden Scale and a self-constructed questionnaire on job satisfaction. Intensity of burnout syndrome was significantly higher among oncology nurses than among surgical ones. There was also a strong but not significant trend towards higher Psychological Burden Scale in the group of oncology nurses. The study revealed a high degree of emotional burden and burnout in nurses working in the study hospital suggesting that nurses are at great occupational risk. The findings of the study provide evidence of the potential need to restructure the system and suggest that nurses need more control of their work including a higher degree of involvement in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patients' evaluations of patient safety in English general practices: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Marsden, Kate S; Avery, Anthony J; Bell, Brian G; Kadam, Umesh T; Reeves, David; Slight, Sarah P; Perryman, Katherine; Barnett, Jane; Litchfield, Ian; Thomas, Sally; Campbell, Stephen M; Doos, Lucy; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2017-07-01

    Description of safety problems and harm in general practices has previously relied on information from health professionals, with scarce attention paid to experiences of patients. To examine patient-reported experiences and outcomes of patient safety in primary care. Cross-sectional study in 45 general practices across five regions in the north, centre, and south of England. A version of the Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care (PREOS-PC) questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 6736 patients. Main outcome measures included 'practice activation' (what a practice does to create a safe environment); 'patient activation' (how proactive are patients in ensuring safe healthcare delivery); 'experiences of safety events' (safety errors); 'outcomes of safety' (harm); and 'overall perception of safety' (how safe patients rate their practice). Questionnaires were returned by 1244 patients (18.4%). Scores were high for 'practice activation' (mean [standard error] = 80.4 out of 100 [2.0]) and low for 'patient activation' (26.3 out of 100 [2.6]). Of the patients, 45% reported experiencing at least one safety problem in the previous 12 months, mostly related to appointments (33%), diagnosis (17%), patient provider communication (15%), and coordination between providers (14%). Twenty-three per cent of the responders reported some degree of harm in the previous 12 months. The overall assessment of level of safety of practices was generally high (86.0 out of 100 [16.8]). Priority areas for patient safety improvement in general practices in England include appointments, diagnosis, communication, coordination, and patient activation. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. Experiences of occupational violence in Australian urban general practice: a cross-sectional study of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker J; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David W; Joy, Elyssa; Ireland, Malcolm C

    2005-10-03

    To establish the prevalence and characteristics of occupational violence in Australian urban general practice, and examine practitioner correlates of violence. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey mailed to all members (n = 1085) of three urban divisions of general practice in New South Wales in August and September 2004. The three divisions were chosen to provide a range of socioeconomic status (SES) demographics. Occupational violence towards general practitioners during the previous 12 months. 528 GPs returned questionnaires (49% response rate). Of these, 63.7% had experienced violence in the previous year. The most common forms of violence were "low level" violence - verbal abuse (42.1%), property damage/theft (28.6%) and threats (23.1%). A smaller proportion of GPs had experienced "high level" violence, such as sexual harassment (9.3%) and physical abuse (2.7%). On univariate analysis, violence was significantly more likely towards female GPs (P working in a lower SES status area (P disadvantage (P = 0.006), mental health problems (P home visits). On multivariate analysis, a significant association persisted between high level violence and lower SES area (odds ratio [OR], 2.86), being female (OR, 5.87), having practice populations with more drug-related problems (OR, 5.77), and providing home visits during business hours (OR, 4.76). More experienced GPs encountered less violence (OR, 0.77) for every additional 5 years of practice. Occupational violence is a considerable problem in Australian urban general practice. Formal education programs in preventing and managing violence would be appropriate for GPs and doctors-in-training.

  2. Organizational commitment among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study of the role of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusio, Hannamaria; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2010-06-01

    To examine whether general practitioners (GP) working in primary health care have lower organizational commitment compared with physicians working in other health sectors. The authors also tested whether psychosocial factors (job demands, job control, and colleague consultation) explain these differences in commitment between GPs and other physicians. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire. Setting and participants. A postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 5000) drawn from the Finnish Association database in 2006. A total of 2841 physicians (response rate 57%) returned the questionnaire, of which 2657 (545 GPs and 2090 other physicians) fulfilled all the participant criteria. Organizational commitment was measured with two different indicators: intention to change jobs and low affective commitment. GPs were less committed to their organizations than other physicians. Work-related psychosocial factors (high job demands, low job control, and poor colleague consultation) were all significant risk factors for low organizational commitment. The evidence collected suggests that policies that reduce psychological demands, such as job demands and low control, may contribute to better organizational commitment and, thus, alleviate the shortages of physicians in primary care. Furthermore, giving GPs a stronger say in decisions concerning their work and providing them with more variety in work tasks may even improve the quality of primary care. The strategies for workplace development should focus on redesigning jobs and identifying GPs at higher risk, such as those with especially high job strain.

  3. Anorectal pathology amongst HIV infected patients attending the Douala General Hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luma, Henry Namme; Eloumou, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka; Fualefeh-Morfaw, Ellis Atemlefeh; Malongue, Agnes; Temfack, Elvis; Lekpa, Fernando Kemta; Donfack-Sontsa, Olivier; Ndip, Lucy; Ditah, Ivo Che

    2017-03-01

    While gastrointestinal disease is common among HIV infected individuals, the prevalence and distribution of ano-rectal pathology has not been well studied in our setting. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence and determinants of ano-rectal pathology in HIV infected patients attending the Douala General Hospital HIV treatment centre. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken. We collected socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data using a structured questionnaire and patients' files. Each study participant had a full physical and ano-rectal examination. We further studied factors associated with having at least one ano-rectal lesion by logistic regression reporting odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 390 HIV infected patients. The mean age was 41 (SD: 8) years and 48% were men. Median duration since HIV diagnosis was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5) years and median CD4 cell count was 411 (interquartile range: 234-601) cells/mm 3 . Prevalence of ano-rectal pathology was 22.8% (95% CI: 18.7-27.3). Hemorrhoids and proctitis were most common lesions found; each in 10% of patients. From multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with ano-rectal pathology were CD4 HIV infected patients. Care givers should actively investigate and treat them as this will improve the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  4. Travel Medicine Encounters of Australian General Practice Trainees-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke L; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie A; Davey, Andrew R; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Magin, Parker J

    2015-01-01

    Travel medicine is a common and challenging area of clinical practice and practitioners need up-to-date knowledge and experience in a range of areas. Australian general practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in the delivery of travel medicine advice. We aimed to describe the rate and nature of travel medicine consultations, including both the clinical and educational aspects of the consultations. A cross-sectional analysis from an ongoing cohort study of GP trainees' clinical consultations was performed. Trainees contemporaneously recorded demographic, clinical, and educational details of consecutive patient consultations. Proportions of all problems/diagnoses managed in these consultations that were coded "travel-related" and "travel advice" were both calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations of a problem/diagnosis being "travel-related" or "travel advice" were tested using simple logistic regression within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. A total of 856 trainees contributed data on 169,307 problems from 108,759 consultations (2010-2014). Travel-related and travel advice problems were managed at a rate of 1.1 and 0.5 problems per 100 encounters, respectively. Significant positive associations of travel-related problems were younger trainee and patient age; new patient to the trainee and practice; privately billing, larger, urban, and higher socioeconomic status practices; and involvement of the practice nurse. Trainees sought in-consultation information and generated learning goals in 34.7 and 20.8% of travel advice problems, respectively, significantly more than in non-travel advice problems. Significant positive associations of travel advice problems were seeking in-consultation information, generation of learning goals, longer consultation duration, and more problems managed. Our findings reinforce the importance of focused training in travel medicine for GP trainees and adequate exposure to patients in the practice

  5. Responses to clinical uncertainty in Australian general practice trainees: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georga; Tapley, Amanda; Holliday, Elizabeth; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Ball, Jean; van Driel, Mieke; Spike, Neil; Kerr, Rohan; Magin, Parker

    2017-12-01

    Tolerance for ambiguity is essential for optimal learning and professional competence. General practice trainees must be, or must learn to be, adept at managing clinical uncertainty. However, few studies have examined associations of intolerance of uncertainty in this group. The aim of this study was to establish levels of tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice trainees and associations of uncertainty with demographic, educational and training practice factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) project, an ongoing multi-site cohort study. Scores on three of the four independent subscales of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty (PRU) instrument were analysed as outcome variables in linear regression models with trainee and practice factors as independent variables. A total of 594 trainees contributed data on a total of 1209 occasions. Trainees in earlier training terms had higher scores for 'Anxiety due to uncertainty', 'Concern about bad outcomes' and 'Reluctance to disclose diagnosis/treatment uncertainty to patients'. Beyond this, findings suggest two distinct sets of associations regarding reaction to uncertainty. Firstly, affective aspects of uncertainty (the 'Anxiety' and 'Concern' subscales) were associated with female gender, less experience in hospital prior to commencing general practice training, and graduation overseas. Secondly, a maladaptive response to uncertainty (the 'Reluctance to disclose' subscale) was associated with urban practice, health qualifications prior to studying medicine, practice in an area of higher socio-economic status, and being Australian-trained. This study has established levels of three measures of trainees' responses to uncertainty and associations with these responses. The current findings suggest differing 'phenotypes' of trainees with high 'affective' responses to uncertainty and those reluctant to disclose uncertainty to patients. More

  6. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Bai Wei; Jian-Ping Jia; Fen Wang; Ai-Hong Zhou; Xiu-Mei Zuo; Chang-Biao Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache.However,few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache.We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals.Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics.All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview,and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders,2nd Edition.The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity.Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety.Results:A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included.Among them,148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety.Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache.Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety.Conclusion:Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments.

  7. Transport methods: general. 2. Monte Carlo Particle Transport in Media with Exponentially Varying Time-Dependent Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2001-01-01

    exponential variation in cross section was described in a stepwise approximation using 250 separate regions of constant cross section. For each calculation, transmission through the outer boundary of the slab was tallied. The results show nearly perfect agreement in transmission over the range of exponential parameters for the varying cross section, verifying that the PDF and random-sampling procedure described earlier are correct. A PDF and random-sampling procedure for the distance to collision were derived for the case of exponentially varying cross sections. Numerical testing indicates that both are correct. This new sampling procedure has direct application in a new method for Monte Carlo radiation transport and may be generally useful for analyzing physical problems where the material cross sections change very rapidly in an exponential manner

  8. Summary of JENDL-2 general purpose file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1984-06-15

    The general purpose file of the second version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-2) was released in December 1982. Recently, descriptive data were added to JENDL-2 and at the same time the first revision of numerical data was performed. JENDL-2 (Rev.1) consists of the data for 89 nuclides and about 211,000 records in the ENDF/B-IV format. In this report, full listings of presently added descriptive data are given to summarize the JENDL-2 general purpose file. The 2200-m/sec and 14-MeV cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian and fission spectrum averaged cross sections are given in a table. Average cross sections were also calculated in suitable energy intervals.

  9. Summary of JENDL-2 general purpose file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1984-06-01

    The general purpose file of the second version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-2) was released in December 1982. Recently, descriptive data were added to JENDL-2 and at the same time the first revision of numerical data was performed. JENDL-2 (Rev1) consists of the data for 89 nuclides and about 211,000 records in the ENDF/B-IV format. In this report, full listings of presently added descriptive data are given to summarize the JENDL-2 general purpose file. The 2200-m/sec and 14-MeV cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian and fission spectrum averaged cross sections are given in a table. Average cross sections were also calculated in suitable energy intervals. (author)

  10. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  11. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  12. Evaluated cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqurno, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report

  13. Natural carcinogenic fiber and pleural plaques assessment in a general population: A cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Legal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Bracci, Massimo [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Mangano, Dario [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ricceri, Vincenzo [Division of Radiology - Hospital of Biancavilla “Maria SS. Addolorata”, ASP Catania, Biancavilla (Italy); Musumeci, Andrea [Division of Radiology – University Hospital “Policlinico – Vittorio Emanuele”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnology Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla's general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30 km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9 cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2 cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1 cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1 cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were

  14. Fee Splitting among General Practitioners: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mojtaba; Larijani, Bagher; Aramesh, Kiarash; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Fotouhi, Akbar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ebrahimian, Nejatollah; Kandi, Mohamad Jafar

    2016-12-01

    Fee splitting is a process whereby a physician refers a patient to another physician or a healthcare facility and receives a portion of the charge in return. This survey was conducted to study general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes toward fee splitting as well as the prevalence, causes, and consequences of this process. This is a cross-sectional study on 223 general practitioners in 2013. Concerning the causes and consequences of fee splitting, an unpublished qualitative study was conducted by interviewing a number of GPs and specialists and the questionnaire options were the results of the information obtained from this study. Of the total 320 GPs, 247 returned the questionnaires. The response rate was 77.18%. Of the 247 returned questionnaires, 223 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among the participants, 69.1% considered fee splitting completely wrong and 23.2% (frequently or rarely) practiced fee splitting. The present study showed that the prevalence of fee splitting among physicians who had positive attitudes toward fee splitting was 4.63 times higher than those who had negative attitudes. In addition, this study showed that, compared to private hospitals, fee splitting is less practiced in public hospitals. The major cause of fee splitting was found to be unrealistic/unfair tariffs and the main consequence of fee splitting was thought to be an increase in the number of unnecessary patient referrals. Fee splitting is an unethical act, contradicts the goals of the medical profession, and undermines patient's best interest. In Iran, there is no code of ethics on fee splitting, but in this study, it was found that the majority of GPs considered it unethical. However, among those who had negative attitudes toward fee splitting, there were physicians who did practice fee splitting. The results of the study showed that physicians who had a positive attitude toward fee splitting practiced it more than others. Therefore, if physicians consider fee splitting unethical

  15. COMPAR, NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-2, ETOG-3, XLACS Multigroup Cross-Sections General Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, Jaime; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A system for comparing multigroup cross sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS. This system comprises the COMPAR program and interface (auxiliary) programs developed for each of the programs under consideration. These are REDCOMP for GROUPIE, FLACOMP for FLANGE-II, ETOCOMP for ETOG-3 and XLACOMP for XLACS. For the NJOY program there is RGENDF, a program developed apart from this system. It is a modular system in which the inclusion of new multigroup cross section generating program requires no more than the development of a new interface module. 2 - Method of solution: Refer to comments in main routine. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Refer to comments in main routine

  16. Cross-sectional Comparison of the Epidemiology of DSM-5 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Hallion, Lauren S; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, José; Slade, Tim; Stein, Dan J; Torres, Yolanda; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Kessler, Ronald C; Chatterji, Somnath; Scott, Kate M

    2017-05-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly understood compared with other anxiety disorders, and debates persist about the seriousness of this disorder. Few data exist on GAD outside a small number of affluent, industrialized nations. No population-based data exist on GAD as it is currently defined in DSM-5. To provide the first epidemiologic data on DSM-5 GAD and explore cross-national differences in its prevalence, course, correlates, and impact. Data come from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Cross-sectional general population surveys were carried out in 26 countries using a consistent research protocol and assessment instrument. A total of 147 261 adults from representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in the community. The surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2012. Data analysis was performed from July 22, 2015, to December 12, 2016. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess GAD along with comorbid disorders, role impairment, and help seeking. Respondents were 147 261 adults aged 18 to 99 years. The surveys had a weighted mean response rate of 69.5%. Across surveys, DSM-5 GAD had a combined lifetime prevalence (SE) of 3.7% (0.1%), 12-month prevalence of 1.8% (0.1%), and 30-day prevalence of 0.8% (0). Prevalence estimates varied widely across countries, with lifetime prevalence highest in high-income countries (5.0% [0.1%]), lower in middle-income countries (2.8% [0.1%]), and lowest in low-income countries (1.6% [0.1%]). Generalized anxiety disorder typically begins in adulthood and persists over time, although onset is later and clinical course is more persistent in lower-income countries. Lifetime comorbidity is high (81.9% [0.7%]), particularly with mood (63.0% [0.9%]) and other anxiety (51.7% [0.9%]) disorders. Severe role impairment is common across life domains (50.6% [1.2%]), particularly in high-income countries. Treatment is sought by approximately half of

  17. Internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebelefsky, Christian; Karner, Denise; Voitl, Jasmin; Klein, Frederic; Voitl, Peter; Böck, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to examine the internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic. For this purpose, the proportion of parents going online to obtain child health information, the most commonly used online resources, and factors having an influence on internet usage were identified. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a general paediatric outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. Data collection was done by means of an anonymous questionnaire containing 14 items. A total number of 500 questionnaires were collected. Among parents visiting the outpatient clinic, 94.4% use the internet to obtain child health information in general and 21% to be informed about the reason for consultation. Most commonly used online resources are Google (91.4%), websites run by doctors (84.8%), Wikipedia (84.7%), health portals (76.4%), the outpatient clinic's homepage (76.4%), as well as health forums and communities (61.9%). Younger parents (p = 0.022) and parents of younger children (p parents with different completed educational levels (mothers: p = 0.078; fathers: p = 0.388) do not differ in this behaviour. Important reasons for high internet use might be the inexperience of young parents regarding child health as well as the frequent infections, vaccinations, and preventive check-ups which are associated with young age of children. In contrast to former findings relating to health seekers in general, internet usage of parents is independent of their sex and educational level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. General Health Status Among Students of Islamic Azad University: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Savadpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.

  19. Demographic, dietary and physical activity predictors of general and abdominal obesity among university students: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mogre, Victor; Nyaba, Rauf; Aleyira, Samuel; Sam, Napoleon B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a disease of global public health concern in both developing and developed countries. We investigated the influence of socio-demographic, dietary habits and physical activity levels on general and abdominal obesity among a sample of university students in Ghana. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among a sample of 552 students attending the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tamale, Ghana. Demographic chara...

  20. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  1. Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. The impact of general practitioner morale on patient satisfaction with care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinstry Brian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between stress and morale among general practitioners (GP is well documented. However, the impact of GP stress or low morale on patient care is less clear. GPs in the UK now routinely survey patients about the quality of their care including organizational issues and consultation skills and the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ is widely used for this purpose. We aimed to see if there was a relationship between doctor morale as measured by a validated instrument, the Morale Assessment in General Practice Index (MAGPI and scores in the GPAQ. Methods All GPs in Lothian, Scotland who were collecting GPAQ data were approached and asked to complete the MAGPI. Using an anonymised linkage system, individual scores on the MAGPI were linked to the doctors' GPAQ scores. Levels of association between the scores were determined by calculating rank correlations at the level of the individual doctor. Hypothesised associations between individual MAGPI and GPAQ items were also assessed. Results 276 of 475 GPs who were approached agreed to complete a MAGPI questionnaire and successfully collected anonymous GPAQ data from an average of 49.6 patients. There was no significant correlation between the total MAGPI score and the GPAQ communication or enablement scale. There were weak correlations between "control of work" in the MAGPI scale and GPAQ items on waiting times to see doctors (r = 0.24 p Conclusion This study showed no relationship between overall GP morale and patient perception of performance. There was a weak relationship between patients' perceptions ofquality and doctors' beliefs about their workload and whether patients value them. Further research is required to elucidate the complex relationship between workload, morale and patients' perception of care.

  3. Fear of going under general anesthesia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhaiyem, M E; Alshehri, A A; Saade, M; Shoabi, T A; Zahoor, H; Tawfeeq, N A

    2016-01-01

    Fears related to anesthesia have affected a considerable number of patients going for surgery. The purpose of this survey was to identify the most common concerns about general anesthesia during the preoperative anesthetic clinic in different healthcare settings, and whether they are affected by patients' sex, age, education, or previous experience of anesthesia or not. Structured questionnaires with consent forms were distributed to patients in their preanesthesia clinic visit in three tertiary hospitals (King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and King Khalid University Hospital) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients' demographics and questions related to their fears regarding general anesthesia were included in the questionnaires. All categorical and interval variables were compared statically using a Chi-square test for independence and a t-test, respectively. All statistical tests were declared significant at α level of 0.05 or less. Among 450 questionnaires that were disturbed, 400 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-eight percent experienced preoperative fear. The top three causes of their fears were fear of postoperative pain (77.3%), fear of intraoperative awareness (73.7%), and fear of being sleepy postoperatively (69.5%). Patients are less fearful of drains and needles in the operative theater (48%), of revealing personal issues under general anesthesia (55.2%), and of not waking up after surgery (56.4%). Age and gender were significant predictors of the overall fear among preanesthetic patients. Females are 5 times more likely to experience fear before surgery (P = 0.0009). Patients aged more than 40 years old are also at 75% higher risk of being afraid (P = 0.008). The majority of the patients going for surgery experienced a fear of anesthesia. Mostly females, especially those over 40, were at a higher risk of being afraid. Fear can bring anxiety which, in turn, might affect the patient's surgery.

  4. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  5. Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2015-03-17

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity

  6. Utilisation of internet resources for continuing professional development: a cross-sectional survey of general practitioners in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWalter, Gordon; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul

    2016-01-21

    Participation in continuing professional development (CPD) is a professional and regulatory expectation of general practitioners (GPs). Traditionally, CPD activity was undertaken face-to-face in educational settings, but internet based formats have found increasing favour. The need for doctors to use the internet for service and educational purposes is growing, particularly in support of specialty training and appraisal. We aimed to determine how GPs in Scotland utilise online resources in support of their CPD. This involved identifying which resources are used and how frequently, along with their preferences as to how and why they access these resources. A cross sectional study was undertaken using an online questionnaire to survey general practitioners across Scotland. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and differences in attitudinal responses between groups and Fischer's exact tests were calculated. Three hundred and eighty-three GP responses were received, with the majority being female (n = 232, 60.6%) and GP partners (n = 236, 61.6%). The majority used the internet on three or more working days per week or more frequently (n = 361, 94.3%) with the three most common reasons being to obtain information for a patient (n = 358, 93.5%), answering a clinical question (n = 357, 93.2%) and CPD purposes (n = 308, 80.4%). Of 37 online resources used by respondents, the top five were SIGN Guidelines (n = 303, 79.3%), BMJ Learning (n = 279, 73.0%), NICE Guidelines (n = 255, 66.8%), GP Notebook (n = 243, 63.6%) and Google (n = 234, 61.3%). Low use of social media such as Facebook (n = 11, 2.9%) and Twitter (n = 11, 2.9%) was reported for CPD. A majority agreed that 'reading information online' (95.0%) and 'completing online learning modules' (87.4%) were the most valued online activities. Slow internet connections (n = 240, 62.7%), website access restrictions (n = 177, 46.2%) and difficulties logging

  7. Determinants of the range of drugs prescribed in general practice: a cross-sectional analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Coffie, D.S.V.; Heerdink, E.R.; Dijk, L. van; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current health policies assume that prescribing is more efficient and rational when general practitioners (GPs) work with a formulary or restricted drugs lists and thus with a limited range of drugs. Therefore we studied determinants of the range of drugs prescribed by general

  8. The functional consequences of Generalized Joint Hypermobility : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Nollet, Frans; Engelbert, Raoul H H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been found to be associated with musculoskeletal complaints and disability. For others GJH is seen as a prerequisite in order to excel in certain sports like dance. However, it remains unclear what the role is of GJH in human performance.

  9. The functional consequences of generalized joint hypermobility: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Mark C.; de Vries, Janneke E.; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Nollet, Frans; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been found to be associated with musculoskeletal complaints and disability. For others GJH is seen as a prerequisite in order to excel in certain sports like dance. However, it remains unclear what the role is of GJH in human performance. Therefore, the

  10. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, K; Bishop, JF; Cross, HL; Chondros, P; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, JD

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 20...

  11. Compatibility of scientific research and specialty training in general practice. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Carmienke, Solveig; Herrmann, Wolfram J

    2014-01-01

    In many departments of General Practice (GP) in Germany, young doctors who are trainees also work as researchers. Often these trainees work part time at the university and part time as a trainee in clinical practice. However, little is known about the situation of the actors involved. The aim of the study was to investigate the perspectives of GP trainees, heads of departments and GP trainers regarding the combination of research and GP training. We conducted a web-based survey with the heads of all German departments of General Practice, GP trainees who also conduct research and their GP trainers. The questionnaires consisted of open and closed questions. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. 28 heads of GP departments and 20 GP trainees responded. The trainees were mostly very satisfied with their situation as a trainee. However, the trainees considered the combination of research and GP training as difficult. The respondents name as problems the coordination of multiple jobs and the lack of credibility given to research in General Practice. They name as solutions research-enabling training programs and uniform requirements in training regarding research. The combination of GP training and scientific research activity is perceived as difficult. However, well-organized and designed programs can improve the quality of the combination.

  12. Emergency general surgery in Rwandan district hospitals: a cross-sectional study of spectrum, management, and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpirimbanyi, Christophe; Nyirimodoka, Alexandre; Lin, Yihan; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Odhiambo, Jackline; Nkurunziza, Theoneste; Havens, Joaquim M; Omondi, Jack; Rwamasirabo, Emile; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Toma, Gabriel; Mubiligi, Joel; Bayitondere, Scheilla; Riviello, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Management of emergency general surgical conditions remains a challenge in rural sub-Saharan Africa due to issues such as insufficient human capacity and infrastructure. This study describes the burden of emergency general surgical conditions and the ability to provide care for these conditions at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective cross-sectional study included all patients presenting to Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals between January 1st 2015 and December 31st 2015 with emergency general surgical conditions, defined as non-traumatic, non-obstetric acute care surgical conditions. We describe patient demographics, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes. In 2015, 356 patients presented with emergency general surgical conditions. The majority were male (57.2%) and adults aged 15-60 years (54.5%). The most common diagnostic group was soft tissue infections (71.6%), followed by acute abdominal conditions (14.3%). The median length of symptoms prior to diagnosis differed significantly by diagnosis type (p operated on at the district hospital, either by a general surgeon or general practitioner. Patients were more likely to receive surgery if they presented to a hospital with a general surgeon compared to a hospital with only general practitioners (75% vs 43%, p operation in a hospital with a general surgeon as opposed to a general practitioner. This provides evidence to support increasing the surgical workforce in district hospitals in order to increase surgical availability for patients.

  13. Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunio

    2002-03-01

    This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)

  14. General practitioners' views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-08

    Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as 'membership organisations' but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had 'ownership' of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  15. General practitioners’ views of clinically led commissioning: cross-sectional survey in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Checkland, Kath; Coleman, Anna; Spooner, Sharon; Gibson, Jonathan; Sutton, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Involving general practitioners (GPs) in the commissioning/purchasing of services has been an important element in English health policy for many years. The Health and Social Care Act 2012 handed responsibility for commissioning of the majority of care for local populations to GP-led Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). In this paper, we explore GP attitudes to involvement in commissioning and future intentions for engagement. Design and setting Survey of a random sample of GPs across England in 2015. Method The Eighth National GP Worklife Survey was distributed to GPs in spring 2015. Responses were received from 2611 respondents (response rate = 46%). We compared responses across different GP characteristics and conducted two sample tests of proportions to identify statistically significant differences in responses across groups. We also used multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated with wanting a formal CCG role in the future. Results While GPs generally agree that they can add value to aspects of commissioning, only a minority feel that this is an important part of their role. Many current leaders intend to quit in the next 5 years, and there is limited appetite among those not currently in a formal role to take up such a role in the future. CCGs were set up as ‘membership organisations’ but only a minority of respondents reported feeling that they had ‘ownership’ of their local CCG and these were often GPs with formal CCG roles. However, respondents generally agree that the CCG has a legitimate role in influencing the work that they do. Conclusion CCGs need to engage in active succession planning to find the next generation of GP leaders. GPs believe that CCGs have a legitimate role in influencing their work, suggesting that there may be scope for CCGs to involve GPs more fully in roles short of formal leadership. PMID:28596217

  16. Frequent attenders in general practice and immigrant status in Norway: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care.

  17. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Respiratory symptoms and occupation: a cross-sectional study of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriëtte A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focused on respiratory symptoms due to occupational exposures in a contemporary general population cohort. Subjects were from the Dutch Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN. The composition of this population enabled estimation of respiratory risks due to occupation from the recent past for both men and women. Methods The study subjects (aged 20–59 were all inhabitants of Doetinchem, a small industrial town, and came from a survey of a random sample of 1104 persons conducted in 1993. A total of 274 cases with respiratory symptoms (subdivided in asthma and bronchitis symptoms and 274 controls without symptoms were matched for age and sex. Relations between industry and occupation and respiratory symptoms were explored and adjusted for smoking habits and social economic status. Results Employment in the 'construction' (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.02 – 11.27, 'metal' (OR = 3.17; 95%CI 0. 98 – 10.28, 'rubber, plastics and synthetics' (OR = 6.52; 95%CI 1.26 – 53.80, and 'printing' industry (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 0.85 – 18.48 were positively associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms. In addition, the 'metal' industry was found to be weakly associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.87 – 7.69. Duration of employment within these industries was also positively associated with respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in the general population are traceable to employment in particular industries even in a contemporary cohort with relatively young individuals.

  19. Retaining the general practitioner workforce in England: what matters to GPs? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Potter, Rachel; Owen, Katherine; Parsons, Nicholas; Realpe, Alba; Leach, Jonathan

    2015-10-16

    The general practice (GP) workforce in England is in crisis, reflected in increasing rates of early retirement and intentions to reduce hours of working. This study aimed to investigate underlying factors and how these might be mitigated. GPs in central England were invited to participate in an on-line survey exploring career plans and views and experiences of work-related pressures. Quantitative data were analysed using logistic regression analysis and principal components analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. Of 1,192 GPs who participated, 978 (82.0 %) stated that they intend to leave general practice, take a career break and/or reduce clinical hours of work within the next five years. This included 488 (41.9 %) who intend to leave practice, and almost a quarter (279; 23.2 %) intending to take a career break. Only 67 (5.6 %) planned to increase their hours of clinical work. For participants planning to leave practice, the issues that most influenced intentions were volume and intensity of workload, time spent on "unimportant tasks", introduction of seven-day working and lack of job satisfaction. Four hundred fifty five participants responded to open questions (39128 words in total). The main themes were the cumulative impact of work-related pressures, the changing and growing nature of the workload, and the consequent stress. Reducing workload intensity, workload volume, administrative activities, with increased time for patient care, no out-of-hour commitments, more flexible working conditions and greater clinical autonomy were identified as the most important requirements to address the workforce crisis. In addition, incentive payments, increased pay and protected time for education and training were also rated as important. New models of professionalism and organisational arrangements may be needed to address the issues described here. Without urgent action, the GP workforce crisis in England seems set to worsen.

  20. Sociodemographic profiles regarding bitter food consumption: cross-sectional evidence from a general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Martin, Christophe; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (e.g., cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were obtained from a minimum of twelve 24-h dietary records provided during the first 2years of follow-up. Two bitter food consumption scores were computed - one assessing the variety of items consumed (unweighted score) and the other reflecting exposure to bitterness estimated via complementary sensory panel data from the EpiPref project (weighted score). Associations with sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Among men, the variety of bitter foods consumed was positively associated with educational level and alcohol intake and inversely associated with physical activity and rural area of residence. Among women, the same outcome was positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with diabetes. In turn, Body Mass Index displayed a significant inverse association with the bitterness-weighted score across sex, whereas educational level was supported only in women. This study adds to the presently scant knowledge about non-genetic determinants or moderators of actual bitter food intake. Future studies should elucidate the impact of diabetes and body size on bitter food intake patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fear of going under general anesthesia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Ruhaiyem

    2016-01-01

    Results: Among 450 questionnaires that were disturbed, 400 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-eight percent experienced preoperative fear. The top three causes of their fears were fear of postoperative pain (77.3%, fear of intraoperative awareness (73.7%, and fear of being sleepy postoperatively (69.5%. Patients are less fearful of drains and needles in the operative theater (48%, of revealing personal issues under general anesthesia (55.2%, and of not waking up after surgery (56.4%. Age and gender were significant predictors of the overall fear among preanesthetic patients. Females are 5 times more likely to experience fear before surgery (P = 0.0009. Patients aged more than 40 years old are also at 75% higher risk of being afraid (P = 0.008. Conclusion: The majority of the patients going for surgery experienced a fear of anesthesia. Mostly females, especially those over 40, were at a higher risk of being afraid. Fear can bring anxiety which, in turn, might affect the patient′s surgery.

  2. A cross sectional survey of the barriers for implementing rapid HIV testing among French general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, Thibaut; Fourcade, Camille; Brazes-Sanz, Julie; Koumar, Yatrika; Lavigne, Jean Philippe; Sotto, Albert; Laureillard, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In France, almost 30,000 people are unaware of their HIV-positive status. Innovative screening strategies are essential to reach this population. The aim of this study was to describe the acceptability of rapid HIV testing (RHT) among French general practitioners (GPs) working in the south of France and barriers for implementing this strategy. We analysed an anonymous questionnaire sent by mail to GPs about demographic data, routine practice, knowledge of RHT and barriers to its use. Between 1 April and 30 September 2013, out of the 165 GPs contacted, 78 returned the questionnaires. The GPs' mean age was 52 years; 49 were men. Fifty-one GPs reported that their registered patients included at least one HIV-infected person and 70 GPs reported taking care of high-risk patients. Sixty-three percent of GPs reported being interested in using RHT in their daily practice. The main reasons reported by uninterested GPs were: greater confidence in standard HIV testing, difficulties including RHT during the routine consultation, difficulties to screen for other sexually transmitted infections simultaneously, and difficulties to deliver a positive result. French National Authorities for Health propose to screen the population at least once in their lifetime and high-risk people at least once a year. In order to achieve this aim, RHT should be included in the GPs' arsenal for HIV testing. We showed a high acceptability of RHT by GPs. If specific and adapted training is developed, and if solutions to barriers reported by GPs are found, RHT could be implemented in to their routine activity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Hahn

    Full Text Available Renal conservation (retention of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population.Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI, where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones.The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0 was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001. Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l. Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61 were always accompanied by albuminuria.Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital.

  4. Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a general population: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence underlines an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, data on its relation with endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis is inconclusive and limited to patient-cohort studies. We therefore investigated the association between periodontal disease and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD as a measure of endothelial dysfunction in a general population, and also addressed a possible mediation via inflammation. The study population comprised 1,234 subjects (50.5% men aged 25-85 years from the 5-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania, a population-based cohort study. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket probing depth (PPD as measures of periodontal disease were assessed half-mouth at four sites per tooth. Subjects were classified according to the periodontitis case definition proposed by Tonetti and Claffey (2005. Measurements of FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and leukocyte count were measured. Fully adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of the percentage of sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm with FMD (p(trend=0.048, with subjects within the highest category having a 0.74% higher FMD compared to subjects within the lowest category (p<0.05. Consistently, FMD values increased significantly across categories of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm (p(trend=0.01 and the periodontitis case definition (p(trend=0.006. Restrictions to subjects without antihypertensive or statin medication or current non-smokers confirmed previous results. Systemic inflammation did not seem to mediate the relation. Both PPD and CAL were not consistently associated with NMD. In contrast to previous studies, high levels of periodontal disease were significantly associated with high FMD values. This

  5. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  6. Calculation of 3-D free electron laser gain: Comparison with simulation and generalization to elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yong Ho; Kim, Kwang-Je; Xie, Ming.

    1992-08-01

    In the previous paper, we have derived a dispersion relation for the free electron laser (FEL) gain in the exponential regime taking account the diffraction and electron's betatron oscillation. Here, we compare the growth rates obtained by solving the dispersion relation with those obtained by simulation calculation for the waterbag and the Gaussian models for the electron's transverse phase space distribution. The agreement is found to be good except for the limiting case where the Rayleigh length is much longer than the gain length (1-D limit). We also generalize the analysis to the case where the electron beam cross section is elliptical as is usually the case in storage rings, and derive the first-order dispersion relation

  7. The presence of resuscitation equipment and influencing factors at General Practitioners' offices in Denmark: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegsch, Mark L; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Clausen, Niels Erikstrup

    2014-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have proven effective when used by GPs. Despite this and the latest guidelines from the European Resuscitation Council, there are no recommendations for Danish GPs regarding proper equipment to treat cardiac arrest. Currently, there are no published data on the distribution of AEDs among GPs in Denmark. To assess the prevalence of resuscitation equipment and educated staff among Danish GPs and the parameters influencing the absence of AEDs at GP offices. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among the 2030 GPs registered in Denmark. Questions concerned demographics, occurrence of resuscitation equipment and attitude towards acquisition of an AED. With a response rate >70%, we found that the prevalence of AEDs in GP offices is low (31.7%). Limited financial possibilities and relevant treatment by ambulance personnel were stated as the primary causes for not having an AED. In general, Danish primary care physicians believe that AEDs should be governmentally sponsored. Positive influential factors on the acquisition of an AED were education, number of physicians in the GP office and previous experience of cardiac arrest. Danish primary care physicians are generally not equipped with AEDs despite the proven effect of AEDs in GP offices. The main reasons for not acquiring an AED are financial considerations and believing that response time by ambulance services and nearby health facilities are the optimal treatment. We recommend better education and information in order to facilitate future acquisition of AEDs among GPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep quality and health service utilization in Chinese general population: a cross-sectional study in Dongguan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Shan; Mai, Yan-Bing; Li, Wei-Da; Xi, Wen-Tao; Wang, Jin-Ming; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    The aims of this study were to explore the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and health service utilization in Chinese general population, to investigate the association between PSQI and health service utilization and to identify the independent contributions of social demographic variables, health related factors and PSQI to health service utilization. In a cross-sectional community-based health survey using a multi-instrument questionnaire, 4067 subjects (≥15 years old) were studied. The Chinese version of the PSQI was used to assess sleep quality. Health service utilization was measured by recent two-week physician visit and annual hospitalization rates. Higher PSQI scores were associated with more frequent health service utilization. Higher scores in subjective sleep quality were associated with higher rate of recent two-week physician visit (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.015). Higher scores in habitual sleep efficiency (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.038) and sleep disturbances (adjusted OR = 2.09 per SD increase, P quality predicted more frequent health service utilization. The independent contribution of PSQI on health service utilization was smaller than social demographic variables. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Are French general practitioners consulted before travel to developing countries? A cross-sectional study conducted in a French airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, C; Buffel du Vaure, C; Partouche, H

    2015-08-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could play a central role in preventing travel-related health issues. The aim of this study was to assess, in travellers departing to developing countries from a French airport, the proportion of individuals having sought GP counseling before departure and to identify determinants for having consulted a GP. Cross-sectional study conducted between November 2012 and July 2013, in all adults living in France. Sociodemographic, health characteristics, type of travel and resources consulted before departure were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed. Determinants for having consulted a GP before departure were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. Of the 360 travellers included, 230 (64%) sought health counseling before departure. GPs were the main source of information for 134 (58%) travellers having sought health information and the only one for 49 (21%). Almost half of the travellers (48%) departing to sub-Saharan countries did not seek health counseling from a medical doctor (GP, non-GP specialist, specialist consulted in an international vaccination center or occupational physician). Individuals significantly more likely to travel without having consulted a GP were young and male, held foreign nationality, had travelled more than five times before, rarely consulted their GP and were travelling to a non-malarious area. GPs were the main but not the only source of information and counseling before traveling to a developing country. This study helps identify the characteristics of individuals likely to travel without having consulted a GP before departure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of General Practitioners toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh

    2015-08-01

    Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in patients with diabetes mellitus: a comparative cross sectional study at Woldiya General Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane

    2014-01-01

    The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals.

  12. Non-physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands: a cross-sectional survey among the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonman, Merel Kristi; van Thiel, Ghislaine José Madeleine Wilhelmien; van Delden, Johannes Jozef Marten

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, approximately 45% of patients' requests for euthanasia are granted by a physician. After a rejected request, some patients approach non-physicians and ask them for assistance in suicide. Recently, a non-physician who assisted his mother's suicide was declared guilty without punishment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the opinion of the Dutch general public on non-physician-assisted suicide. A cross-sectional survey among the Dutch general public was performed. A total of 1113 respondents were included (response rate 80%). The survey covered two case descriptions in which a patient asks a non-physician for assisted suicide after a non-granted request for physician-assisted dying. In both cases, a son, friend or professional facilitates the suicide by either the provision of information or the purchase of lethal medication. Respondents were invited to give their opinion on these cases and in addition on 10 propositions on non-physician-assisted suicide. When a son provides information on how to acquire lethal medication in case of a patient with a terminal illness, this involvement is accepted by 62% of the respondents. The actual purchase of lethal medication receives less support (38%). If the patient suffers without a serious disease, both forms of assistance are less accepted (46% and 24%, respectively). In addition, only 21% support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. The Dutch public prefer involvement of a physician in assisted suicide (69%). The Dutch general public consider non-physician-assisted suicide in some specific cases a tolerable alternative for patients with a rejected request for physician-assisted dying if the assistance is limited to the provision of information. However, the majority do not support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in general and psychological health among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zissi Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.

  14. Association between social support and depression in the general population: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Siv; Hellzèn, Ove; Romild, Ulla; Stordal, Eystein

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Intimate partner violence and ways of coping with stress: cross-sectional survey of female patients in Russian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Costelloe, Ceire; Kuznetsova, Olga Yu; Nikolskaya, Irina M; Feder, Gene S

    2015-04-01

    Despite World Health Organization guidelines on health service responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) against women general practitioners (GPs) often overlook the problem. Training on IPV addresses GPs' barriers to asking women patients about abuse and responding appropriately. One of the barriers is stereotype of women as passive victims. Little is known about coping behaviour of women patients with a history of IPV. The objectives are (i) to compare problem- and emotion-focused coping used by patients who have experienced IPV with those who have not; (ii) to examine whether greater coping resources (health, education, employment and income) would be associated with more problem-focused coping. The Russian Ways of Coping Questionnaire was administered to every fifth woman who participated in a cross-sectional survey on IPV prevalence in 24 St Petersburg general practices. Linear regression was used (n = 159) to test associations between life-time IPV, coping resources and ways of coping. Mean problem-focused coping scores were 0.2-4.7 units higher in those patients who have experienced IPV compared with those who have not [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.2, 11.9; P = 0.16-0.92], while mean emotion-focused coping scores were 2.5-4.2 units higher (95% CI: -3.0, 11.0; P = 0.12-0.57). After adjustment for coping resources there was no evidence for an association between IPV and problem-focused coping. Patients who have experienced IPV use as much problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, as those patients who have not experienced IPV. These findings should be incorporated into training on IPV to address GPs' stereotypes towards patients who have experienced IPV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Silvestri, Monica; Artoni, Cecilia; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%), followed by nursing assistants (18%) and physicians (12%). The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression). The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%), emergency department (71%), and in geriatric wards (57%). The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test). Verbal violence (51%) was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49%) was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent attack” (P=0.02, P=0.03, multiple logistic regression). Conclusion This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where

  18. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Myhre, Mia; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone). The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10). Results Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%), childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%), and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%). All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (pviolence categories experienced (pviolence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (pviolence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence and neglect should receive more research attention, especially in combination with other types of violence. PMID:25591729

  19. A cross sectional study of surgical training among United Kingdom general practitioners with specialist interests in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H J M; Fitzgerald, J E F; Reilly, J; Beamish, A J; Gokani, V J

    2015-04-08

    Increasing numbers of minor surgical procedures are being performed in the community. In the UK, general practitioners (family medicine physicians) with a specialist interest (GPwSI) in surgery frequently undertake them. This shift has caused decreases in available cases for junior surgeons to gain and consolidate operative skills. This study evaluated GPwSI's case-load, procedural training and perceptions of offering formalised operative training experience to surgical trainees. Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A novel, 13-item, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to members of the Association of Surgeons in Primary Care (ASPC). A total 113 of 120 ASPC members completed the questionnaire, representing a 94% response rate. Respondents were general practitioners practising or intending to practice surgery in the community. Respondents performed a mean of 38 (range 5-150) surgical procedures per month in primary care. 37% (42/113) of respondents had previously been awarded Membership or Fellowship of a Surgical Royal College; 22% (25/113) had completed a surgical certificate or diploma or undertaken a course of less than 1 year duration. 41% (46/113) had no formal British surgical qualifications. All respondents believed that surgical training in primary care could be valuable for surgical trainees, and the majority (71/113, 63%) felt that both general practice and surgical trainees could benefit equally from such training. There is a significant volume of surgical procedures being undertaken in the community by general practitioners, with the capacity and appetite for training of prospective surgeons in this setting, providing appropriate standards are achieved and maintained, commensurate with current standards in secondary care. Surgical experience and training of GPwSI's in surgery is highly varied, and does not yet benefit from the quality assurance secondary care surgical training in the UK undergoes. The Royal Colleges of

  20. Cross-sectional survey of older patients' views regarding multidisciplinary care for chronic conditions in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Magee, Christopher; Pearson, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The ageing population and increasing prevalence of chronic illness have contributed to the need for significant primary care reform, including increased use of multidisciplinary care and task substitution. This cross-sectional study explores conditions under which older patients would accept having health professionals other than their general practitioner (GP) involved in their care for chronic disease management (CDM). Ten practices were randomly sampled from a contiguous major city and inner regional area. Questionnaires were distributed to consecutive patients aged 60 years and over in each practice. Agency theory was used to inform analyses. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Wald's test, growth modelling and linear regression, controlling for the clustered design. The response rate was 53% (n=272). Most respondents (79%) had at least one chronic health condition. Respondents were more comfortable with GP than with practice nurse management in the CDM scenario (Wald's test=105.49, P<0.001). Comfort with practice nurse CDM was positively associated with increased contact with their GP at the time of the visit (β=0.41, P<0.001), negatively associated with the number of the respondent's chronic conditions (β=-0.13, P=0.030) and not associated with the frequency of other health professional visits. Agency theory suggests that patients employ continuity of care to optimise factors important in CDM: information symmetry and goal alignment. Our findings are consistent with the theory and lend support to ensuring that interpersonal continuity of care is not lost in health care reform. Further research exploring patients' acceptance of differing systems of care is required.

  1. Malnutrition in patients admitted to the medical wards of the Douala General Hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luma, Henry Namme; Eloumou, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka; Mboligong, Franklin Ngu; Temfack, Elvis; Donfack, Olivier-Tresor; Doualla, Marie-Solange

    2017-07-03

    Malnutrition is common in acutely ill patients occurring in 30-50% of hospitalized patients. Awareness and screening for malnutrition is lacking in most health institutions in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at screening for malnutrition using anthropometric and laboratory indices in patients admitted to the internal medicine wards. A cross-sectional study. We screened for malnutrition in 251 consecutive patients admitted from January to March 2013 in the internal medicine wards. Malnutrition defined as body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m 2 and/or mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 22 cm in women and 23 cm in men. Weight loss greater than 10% in the last 6 months prior to admission, relevant laboratory data, diagnosis at discharge and length of hospital stay (LOS) were also recorded. Mean age was 47 (SD 16) years. 52.6% were male. Mean BMI was 24.44 (SD 5.79) kg/m 2 and MUAC was 27.8 (SD 5.0) cm. Median LOS was 7 (IQR 5-12) days. 42.4% of patients reported weight loss greater than 10% in the 6 months before hospitalization. MUAC and BMI correlated significantly (r = 0.78; p malnutrition by the two methods showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.56; p malnutrition was 19.34% (35/251). Blood albumin and hemoglobin were significantly lower in malnourished patients. Malnourished patients had a significantly longer LOS (p = 0.019) when compared to those with no malnutrition. Malnutrition was most common amongst patients with malignancy. Malnutrition is common in patients admitted to the medical wards of the Douala General Hospital. Nutritional screening and assessment should be integrated in the care package of all admitted patients.

  2. General Practitioners' Attitudes towards Essential Competencies in End-of-Life Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Jung, Corinna; Banderet, Hans-Ruedi; Otte, Ina Carola; Gudat, Heike; Haller, Dagmar M; Elger, Bernice S; Zemp, Elisabeth; Bally, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Identifying essential competencies in end-of-life care, as well as general practitioners' (GPs) confidence in these competencies, is essential to guide training and quality improvement efforts in this domain. To determine which competencies in end-of-life care are considered important by GPs, to assess GPs' confidence in these competencies in a European context and their reasons to refer terminally ill patients to a specialist. Cross-sectional postal survey involving a stratified random sample of 2000 GPs in Switzerland in 2014. Survey development was informed by a previous qualitative exploration of relevant end-of-life GP competencies. Main outcome measures were GPs' assessment of the importance of and confidence in 18 attributes of end-of-life care competencies, and reasons for transferring care of terminally-ill patients to a specialist. GP characteristics associated with main outcome measures were tested using multivariate regression models. The response rate was 31%. Ninety-nine percent of GPs considered the recognition and treatment of pain as important, 86% felt confident about it. Few GPs felt confident in cultural (16%), spiritual (38%) and legal end-of-life competencies such as responding to patients seeking assisted suicide (35%) although more than half of the respondents regarded these competencies as important. Most frequent reasons to refer terminally ill patients to a specialist were lack of time (30%), better training of specialists (23%) and end-of-life care being incompatible with other duties (19%). In multiple regression analyses, confidence in end-of-life care was positively associated with GPs' age, practice size, home visits and palliative training. GPs considered non-somatic competencies (such as spiritual, cultural, ethical and legal aspects) nearly as important as pain and symptom control. Yet, few GPs felt confident in these non-somatic competencies. These findings should inform training and quality improvement efforts in this domain, in

  3. Overweight in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease needs more attention: a cross-sectional study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, L.D.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Dijk, C.E. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) primarily focus on the prevention of weight loss, while overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in patients with milder stages of COPD. This cross-sectional study examines the association of overweight and obesity with the

  4. Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Monica Silvestri,1 Cecilia Artoni,2 Rosaria Di Lorenzo3 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing, 2School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio, 3Department of Mental Health, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Workplace violence (WPV against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1 to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2 to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants, who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results: With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%, followed by nursing assistants (18% and physicians (12%. The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression. The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%, emergency department (71%, and in geriatric wards (57%. The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test. Verbal violence (51% was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49% was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent

  5. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  6. General practitioners versus other physicians in the quality of primary care: a cross-sectional study in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Zhang, Xiao; Hao, Yuantao; Shi, Leiyu; Hu, Ruwei

    2015-10-09

    The primary care in China can be provided by general practitioners (GPs) and other physicians (non-GPs). However, China's general practice system has never been really established. Chinese patients tend to consider the quality of primary care provided by GPs much lower than that of non-GPs. Besides, many GPs presently prefer leaving their own positions and seeking better development in big hospitals, which has made the already weak GP system weaker. Yet, few studies have specially compared the quality of primary care provided by Chinese GPs and other physicians and no studies have explored the independent predictors of Chinese GPs' intentions to stay on their current job. In this study, we aimed to compare the quality of primary care offered by GPs with non-GPs and to explore the independent predictors of GPs' future work intentions. This cross-sectional study applied multi-stage random cluster sampling methodology. The data were collected from November 2013 to September 2014 in Guangdong Province. In total, 401 effective questionnaires were selected from the physicians. Quality of primary care was assessed using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) Provider Part, representing six primary care domains: ongoing care, coordination (i.e., referrals and information systems), comprehensiveness (i.e., service available and service provided), family-centeredness, community orientation and cultural competence. Of 401 participating physicians, 163 (40.6 %) were GPs. The total PCAT score was 26.32 ± 2.24 which was the sum score of the six domains and represent the quality of primary care. GPs achieved significantly different total scores and scores on three individual scales: comprehensiveness: service available, comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation. Multiple linear regressions revealed GPs had a higher total score and scores for comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics

  7. The role of the General Practitioner in weight management in primary care – a cross sectional study in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Doris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a global pandemic, considered the sixth leading cause of mortality by the WHO. As gatekeepers to the health system, General Practitioners are placed in an ideal position to manage obesity. Yet, very few consultations address weight management. This study aims to explore reasons why patients attending General Practice appointments are not engaging with their General Practitioner (GP for weight management and their perception of the role of the GP in managing their weight. Methods In February 2006, 367 participants aged between 17 and 64 were recruited from three General Practices in Melbourne to complete a waiting room self – administered questionnaire. Questions included basic demographics, the role of the GP in weight management, the likelihood of bringing up weight management with their GP and reasons why they would not, and their nominated ideal person to consult for weight management. Physical measurements to determine weight status were then completed. The statistical methods included means and standard deviations to summarise continuous variables such as weight and height. Sub groups of weight and questionnaire answers were analysed using the χ2 test of significant differences taking p as Results The population sample had similar obesity co-morbidity rates to the National Heart Foundation data. 74% of patients were not likely to bring up weight management when they visit their GP. Negative reasons were time limitation on both the patient's and doctor's part and the doctor lacking experience. The GP was the least likely person to tell a patient to lose weight after partner, family and friends. Of the 14% that had been told by their GP to lose weight, 90% had cardiovascular obesity related co-morbidities. GPs (15% were 4th in the list of ideal persons to manage weight after personal trainer Conclusion Patients do not have confidence in their GPs for weight management, preferring other health

  8. End-of-life care in general practice: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey of 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age/dementia' patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.C.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age or dementia'. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  9. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  10. Occipito-atlanto-axial osteoarthritis: a cross sectional clinico-radiological prevalence study in high risk and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badve, Siddharth A; Bhojraj, Shekhar; Nene, Abhay; Raut, Abhijit; Ramakanthan, Ravi

    2010-02-15

    A cross-sectional clinico-radiologic evaluation of occipito-atlantoaxial (OC1C2) region of 2 population groups. Determine the prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in porters involved in carrying loads on the head and general male population. Describe its clinico-radiologic manifestations. In addition to age, head loading is a known cause of degeneration affecting the occipito-cervical region. The impact of head loading in the population aged between third and sixth decade is unknown. Head loading is a common custom in the developing countries. Study group (n = 107) included randomly selected male porters from railway stations who underwent computed tomography (CT) study of the OC1C2 region, plain radiographs of the cervical spine and detailed clinical examination. Control group (n = 107) included randomly selected male patients undergoing CT scan study for diseases of paranasal sinuses with coincidental screening of OC1C2 region along with clinical assessment. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software. Mean age for study group was 32.6 years and controls was 34.6 years (P = 0.156). In the study group, duration of occupational exposure was 10.9 (+/-8.7) years; 81.3% porters being symptomatic with an age of 33.4 (+/-9.6) years. Radiologic prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in study group was 91.6% and in control group was 6.8%; age of affected individuals was 33.4 (+/-9.3) and 47.9 (+/-8.0) years, respectively. Most common complaint was suboccipital neck pain (69.7%); while the CT finding was decreased joint space with sclerosis and irregularity of the margins (81.3%). No statistically significant association was found between presence of radiologic changes and symptoms. Age, duration of occupational exposure and its relationship with various clinico-radiologic manifestations was studied. This condition has significant prevalence in porters, beginning at an early age. Diagnosis is based on the clinico-radiologic presentation. CT is the investigation of choice

  11. Characteristics of service users and provider organisations associated with experience of out of hours general practitioner care in England: population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Fiona C; Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Elliott, Marc N; Richards, Suzanne; Barry, Heather E; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experience of users of out of hours general practitioner services in England, UK. Design: Population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey. Setting: General Practice Patient Survey 2012-13. Main outcome measures: Potential associations between sociodemographic factors (including ethnicity and ability to take time away from work during working hours to attend a healthcare consultation) and provider organisation type (not for profit, NHS, or commercial)...

  12. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  13. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare?17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36?674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118?794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had hei...

  14. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among pregnant woman attending ANC at Gelemso General Hospital, Oromiya Region, East Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Faiza; Musa, Abdulbasit; Amano, Abdella

    2016-08-17

    Unintended pregnancy is among the major public health problems that predispose women to maternal death and illness mainly through unsafe abortion and poor maternity care. The level of unintended pregnancy is high in developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and the associated factors among pregnant woman attending antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital, East Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10 to April 13, 2015 among women who had attended antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 413 participants. Data were collected via face-to-face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made to check the associations among the variables and to control the confounding factors. Out of the 413 pregnancies, 112 (27.1 %) were unintended of which 90(21.9 %) were mistimed, and 22(5.2 %) were unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that single, divorced/widowed marital statuses, having more than 2 children, and having no awareness of contraception were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Over a quarter of women had an unintended pregnancy, a rate which is lower than previously reported. Designing and implementing strategies that address contraceptive needs of unmarried, divorced and widowed women, creating awareness of contraceptives at community level and reinforcing postnatal contraceptive counseling to all mothers giving birth at health institution is recommended to reduce the rate of the unintended pregnancy among parous women.

  15. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  16. Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation

  17. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  18. Predictors of perceived barriers to physical activity in the general adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herazo-Beltrán, Yaneth; Pinillos, Yisel; Vidarte, José; Crissien, Estela; Suarez, Damaris; García, Rafael

    The perception of personal barriers to physical activity varies according to the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals. To determine the predictors of the perception of barriers to physical activity in the adult population. A cross-sectional study with 1066 adult women and 1036 adult men. The sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic level, level of education), the perception of barriers that do not allow performance of physical activity (i.e. lack of time, social support, energy, motivation, skill, resources, and fear of injury during practice); and the level of physical activity through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in its short-form version were evaluated. Individuals from low socioeconomic level (1 and 2) have higher risks of perceiving barriers such as lack of motivation [OR 1.76 (95% CI (1.4-2.1))] and lack of resources [OR 1.37 (95% CI (1.1-1.6))]; individuals with partners did not perceive the lack of social support [OR 0.29 (95% CI (0.2-0.4))] and lack of motivation [OR 0.54 (95% CI (0.4-0.7))] as barriers to physical activity. Individuals with low schooling perceived lack of social support [OR 3.81 (95% CI (3-4.7))], lack of resources [OR 2.78 (95% CI (2.2-3.3))], and fear of injury [OR 2.70 (95% CI (2.2-3.3))] as barrier to physical activity. Factors such as socioeconomic level, marital status, level of education, and self-perception of health are predictors of barriers to physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  20. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  1. Identifying current training provision and future training needs in allergy available for UK general practice trainees: national cross-sectional survey of General Practitioner Specialist Training programme directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jayne; Rafi, Imran; Smith, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-03-01

    There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provision for allergy in primary care. To identify current training provision in allergy to GP trainees and to understand how this could be enhanced. A cross-sectional survey of GP Speciality Training (GPST) programme directors was undertaken. Programme directors of the 174 GPST schemes were sent an online questionnaire which was informed by the content of the Royal College of General Practitioners curriculum. Quantitative data were descriptively analysed and a thematic analysis was undertaken of free text responses. We obtained responses from 146 directors representing 106 training programmes. Responses indicated that two-thirds (62%, 95% CI 53.1 to 71.5) of programmes were providing at least some allergy training, with the remaining third stating that they either provided no training or were unsure. Overall, one-third (33%, 95% CI 22.7 to 42.2) of programme directors believed that all the relevant allergy-related curriculum requirements were being met. Where provided, this training was believed to be best for organ-specific allergic disorders but was thought to be poorer for systemic allergic disorders, particularly food allergy where 67% (95% CI 57.5 to 76.5) of respondents indicated that training was poor. There was considerable interest in increasing the allergy training provided, preferably through eLearning modules and problem-based learning materials supported by those with relevant specialist knowledge. This UK-wide survey has identified important gaps in the training of GP trainees in relation to allergy care. Addressing these gaps, particularly in the management of systemic allergic disorders, should help to improve delivery of primary care-based allergy care.

  2. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  3. Maintaining capacity for in-practice teaching and supervision of students and general practice trainees: a cross-sectional study of early career general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catzikiris, Nigel; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Ball, Jean; Henderson, Kim; Elliott, Taryn; Spike, Neil; Regan, Cathy; Magin, Parker

    2017-08-10

    Objectives Expanding learner cohorts of medical students and general practitioner (GP) vocational trainees and the impending retirement of the 'baby boomer' GP cohort threaten the teaching and supervisory capacity of the Australian GP workforce. Engaging newly qualified GPs is essential to sustaining this workforce training capacity. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence and associations of in-practice clinical teaching and supervision in early career GPs. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of recent (within 5 years) alumni of three of Australia's 17 regional general practice training programs. The outcome factor was whether the alumnus taught or supervised medical students, GP registrars or other learners in their current practice. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations of teaching and supervision with independent variables comprising alumnus demographics, current practice characteristics and vocational training experiences. Results In all, 230 alumni returned questionnaires (response rate 37.4%). Of currently practising alumni, 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 45.6-59.0%) reported current teaching or supervisory activities. Factors significantly (Pinterest in and undertaking of teaching roles have been documented for GP or family medicine trainees, studies investigating the engagement in these clinical roles by GPs during their early post-training period are lacking. What does this paper add? This paper is the first to document the prevalence of teaching and supervision undertaken by early career GPs as part of their regular clinical practice. We also demonstrate associations of practice rurality, country of medical graduation and undertaking non-practice-based clinical roles with GPs' engagement in teaching and supervisory roles. What are the implications for practitioners? Establishing current teaching patterns of GPs enables appropriate targeting of new strategies to

  4. Factors influencing career intentions on completion of general practice vocational training in England: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Scott, Emma; Owen, Katherine

    2017-08-17

    General practice is experiencing a growing crisis with the numbers of doctors who are training and then entering the profession in the UK failing to keep pace with workforce needs. This study investigated the immediate to medium term career intentions of those who are about to become general practitioners (GPs) and the factors that are influencing career plans. Online questionnaire survey, with quantitative answers analysed using descriptive statistics and free text data analysed using a thematic framework approach. Doctors approaching the end of 3-year GP vocational training in the West Midlands, England. 178 (57.2%) doctors completed the survey. Most participants planned to work as salaried GPs or locums rather than entering a general practice partnership for at least the first 5 years post-completion of training; others failed to express a career plan or planned to leave general practice completely or work overseas. Many were interested in developing portfolio careers.The quality of general practice experience across undergraduate, foundation and vocational training were reported as influencing personal career plans, and in particular perceptions about workload pressure and morale within the training practices in which they had been placed. Experience of a poor work-life balance as a trainee had a negative effect on career intentions, as did negative perceptions about how general practice is portrayed by politicians and the media. This study describes a number of potentially modifiable factors related to training programmes that are detrimentally influencing the career plans of newly trained GPs. In addition, there are sociodemographic factors, such as age, gender and having children, which are also influencing career plans and so need to be accommodated. With ever-increasing workload in general practice, there is an urgent need to understand and where possible address these issues at national and local level. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  5. German wide cross sectional survey on health impacts of electromagnetic fields in the view of general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Heyer, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The proportion of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany who assume health impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is assessed. Moreover, factors associated with this risk perception are examined. METHODS: A 7% random sample was drawn from online lists of all the GPs working in Germany...

  6. General beliefs about medicines among doctors and nurses in out-patient care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenrud Tove

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doctors and nurses are two natural partners in the healthcare team, but they usually differ in their perspectives on how to work for increased health. These professions may also have different beliefs about medicines, a factor important for adherence to medicines. The aim was to explore general beliefs about medicines among doctors and nurses. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 306 private practitioners (PPs, 298 general practitioners (GPs and 303 nurses in the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden. The questionnaire included sociodemographic questions and the general part of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ, which measures the beliefs people have about medicines in general. General beliefs about medicines in relation to background variables were explored with independent t-tests and ANOVA analyses. Differences between occupations and influences of interaction variables were analysed with multiple linear regression models for general beliefs about medicines. Results The data collection resulted in 616 questionnaires (62.1% PPs; 61.6% GPs; 80.5% nurses. The majority of the PPs and 40% of the GPs were male but most of the nurses were female. The GPs' mean age was 47 years, PPs' 60 years and nurses' 52 years. Few nurses originated from non-Nordic countries while 15% of the PPs and 25% of the GPs did. Nurses saw medicines as more harmful and less beneficial than did PPs and GPs. These differences could not be explained by the included interaction variables. GPs with a Nordic background saw medicines as more beneficial and less harmful than did GPs with a non-Nordic background. Furthermore, GPs of non-Nordic origin were most likely to believe that medicines were overprescribed by doctors. Conclusion Doctors were more positive about medicines than nurses. The differences in beliefs about medicines found between doctors and nurses could not be explained by any of the included interaction variables. These differences in

  7. Association of general psychological factors with frequent attendance in primary care: a population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-24

    Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.

  8. Predictors of general self-efficacy and self-esteem in occupational therapy students: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsaksen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    A national survey reported college students showed higher risk of mental health problems than the general population. Using selfefficacy and self-esteem as indicators of mental health, this study explores sociodemographic, relational, educational, and work factors associated with these outcomes. A sample of 148 occupational therapy students in Norway participated, and data were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Factors associated with positive self-efficacy and self-esteem were higher...

  9. Compliance with referrals to medical specialist care: patient and general practice determinants: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; de Jong, Judith D; Verheij, Robert A; Jansen, Tessa; Korevaar, Joke C; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2016-02-01

    In a gatekeeper system, primary care physicians and patients jointly decide whether or not medical specialist care is needed. However, it is the patient who decides to actually use the referral. Referral non-compliance could delay diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to assess patient compliance with a referral to medical specialist care and identify patient and practice characteristics that are associated with it. Observational study using data on 48,784 referrals to medical specialist care derived from electronic medical records of 58 general practices for the period 2008-2010. Referral compliance was based on claims data of medical specialist care. Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between patient and general practice characteristics and referral compliance. In 86.6% of the referrals, patients complied. Patient and not practice characteristics were significantly associated with compliance. Patients from deprived urban areas and patients aged 18-44 years were less likely to comply, whereas patients aged 65 years and older were more likely to comply. About 1 in 8 patients do not use their referral. These patients may not receive adequate care. Demographic and socio-economic factors appear to affect compliance. The results of this study may be used to make general practitioners more aware that some patients are more likely to be noncompliant with referrals.

  10. Transfusion practice in anemic, non-bleeding patients: Cross-sectional survey of physicians working in general internal medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Babo, Michelle; Chmiel, Corinne; Müggler, Simon Andreas; Rakusa, Julia; Schuppli, Caroline; Meier, Philipp; Fischler, Manuel; Urner, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion practice might significantly influence patient morbidity and mortality. Between European countries, transfusion practice of red blood cells (RBC) greatly differs. Only sparse data are available on transfusion practice of general internal medicine physicians in Switzerland. In this cross-sectional survey, physicians working in general medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland were investigated regarding their self-reported transfusion practice in anemic patients without acute bleeding. The definition of anemia, transfusion triggers, knowledge on RBC transfusion, and implementation of guidelines were assessed. 560 physicians of 71 hospitals (64%) responded to the survey. Anemia was defined at very diverging hemoglobin values (by 38% at a hemoglobin Switzerland. Identifying and subsequently correcting this deficit in knowledge translation may have a significant impact on patient care.

  11. Difficult medical encounters and job satisfaction - results of a cross sectional study with general practitioners in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Mahnkopf, Janis; Kornitzky, Anna; Steinhäuser, Jost

    2018-05-09

    In primary care 15% of patient encounters are perceived as challenging by general practitioners (GP). However it is unknown what impact these encounters have regarding job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate which encounters are perceived as challenging by German GPs and whether they were associated with job satisfaction. A total of 1538 questionnaires were sent to GPs in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. GPs should rate 14 medical conditions and 8 traits of patients on the perceived challenge using a Likert scale (1: 'not challenging at all' to 10: 'extremely challenging'). Job satisfaction was measured with the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. A linear regression analyses were used to explore potential associations between for the primary outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Total response was 578 (38%). GPs perceived 16% of their patients as challenging. Psychiatric disorders such as somatization disorder (mean = 7.42), schizophrenia (mean = 6.83) and anxiety disorder (mean = 6.57) were ranked as high challenging while diabetes mellitus type 2 (mean = 4.87) and high blood pressure (mean = 3.22) were ranked as a rather low challenging condition. GPs were mostly satisfied with 'colleagues' (mean = 5.80) and mostly dissatisfied with their 'hours of work' (mean = 4.20). The linear regression analysis showed no association with challenging medical conditions and traits of patients but only with different aspects of job satisfaction concerning the outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Especially psychiatric conditions are perceived as challenging the question arises, in what amount psychiatric competences are gained during the postgraduate specialty training in general practice and if GPs with a mandatory rotation in psychiatry perceive these conditions as less challenging. Interestingly this study indicates that challenging encounter in terms of challenging medical conditions and traits

  12. [What Makes Happy Doctors? Job Satisfaction of General Practitioners in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania - a Representative Cross-sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, C; Höck, J; Hornung, A; Kundt, G; Drewelow, E; Völker, S; Kreiser, B; Riedel, J; Altiner, A

    2015-12-01

    Studies provide evidence for the importance of general practitioners (GPs) job satisfaction for a secure and high quality health care provision. This study focuses on job satisfaction of GPs in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MV), a rural area threatened by a lack of GPs. We investigate how satisfied GPs are with their job and which factors influence their job satisfaction. All 1 133 GPs working in MV in December 2011 were asked to complete a 57-item-questionnaire. The response rate reached 50.1%. The sample is representative for GPs in MV. Levels of job satisfaction are high and correlate with age and sex: females and GPs below 50 years of age are more satisfied. Factors contributing to high job satisfaction include a good doctor-patient relationship, fair pay, and the variety of reasons for doctor-patient consultations in primary care. Although all GPs were dissatisfied with bureaucracy, this factor has little impact on GPs' overall job satisfaction. In light of the imminent lack of GPs, in future it will be important to improve factors that have been demonstrated to increase job satisfaction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A cross-sectional prevalence study of ethnically targeted and general audience outdoor obesity-related advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Cole, Brian L; Brown, Rochelle; Williams, Jerome D; Hillier, Amy; Kline, Randolph S; Ashe, Marice; Grier, Sonya A; Backman, Desiree; McCarthy, William J

    2009-03-01

    Commercial marketing is a critical but understudied element of the sociocultural environment influencing Americans' food and beverage preferences and purchases. This marketing also likely influences the utilization of goods and services related to physical activity and sedentary behavior. A growing literature documents the targeting of racial/ethnic and income groups in commercial advertisements in magazines, on billboards, and on television that may contribute to sociodemographic disparities in obesity and chronic disease risk and protective behaviors. This article examines whether African Americans, Latinos, and people living in low-income neighborhoods are disproportionately exposed to advertisements for high-calorie, low nutrient-dense foods and beverages and for sedentary entertainment and transportation and are relatively underexposed to advertising for nutritious foods and beverages and goods and services promoting physical activities. Outdoor advertising density and content were compared in zip code areas selected to offer contrasts by area income and ethnicity in four cities: Los Angeles, Austin, New York City, and Philadelphia. Large variations were observed in the amount, type, and value of advertising in the selected zip code areas. Living in an upper-income neighborhood, regardless of its residents' predominant ethnicity, is generally protective against exposure to most types of obesity-promoting outdoor advertising (food, fast food, sugary beverages, sedentary entertainment, and transportation). The density of advertising varied by zip code area race/ethnicity, with African American zip code areas having the highest advertising densities, Latino zip code areas having slightly lower densities, and white zip code areas having the lowest densities. The potential health and economic implications of differential exposure to obesity-related advertising are substantial. Although substantive legal questions remain about the government's ability to regulate

  14. Current status of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a general hospital in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Chika; Yamada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Gotoda, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been debate over the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in recent years in Japan. In addition, the level of satisfaction of patients and patient’s family after PEG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of PEG and the level of satisfaction of patients and patients’ families after PEG in Japan. Methods: We reviewed the existing data of all patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Yuri Kumiai General Hospital (Akita, Japan) between February 2000 and December 2010. We examined the following points: underlying diseases requiring PEG, levels of consciousness, and performance status. We also sent a questionnaire to the patients and patient’s families to ask about their satisfaction with and thoughts about PEG. Results: The data of 545 patients who underwent PEG were reviewed. There were 295 men and 250 women, with a mean age of 77.2 ± 11.4 years. PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular disorders (48.2%, 239/545). There were 515 (94.4%, 515/545) patients showing consciousness disturbance and 444 (81.5%, 444/545) bedridden patients. The questionnaire was answered by one patient himself and 316 patients’ families. When asked, “Was performing PEG a good decision?”, 57.5% (182/316) of the patients’ families answered yes. Meanwhile, when patients’ family members were asked if they would wish to undergo PEG if they were in the same condition as the patient, 28.4% (90/316) answered yes, whereas 55.3% (175/316) answered no. Conclusions: Few patients were able to make their own decision about PEG tube placement because of consciousness disturbance. As a result, many family members of the patients did not want to experience PEG for themselves. Future studies should be performed to clarify the quality of life and ethical aspects associated with PEG. PMID:27313796

  15. Sharing Responsibilities within the General Practice Team - A Cross-Sectional Study of Task Delegation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthal, Karola; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Guethlin, Corina

    2016-01-01

    Expected growth in the demand for health services has generated interest in the more effective deployment of health care assistants. Programs encouraging German general practitioners (GPs) to share responsibility for care with specially qualified health care assistants in the family practice (VERAHs) have existed for several years. But no studies have been conducted on the tasks German GPs are willing to rely on specially qualified personnel to perform, what they are prepared to delegate to all non-physician practice staff and what they prefer to do themselves. As part of an evaluation study on the deployment of VERAHs in GP-centered health care, we used a questionnaire to ask about task delegation within the practice team. From a list of tasks that VERAHs are specifically trained to carry out, GPs were asked to indicate which they actually delegate. We also asked GPs why they had employed a VERAH in their practice and for their opinions on the benefits and limitations of assigning tasks to VERAHs. The aim of the study was to find out which tasks GPs delegate to their specially qualified personnel, which they permit all HCAs to carry out, and which tasks they do not delegate at all. The survey was filled in and returned by 245 GPs (83%). Some tasks were exclusively delegated to VERAHs (e.g. home visits), while others were delegated to all HCAs (e.g. vaccinations). About half the GPs rated the assessment of mental health, as part of the comprehensive assessment of a patient's condition, as the sole responsibility of a GP. The possibility to delegate more complex tasks was the main reason given for employing a VERAH. Doctors said the delegation of home visits provided them with the greatest relief. In Germany, where GPs are solely accountable for the health care provided in their practices, experience with the transfer of responsibility to other non-physician health care personnel is still very limited. When HCAs have undergone special training, GPs seem to be

  16. Sharing Responsibilities within the General Practice Team – A Cross-Sectional Study of Task Delegation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthal, Karola; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Guethlin, Corina

    2016-01-01

    Background Expected growth in the demand for health services has generated interest in the more effective deployment of health care assistants. Programs encouraging German general practitioners (GPs) to share responsibility for care with specially qualified health care assistants in the family practice (VERAHs) have existed for several years. But no studies have been conducted on the tasks German GPs are willing to rely on specially qualified personnel to perform, what they are prepared to delegate to all non-physician practice staff and what they prefer to do themselves. Methods As part of an evaluation study on the deployment of VERAHs in GP-centered health care, we used a questionnaire to ask about task delegation within the practice team. From a list of tasks that VERAHs are specifically trained to carry out, GPs were asked to indicate which they actually delegate. We also asked GPs why they had employed a VERAH in their practice and for their opinions on the benefits and limitations of assigning tasks to VERAHs. The aim of the study was to find out which tasks GPs delegate to their specially qualified personnel, which they permit all HCAs to carry out, and which tasks they do not delegate at all. Results The survey was filled in and returned by 245 GPs (83%). Some tasks were exclusively delegated to VERAHs (e.g. home visits), while others were delegated to all HCAs (e.g. vaccinations). About half the GPs rated the assessment of mental health, as part of the comprehensive assessment of a patient’s condition, as the sole responsibility of a GP. The possibility to delegate more complex tasks was the main reason given for employing a VERAH. Doctors said the delegation of home visits provided them with the greatest relief. Conclusions In Germany, where GPs are solely accountable for the health care provided in their practices, experience with the transfer of responsibility to other non-physician health care personnel is still very limited. When HCAs have

  17. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  18. Activation cross-section measurements of some proton induced reactions on Ni, Co and Mo for proton activation analysis (PAA) purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, A.A.; Alzahrani, J.; Azzam, A.; Nuclear Research Center, Cairo

    2011-01-01

    The experimental proton induced reaction cross sections on some elements of the Havar alloy were measured using the activation method and the well established stacked-foil technique combined with high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. They included the reactions nat Ni(p,x) 57 Ni, nat Co(p,x) 58(m+g) Co and nat Mo(p,x) 94g,95g,96(m+g) Tc, the aim being to obtain reliable data in the proton energy range up to 26 MeV for some important reactions to be used in the proton activation analysis of steel or other alloys. Irradiations were performed using the CS-30 Cyclotron at KFSH and RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The activity measurements were carried out in PNU laboratories, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The experimental excitation functions for the investigated reactions were constructed and compared with the performed computed theoretical nuclear model calculations using two different codes: ALICE-IPPE and TALYS. A comparison between our measured cross-section values and the available published data is also presented, with a view to checking the consistency of the reported experimental work from various laboratories.

  19. Appraisal of cooperation with a palliative care case manager by general practitioners and community nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Annicka G M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Vissers, Kris C; Deliens, Luc; Jansen, Wim J J; Francke, Anneke L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how general practitioners and community nurses value the support that they receive from a nurse case manager with expertise in palliative care, whether they think the case manager is helpful in realizing appropriate care and what characteristics of the patient and case management are associated with this view. For sustainable palliative care in an ageing society, basic palliative care is provided by generalists and specialist palliative care is reserved for complex situations. Acceptance of and cooperation with specialist palliative care providers by the general practitioner and community nurse is pivotal. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Questionnaire data from 168 general practitioners and 125 community nurses were analysed using chi-square tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Data were gathered between March 2011-December 2013. Of general practitioners, 46% rated the case manager as helpful in realizing care that is appropriate for the patient; for community nurses this was 49%. The case manager did not hinder the process of care and had added value for patients, according to the general practitioners and community nurses. The tasks of the case manager were associated with whether or not the case manager was helpful in realizing appropriate care, whereas patient characteristics and the number of contacts with the case manager were not. General practitioners and community nurses are moderately positive about the support from the case manager. To improve cooperation further, case managers should invest in contact with general practitioners and community nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of automatic cross section compilation system for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    A development of a code system to automatically convert cross-sections for MCNP is in progress. The NJOY code is, in general, used to convert the data compiled in the ENDF format (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files by BNL) into the cross-section libraries required by various reactor physics codes. While the cross-section library: FSXLIB-J3R2 was already converted from the JENDL-3.2 version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, the library keeps only the cross-sections at room temperature (300 K). According to the users requirements which want to have cross-sections at higher temperature, say 600 K or 900 K, a code system named 'autonj' is under development to provide a set of cross-section library of arbitrary temperature for the MCNP code. This system can accept any of data formats adopted JENDL that may not be treated by NJOY code. The input preparation that is repeatedly required at every nuclide on NJOY execution is greatly reduced by permitting the conversion process of as many nuclides as the user wants in one execution. A few MCNP runs were achieved for verification purpose by using two libraries FSXLIB-J3R2 and the output of autonj'. The almost identical MCNP results within the statistical errors show the 'autonj' output library is correct. In FY 1998, the system will be completed, and in FY 1999, the user's manual will be published. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  1. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  2. The association of generalized anxiety disorder and Somatic Symptoms with frequent attendance to health care services: A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanpää, Tero S; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha P; Timonen, Markku J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder is associated with higher rate of physical comorbities, unexplained symptoms, and health care utilization. However, the role of somatic symptoms in determining health care utilization is unclear. The present study aims to assess the association of frequent attendance of health care services between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms. Method This study was conducted cross-sectionally using the material of the 46-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Altogether, 5585 cohort members responded to the questionnaires concerning health care utilization, illness history, physical symptoms, and generalized anxiety disorder-7 screening tool. Odds ratios belonging to the highest decile in health care utilization were calculated for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and all (n = 4) somatic symptoms of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 controlled for confounding factors. Results Adjusted Odds ratios for being frequent attender of health care services were 2.29 (95% CI 1.58-3.31) for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and 1.28 (95% CI 0.99-1.64), 1.94 (95% CI 1.46-2.58), 2.33 (95% CI 1.65-3.28), and 3.64 (95% CI 2.15-6.18) for 1, 2, 3, and 4 somatic symptoms, respectively. People with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms had on average a higher number of somatic symptoms (1.8) than other cohort members (0.9). Moreover, 1.6% of people without somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder, meanwhile 22.6% of people with four somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Both generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms are associated with a higher risk for being a health care frequent attender.

  3. Medical students' attitudes and wishes towards extending an educational general practice app to be suitable for practice: A cross-sectional survey from Leipzig, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Maximilian; Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Winter, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    In medical education and practice, smartphone apps are increasingly becoming popular. In general practice, apps could play an important future role in supporting medical education and practice. To explore medical students' perceptions regarding the potential of a general practice app for training and subsequent work as a physician. Cross-sectional survey among Leipzig fourth-year medical students who were provided with an app prototype for a mandatory general practice course. Response rate was 99.3% (n = 305/307); 59.0% were female and mean age was 24.5 years. Students certified that the app had a higher potential than textbooks in both education (57.4% vs. 18.0%) and practice (47.1% vs. 22.8%). Students' most desired possible app extensions when anticipating its use for subsequent work as a physician were looking up information for diagnostics, therapy and prediction (85.1%), access to electronic patient files (48.1%), communication and networking (44.3%), organization of medical training (42.9%) and online monitoring of patients (38.1%). Students experienced with medical smartphone apps were more interested in app extensions. Consideration to use the app to support the opening of their own practice was significantly associated with higher interest in accessing electronic patient files, networking with colleagues and telemedicine. Fourth year medical students from Leipzig see a high potential in smartphone apps for education and practice and are interested in further using the technology after undergraduate education.

  4. Practices and opinions regarding HPV vaccination among French general practitioners: evaluation through two cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasset, Christine; Kalecinski, Julie; Régnier, Véronique; Barone, Giovanna; Leocmach, Yann; Vanhems, Philippe; Chauvin, Franck; Lutringer-Magnin, Delphine

    2014-06-01

    To use both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the evolution of practices and opinions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among French general practitioners. A cross-sectional study (self-questionnaires) was performed in 2007 and repeated in 2010 among 271 general practitioners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 27 voluntary participants by a sociologist and analyzed according to content analysis. Acceptability of HPV vaccination had increased from 2007 to 2010 (79.9 vs. 87.1%, respectively), just as the practice of HPV vaccination among 14-year-old girls (19.0 vs. 49.1%, respectively). Though about 60% reported complications associated with HPV vaccination, irrespective of year, the types of difficulties have varied: difficulties related to "questions asked by patients" had decreased, though concerns about side effects had remained stable. During interviews, difficulties related to "the reason for medical consultation" and "the target age" were often associated with addressing the issue of sexuality, especially when the parents were present. Although the high level of acceptability of HPV vaccination among general practitioners, which increased from 2007 to 2010, there remain difficulties in addressing this practice.

  5. [A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of depressive-anxiety disorders among general hospital outpatients in five cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-ling; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Lan; Liu, Zhe-ning; Jia, Fu-jun; Zhang, Ming-yuan

    2009-09-01

    To find the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among general hospital outpatients and to evaluate the diagnoses and treatment provided by physicians in China. A multi-center, hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8478 subjects were screened by using HADS and PHQ-15 together with medical history review list and were followed by regular clinical visit process. Physician's diagnoses and management were recorded. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to evaluate by psychiatrists afterwards for 4172 subjects scored >or= 8 on HADS. The adjusted prevalence rates of MINI-diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, depression and anxiety, depression or anxiety disorders were 12.0%, 8.6%, 4.1% and 16.5%, respectively. The prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorder in outpatients visiting department of neurology and digestive diseases were higher than that in patients visiting departments of cardiovascular diseases and gynecology with statistical significance (P depressive and/or anxiety disorders were found in the general hospitals. In order to improve the status quo, training program for physicians and specialists other than psychiatric professionals in general hospitals should be enhanced together with psychiatric consultation.

  6. A vegetarian diet does not protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A cross-sectional study between Buddhist priests and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hun; Oh, Dong Jun; Kwon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data that supports a role for a vegetarian diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vegetarian diets and NAFLD, considering metabolic syndrome and obesity. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing the prevalence of NAFLD of 615 Buddhist priests and age-, sex-, Body mass index (BMI)-and presence/absence of metabolic syndrome-matched controls who underwent routine health checkups in a health promotion center. Diagnosis and severity of NAFLD was determined based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was not statistically significantly different between the Buddhist priests and the general population (29.9% vs. 25.05%, p=0.055). The Buddhist priest group had higher serum albumin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride levels and lower serum total bilirubin, serum fasting glucose, and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the general population group. In univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with old age, male gender, increased BMI, increased waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, high albumin, high glucose, high AST, high ALT, high gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high triglycerides, low HDL, high low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high total cholesterol. The vegetarian diet does not protect against NAFLD.

  7. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Association of white and red meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study among a population of Iranian military families in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh-Moghadam, Arasb; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Nasiri, Morteza; Miri, Ali; Rahdar, Maliehe; Sadeghi, Omid

    2017-12-01

    To assess the association of red and white meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity among Iranian military families. In this cross-sectional study, 525 subjects with age range of 19-55 years belong to military families of Army of Islamic Republic of Iran were recruited during 2016. Dietary data were collected using semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men. Finally, we had complete data on 170 subjects for analysis. Mean age of subjects was 33.78 ± 6.48. We found a significant positive association between red meat consumption and abdominal obesity in fully adjusted model, so that subjects in the fourth quartile had 4.51 more odds to be abdominally obese compared with those in the first quartile of red meat consumption (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.32-15.40). Such relationship was not seen for general obesity. In addition, white meat consumption was not associated with general and abdominal obesity either before or after adjustment for covariates. Red meat consumption was positively associated with abdominal obesity. No significant relationship was found between white meat consumption, and general and abdominal obesity. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.

  9. Standard cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten; Søndergaard, Jens

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate general practitioners' (GPs') assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI) according to paediatric standard definitions. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region. Children attending the five-year PCHE in general practice, regardless of their weight status. Paediatric standard definitions for childhood overweight based on BMI were used as the gold standard for categorizing weight-for-stature. Identification of overweight was analysed with regard to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the GPs' assessment of weight-for-stature. A total of 165 GPs conducted 1138 PCHEs. GPs assessed that 171 children had a weight-for-stature above normal. Use of the Danish Standards (DS), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0-77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6-93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs' use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development. At the five-year PCHE almost one-third of overweight children were assessed to be normal weight by GPs. Use of BMI and presence of notes on abnormal weight in medical records were positively associated with a higher identification. Hence, utilization of medical record data and BMI charts may refine GPs' assessment of childhood overweight.

  11. Multiple barriers against successful care provision for depressed patients in general internal medicine in a Japanese rural hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitoh Akiyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A general internist has an important role in primary care, especially for the elderly in rural areas of Japan. Although effective intervention models for depressed patients in general practice and primary care settings have been developed in the US and UK medical systems, there is little information regarding even the recognition rate and prescription rate of psychotropic medication by general internists in Japan. The present study surveyed these data cross-sectionally in a general internal medicine outpatient clinic of a Japanese rural hospital. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited and evaluated for major depressive disorder or any mood disorder using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Physicians who were blinded to the results of the PHQ were asked to diagnose whether the patients had any mental disorders, and if so, whether they had mood disorders or not. Data regarding prescription of psychotropic medicines were collected from medical records. Results Among 312 patients, 27 (8.7% and 52 (16.7% were identified with major depressive disorder and any mood disorder using the PHQ, respectively. Among those with major depressive disorder, 21 (77.8% were recognized by physicians as having a mental disorder, but only three (11.1% were diagnosed as having a mood disorder. Only two patients with major depressive disorder (7.4% had been prescribed antidepressants. Even among those (n = 15 whom physicians diagnosed with a mood disorder irrespective of the PHQ results, only four (26.7% were prescribed an antidepressant. Conclusions Despite a high prevalence of depression, physicians did not often recognize depression in patients. In addition, most patients who were diagnosed by physicians as having a mood disorder were not prescribed antidepressants. Multiple barriers to providing appropriate care for depressed patients exist, such as recognizing depression, prescribing appropriate medications, and appropriately referring

  12. View-CXS neutron and photon cross-sections viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.; Sunil Sunny, C.

    2004-01-01

    A graphical user-friendly interface is developed in Visual Basic (VB)-6 to view the variation of neutron and photon interaction cross-sections of different isotopes as a function of energy. VB subroutines developed read the binary data files of cross-sections created in MCNP-ACE (Briesmeister, J.F., 1993. MCNP - a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. Version 4A. LANL, USA), ANISN-DLC (Engle W.W. Jr., 1967, A User's Manual for ANISN, K-1693; ORNL, 1974. 100 group neutron cross section data based on ENDF/B-III. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) and KENO-AMPX (Petrie, L.M., Landers, N.F., 1984 KENO-Va- An Improved Monte Carlo Criticality Program with Super Grouping. RSICC-CCC-548, USA) formats using LAHEY-77 Fortran Compiler. The information on isotopes present in each library will be displayed with the help of database files prepared using Micro-Soft ACESS. The cross-section data can be viewed in different presentation styles namely, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms etc., with different color and symbol options. The cross-section plots generated can be saved as Bit-Map file to embed in any other text files. This software enables inter comparison of cross-sections from different type of libraries for isotopes as well as mixtures. Provision is made to view the cross-sections for nuclear reactions such as (n,γ), (n,f), (n,α), etc. The software can be obtained from Radiation Safety Information and Computational Centre (RSICC), ORNL, USA with the code package identification number PSR-514. The software package needs a hard disk space of about 80 MB when installed and works in WINDOWS-95/98/2000 operating systems

  13. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35-74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E T; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-09-30

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene ( r = -0.248), α-tocopherol ( r = 0.208), α-carotene ( r = -0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin ( r = 0.125; all p tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (-4.8% vs. -3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene.

  14. Vitamin D status in patients with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and headache: a cross-sectional descriptive study in a multi-ethnic general practice in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Kirsten Valebjørg; Brekke, Mette; Gjelstad, Svein; Lagerløv, Per

    2010-09-01

    To investigate vitamin D levels in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headache, and fatigue. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A health center in Oslo, Norway, with a multi-ethnic population. A total of 572 patients referred by a general practitioner (GP) for an examination of hypovitaminosis D who reported musculoskeletal pain, headache, or fatigue. The patients' native countries were: Norway (n = 249), Europe, America, and South-East Asia (n = 83), and the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia (n = 240). Both genders and all ages were included. Vitamin D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D) in nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxyvitamin D prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headache, or fatigue for whom the GP had suspected a low vitamin D level. Hypovitaminosis D was not restricted to immigrant patients. These results indicate that GPs should maintain awareness of hypovitaminosis D and refer patients who report headaches, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain with minimal sun exposure and a low dietary vitamin D intake for assessment.

  15. Dual parametrization of the proton generalized parton distribution functions H and E, and description of the deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections and asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzey, V.; Teckentrup, T.

    2006-01-01

    We develop the minimal model of a new leading order parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) introduced by Polyakov and Shuvaev. The model for GPDs H and E is formulated in terms of the forward quark distributions, the Gegenbauer moments of the D-term, and the forward limit of the GPD E. The model is designed primarily for small and medium-size values of x B , x B ≤0.2. We examine two different models of the t dependence of the GPDs: the factorized exponential model and the nonfactorized Regge-motivated model. Using our model, we successfully described the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) cross section measured by H1 and ZEUS, the moments of the beam-spin A LU sinφ , the beam-charge A C cosφ , and the transversely polarized target A UT sinφcosφ DVCS asymmetries measured by HERMES and A LU sinφ measured by CLAS. The data on A C cosφ prefer the Regge-motivated model of the t dependence of the GPDs. The data on A UT sinφcosφ indicate that the u and d quarks carry only a small fraction of the proton total angular momentum

  16. Cross sections for atmospheric corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.P.; Casse, M.; Westergaard, N.

    1975-01-01

    A set of cross sections for spallation of relativistic nuclei is proposed based on (i) the best available proton cross sections, (ii) an extrapolation to heavier nuclei of the dependence on the number of nucleons lost of the 'target factor' observed for C 12 and O 16 by Lindstrom et al. (1975), in analogy with Rudstam's formalism, and (iii) on a normalization of all cross sections to the total cross sections for production of fragments with Asub(f) >= 6. The obtained cross sections for peripheral interactions are not inconsistent with simple geometrical considerations. (orig.) [de

  17. Population health needs as predictors of variations in NHS practice payments: a cross-sectional study of English general practices in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Louis S; Baker, Richard; Wilson, Andrew; Walker, Nicola; Boomla, Kambiz; Bankart, M John G

    2017-01-01

    NHS general practice payments in England include pay for performance elements and a weighted component designed to compensate for workload, but without measures of specific deprivation or ethnic groups. To determine whether population factors related to health needs predicted variations in NHS payments to individual general practices in England. Cross-sectional study of all practices in England, in financial years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Descriptive statistics, univariable analyses (examining correlations between payment and predictors), and multivariable analyses (undertaking multivariable linear regressions for each year, with logarithms of payments as the dependent variables, and with population, practice, and performance factors as independent variables) were undertaken. Several population variables predicted variations in adjusted total payments, but inconsistently. Higher payments were associated with increases in deprivation, patients of older age, African Caribbean ethnic group, and asthma prevalence. Lower payments were associated with an increase in smoking prevalence. Long-term health conditions, South Asian ethnic group, and diabetes prevalence were not predictive. The adjusted R 2 values were 0.359 (2013-2014) and 0.374 (2014-2015). A slightly different set of variables predicted variations in the payment component designed to compensate for workload. Lower payments were associated with increases in deprivation, patients of older age, and diabetes prevalence. Smoking prevalence was not predictive. There was a geographical differential. Population factors related to health needs were, overall, poor predictors of variations in adjusted total practice payments and in the payment component designed to compensate for workload. Revising the weighting formula and extending weighting to other payment components might better support practices to address these needs. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  18. Food avoidance and restriction in adults: a cross-sectional pilot study comparing patients from an immunology clinic to a general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Frankum, Brad

    2017-01-01

    With the introduction of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fifth edition, there is an increased need to understand the prevalence and pattern of food avoidance and restriction in adults. High rates of food allergy and intolerance in immunology clinic populations, and subsequent high rates of elimination diets, place these individuals at a greater risk of developing pathological eating behaviours. This descriptive cross sectional pilot study aims to provide preliminary data on the prevalence and nature of food avoidance and restriction in an adult population, and to explore the reasons for this behaviour. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed to adults presenting to an immunology clinic and a general practice over the course of 6 months to describe the prevalence and nature of avoidant and restrictive eating behaviours in this population. Pearson's chi square test was used to examine the strength of a potential link to a formal diagnosis of avoidant restrictive food intake disorder in these patients. A total of 102 completed questionnaires were used for data analysis. Food avoidance or restriction was detected in 81 respondents (79%), with rates not significantly higher in the immunology clinic group compared to the general practice group ( p  = .242). Food allergy and intolerance were the most common reasons for disturbed eating patterns. Life impact secondary to food avoidance and restriction was reported by 26% of respondents, with significantly higher rates observed in the immunology clinic cohort compared to the general practice ( p  = .011). Eating disturbances similar to those characteristic of ARFID are very common in adults. Food avoidance and restriction due to perceived food allergy and intolerance are significant reasons for such disordered eating patterns, particularly in an immunology clinic population. Further investigation is needed to determine if such eating

  19. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice − Results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates’ choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g. work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. Method: A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. Results: The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r=-.5; pteacher during the IGP. Conclusion: The final-year IGP is an opportunity to change the perception of general practice in students who are still undecided. This can lead to different speciality choices in a subgroup. Personal attitudes and concepts of personal life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence exerted by medical teachers on those students who are still undecided during the IGP should be carefully evaluated. PMID:24575153

  20. Cross-sectional study on attitudes among general practitioners towards pneumococcal vaccination for middle-aged and elderly population in Hong Kong.

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    Lancelot W H Mui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the attitudes among general practitioners towards pneumococcal vaccination for middle-aged (50-64 and elderly population (over 65 in Hong Kong and the factors affecting their decision to advise pneumococcal vaccination for those age groups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of general practitioners in private practice in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Members of Hong Kong Medical Association delivering general practice services in private sector. MEASURING TOOL: Self-administered questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intention to recommend pneumococcal vaccination, barriers against pneumococcal vaccination. RESULTS: 53.4% of the respondents would actively recommend pneumococcal vaccination to elderly patients but only 18.8% would recommend for middle-aged patients. Consultation not related to pneumococcal vaccine was the main reason for not recommending pneumococcal vaccine (43.6%. Rarity of pneumonia in their daily practice was another reason with 68.4% of respondents attending five or less patients with pneumonia each year. In multivariate analysis, factors such as respondents would get vaccination when reaching age 50 (ORm 10.1, and attending 6 pneumonia cases or more per year (ORm 2.28 were found to be associated with increasing likelihood for recommending vaccination to the middle-aged. While concerns of marketing a product (ORm 0.41, consultation not related to vaccination (ORm 0.45 and limited time (ORm 0.38 were factors that reduced the likelihood. CONCLUSION: Public policy is needed to increase the awareness of impact of pneumococcal pneumonia and the availability of preventive measures.

  1. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

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    Eline Scheepers

    Full Text Available One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice.An online questionnaire (N = 3,663 was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use.Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car.Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  2. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  3. Transfusion practice in anemic, non-bleeding patients: Cross-sectional survey of physicians working in general internal medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland.

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    Michelle von Babo

    Full Text Available Transfusion practice might significantly influence patient morbidity and mortality. Between European countries, transfusion practice of red blood cells (RBC greatly differs. Only sparse data are available on transfusion practice of general internal medicine physicians in Switzerland.In this cross-sectional survey, physicians working in general medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland were investigated regarding their self-reported transfusion practice in anemic patients without acute bleeding. The definition of anemia, transfusion triggers, knowledge on RBC transfusion, and implementation of guidelines were assessed.560 physicians of 71 hospitals (64% responded to the survey. Anemia was defined at very diverging hemoglobin values (by 38% at a hemoglobin <130 g/L for men and by 57% at <120 g/L in non-pregnant women. 62% and 43% respectively, did not define anemia in men and in women according to the World Health Organization. Fifty percent reported not to transfuse RBC according to international guidelines. Following factors were indicated to influence the decision to transfuse: educational background of the physicians, geographical region of employment, severity of anemia, and presence of known coronary artery disease. 60% indicated that their knowledge on Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI did not influence transfusion practice. 50% of physicians stated that no local transfusion guidelines exist and 84% supported the development of national recommendations on transfusion in non-acutely bleeding, anemic patients.This study highlights the lack of adherence to current transfusion guidelines in Switzerland. Identifying and subsequently correcting this deficit in knowledge translation may have a significant impact on patient care.

  4. Healthy life styles and perceived health status in the general population of a Northern Italian health district: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Colzani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Evidence should drive public health initiatives to better address the most important health issues. Chronic diseases represent the main burden of healthcare expenditure in Western countries and are determined by risk factors related to behaviour. Population-based surveys should lead to well informed decision making in this field.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the general population aged between 18 and 69 in the district of Monza-Brianza in Northern Italy through phone interviews. A validated questionnaire investigating health-related lifestyles and behaviours was used. The questionnaire was divided into the following parts: general health status, physical activity, smoking habit, nutrition, alcohol consumption, driving safety, cardiovascular risk, cancer screening, mental health, domestic safety and socio-economic status.

    Results: In total, 308 interviews were carried out (response rate=76%. Almost 40% reported a body mass index >25, 64.9% had high school or university degrees, 60.4% worked full-time, 26.2% were assessed as physically inactive, and 13.3% were on a weight –loss diet. In addition, 19.7% had an “at risk” alcohol consumption , especially among younger age groups. Symptoms of depression were identified in 4.9% of the study subjects, particularly in women.

    Conclusions: Age, body mass index, education, and occupation were significantly associated with the likelihood of reporting poor health status. Young subjects were more likely to be smokers and drinkers at risk. Psychological health and appropriate prescription of anti-cholesterol and anti-hypertensive drugs areì areas deserving further investigations. Nutrition, physical activity, driving safety and youth health, especially concerning drinking

  5. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice--results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates' choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g., work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r = -.5; p life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence exerted by medical teachers on those students who are still undecided during the IGP should be carefully evaluated.

  6. The geography of diabetes among the general adults aged 35 years and older in Bangladesh: recent evidence from a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mobarak Hossain Khan

    Full Text Available To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas and region of residence (divided into seven divisions among general adults (35+ years of age in Bangladesh.The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes.The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%, followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2% and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%. Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables. Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity, overweight/obesity and hypertension.Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing lifestyles to reduce the risk

  7. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

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    Trevisani Virgínia FM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians. A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although

  8. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-05-03

    To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Primary healthcare-17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; pdisadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; pdata analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. General practitioners' attitudes and preparedness towards Clinical Decision Support in e-Prescribing (CDS-eP adoption in the West of Ireland: a cross sectional study

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    O'Brien Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic clinical decision support (CDS is increasingly establishing its role in evidence-based clinical practice. Considerable evidence supports its enhancement of efficiency in e-Prescribing, but some controversy remains. This study evaluated the practicality and identified the perceived benefits of, and barriers to, its future adoption in the West of Ireland. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out by means of a 27-part questionnaire sent to 262 registered general practitioners in Counties Galway, Mayo and Roscommon. The survey domains encompassed general information of individual's practice, current use of CDS and the practitioner's attitudes towards adoption of CDS-eP. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed to analyse the data collected. Results The overall response rate was 37%. Nearly 92% of respondents employed electronic medical records in their practice. The majority acknowledged the value of electronic CDS in improving prescribing quality (71% and reducing prescribing errors (84%. Despite a high degree of unfamiliarity (73%, the practitioners were open to the use of CDS-eP (94% and willing to invest greater resources for its implementation (62%. Lack of a strategic implementation plan (78% is the main perceived barrier to the incorporation of CDS-eP into clinical practice, followed by i lack of financial incentives (70%, ii lack of standardized product software (61%, iii high sensitivity of drug-drug interaction or medication allergy markers (46%, iv concern about overriding physicians' prescribing decisions(44% and v lack of convincing evidence on the systems' effectiveness (22%. Conclusions Despite favourable attitudes towards the adoption of CDS-eP, multiple perceived barriers impede its incorporation into clinical practice. These merit further exploration, taking into consideration the structure of the Irish primary health care system, before CDS-eP can be recommended for routine

  10. Relative frequency of human papillomavirus genotypes and related sociodemographic characteristics in women referred to a general hospital in Tehran, 2014- 2015: A cross-sectional study

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    Mahin Jamshidi Makiani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the major public health problems and the main causes of cervical cancer. The prevalence HPV infection in developing countries with low financial resources is high. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relative frequency of HPV genotypes and its sociodemographic characteristics in women referred to a general hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 400 women with Pap smear samples, referring to to a general hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2014- 2015. The detection of 28 HPV genotypes was performed by using the Multiplex PCR technique. The sociodemographic survey was conducted for each HPV positive woman. Results: HPV-positive infection was detected in 155 (38.75% women aged 17-85 years. HPV 16 (19.1% was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 39 (12.5% and HPV 18 (8.9%. The highest rate of HPV infection was observed at the age of 36 years (7.7%. The level of education and economic situation of each woman were showed most of HPV-positive women had a high school diploma (34.6% and average economic situation (67,9%. 60.9% of these women were a housewife, and 67.3% lived in the capital . Conclusion: Determination of HPV genotype and risk factor related to HPV infection in each geographical region can lead to the production of effective vaccines against the HPV virus. It can also be useful for disease management and high sensitivity diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

  11. Preventable Admissions on a General Medicine Service: Prevalence, Causes and Comparison with AHRQ Prevention Quality Indicators-A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna K; Vakharia, Nirav; Pile, James; Howell, Erik H; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-06-01

    Rates of preventable admissions will soon be publicly reported and used in calculating performance-based payments. The current method of assessing preventable admissions, the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Preventable Quality Indicators (PQI) rate, is drawn from claims data and was originally designed to assess population-level access to care. To identify the prevalence and causes of preventable admissions by attending physician review and to compare its performance with the PQI tool in identifying preventable admissions. Cross-sectional survey. General medicine service at an academic medical center. Consecutive inpatient admissions from December 1-15, 2013. Survey of inpatient attending physicians regarding the preventability of the admissions, primary contributing factors and feasibility of prevention. For the same patients, the PQI tool was applied to determine the claims-derived preventable admission rate. Physicians rated all 322 admissions and classified 122 (38 %) as preventable, of which 31 (25 %) were readmissions. Readmissions were more likely to be rated preventable than other admissions (49 % vs. 35 %, p = 0.04). Application of the AHRQ PQI methodology identified 75 (23 %) preventable admissions. Thirty-one admissions (10 %) were classified as preventable by both methods, and the majority of admissions considered preventable by the AHRQ PQI method (44/78) were not considered preventable by physician assessment (K = 0.04). Of the preventable admissions, physicians assigned patient factors in 54 (44 %), clinician factors in 36 (30 %) and system factors in 32 (26 %). A large proportion of admissions to a general medicine service appeared preventable, but AHRQ's PQI tool was unable to identify these admissions. Before initiation of the PQI rate for use in pay-for-performance programs, further study is warranted.

  12. A cross-sectional study of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners regarding dog bite management in nothern India

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    Abhishek Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are many myths and false beliefs associated with wound management. These include application of oils, herbs, and red chilies on wound inflicted by rabid animals, and not washing the wound properly. General practitioners (GPs constitute a key source of medical care in study area and are approached for anti-rabies treatment by victims of animal bites. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge and practices among the general practitioners (GPs regarding dog bite management. Settings and Design : Community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the private and public clinics of Ambala city from January 2012 to April 2012 using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. The study population composed of 100 GPs comprising 45 MBBS or above degree holders (Group 1 and 55 other GPs like BAMS, RMPs, etc (Group 2. Statistical Analysis Used: Interpretation of data was done using percentages and proportions. χ2 -Test was used to test the statistical difference in the knowledge between the two groups. Results: Out of the total, 68% and 29% respondents in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, correctly told that wound must be washed with soap and water for minimum period of 15 min. A total 71% and 11% respondents in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, could correctly answer about the target groups for pre-exposure prophylaxis. A total 62% GPs did not know the high-risk groups to whom pre-exposure prophylaxis has to be given. Conclusions: There was an apparent lack of awareness among the GPs regarding appropriate animal wound management and vaccine administration. Reorientation programs and continued medical education for GPs are required to highlight the WHO guidelines regarding treatment of animal bite.

  13. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  14. The Beliefs and Usage of Social Media Among General Practitioner Trainers from Eleven Provinces of China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Ren, Jingjing

    2018-05-07

    It has become a new lifestyle of using social media (SM) to acquire all kinds of information. The objectives of this study were to determine general practitioner (GP) trainers' current use of SM and their beliefs and attitudes regarding use of SM. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was taken during a 1-week GP trainers' training program. Data probing GP trainers' use of SM and attitudes toward SM use in clinical work and education were collected and analyzed. Four hundred seven respondents participated in the survey, and the response rate was 61.4%. All the respondents reported that they have at least an SM account. A total of 99.3% of respondents replied that they would add a colleague as a friend via SM; however, only 68.6% of them would add a patient. More than half of the respondents have been contacted by a patient more than five times per year, whereas 67.2% of them attempted to contact a patient by SM less than three times per year. One hundred forty of 407 (34.4%) respondents used SM daily to explore medical information, whereas 42 of 407 (10.3%) contributed new information via SM on a daily basis. Nearly 50% of respondents believed that SM was useful and beneficial. SM is widely used among GP trainers from 11 provinces of China. Most of the participants believed that SM is useful and beneficial to their work. However, there are still some problems for them to use SM in healthcare and medical education, including separating personal and professional use of SM, SM policy, and the quality of information from SM.

  15. Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Turkish general population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Turkish general population using the Turkish version of the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire. A total of 8143 volunteers (mean age: 38.5 (13.3) years; 52.3% males) were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face administration of the questionnaire forms including items on sociodemographic features, past history of gastric disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, the influence of reflux symptoms on patients' lives, physician visits, diagnostic tests, and reflux medications. A past history of gastric symptoms was reported in half of the population. More female participants (p<0.001) had a past history of gastric symptoms that yielded a previous diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 19.1% of the population. The likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease was low in the majority (75.3%) of the subjects evaluated. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with an inconveniencing or disrupting impact on the patient's life was present in 17.9% and 6.8% of the population. Total gastroesophageal reflux disease-questionnaire scores and reflux prevalence were higher in older age groups (p<0.001). Females were more likely to have gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence based on reflux symptoms. The impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on sleep and psychological/emotional well-being was more pronounced in older and female patients, whereas the impact on eating/drinking behaviors and physical-social activities was more marked among females independent of their age (p<0.001). Reflux prevalence was higher in subjects from East Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions of Turkey (p<0.001 for each). Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease are compatible with the profile of the disease in the other Western populations, with a predilection for females and

  16. What are key factors influencing malnutrition screening in community-dwelling elderly populations by general practitioners? A large cross-sectional survey in two areas of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboreau, Y; Imbert, P; Jacquet, J-P; Marchand, O; Couturier, P; Gavazzi, G

    2013-11-01

    Malnutrition is associated with a high morbi-mortality in elderly populations and their institutionalization at an early stage. The incidence is well known despite being often under-diagnosed in primary care. General practitioners (GPs) have a key role in home care. What are the factors affecting malnutrition-screening implementation by French GPs? We conducted a cross-sectional survey in two areas in the southeast of France (Savoie and Isère). In May 2008, an anonymized survey was sent by e-mail and/or post to all GPs with a large clinical practice. Two months later, reminder letters were sent. Potential barriers were measured by dichotomous scale. On GPs' characteristics (socio-demographic, medical training, geriatric practice and knowledge), multiple regression logistic was performed to identify others factors affecting malnutrition screening. In all, 493 GPs (26.85%) answered and 72.2% felt that malnutrition screening was useful although only 26.6% implemented it each year and 11.9% every 2-5 years. The main barriers to the implementation were patient selection (60.4%) and forgetting to screen (26.6%). Minor barriers were lack of knowledge (19.5%) or time (15%). New factors were identified: unsuitable working conditions (19.1%), insufficient motivation (6.8%) or technical support (7.2%). The quality of malnutrition information received was found to be the only promoter of annual screening (odds ratio=1.44 (1.087-1.919); P=0.011). This survey is the first in France to reveal GPs' factors affecting malnutrition implementation. New obstacles were identified in this survey. The hope of implementing regular malnutrition screening by GPs seems to lie with the quality of malnutrition information received.

  17. General epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in six regions of China: a cross-sectional study in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Yongdong; Lin, Xiaojing; Jiang, Yongzhen; Tian, Ruiguang; Zhang, Yonghui; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Fengwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yue; Bi, Shengli

    2009-12-24

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health burden worldwide. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E in China. Therefore, the general epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a serological prevalence analysis of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in 8,762 randomly selected Chinese subjects, which represented six areas of China. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) was 0.58%, which was much lower than was estimated by WHO. The prevalences of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-Hepatitis B virus surface protein antibody (HBsAb), and anti-Hepatitis B virus core protein antibody (HBcAb) were 5.84%, 41.31%, and 35.92%, respectively, whereas in the group of subjects less than 5 years old, these prevalences were 1.16%, 46.77%, and 8.69% respectively, which suggests that the Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier population is decreasing, and the nationwide HBV vaccine program has contributed to the lowered HBV prevalence in the younger generation in China. Meanwhile, a large deficit remains in coverage provided by the national HBV immune program. In addition, our data suggested the possibility that HBsAb may not last long enough to protect people from HBV infection throughout life. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis A virus antibody (anti-HAV) and anti-Hepatitis E virus antibody (anti-HEV) were as high as 72.87% and 17.66%, respectively. The indices increased with age, which suggests that a large proportion of Chinese adults are protected by latent infection. Furthermore, the pattern of HEV infection was significantly different among ethnic groups in China. Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis A, B, C, and E prevalence in China and will contribute to worldwide oversight of viral hepatitis.

  18. Knowledge and practices of general practitioners at district hospitals towards cervical cancer prevention in Burundi, 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndizeye, Zacharie; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Vermandere, Heleen; Bogers, John Paul; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-16

    Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to April, 2015 among all GPs working in government district hospitals. A structured questionnaire and a scoring system were used to assess knowledge and practices of GPs. The participation rate was 58.2%. Majority of GPs (76.3%) had appropriate knowledge (score > 70%) on cervical cancer disease; but some risk factors were less well known as smoking and the 2 most important oncogenic HPV. Only 8.4% of the participants had appropriate knowledge on ICC prevention: 55% of the participants were aware that HPV vaccination exists and 48.1% knew cryotherapy as a treatment method for CIN. Further, 15.3% was aware of VIA as a screening method. The majority of the participants (87%) never or rarely propose screening tests to their clients. Only 2 participants (1.5%) have already performed VIA/VILI. Wrong thoughts were also reported: 39.7% thought that CIN could be treated with radiotherapy; 3.1% thought that X-ray is a screening method. In this comprehensive assessment, we observed that Burundian GPs have a very low knowledge level about ICC prevention, screening and treatment. Suboptimal practices and wrong thoughts related to ICC screening and treatments have also been documented. We therefore recommend an adequate pre- and in-service training of GPs and most probably nurses on ICC control before setting up any public health intervention on ICC control.

  19. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrach Dare

    Full Text Available There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86. However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years. Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37 and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15. Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001. Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

  20. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health : Results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skarback, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Bjork, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated

  1. 10 CFR 205.350 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose. 205.350 Section 205.350 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports....350 General purpose. The purpose of this rule is to establish a procedure for the Office of...

  2. 12 CFR 1703.31 - General purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purposes. 1703.31 Section 1703.31 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... Legal Proceedings in Which OFHEO Is Not a Named Party § 1703.31 General purposes. The purposes of this...

  3. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Murase

    Full Text Available Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population.Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01 and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01. The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01 Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01 and poor sleep quality (either of knee or low back pain: OR

  4. Prevalence of Chronic Disabling Noncancer Pain and Associated Demographic and Medical Variables: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the General German Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Hilbert, Anja; Brähler, Elmar; Henningsen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In population surveys, up to 30% of participants reported chronic pain. Reports of chronic pain do not necessarily imply disability associated with pain. We assessed the prevalence of chronic disabling noncancer pain and associated demographic and medical variables in a sample of the general German population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 4360 people aged 14 years and above, who were representative of the German population. Measures were obtained for demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (based on a chronic pain grade questionnaire), and disease load (based on the self-reported comorbidity questionnaire). Responses were received from 2508 people. The prevalence of chronic pain was 28.3% (95% [confidence interval] CI, 26.5%-30.1%). In all, 7.3% (95% CI, 5.9%-8.7%) of participants met the criteria of chronic disabling noncancer pain. Chronic disabling noncancer pain was associated with age above 65 years (odds ratios [OR]=4.81 [95% CI, 1.57-14.79]), low family income (OR=2.54 [95% CI, 1.36-4.74]), obesity (OR=3.58 [95% CI, 2.21-5.79]), heart disease (OR=2.23 [95% CI, 3.69-11.40]), stomach disease (OR=4.24 [95% CI, 2.12-8.49]), and rheumatic disease (OR=3.67 [95% CI, 2.16-6.23]) when compared with no chronic pain. Chronic disabling noncancer pain was associated with low family income (OR=2.29 [95% CI, 1.23-4.27]), obesity (OR=2.14 [95% CI, 1.30-3.52]), and depression (OR=3.26 [95% CI, 1.90-5.66]) when compared with chronic nondisabling noncancer pain. Prevalence rates of chronic disabling pain in the general population rather than prevalence rates of chronic pain might provide evidence in support of pain specialist care. The association of chronic disabling noncancer pain with mental disorders highlights the need for psychosocial services in chronic pain management.

  5. Can we bridge the gap? Knowledge and practices related to Diabetes Mellitus among general practitioners in a developing country: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Constantine, Godwin R; Weerakkody, Muditha I; Perera, Yashasvi S; Jayawardena, Mahesh G; Wijegoonawardena, Preethi; Matthews, David R; Sheriff, Mohamed Hr

    2011-11-24

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka and many other developing countries in the region. It is well known that effective management of diabetes reduces the incidence and progression of many diabetes related complications, thus it is important that General Practitioners (GPs) have sound knowledge and positive attitudes towards all aspects of its management. This study aims to assess knowledge, awareness and practices relating to management of Diabetes Mellitus among Sri Lankan GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 246 GPs registered with the Ceylon College of General Practitioners using a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire. 205 responded to the questionnaire(response rate 83.3%). Their mean duration of practice was 28.7 ± 11.2 years. On average, each GP had 27 ± 25 diabetic-patient consultations per-week. 96% managed diabetic patients and 24% invariably sought specialist opinion. 99.2% used blood glucose to diagnose diabetes but correct diagnostic cut-off values were known by only 48.8%. Appropriate use of HbA1c and urine microalbumin was known by 15.2% and 39.2% respectively. 84% used HbA1c to monitor glyceamic control, while 90.4% relied on fasting blood glucose to monitor glyceamic control. Knowledge on target control levels was poor.Nearly 90% correctly selected the oral hypoglyceamic treatment for obese as well as thin type 2 diabetic patients. Knowledge on the management of diabetes in pregnancy was poor. Only 23.2% knew the correct threshold for starting lipid-lowering therapy. The concept of strict glycaemic control in preference to symptom control was appreciated only by 68%. The skills for comprehensive care in subjects with multiple risk factors were unsatisfactory. The study was done among experienced members of the only professional college dedicated to the specialty. However, we found that there is room for improvement in their knowledge and practices related to diabetes. We recommend

  6. Can we bridge the gap? Knowledge and practices related to Diabetes Mellitus among general practitioners in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katulanda Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka and many other developing countries in the region. It is well known that effective management of diabetes reduces the incidence and progression of many diabetes related complications, thus it is important that General Practitioners (GPs have sound knowledge and positive attitudes towards all aspects of its management. This study aims to assess knowledge, awareness and practices relating to management of Diabetes Mellitus among Sri Lankan GPs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 246 GPs registered with the Ceylon College of General Practitioners using a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire. Results 205 responded to the questionnaire(response rate 83.3%. Their mean duration of practice was 28.7 ± 11.2 years. On average, each GP had 27 ± 25 diabetic-patient consultations per-week. 96% managed diabetic patients and 24% invariably sought specialist opinion. 99.2% used blood glucose to diagnose diabetes but correct diagnostic cut-off values were known by only 48.8%. Appropriate use of HbA1c and urine microalbumin was known by 15.2% and 39.2% respectively. 84% used HbA1c to monitor glyceamic control, while 90.4% relied on fasting blood glucose to monitor glyceamic control. Knowledge on target control levels was poor. Nearly 90% correctly selected the oral hypoglyceamic treatment for obese as well as thin type 2 diabetic patients. Knowledge on the management of diabetes in pregnancy was poor. Only 23.2% knew the correct threshold for starting lipid-lowering therapy. The concept of strict glycaemic control in preference to symptom control was appreciated only by 68%. The skills for comprehensive care in subjects with multiple risk factors were unsatisfactory. Conclusions The study was done among experienced members of the only professional college dedicated to the specialty. However, we found that there is room for improvement in

  7. Characteristics of service users and provider organisations associated with experience of out of hours general practitioner care in England: population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Fiona C; Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Elliott, Marc N; Richards, Suzanne; Barry, Heather E; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John L

    2015-04-29

    To investigate the experience of users of out of hours general practitioner services in England, UK. Population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey. General Practice Patient Survey 2012-13. Potential associations between sociodemographic factors (including ethnicity and ability to take time away from work during working hours to attend a healthcare consultation) and provider organisation type (not for profit, NHS, or commercial) and service users' experience of out of hours care (timeliness, confidence and trust in the out of hours clinician, and overall experience of the service), rated on a scale of 0-100. Which sociodemographic/provider characteristics were associated with service users' experience, the extent to which any observed differences could be because of clustering of service users of a particular sociodemographic group within poorer scoring providers, and the extent to which observed differences in experience varied across types of provider. The overall response rate was 35%; 971,232/2,750,000 patients returned surveys. Data from 902,170 individual service users were mapped through their registered practice to one of 86 providers of out of hours GP care with known organisation type. Commercial providers of out of hours GP care were associated with poorer reports of overall experience of care, with a mean difference of -3.13 (95% confidence interval -4.96 to -1.30) compared with not for profit providers. Asian service users reported lower scores for all three experience outcomes than white service users (mean difference for overall experience of care -3.62, -4.36 to -2.89), as did service users who were unable to take time away from work compared with service users who did not work (mean difference for overall experience of care -4.73, -5.29 to -4.17). Commercial providers of out of hours GP care were associated with poorer experience of care. Targeted interventions aimed at improving experience for patients from ethnic minorities and

  8. End-of-life care in general practice: a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of ‘cancer’, ‘organ failure’ and ‘old-age/dementia’ patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from ‘cancer’, ‘organ failure’ and ‘old-age or dementia’. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  9. 7 CFR 254.1 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose. 254.1 Section 254.1 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.1 General purpose. This part sets the requirement under which...

  10. 22 CFR 309.1 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General purpose. 309.1 Section 309.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 309.1 General purpose. This part prescribes the procedures to be used by the United States Peace Corps (Peace Corps) in the collection and/or disposal of non...

  11. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  12. Doppler broadening of cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, P.A.C.; Pull, I.C.

    1962-12-01

    Expressions for temperature dependent cross-sections in terms of resonance parameters are obtained, involving generalisations of the conventional Doppler functions, ψ and φ. Descriptions of Fortran sub-routines, which calculate broadened cross-sections in accordance with the derived formulae, are included. (author)

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also

  15. Opportunities Missed: A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Provision of Smoking Cessation Care to Pregnant Women by Australian General Practitioners and Obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeev, Yael Bar; Bonevski, Billie; Twyman, Laura; Watt, Kerrianne; Atkins, Lou; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Gould, Gillian S

    2017-05-01

    Similar to other high-income countries, smoking rates in pregnancy can be high in specific vulnerable groups in Australia. Several clinical guidelines exist, including the 5A's (Ask, Advice, Assess, Assist, and Arrange), ABCD (Ask, Brief advice, Cessation, and Discuss), and AAR (Ask, Advice, and Refer). There is lack of data on provision of smoking cessation care (SCC) of Australian General Practitioners (GPs) and Obstetricians. A cross-sectional survey explored the provision of SCC, barriers and enablers using the Theoretical Domains Framework, and the associations between them. Two samples were invited: (1) GPs and Obstetricians from a college database (n = 5571); (2) GPs from a special interest group for Indigenous health (n = 500). Dimension reduction for the Theoretical Domains Framework was achieved with factor analysis. Logistic regression was carried out for performing all the 5A's and the AAR. Performing all of the 5A's, ABCD, and AAR "often and always" was reported by 19.9%, 15.6%, and 49.2% respectively. "Internal influences" (such as confidence in counselling) were associated with higher performance of the 5A's (Adjusted OR 2.69 (95% CI 1.5, 4.8), p workplace routine) were associated with higher performance of AAR (Adjusted OR 1.7 (95% CI 1, 2.8), p = .035). Performance in providing SCC to pregnant women is low among Australian GPs and Obstetricians. Training clinicians should focus on improving internal influences such as confidence and optimism. The AAR may be easier to implement, and interventions at the service level should focus on ensuring easy, effective, and acceptable referral mechanisms are in place. Improving provision of the 5A's approach should focus on the individual level, including better training for GPs and Obstetricians, designed to improve specific "internal" barriers such as confidence in counselling and optimism. The AAR may be easier to implement in view of the higher overall performance of this approach. Interventions on a more

  16. Factors associated with hepatitis C prevalence differ by the stage of liver fibrosis: A cross-sectional study in the general population in Poland, 2012-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rosińska

    Full Text Available There is a considerable burden of hepatitis C in Europe related to the lack of prompt diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and related risk factors of HCV infections by the stages of liver fibrosis, using non-invasive methods, to understand testing needs in Poland.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2016 adopting a stratified random sampling of primary health care units followed by systematic sampling of patients within each unit. Study participants filled a questionnaire and donated blood for laboratory HCV testing. Additionally, the results of liver function tests and platelet count were collected to calculate APRI and FIB-4 scores. Cases were classified according to the level of fibrosis: 'significant fibrosis' (APRI≥0.7 or FIB4≥1.45 and 'no significant fibrosis' (APRI<0.7 and FIB4<1.45.Of 21 875 study participants, 102 were HCV-RNA positive. Prevalence of HCV infections and significant fibrosis was estimated at 0.47% (95% CI 0.38% - 0.57% and 0.12% (0.08% - 0.17%, respectively. Cases with significant fibrosis accounted for 51.6% (33.4%-69.9% in men and 34.4% (17.3%-51.4% in women. There was no correlation between the HCV prevalence and age. Blood transfusion prior to 1992 strongly predicted significant fibrosis as did the history of injecting drug use (IDU and ever having an HCV-infected sexual partner in men and caesarean sections in women. Factors associated with HCV infection without significant fibrosis were tattooing in men and younger age in women. We acknowledge limited possibility to study the associations between IDU and ever having HCV-infected sexual partner, given small sample sizes for these exposures.As no clear birth cohort affected by HCV could be identified, risk factor-based screening in the general population should be considered, taking into account the association between the increased risk of liver fibrosis and the history of transfusion prior to 1992 and caesarean sections.

  17. Pandemic influenza (A/H1N1 vaccine uptake among French private general practitioners: a cross sectional study in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Verger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July, 2009, French health authorities, like those in many other countries, decided to embark on a mass vaccination campaign against the pandemic A(H1N1 influenza. Private general practitioners (GPs were not involved in this campaign. We studied GPs' pandemic vaccine (pvaccine uptake, quantified the relative contribution of its potential explanatory factors and studied whether their own vaccination choice was correlated with their recommendations to patients about pvaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected private GPs (N = 1431; response rate at inclusion in the panel: 36.8%; participation rate in the survey: 100%. The main outcome variable was GPs' own pvaccine uptake. We used an averaging multi-model approach to quantify the relative contribution of factors associated with their vaccination. The pvaccine uptake rate was 61% (95%CI = 58.3-63.3. Four independent factors contributed the most to this rate (partial Nagelkerke's R(2: history of previous vaccination against seasonal influenza (14.5%, perception of risks and efficacy of the pvaccine (10.8%, opinions regarding the organization of the vaccination campaign (7.1%, and perception of the pandemic's severity (5.2%. Overall, 71.3% (95%CI = 69.0-73.6 of the participants recommended pvaccination to young adults at risk and 40.1% (95%CI = 37.6-42.7 to other young adults. GPs' own pvaccination was strongly predictive of their recommendation to both young adults at risk (OR = 9.6; 95%CI = 7.2-12.6 and those not at risk (OR = 8.5; 95%CI = 6.4-11.4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that around 60% of French private GPs followed French authorities' recommendations about vaccination of health care professionals against the A(H1N1 influenza. They pinpoint priority levers for improving preparedness for future influenza pandemics. Besides encouraging GPs

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among HIV-infected women within reproductive age group at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2017-01-26

    Toxoplasmosis is serious in the case of immune suppression and prenatal transmission. In immunocompromised hosts, it is manifested primarily as a life-threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. Congenital toxoplasmosis results in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and associated factors among HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group (18-49 years) at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01 to May 30, 2015. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for participant selection. Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay was used to test for T. gondii from venous blood specimens. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire for different variables. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed during data analysis. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 270 HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group were included in the study. Mean age of the respondents was 31 years (SD = ±6.5). Of the total study participants, 255 (94.4%), 95% CI (91.6, 97.2%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, and 6 (2.2%), 95% CI (1.3, 3.1%) for anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM). All the anti-IgM positive samples were also positive for IgG. Multivariate analysis showed that; age within 28-37 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.58, 95% CI 1.01, 6.60), level of education with unable or only able to read and write (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI 1.20, 16.60), and substance abuse (AOR = 4.49, 95 CI 1.60, 12.55) were significantly associated with seropositivity of T. gondii infection. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the HIV-infected women in the childbearing age group in Mizan Aman was high. Age, educational status

  19. Photoionization cross section of atomic and molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen and dissociative photoionization cross sections of molecular oxygen were measured from their respective thresholds to 120 angstrom by use of a photoionization mass spectrometer in conjunction with a spark light source. The photoionization cross sections O 2 + parent ion and O + fragment ion from neutral O 2 were obtained by a technique that eliminated the serious problem of identifying the true abundances of O + ions. These ions are generally formed with considerable kinetic energy and, because most mass spectrometers discriminate against energetic ions, true O + abundances are difficult to obtain. In the present work the relative cross sections for producing O + ions are obtained and normalized against the total cross sections in a spectral region where dissociative ionization is not possible. The fragmentation cross sections for O + were then obtained by subtraction of O 2 + cross sections from the known total photoionization cross sections. The results are compared with the previously published measurements. The absolute photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen sigma 8 /sub +/ was measured at 304 A. The actual number density of oxygen atoms within the ionization region was obtained by measuring the fraction of 0 2 molecules dissociated. This sigma/sub +/ at 304 angstrom was used to convert the relative photoinization cross sections, measured as a function of wavelength using a calibrated photodiode, to absolute cross sections. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculated cross sections. angstrom Rydberg series converging to the OII 4 P state was observed

  20. EJ2-MCNPlib. Contents of the JEF-2.2 based neutron cross-section library for MCNP4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Oppe, J.

    1995-05-01

    In this report a description is given of the EJ2-MCNPlib library. The EJ2-MCNPlib library is to be used for reactivity/critically calculations and general neutron/photon transport calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The library is based on the European JEF-2.2 nuclear data evaluation and contains data for all (i.e. 313) nuclides available on this evaluation.The cross-section data were generated using the NJOY cross-section processing code system, version 91.118. For easy reference cross-section plots are given in this report for the total, elastic and absorption cross sections for all nuclides on the EJ2-MCNPlib library. Furthermore, for verification purposes a graphical intercomparison is given of the results of standard benchmark calculations performed with JEF-2.2 cross-section data and with ENDF/B-V cross-section data (whenever available). 6 refs

  1. Development of a General Purpose Gamification Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a general purpose gamification framework developed in JavaScript on the Metor platform. Gamification is described as the use of game elements in none-game contexts. The purpose is to encourage and change user behaviour. Examples of existing gamification use cases and frameworks are described. A demo game shows how a general purpose framework can be used.

  2. Photon-splitting cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy

  3. NDS multigroup cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.

    1981-12-01

    A summary description and documentation of the multigroup cross section libraries which exist at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are given in this report. The libraries listed are available either on tape or in printed form. (author)

  4. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  5. Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Leif

    1963-08-15

    Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.

  6. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a...

  7. Recent progress in fast neutron activation cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.

    A brief review is given of some significant investigations performed during the past few years in the area of fast neutron activation cross sections that may be relevant for the use of nuclear techniques in the exploration of mineral resources, in process and quality control in industry as well as for general analytical purposes. Differential capture cross sections are considered for the natural elements or isotopes of Fe, Cu, Se, Y, Nb, Cd, In, Gd, W, Os and Au. Some of the data are compared with statistical model calculations. Experimental and evaluated average cross sections for capture and threshold reactions in the spontaneous fission neutron field of 252 Cf are reviewed taking into account the elements or isotopes of Mg, Al, Si, S, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cd, In, Ba, Ta and Au. A summary of recent studies of differential cross sections for threshold reactions comprises data on Al, Si, S, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Ta, W and Au. Besides experimental investigations, evaluations and theoretical model calculations are considered. Cross sections at 14 MeV and in the region around this energy are reviewed for Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Zr, Nb, In, Er, Yb, Ta, W, Os, Ir, Au and Pb. Particular emphasis is laid on (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions. (n,n') reactions are allowed for if the half-life of the metastable state excited permits elemental analyses by common experimental techniques. (orig.)

  8. General purpose code for Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    A general-purpose computer called MONTHY has been written to perform Monte Carlo simulations of physical systems. To achieve a high degree of flexibility the code is organized like a general purpose computer, operating on a vector describing the time dependent state of the system under simulation. The instruction set of the computer is defined by the user and is therefore adaptable to the particular problem studied. The organization of MONTHY allows iterative and conditional execution of operations

  9. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in a general hospital in a middle income country: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, María de Los Angeles; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Pinto, Miguel E; Ticse, Ray; Malaga, German; Sacksteder, Katherine; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the morbidity rate and associated factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a low-middle income country setting. Cross-sectional study, data was gathered at Peru's Ministry of Health national specialized hospital for endocrinological conditions through standardized interviews, anthropometric measurements and blood tests for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). DPN was evaluated using two techniques: the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and the diabetic neuropathy symptom score. Overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Potential factors related to DPN explored included body mass index, years with disease (diabetes in a national specialized facility from Peru. Associated factors to DPN included being a diabetic patient for over ten years, and receiving insulin plus metformin.

  10. No association between nickel allergy and reporting cosmetic dermatitis from mascara or eye shadow: a cross-sectional general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    dermatitis and nickel in make-up products remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional patch test study investigated whether the frequency of self-reported cosmetic dermatitis from mascara or eye shadow use was higher among nickel allergic Danish women than women without nickel allergy. METHODS......: In 2006, a total of 1843 18-69 year old women completed a postal questionnaire including questions on cosmetic dermatitis and were patch tested with nickel sulphate. Data were analysed by logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs......). RESULTS: The prevalence of nickel allergy was similar among women who reported cosmetic dermatitis from eye shadow or mascara and among women who did not report such symptoms. Cosmetic dermatitis was positively associated with self-reported atopic dermatitis and age. CONCLUSION: Overall, no association...

  11. Relationship between late-life depression and life stressors: large-scale cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Japanese general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tatsuhiko; Mishima, Kazuo; Kitamura, Shingo; Enomoto, Minori; Nagase, Yukihiro; Li, Lan; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Nishikawa, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between late-life depression and daily life stress in a representative sample of 10 969 Japanese subjects. Data on 10 969 adults aged > or =50 who participated in the Active Survey of Health and Welfare in 2000, were analyzed. The self-administered questionnaire included items on 21 reasons for life stressors and the magnitude of stress, as well as the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The relationship between the incidence of life stressors and mild-moderate (D(16)) and severe (D(26)) depressive symptoms was examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 21.9% of subjects had D(16) symptoms, and 9.3% had D(26) symptoms. Further, increased age and being female were associated with more severe depressive state. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest relationship between both the incidence of D(16) and D(26) symptoms and life stressors stemmed from 'having no one to talk to' (odds ratio = 3.3 and 5.0, respectively). Late-life depression was also associated with 'loss of purpose in life', 'separation/divorce', 'having nothing to do', 'health/illness/care of self', and 'debt'. There is a relationship between late-life depression and diminished social relationships, experiences involving loss of purpose in life or human relationships, and health problems in the Japanese general population.

  12. General-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Noritaka

    1982-01-01

    A new series of diagnostic tables, Model DT-KEL, was developed for general-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic systems. Through several investigations, the table was so constructed that the basic techniques be general radiography and GI examination, and other techniques be optionally added. The diagnostic tables involve the full series of the type for various purposes and are systematized with the surrounding equipment. A retractable mechanism of grids was adopted first for general use. The fine grids with a density of 57 lines per cm, which was adopted in KEL-2, reduced the X-ray doses by 16 percent. (author)

  13. Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy

  14. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs

  15. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutro argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Ramos, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 12), np(n=4 to 8) and nd(n=3 to 8) of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 7), np(n=4 to 7) and nd(n=3 to 8). 3.- Comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author)

  16. Validation of cross sections for Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectric effect

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Min Cheol; Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Batic, Matej; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Several total and partial photoionization cross section calculations, based on both theoretical and empirical approaches, are quantitatively evaluated with statistical analyses using a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature to identify the state of the art for modeling the photoelectric effect in Monte Carlo particle transport. Some of the examined cross section models are available in general purpose Monte Carlo systems, while others have been implemented and subjected to validation tests for the first time to estimate whether they could improve the accuracy of particle transport codes. The validation process identifies Scofield's 1973 non-relativistic calculations, tabulated in the Evaluated Photon Data Library(EPDL), as the one best reproducing experimental measurements of total cross sections. Specialized total cross section models, some of which derive from more recent calculations, do not provide significant improvements. Scofield's non-relativistic calculations are not surp...

  17. Preliminary assessment of Geant4 HP models and cross section libraries by reactor criticality benchmark calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Mullet, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Geant4 is an open source general purpose simulation toolkit for particle transportation in matter. Since the extension of the thermal scattering model in Geant4.9.5 and the availability of the IAEA HP model cross section libraries, it is now possible to extend the application area of Geant4......, U and O in uranium dioxide, Al metal, Be metal, and Fe metal. The native HP cross section library G4NDL does not include data for elements with atomic number larger than 92. Therefore, transuranic elements, which have impacts for a realistic reactor, can not be simulated by the combination of the HP...... models and the G4NDL library. However, cross sections of those missing isotopes were made available recently through the IAEA project “new evaluated neutron cross section libraries for Geant4”....

  18. Status of standard cross section library and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukeran, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    JSSTDL-300 multi-group cross section library with 300 neutron energy groups coupled with 104 group γ-ray cross sections was developed for general users in nuclear reactor physics and/or design, whose source data is the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2. For the purpose of a standard or common use, several famous cross section libraries worldwide used, i.e., ABBN-25, GAM-123, VITAMIN-C/J(E+C), MGCL-137, BERMUDA-12 and FNS-125 for neutron, and LANL-12, -24-, -48, and CSEWG-94 for γ-ray, are consulted about setting the common energy group structure. Furthermore, in order to expand the applicability, the top energy is set on 20 MeV and the lowest energy is 10 -5 eV. In the thermal neutron energy region, the JSSTDL-300 has about 20 energy groups. Besides, many utility codes for group collapsing and for data format transformation are provided for general users. (author)

  19. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  20. General purpose computers in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    I see three main trends in the use of general purpose computers in real time. The first is more processing power. The second is the use of higher speed interconnects between computers (allowing more data to be delivered to the processors). The third is the use of larger programs running in the computers. Although there is still work that needs to be done, I believe that all indications are that the online need for general purpose computers should be available for the SCC and LHC machines. 2 figs

  1. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  2. Pion-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The tables of inelastic and total cross sections of π ± mesons interactions with nuclei 4 He- 238 U are presented. The tables are obtained by theoretical analysis of known experimental data for energies higher some tens of MeV. 1 ref.; 1 tab

  3. Experience in using the covariances of some ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections: proposed improvements and addition of cross-reaction covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent ratio data, with carefully evaluated covariances, were combined with eleven of the ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections using the generalized least-squares method. The purpose was to improve these evaluated cross sections and covariances, as well as to generate values for the cross-reaction covariances. The results represent improved cross sections as well as realistic and usable covariances. The latter are necessary for meaningful intergral-differential comparisons and for spectrum unfolding

  4. Neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering on proton with four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 1 GeV2. Measurement of cross-sections and of generalized polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laveissiere, G.

    2001-11-01

    In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focussed on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998. The 4 GeV electron beam is scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target, and the scattered electron and recoiled proton are detected in coincidence in the twin hall A spectrometers. The photon (pion) is reconstructed using a missing particle technique. The data analysis allowed to extract the cross sections relative to both process at four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 = 1 GeV 2 . The VCS cross section has been extracted for the first time in the proton resonance region (W between 1.O and 2.0 GeV) through the photon electroproduction reaction. Around the pion-production threshold up to the Delta(1232) resonance region, these results lead to the measurement of the generalized polarizabilities, that describe the proton structure in the same way as the elastic form factors. Moreover, the neutral pion electroproduction cross section measurement in the resonance region has brought new constraints on the existing phenomenological models. (author)

  5. Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2003-01-01

    The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other mental disorders in the general population after Lorca’s earthquakes, 2011 (Murcia, Spain): A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Tormo, Mª José; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Koenen, Karestan C.; Navarro, Carmen; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011) of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 –May 2012). Methods The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia. Main outcome measures are prevalence and severity of anxiety, mood, impulse and substance disorders in the 12 months previous to the survey, assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Sociodemographic variables, prior history of any mental disorder and earthquake-related stressors were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. Findings A total number of 412 participants (response rate: 71%) were interviewed. Significant differences in 12-month prevalence of mental disorders were found in Lorca compared to the rest of Murcia for any (12.8% vs 16.8%), PTSD (3.6% vs 0.5%) and other anxiety disorders (5.3% vs 9.2%) (p≤ 0.05 for all). No differences were found for 12-month prevalence of any mood or any substance disorder. The two major predictors for developing a 12-month post-earthquake mental disorder were a prior mental disorder and the level of exposure. Other risk factors included female sex and low-average income. Conclusions PTSD and other mental disorders are commonly associated with earthquake disasters. Prior mental disorders and the level of exposure to the earthquakes are the most important for the development of a consequent mental disorder and this recognition may help to identify those individuals that may most benefit from specific therapeutic intervention. PMID:28723949

  7. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other mental disorders in the general population after Lorca's earthquakes, 2011 (Murcia, Spain): A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Tormo, Mª José; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Koenen, Karestan C; Navarro, Carmen; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011) of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 -May 2012). The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia. Main outcome measures are prevalence and severity of anxiety, mood, impulse and substance disorders in the 12 months previous to the survey, assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Sociodemographic variables, prior history of any mental disorder and earthquake-related stressors were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total number of 412 participants (response rate: 71%) were interviewed. Significant differences in 12-month prevalence of mental disorders were found in Lorca compared to the rest of Murcia for any (12.8% vs 16.8%), PTSD (3.6% vs 0.5%) and other anxiety disorders (5.3% vs 9.2%) (p≤ 0.05 for all). No differences were found for 12-month prevalence of any mood or any substance disorder. The two major predictors for developing a 12-month post-earthquake mental disorder were a prior mental disorder and the level of exposure. Other risk factors included female sex and low-average income. PTSD and other mental disorders are commonly associated with earthquake disasters. Prior mental disorders and the level of exposure to the earthquakes are the most important for the development of a consequent mental disorder and this recognition may help to identify those individuals that may most benefit from specific therapeutic intervention.

  8. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in a general hospital in a middle income country: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Los Angeles Lazo

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the morbidity rate and associated factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in a low-middle income country setting.Cross-sectional study, data was gathered at Peru's Ministry of Health national specialized hospital for endocrinological conditions through standardized interviews, anthropometric measurements and blood tests for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. DPN was evaluated using two techniques: the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and the diabetic neuropathy symptom score. Overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Potential factors related to DPN explored included body mass index, years with disease (<10 vs. ≥10 years, glycaemic control (HbA1c <7% vs. ≥7%, microalbuminuria, retinopathy, and current pharmacological treatment. Multivariable analysis was performed using Poisson analysis to calculate prevalence ratios.DPN was observed in 73/129 (56.6% patients. In multivariable analysis adjusted by age and sex, the prevalence ratio of neuropathy was 1.4 times higher (95% CI 1.07-1.88 in patients who took insulin plus metformin compared to patients who used one treatment alone, and 1.4 higher (95% CI 1.02-1.93 in patients with ≥10 years of disease compared to those with a shorter duration of disease. Also we found some characteristics in foot evaluation associated to neuropathy such as deformities (p<0.001, onychomycosis (p = 0.012, abnormal Achilles reflex (p<0.001, pain perception (p<0.001 and vibration perception (p<0.001.DPN is highly frequent among patients with diabetes in a national specialized facility from Peru. Associated factors to DPN included being a diabetic patient for over ten years, and receiving insulin plus metformin.

  9. Frequency and risk factors for malnutrition in children undergoing general anaesthesia in a French university hospital: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaud-Morlaes, Louis; Frison, Eric; Babre, Florence; De Luca, Arnaud; Didier, Anne; Borde, Maryline; Zaghet, Brigitte; Batoz, Hélène; Semjen, François; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine; Enaud, Raphael; Hankard, Régis; Lamireau, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Malnutrition is often underdiagnosed in hospitalised children, although it is associated with postoperative complications, longer hospital lengths of stay and increased healthcare-related costs. We aimed to estimate the frequency of, and identify factors associated with, malnutrition in children undergoing anaesthesia. Cross-sectional observational study. Paediatric anaesthesia department at the University Children's Hospital, Bordeaux, France. A total of 985 patients aged less than 18 years. Anthropometric measurements, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification score and the Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score (PNRS) recorded at the pre-anaesthesia evaluation. When assessed as a Waterlow index less than 80%, malnutrition was present in 7.6% children. This increased to 8.1% of children assessed by clinical signs and to 11% of children when defined by a BMI less than the third percentile. In a univariate analysis, children with a BMI less than the third percentile were more often born prematurely (22.4 vs 10.4%; P = 0.0008), were small for gestational age at birth (18.4 vs 4.5%; P malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, a premature birth, a lower birth weight and a higher Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score were significantly associated with a higher odds of malnutrition when defined by BMI. All children should be screened routinely for malnutrition or the risk of malnutrition at the pre-anaesthesia visit, allowing a programme of preoperative and/or postoperative nutritional support to be initiated. We suggest that as well as weight and height, BMI and a pediatric nutritional risk score such as PNRS should be recorded routinely at the pre-anaesthesia visit.

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other mental disorders in the general population after Lorca's earthquakes, 2011 (Murcia, Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Mateu

    Full Text Available To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011 of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 -May 2012.The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia. Main outcome measures are prevalence and severity of anxiety, mood, impulse and substance disorders in the 12 months previous to the survey, assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0. Sociodemographic variables, prior history of any mental disorder and earthquake-related stressors were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis.A total number of 412 participants (response rate: 71% were interviewed. Significant differences in 12-month prevalence of mental disorders were found in Lorca compared to the rest of Murcia for any (12.8% vs 16.8%, PTSD (3.6% vs 0.5% and other anxiety disorders (5.3% vs 9.2% (p≤ 0.05 for all. No differences were found for 12-month prevalence of any mood or any substance disorder. The two major predictors for developing a 12-month post-earthquake mental disorder were a prior mental disorder and the level of exposure. Other risk factors included female sex and low-average income.PTSD and other mental disorders are commonly associated with earthquake disasters. Prior mental disorders and the level of exposure to the earthquakes are the most important for the development of a consequent mental disorder and this recognition may help to identify those individuals that may most benefit from specific therapeutic intervention.

  11. Predictors for assessing electronic messaging between nurses and general practitioners as a useful tool for communication in home health care services: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngstad, Merete; Hofoss, Dag; Grimsmo, Anders; Hellesø, Ragnhild

    2015-02-17

    Nurses providing home health care services are dependent on access to patient information and communicating with general practitioners (GPs) to deliver safe and effective health care to patients. Information and communication technology (ICT) systems are viewed as powerful tools for this purpose. In Norway, a standardized electronic messaging (e-messaging) system is currently being established in health care. The aim of this study was to explore home health care nurses' assessments of the utility of the e-messaging system for communicating with GPs and identify elements that influence the assessment of e-messaging as a useful communication tool. The data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire based on variables identified by focus group interviews with home health care nurses (n=425) who used e-messaging and existing research. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Over two-thirds (425/632, 67.2%) of the home health care nurses returned the questionnaire. A high proportion (388/399, 97.2%) of the home health care nurses who returned the questionnaire found the e-messaging system to be a useful tool for communication with GPs. The odds of reporting that e-messaging was a useful tool were over five times higher (OR 5.1, CI 2.489-10.631, Pcommunicate with GPs. By identifying these elements, it is easier to determine which interventions are the most important for the development and implementation of ICT systems in home health care services.

  12. Neutron cross sections for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1979-10-01

    First generation fusion reactors will most likely be based on the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction, which produces 14-MeV neutrons. In these reactors, both the number of neutrons and the average neutron energy will be significantly higher than for fission reactors of the same power. Accurate neutron cross section data are therefore of great importance. They are needed in present conceptual designs to calculate neutron transport, energy deposition, nuclear transmutation including tritium breeding and activation, and radiation damage. They are also needed for the interpretation of radiation damage experiments, some of which use neutrons up to 40 MeV. In addition, certain diagnostic measurements of plasma experiments require nuclear cross sections. The quality of currently available data for these applications will be reviewed and current experimental programs will be outlined. The utility of nuclear models to provide these data also will be discussed. 65 references

  13. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners. Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012. Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007 and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012 were also calculated. RESULTS: Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001 and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001. For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. CONCLUSION: The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.

  14. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  15. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  16. Smoking, leisure-time exercise and frequency of self-reported common cold among the general population in northeastern China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ge; Liu, Hongjian; He, Minfu; Yue, Mengjia; Gong, Ping; Wu, Fangyuan; Li, Xuanxuan; Pang, Yingxin; Yang, Xiaodi; Ma, Juan; Liu, Meitian; Li, Jinghua; Zhang, Xiumin

    2018-02-27

    Physical activity (PA) and smoking have been reported to be associated with the duration and severity of common cold symptoms. However, few studies have addressed the associations between the frequency of leisure-time exercise, cigarette smoking status and the frequency of the common cold in a cold area. This study was designed to investigate these issues in northeastern China. This cross-sectional study included individuals who participated in a regular health examination conducted in Jilin Province, China. Information on episodes of the common cold, the frequency of leisure-time exercise and cigarette smoking status in the past year were collected by self-administered health questionnaires. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations between the frequency of leisure-time exercise, cigarette smoking status and the retrospective frequency of common cold. A total of 1413 employees participated in the study, with an average age of 38.92 ± 9.04 years and 44.4% of them were male. Of all participants, 80.8% reported having experienced the common cold in the past year. After adjustment, the risk of suffering from the common cold more than once (odds ratios (ORs), 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-1.99) in passive smokers was 1.59 times as high as that in non-smokers. Nevertheless, the results of the adjusted analysis showed no statistically significant relation between current smoking and the frequency of the common cold. A high frequency of leisure-time exercise (≥3 days/week) was associated with a 26% reduced risk of having at least one episode of the common cold (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98) compared with a low frequency group (exercise appears not to be obvious (current smokers: OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.33-1.43; passive smokers: OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.69-1.93). Passive smoking was associated with a higher risk of having self-reported common cold at least once, while a high frequency of leisure-time exercise was related to a lower

  17. Contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services among self-harming and suicidal adolescents in the general population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørmoen, Anita J; Rossow, Ingeborg; Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that adolescents with a history of both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm report more mental health problems and other psychosocial problems than adolescents who report only one or none of these types of self-harm. The current study aimed to examine the use of child and adolescent psychiatric services by adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm, compared to other adolescents, and to assess the psychosocial variables that characterize adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm who report contact. Data on lifetime self-harm, contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services, and various psychosocial risk factors were collected in a cross-sectional sample (response rate = 92.7%) of 11,440 adolescents aged 14-17 years who participated in a school survey in Oslo, Norway. Adolescents who reported any self-harm were more likely than other adolescents to have used child and adolescent psychiatric services, with a particularly elevated likelihood among those with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (OR = 9.3). This finding remained significant even when controlling for psychosocial variables. In adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm, symptoms of depression, eating problems, and the use of illicit drugs were associated with a higher likelihood of contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services, whereas a non-Western immigrant background was associated with a lower likelihood. In this study, adolescents who reported self-harm were significantly more likely than other adolescents to have used child and adolescent psychiatric services, and adolescents who reported a history of both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to have used such services, even after controlling for other psychosocial risk factors. In this high-risk subsample, various psychosocial problems increased the probability of contact with child and

  18. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  19. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  20. The contribution of demographic and morbidity factors to self-reported visit frequency of patients: a cross-sectional study of general practice patients in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Helena

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the factors that affect patients' utilisation of health services is important for health service provision and effective patient management. This study aimed to investigate the specific morbidity and demographic factors related to the frequency with which general practice patients visit a general practitioner/family physician (GP in Australia. Methods A sub-study was undertaken as part of an ongoing national study of general practice activity in Australia. A cluster sample of 10,755 general practice patients were surveyed through a random sample of 379 general practitioners. The patient reported the number of times he/she had visited a general practitioner in the previous twelve months. The GP recorded all the patient's major health problems, including those managed at the current consultation. Results Patients reported an average of 8.8 visits to a general practitioner per year. After adjusting for other patient demographics and number of health problems, concession health care card holders made on average 2.6 more visits per year to a general practitioner than did non-card holders (p Conclusions Anxiety, back pain and depression are associated with greater patient demand for general practice services than other health problems. The effect of sociodemographic factors on patient utilisation of general practice services is complex. Equity of access to general practice services remains an issue for patients from remote areas, while concession health care card holders are attending general practice more frequently than other patients relative to their number of health problems.

  1. Predictors for Assessing Electronic Messaging Between Nurses and General Practitioners as a Useful Tool for Communication in Home Health Care Services: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofoss, Dag; Grimsmo, Anders; Hellesø, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    Background Nurses providing home health care services are dependent on access to patient information and communicating with general practitioners (GPs) to deliver safe and effective health care to patients. Information and communication technology (ICT) systems are viewed as powerful tools for this purpose. In Norway, a standardized electronic messaging (e-messaging) system is currently being established in health care. Objective The aim of this study was to explore home health care nurses’ assessments of the utility of the e-messaging system for communicating with GPs and identify elements that influence the assessment of e-messaging as a useful communication tool. Methods The data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire based on variables identified by focus group interviews with home health care nurses (n=425) who used e-messaging and existing research. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Results Over two-thirds (425/632, 67.2%) of the home health care nurses returned the questionnaire. A high proportion (388/399, 97.2%) of the home health care nurses who returned the questionnaire found the e-messaging system to be a useful tool for communication with GPs. The odds of reporting that e-messaging was a useful tool were over five times higher (OR 5.1, CI 2.489-10.631, Pmessaging was easy to use. The odds of finding e-messaging easy to use were nearly seven times higher (OR 6.9, CI 1.713-27.899, P=.007) if the nurses did not consider the system functionality poor. If the nurses had received training in the use of e-messaging, the odds were over six times higher (OR 6.6, CI 2.515-17.437, Pmessaging easy to use. The odds that a home health care nurse would experience e-messaging as easy to use increased as the full-time equivalent percentage of the nurses increased (OR 1.032, CI 1.001-1.064, P=.045). Conclusions This study has shown that technical (ease of use and system functionality), organizational (training), and individual (full

  2. MXS cross-section preprocessor user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.; Ishikawa, M.; Luck, L.

    1987-03-01

    The MXS preprocessor has been designed to reduce the execution time of programs using isotopic cross-section data and to both reduce the execution time and improve the accuracy of shielding-factor interpolation in the SIMMER-II accident analysis program. MXS is a dual-purpose preprocessing code to: (1) mix isotopes into materials and (2) fit analytic functions to the shelf-shielding data. The program uses the isotope microscopic neutron cross-section data from the CCCC standard interface file ISOTXS and the isotope Bondarenko self-shielding data from the CCCC standard interface file BRKOXS to generate cross-section and self-shielding data for materials. The materials may be a mixture of several isotopes. The self-shielding data for the materials may be the actual shielding factors or a set of coefficients for functions representing the background dependence of the shielding factors. A set of additional data is given to describe the functions necessary to interpolate the shielding factors over temperature

  3. Associations between self-esteem, general self-efficacy and approaches to studying in occupational therapy students: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Sadeghi, Talieh; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and the deep, strategic, and surface approaches to studying. Norwegian occupational therapy students (n = 125) completed questionnaires measuring study approaches, self-esteem, and general self-efficacy. Regression analyses were used to explore the direct relationships between self-esteem, general self-efficacy and the approaches to studying, after controlling for age, gender, prior higher education,...

  4. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Vayatis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the 85 Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations

  5. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  6. General-purpose RFQ design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We have written a general-purpose, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) design program that allows maximum flexibility in picking design algorithms. This program optimizes the RFQ on any combination of design parameters while simultaneously satisfying mutually compatible, physically required constraint equations. It can be very useful for deriving various scaling laws for RFQs. This program has a friendly user interface in addition to checking the consistency of the user-defined requirements and is written to minimize the effort needed to incorporate additional constraint equations. We describe the program and present some examples

  7. Report of the general purpose detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Cool, R.; Hanson, G.; Koetz, U.; Kottahaus, R.; Loken, S.; Luke, D.; Rothenberg, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose detector for PEP is described. The main components of this detector are a l meter radius, 15 kilogauss superconducting solenoidal magnet with drift chambers to detect and measure the momentum of charged particles, a liquid argon neutral detector and hadron calorimeter, and a system of Cherenkov and time-of-flight counters for identification of charged hadrons. A major consideration in the design of this detector was that it be flexible: the magnet coil and drift chambers form a core around which various apparatus for specialized detection can be placed

  8. Perception of health risks of electromagnetic fields by MRI radiographers and airport security officers compared to the general Dutch working population: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Diana; Smid, Tjabe; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M

    2011-11-09

    The amount of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at work is mainly determined by an individual's occupation and may differ from exposure at home. It is, however, unknown how different occupational groups perceive possible adverse health effects of EMF. Three occupational groups, the general Dutch working population (n = 567), airport security officers who work with metal detectors (n = 106), and MRI radiographers who work with MRI (n = 193), were compared on perceived risk of and positive and negative feelings towards EMF in general and of different EMF sources, and health concerns by using analyses of variances. Data were collected via an internet survey. Overall, MRI radiographers had a lower perceived risk, felt less negative, and more positive towards EMF and different sources of EMF than the general working population and the security officers. For security officers, feeling more positive about EMF was not significantly related to perceived risk of EMF in general or EMF of domestic sources. Feeling positive about a source did not generalize to a lower perceived risk, while negative feelings were stronger related to perceived risk. MRI radiographers had fewer health concerns regarding EMF than the other two groups, although they considered it more likely that EMF could cause physical complaints. These data show that although differences in occupation appear to be reflected in different perceptions of EMF, the level of occupational exposure to EMF as such does not predict the perceived health risk of EMF. © 2011 van Dongen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Perception of health risks of electromagnetic fields by MRI radiographers and airport security officers compared to the general Dutch working population: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen Diana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF at work is mainly determined by an individual's occupation and may differ from exposure at home. It is, however, unknown how different occupational groups perceive possible adverse health effects of EMF. Methods Three occupational groups, the general Dutch working population (n = 567, airport security officers who work with metal detectors (n = 106, and MRI radiographers who work with MRI (n = 193, were compared on perceived risk of and positive and negative feelings towards EMF in general and of different EMF sources, and health concerns by using analyses of variances. Data were collected via an internet survey. Results Overall, MRI radiographers had a lower perceived risk, felt less negative, and more positive towards EMF and different sources of EMF than the general working population and the security officers. For security officers, feeling more positive about EMF was not significantly related to perceived risk of EMF in general or EMF of domestic sources. Feeling positive about a source did not generalize to a lower perceived risk, while negative feelings were stronger related to perceived risk. MRI radiographers had fewer health concerns regarding EMF than the other two groups, although they considered it more likely that EMF could cause physical complaints. Conclusions These data show that although differences in occupation appear to be reflected in different perceptions of EMF, the level of occupational exposure to EMF as such does not predict the perceived health risk of EMF.

  10. General Purpose Crate (GPC) for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kundan; Munda, Deepak K.; Jain, Mamta; Archunan, M.; Barua, P.; Ajith Kumar, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    A General Purpose Crate (GPC) capable of handling digital and analog Inputs/Outputs signals has been developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, for accelerator control system applications. The system includes back-plane bus with on board plugged-in single board computer with PC104 and Ethernet interface, running Linux operating system. The bus control logic is designed on the back-plane pcb itself, making the system more rugged. The various types of digital and analog input/output modules can be plugged into the back plane bus randomly with standard euro connectors, which provides highly reliable and dust free contacts. Maximum eight modules can be inserted into the crate. The total power consumption for various types of modules and back-plane controller is approximately 50 watts. The multi-output DC power supply from COSEL has been used in the crate. The general purpose crate is software compatible with the CAMAC crates used in the accelerator control system. (author)

  11. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.D.; Lynn, J.E.; Michaudon, A.; Rowlands, J.; de Saussure, G.

    1981-01-01

    A general presentation of current knowledge of the fission process is given with emphasis on the low energy fission of actinide nuclei and neutron induced fission. The need for and the required accuracy of fission cross section data in nuclear energy programs are discussed. A summary is given of the steps involved in fission cross section measurement and the range of available techniques. Methods of fission detection are described with emphasis on energy dependent changed and detector efficiency. Examples of cross section measurements are given and data reduction is discussed. The calculation of fission cross sections is discussed and relevant nuclear theory including the formation and decay of compound nuclei and energy level density is introduced. A description of a practical computation of fission cross sections is given.

  12. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  13. ENDF/B-5 fission product cross section evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenter, R.E.; England, T.R.

    1979-12-01

    Cross section evaluations were made for the 196 fission product nuclides on the ENDF/B-5 data files. Most of the evaluations involve updating the capture cross sections of the important absorbers for fast and thermal reactor systems. This included updating thermal values, resonance integrals, resonance parameter sets, and fast capture cross sections. For the fast capture results generalized least-squares calculations were made with the computer code FERRET. Input for these cross section adjustments included nuclear models calculations and both integral and differential experimental data results. The differential cross sections and their uncertainties were obtained from the CSIRS library. Integral measurement results came from CFRMF and STEK Assemblies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000. Comparisons of these evaluations with recent capture measurements are shown. 15 figures, 10 tables

  14. Appraisal of cooperation with a palliative care case manager by general practitioners and community nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, A.G.M. van der; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Vissers, K.C.; Deliens, L.; Jansen, W.J.J.; Francke, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how general practitioners and community nurses value the support that they receive from a nurse case manager with expertise in palliative care, whether they think the case manager is helpful in realizing appropriate care and what characteristics of the patient and case

  15. General Health Status, Music Performance Anxiety, and Coping Methods of Musicians Working in Turkish State Symphony Orchestras: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoğlu, Onur; Karagülle, Derya; Keskin, Tuba U; Abacigil, Filiz; Okyay, Pinar

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the general health, music performance anxiety (MPA), and coping methods of musicians working in six state orchestras in Turkey. All musicians working in the state symphony orchestras (n=384) were invited to participate in the study. In face-to-face interviews, the authors administered a questionnaire, which consisted of five sections: sociodemographic information, history of musical performance, health status, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and MPA scale. Mann-Whitney U-test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation test were used to analyze the questionnaire data. The 220 musicians who participated included 121 (55%) males and 99 (45%) females, with a mean age of 42.4±11.3 yrs. For musculoskeletal symptoms, 87.6% reported at least one symptom with the most common being pain. For general health status, the GHQ-12 showed 64% of musicians were at low risk, 18.7% at moderate risk, and 17.3% at high risk in terms of mental health. The prevalence of MPA before or during performance was 81.8%, and 60% of musicians stated that performance anxiety negatively affected their performances. Results indicate that musicians working in Turkish state symphony orchestras encounter numerous health problems (tinnitus, hearing loss, musculoskeletal symptoms, etc.) due to their profession. No specific health support is provided, especially education and health service provision.

  16. Self-declared stock ownership and association with positive trial outcome in randomized controlled trials with binary outcomes published in general medical journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Describe the prevalence and types of conflicts of interest (COI) in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in general medical journals with a binary primary outcome and assess the association between conflicts of interest and favorable outcome. Parallel-group RCTs with a binary primary outcome published in three general medical journals during 2013-2015 were identified. COI type, funding source, and outcome were extracted. Binomial logistic regression model was performed to assess association between COI and funding source with outcome. A total of 509 consecutive parallel-group RCTs were included in the study. COI was reported in 74% in mixed funded RCTs and in 99% in for-profit funded RCTs. Stock ownership was reported in none of the non-profit RCTs, in 7% of mixed funded RCTs, and in 50% of for-profit funded RCTs. Mixed-funded RCTs had employees from the funding company in 11% and for-profit RCTs in 76%. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that stock ownership in the funding company among any of the authors was associated with a favorable outcome (odds ratio = 3.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.59-7.86; p < 0.01). COI in for-profit funded RCTs is extensive, because the factors related to COI are not fully independent, a multivariable analysis should be cautiously interpreted. However, after multivariable adjustment only stock ownership from the funding company among authors is associated with a favorable outcome.

  17. Is fatigue after work a barrier for leisure-time physical activity? Cross-sectional study among 10,000 adults from the general working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bláfoss, Rúni; Micheletti, Jéssica K; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bay, Hans; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-04-01

    In spite of the many health-related benefits of regular physical activity, fatiguing work may be a barrier to performing leisure-time physical activity. This study investigates the association between work-related fatigue and the duration of low- and high-intensity leisure-time physical activity in workers with sedentary and physically demanding jobs. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners from the general working population ( N=10,427) replied to questions about work-related fatigue (predictor) and duration of low- and high-intensity leisure-time physical activity (outcome). Associations were modelled using general linear models controlling for various confounders. Among workers with physically demanding jobs, higher levels of work-related fatigue were associated with gradually lower levels of leisure-time physical activity - for low, moderate and high levels of work-related fatigue the duration of high-intensity leisure-time physical activity was 133 (95% confidence interval (CI) 127-178), 134 (95% CI 109-160) and 113 (95% CI 86-140) min per week, respectively (trend test pwork-related fatigue in workers with physically demanding jobs. Older workers perform less high-intensity physical activity than younger workers. Workplaces should consider initiatives to allow workers with physically demanding jobs and older workers to perform physical exercise during working hours and thereby increase physical capacity to meet the job demands.

  18. General-Purpose Software For Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) is general-purpose computer-graphics package for computer-based engineering and management applications which gives opportunity to translate data into effective graphical displays for presentation. Features include two- and three-dimensional plotting, spline and polynomial interpolation, control of blanking of areas, multiple log and/or linear axes, control of legends and text, control of thicknesses of curves, and multiple text fonts. Included are subroutines for definition of areas and axes of plots; setup and display of text; blanking of areas; setup of style, interpolation, and plotting of lines; control of patterns and of shading of colors; control of legends, blocks of text, and characters; initialization of devices; and setting of mixed alphabets. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  19. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  20. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-06

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  1. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  2. Long-acting reversible contraception for adolescents and young adults - a cross-sectional study of women and general practitioners in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlie, Marte; Aarvold, Trine; Skårn, Elling Skeide; Lundekvam, Jonas Andre; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd; Askevold, Erik Tandberg

    2014-06-01

    To investigate awareness and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in the Norwegian primary care sector. We surveyed 359 women aged 16 to 23 years visiting a free sexual health clinic and 140 general practitioners (GPs) in Oslo, Norway, to assess contraceptive usage patterns, knowledge, opinions, and counselling content. Eighty-two percent (n = 295) of the female respondents were current contraceptive users and of this group, 12% (n = 34) were LARC users. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs, 56%) and condoms (20%) were the methods most commonly used. Apart from those two, the women considered themselves insufficiently knowledgeable about other family planning modalities. Knowledge was an independent predictor of current LARC use (p Oslo, Norway. These young women need better contraceptive counselling. Dispelling misconceptions and improved provider training could encourage GPs to cover LARCs when giving contraceptive guidance.

  3. Validation of the "SmoCess-GP" instrument - a short patient questionnaire for assessing the smoking cessation activities of general practitioners: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed an instrument assessing the extent of smoking cessation activities by general practitioners (GPs within the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS. The objective of the present study was to examine further psychometric quality of the "SmoCess-GP" instrument (Smoking Cessation by General Practitioners. Methods 127 current smokers who had participated in the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS were included in our analyses. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted to examine the model fit and to retest the single-factor structure of the instrument using the Mplus software. Further construct validity was tested with bivariate analysis using an instrument which measures patients' trust in physicians. Results CFA supported the unidimensional structure of the instrument. The factor loadings exceed the threshold of ≥ 0.50. All indicator reliabilities were higher than 0.30. The composite reliability was 0.86 and the average variance extracted (AVE resulted in a value of 0.50. The calculation of global fit indices identified a CFI value of 1.00 and for TLI a value of 1.02. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA indicates that 0% of the information is not accounted for by the model. The chi-square value was χ2df = 6 = 4.63 (p = 0.59. Analysis of discriminant validity resulted in a non-significiant correlation of r = 0.092 (p = 0.350. Conclusions Results indicate preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the "SmoCess-GP" instrument which therefore appears to be a promising tool for analyzing the extent of smoking cessation advice offered by GPs from the patients' perspective. Future research should examine the psychometric properties in a population based sample, further improvements of the instrument and should apply other methods of validation.

  4. Predictors of weight stigma experienced by middle-older aged, general-practice patients with obesity in disadvantaged areas of Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Catherine; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Faruqi, Nighat; Stocks, Nigel; Harris, Mark F

    2018-05-21

    Rates of obesity have increased globally and weight stigma is commonly experienced by people with obesity. Feeling stigmatised because of one's weight can be a barrier to healthy eating, physical activity and to seeking help for weight management. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived weight among middle-older aged patients with obesity attending general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas of Australia. As part of a randomised clinical trial in Australia, telephone interviews were conducted with 120 patients from 17 general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged of Sydney and Adelaide. Patients were aged 40-70 years with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 . The interviews included questions relating to socio-demographic variables (e.g. gender, language spoken at home), experiences of weight-related discrimination, and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Multi-level logistic regression data analysis was undertaken to examine predictors of recent experiences of weight-related discrimination ("weight stigma"). The multi-level model showed that weight stigma was positively associated with obesity category 2 (BMI = 35 to stigma and gender, age, education or the other HLQ domains examined. Weight stigma disproportionately affected the patients with obesity most in need of support to manage their weight: those with more severe obesity, from non-English speaking backgrounds and who were not in employment. Additionally, those who had experienced weight stigma were less able to actively engage with healthcare providers further compounding their disadvantage. This suggests the need for a more proactive approach to identify weight stigma by healthcare providers. Addressing weight stigma at the individual, system and population levels is recommended. The trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN126400102162 .

  5. Under the radar: a cross-sectional study of the challenge of identifying at-risk alcohol consumption in the general practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Carey, Mariko; Russell, Grant; Makeham, Meredith

    2014-04-28

    Primary care providers are an important source of information regarding appropriate alcohol consumption. As early presentation to a provider for alcohol-related concerns is unlikely, it is important that providers are able to identify at-risk patients in order to provide appropriate advice. This study aimed to report the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of General Practitioner (GP) assessment of alcohol consumption compared to patient self-report, and explore characteristics associated with GP non-detection of at-risk status. GP practices were selected from metropolitan and regional locations in Australia. Eligible patients were adults presenting for general practice care who were able to understand English and provide informed consent. Patients completed a modified AUDIT-C by touchscreen computer as part of an omnibus health survey while waiting for their appointment. GPs completed a checklist for each patient, including whether the patient met current Australian guidelines for at-risk alcohol consumption. Patient self-report and GP assessments were compared for each patient. GPs completed the checklist for 1720 patients, yielding 1565 comparisons regarding alcohol consumption. The sensitivity of GPs' detection of at-risk alcohol consumption was 26.5%, with specificity of 96.1%. Higher patient education was associated with GP non-detection of at-risk status. GP awareness of which patients might benefit from advice regarding at-risk alcohol consumption appears low. Given the complexities associated with establishing whether alcohol consumption is 'at-risk', computer-based approaches to routine screening of patients are worthy of exploration as a method for prompting the provision of advice in primary care.

  6. Quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice according to patients' ethnic background: a cross-sectional study from Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkeland Kåre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades immigration to Norway from Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has increased rapidly. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of care for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients from these ethnic minority groups compared with the care received by Norwegians. Methods In 2006, electronic medical record data were screened at 11 practices (49 GPs; 58857 patients. 1653 T2DM patients cared for in general practice were identified. Ethnicity was defined as self-reported country of birth. Chi-squared tests, one-way ANOVAs, multiple regression, linear mixed effect models and generalized linear mixed models were used. Results Diabetes was diagnosed at a younger age in patients from the ethnic minority groups (South Asians (SA: mean age 44.9 years, Middle East/North Africa (MENA: 47.2 years, East Asians (EA: 52.0 years, others: 49.0 years compared with Norwegians (59.7 years, p 85% of patients in all groups with minor differences between minority groups and Norwegians. A greater proportion of the minority groups were prescribed hypoglycaemic medications compared with Norwegians (≥79% vs. 72%, p 9% was higher in minority groups (SA: 19.6%, MENA: 18.9% vs. Norwegians: 5.6%, p Conclusions Mean age at the time of diagnosis of T2DM was 8-15 years younger in minority groups compared with Norwegians. Recording of important processes of care measures is high in all groups. Only one in four of most patient groups achieved all four treatment targets and prescribing habits may be sub-optimal. Patients from minority groups have worse glycaemic control than Norwegians which implies that it might be necessary to improve the guidelines to meet the needs of specific ethnic groups.

  7. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author)

  8. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author).

  9. Themes Underlying Australian General Practitioner Views towards Chiropractic and Osteopathy: An Assessment of Free Text Data from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Grace

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian chiropractic and osteopathic professions underwent a period of significant transformation between 1960 and 2000. This resulted in an improvement in the views held by the medical profession towards the two professions. However, a recent survey of Australian general practitioners (GPs reported that a number of GPs still hold negative views towards chiropractors and osteopaths. This paper examines these views from the perspective of critical realism and explores the generative mechanisms that can influence the willingness of health practitioners to collaborate over patient care. A qualitative analysis of open-ended responses to a survey of 630 Australian GPs was conducted. Unfavourable attitudes of GPs towards chiropractors and osteopaths included perceived lack of safety, efficacy, and inadequacy of training, despite chiropractic’s and osteopathy’s reliance on the same evidence base and similar training to those of other manual therapy professions such as physiotherapy. These attitudes may be underpinned by the professional biases against chiropractic and osteopathy that continue to marginalise the professions within the Australian healthcare system. Continued investment in the research base for chiropractic and osteopathic practice is required, along with raising the awareness of GPs about the education and skills of chiropractors and osteopaths.

  10. Overweight and obesity are progressively associated with lower work ability in the general working population: cross-sectional study among 10,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is associated with many diseases and functional limitations. Workplaces are not always designed to accommodate this challenge. This study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and work ability in the general working population. Currently employed wage earners (N = 10,427) from the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS) replied to questions about work and health. Cumulative logistic regression analyses controlling for age, gender, physical and psychosocial work factors, lifestyle, and chronic diseases modeled the associations between BMI and work ability. BMIs above the normal range were progressively associated with lower work ability in relation to the physical demands of the job. Odds ratios for having lower work ability were 1.11 (95% CI 1.01-1.22), 1.17 (95% CI 1.01-1.34), 1.43 (95% CI 1.09-1.88), 1.69 (95% CI 1.10-2.62) for overweight and obesity classes I, II, and III, respectively. In subgroup analyses, the associations between BMI and work ability were more pronounced among individuals with mainly sedentary work than among those with physically active work. BMI was not associated with work ability in relation to the mental demands of the work. BMIs above the normal range are progressively associated with lower work ability in relation to the physical demands of the job, especially among individuals with mainly sedentary work. Ergonomic research on how to optimally design workstations for workers with obesity are needed.

  11. A cross-sectional survey of the access of older people in the Scottish Highlands to general medical practices, community pharmacies and prescription medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Cunningham, Scott; Pfleger, Sharon; Hall, Jenny; Stewart, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Access to medicines and healthcare is more problematic in remote and rural areas. To quantify issues of access to general practitioners (GPs), community pharmacies and prescribed medicines in older people resident in the Scottish Highlands. Anonymized questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2000 older people (≥60 years) resident in the Scottish Highlands. Questionnaire items were: access and convenience to GP and pharmacy services (10 items); prescribed medicines (13 items); attitudinal statements based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (12 items); quality of life (SF8, 8 items); and demographics (12 items). Results were analysed using descriptive, inferential and spatial statistics, and principal component analysis (PCA) of attitudinal items. With a response rate of 54.2%, the majority reported convenient access to GPs (89.1%) and community pharmacies (84.3%). Older age respondents (p rural areas to community pharmacies (p rural areas and taking five or more prescribed medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) for selecting at-risk patients for spirometry: a cross-sectional study in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Anthony J; Hasan, Iqbal; Crockett, Alan J; van Schayck, Onno C P; Zwar, Nicholas A

    2014-07-10

    Using the COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) as a selection tool for spirometry could potentially improve the efficiency and accuracy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis in at-risk patients. To identify an optimal single cut point for the CDQ that divides primary care patients into low or high likelihood of COPD, with the latter group undergoing spirometry. Former or current smokers aged 40-85 years with no prior COPD diagnosis were invited to a case-finding appointment with the practice nurse at various general practices in Sydney, Australia. The CDQ was collected and pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed. Cases with complete CDQ data and spirometry meeting quality standards were analysed (1,054 out of 1,631 patients). CDQ cut points were selected from a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The area under the ROC curve was 0.713. A cut point of 19.5 had the optimal combination of sensitivity (63%) and specificity (70%) with two-thirds below this cut point. A cut point of 14.5 corresponded to a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 35% and negative predictive value of 96%, and 31% of patients below this cut point. The CDQ can be used to select patients at risk of COPD for spirometry using one cut point. We consider two possible cut points. The 19.5 cut point excludes a higher proportion of patients from undergoing spirometry with the trade-off of more false negatives. The 14.5 cut point has a high sensitivity and negative predictive value, includes more potential COPD cases but has a higher rate of false positives.

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  14. Diagnostic values of glycated haemoglobin and diagnosis of diabetes: Results of a cross-sectional survey among general practitioners in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Roncaglia, Francesca; Chiatamone Ranieri, Sofia; Greci, Marina; Manicardi, Valeria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether subjects included in the diabetes register solely because their HbA1c was over the diagnostic threshold received a diagnosis of diabetes from their general practitioner (GP). The study included all registered cases in 2009-2010 aged 18 or over that were identified only by the laboratory database because they had one or more HbA1c over the 6.5% threshold and for whom we did not find any information in the search of full electronic clinical records. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the influence of GP and patient characteristics. There were 228 participating GPs (76.3% of those invited) and 832 assessed subjects (68.8% of study population). There was a strong clustering among the GPs (residual intraclass correlation = 0.52, 95% CI 0.40-0.64). About one in two (55.5%) subjects with two or more HbA1c > =6.5% has been diagnosed as diabetic and the percentage declined - unless zeroing - in case the abnormal value was only one (28.3%). The likelihood of being labelled 'no diabetes' was greater in subjects aged less than 65 or over 74 with respect to the reference age group (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.13-3.15; OR 1.55 95% CI 0.94-2.53). The same likelihood consistently decreased when HbA1c test was accompanied by abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) assay (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.12-0.32). A permanent exchange of information between the diabetes register and GPs should be maintained to improve the care of patients and the awareness of criteria for diabetes diagnosis among GPs.

  15. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  16. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  17. Effects of parental gender and level of education on the quality of life and general health of pediatric patients with epilepsy: An outpatient cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Meisam; Amirsalari, Susan; Radfar, Shokofeh; Haidari, Mohsen Reza

    2016-07-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of children with epilepsy has been widely studied, and several problems related to cognition, behavior, social lives, and physical activity among these children have been reported. Family life and parental care are important aspects of the lives of these patients. The impact of parental education on the QOL of pediatric patients with epilepsy is an understudied topic, especially in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the QOL and general health (GH) of patients with epilepsy presenting at the pediatric neurology clinic at Baqiyatallah Hospital and a private clinic. The Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, which is a 92-item epilepsy-specific questionnaire covering physical activity, well-being, cognition, behavior, social activity, overall QOL, and GH, was used for interviewing parents. A total of 106 patients (m=61, 57.5% and f=45, 42.5%) aged 5-17years (mean: 10.31±2.91) participated in the study. Overall, there was no significant difference between the QOL and GH results of male and female patients. However, the maternal education level had a significant impact on the overall QOL (high school: 3.02±0.85 vs. B.Sc.: 3.67±0.61, peducation had no significant effect. A multiple linear regression showed that the maternal education level had an independently significant association with the physical activity of the patients (p=0.02, CI: 1.4-6.25), and the paternal education level had an independently significant association with the well-being of the patients (p=0.02, CI: 0.43-5.36). In addition, the maternal education level (high school vs. B.Sc.) had a significant effect on physical activity, well-being, cognition, and behavior for all of the patients (peducation level (high school vs. B.Sc.) had no significant impact. However, in a comparison of high school vs. higher education, paternal education had a significant effect on patients' physical activity and well-being (peducation play a significant

  18. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  19. Integral nucleus-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Expressions approximating the experimental integral cross sections for elastic and inelastic interactions of light and heavy nuclei at the energies up to several GeV/nucleon are presented. The calculated cross sections are inside the corridor of experimental errors or very close to it. Described in detail FORTRAN code and a numerical example of the cross section approximation are also presented

  20. Validity of the Self- Mini Nutritional Assessment (Self- MNA) for the Evaluation of Nutritional Risk. A Cross- Sectional Study Conducted in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, L M; Marrocco, W; Marocco, C; Lenzi, A

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in the elderly especially in hospitals and in nursing homes, and even among the free-living elders the prevalence is not negligible (5-10%). Awareness towards malnutrition is still limited. The lack of time for nutritional assessment by the overcommitted healthcare personnel, including the general practitioners (GPs), may represent one possible explanation for limited recognition of malnutrition. Therefore, a self-administered instrument could be useful in raising alert on the GPs and allow early detection of malnutrition and early care provision. The aim of the present study was to analyze the validity of the Self-MNA that takes cue from the Mini Nutritional Assessment- Short Form (MNA-SF) and has been adapted to be self-administered by free-living elderly subjects. Participants were recruited from patients referring to the GP offices in Italy. Nutritional evaluation was performed through the administration of Full-MNA, MNA-SF and Self-MNA. The comorbidity level was assessed through the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). The level of difficulty in filling out the test was reported by the participants, and the time spent to complete the Self-MNA was also registered. A total of 226 subjects, 125 women and 101 men (75.1 ±8 and 75.3 ± 8 years old, respectively; p=0.89) were enrolled, and 214 (94.7%) of them completed the Self-MNA. According with the Full-MNA test score, 8.4% of women and 3.5% of men were classified as malnourished, whereas 32.7% of women and 31.4% of men were at risk of malnutrition. Agreement between Self-MNA and Full-MNA, and Self-MNA vs. MNA-SF was classified as "moderate" (k = 0.476 and 0.496 respectively; p < 0.001). Self-MNA showed a fair predictive value compared to the Full-MNA and MNA-SF tests (76.6 and 79.9%, respectively) with a barely adequate sensitivity (70.9 and 75.4%, respectively). The analysis of the characteristics of FN (false negative: subjects who were considered at risk of malnutrition

  1. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  2. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  3. Poster - 18: New features in EGSnrc for photon cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Elsayed; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Rogers, David W.O. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, National Research Council Canada, Carleton University (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To implement two new features in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. The first is an option to account for photonuclear attenuation, which can contribute a few percent to the total cross section at the higher end of the energy range of interest to medical physics. The second is an option to use exact NIST XCOM photon cross sections. Methods: For the first feature, the photonuclear total cross sections are generated from the IAEA evaluated data. In the current, first-order implementation, after a photonuclear event, there is no energy deposition or secondary particle generation. The implementation is validated against deterministic calculations and experimental measurements of transmission signals. For the second feature, before this work, if the user explicitly requested XCOM photon cross sections, EGSnrc still used its own internal incoherent scattering cross sections. These differ by up to 2% from XCOM data between 30 keV and 40 MeV. After this work, exact XCOM incoherent scattering cross sections are an available option. Minor interpolation artifacts in pair and triplet XCOM cross sections are also addressed. The default for photon cross section in EGSnrc is XCOM except for the new incoherent scattering cross sections, which have to be explicitly requested. The photonuclear, incoherent, pair and triplet data from this work are available for elements and compounds for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Results: Both features are implemented and validated in EGSnrc.Conclusions: The two features are part of the standard EGSnrc distribution as of version 4.2.3.2.

  4. Relativistic photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Lathrop, B.L.; Devaney, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature corrected cross sections, complementing the Klein-Nishina set, are developed for astrophysical, plasma, and transport applications. The set is obtained from a nonlinear least squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections, using the static formula as the asymptotic basis. Two parameters are sufficient (two decimal places) to fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0-100 keV in electron temperature, and 0-1 MeV in incident photon energy. The fit is made to the total cross sections, yet the parameters predict both total and differential scattering cross sections well. Corresponding differential energy cross sections are less accurate. An extended fit to (just) the total cross sections, over the temperature and energy range 0-5 MeV, is also described. (author)

  5. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs

  6. Scattering cross-section of an inhomogeneous plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaming Shi; Lijian Qiu; Ling, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Scattering of em waves by the plasma cylinder is of significance in radar target detection, plasma diagnosis, etc. This paper discusses the general method to calculate the scattering cross-section of em waves from a plasma cylinder which is radially inhomogeneous and infinitely long. Numerical results are also provided for several plasma density profiles. The effect of the electron density distribution on the scattering cross-section is investigated

  7. ZZ HPICE/F, Gamma Interaction Cross-Section Library in ENDF/B Format for Transport Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Nature of physical problem solved: Format: ENDF/B file 23; Number of groups: Point Cross Sections, energies 1 keV to 100 MeV. Nuclides: Z = 1-83, 86, 90, 92 an 94. Origin: Lawrence Livermore Laboratory; Weighting spectrum: none. The data are for use in general purpose gamma-ray transport codes. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has a continuing program to evaluate photon cross section. The data are given in units of (barns/atom) for energies 1 keV to 100 MeV and for elements Z = 1-83, 86, 90, 92 and 94. The MAT numbers are equal to the atomic numbers (Z). The following cross sections are tabulated: MT cross section type: 501 total; 502 coherent scattering; 504 incoherent scattering; 516 pair production (includes triplet); 603 photoelectric

  8. MIRANDA - a module based on multiregion resonance theory for generating cross sections within the AUS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1985-12-01

    MIRANDA is the cross-section generation module of the AUS neutronics code system used to prepare multigroup cross-section data which are pertinent to a particular study from a general purpose multigroup library of cross sections. Libraries have been prepared from ENDF/B which are suitable for thermal and fast fission reactors and for fusion blanket studies. The libraries include temperature dependent data, resonance cross sections represented by subgroup parameters and may contain photon as well as neutron data. The MIRANDA module includes a multiregion resonance calculation in slab, cylinder or cluster geometry, a homogeneous B L flux solution, and a group condensation facility. This report documents the modifications to an earlier version of MIRANDA and provides a complete user's manual

  9. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as {sup 86,88,89g}Zr, {sup 86g,87m,87g,88}Y, {sup 83g,85g}Sr, and {sup 83,84g}Rb in the {sup 89}Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  10. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  11. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  12. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  13. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Longitudinal Mediation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Laughlin, Kristine D; Martin, Monica J; Ferrer, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Statistical mediation analysis can help to identify and explain the mechanisms behind psychological processes. Examining a set of variables for mediation effects is a ubiquitous process in the social sciences literature; however, despite evidence suggesting that cross-sectional data can misrepresent the mediation of longitudinal processes, cross-sectional analyses continue to be used in this manner. Alternative longitudinal mediation models, including those rooted in a structural equation modeling framework (cross-lagged panel, latent growth curve, and latent difference score models) are currently available and may provide a better representation of mediation processes for longitudinal data. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, we provide a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models; second, we advocate using models to evaluate mediation effects that capture the temporal sequence of the process under study. Two separate empirical examples are presented to illustrate differences in the conclusions drawn from cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation analyses. Findings from these examples yielded substantial differences in interpretations between the cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models considered here. Based on these observations, researchers should use caution when attempting to use cross-sectional data in place of longitudinal data for mediation analyses.

  14. Cross-section methodology in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.

    1975-11-01

    The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated

  15. Cross-section methodology in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.

    1976-05-01

    The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated

  16. High ET jet cross sections at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugher, B.

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the Σ E T cross section at √s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at √s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown

  17. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  18. Recommended activation detector cross sections (RNDL-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the comparison between measured and calculated average cross sections in 5 benchmark experiments are presented. Calculations have been based on the data from 10 libraries of evaluated cross sections. The recommended library (RNDL-82) of the activation detector cross sections has been created on the basis of the comparison. RNDL-82, including 26 reactions, and the basic characteristics of the detectors are presented. (author)

  19. Total neutron cross section of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.

    1976-01-01

    The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes

  20. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1990-07-01

    Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)

  1. Differential cross section of atomic hydrogen photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratovich, V.D.; Ostrovskij, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Differential cross-section of atomic hydrogen photoeffect in external electric field was investigated in semiclassical approximation. Interference was described. It occurred due to the fact that infinite number of photoelectron trajectories leads to any point of classically accessible motion region. Interference picture can reach macroscopic sizes. The picture is determined by location of function nodes, describing finite electron motion along one of parabolic coordinates. The squares of external picture rings are determined only by electric field intensity in the general case at rather high energies. Quantum expression for photocurrent density was obtained using Green function in superposition of Coulomb and uniform field as well as semiclassical approximation. Possible applications of macroscopic interference picture to specification of atom ionization potentials, selective detection of atoms or particular molecules, as well as weak magnetic field and observation of Aaronov-Bom effect are discussed

  2. Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, R; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbirtrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell--Yan and prompt-photon production.

  3. Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonciani, Roberto; Catani, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Nason, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbitrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell-Yan and prompt-photon production

  4. Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greynat, David; Rafael, Eduardo de; Vulvert, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log 2  s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π + π − , π ± π 0 and π 0 π 0 scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours N c and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-N c QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-N c counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σ π ± π 0 total (s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-N c Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections

  5. A new approach to make collapsed cross section for burnup calculation of subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaka, Masayuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao

    2008-01-01

    A general-purpose transport and burnup code system for precise analysis of subcritical reactors like a fusion-fission (FF) hybrid reactor was developed and used for analyzing their performance. The FF hybrid reactor is a subcritical system, which has a concept of fusion reactor with a blanket region containing nuclear fuel and has been under discussion by author's group for years because the present burnup calculation system mainly consists of a general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B, a point burnup code ORIGEN2. JENDL-3.3 pointwise cross section library and JENDL Activation Cross Section File 96 were used as base cross section libraries to make group constant for burnup calculation. A new method has been proposed to make group constant for the burnup calculation as accurate as possible directly using output data of the neutron transport calculation by MCNP and evaluated nuclear data libraries. This method is strict and a general procedure to make one group cross sections in Monte Carlo calculations, while it takes very long computation time. Some speed-up techniques were discussed for the present group constant making process so as to decrease calculation time. Adoption of postprocessing to make group constant improved the calculation accuracy because of increasing number of cross sections to be updated in each burnup cycle. The present calculation system is capable of performing neutronics analysis of subcritical reactors more precise than our previous one. However, at the moment, it still takes long computation time to make group constants. Further speed-up techniques are now under investigation so as to apply the present system to neutronics design analysis for various subcritical systems. (author)

  6. Can Universities Profit from General Purpose Inventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The lack of control over downstream assets can hinder universities’ ability to extract rents from their inventive activities. We explore this possibility by assessing the relationship between invention generality and renewal decisions for a sample of Canadian nanotechnology patents. Our results s...

  7. Electron collision cross sections of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Susumu; Kuzuma, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new collision cross section set for mercury which revises the original set summarized by Hayashi in 1989. Hanne reported three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) determined from an electron beam experiment in 1988. As a matter for regret, no attentive consideration was given to combining these three excitation cross sections with the cross section set of Hayashi. Therefore we propose a new set where these three excitation cross sections are included. In this study, other two excitation cross sections (6 1 P 1 , 6 3 D 3 ) except for the three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) are taken from the original set of Hayashi. The momentum transfer cross section and the ionization collision cross section are also taken from Hayashi. A Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is applied for evaluating our new cross section set. The present results of the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient are compared to experimental values. Agreement is secured in relation to the electron drift velocity for 1.5 Td 2 ) is the reduced electric field, E (V/cm) is the electric field, N (1/cm 3 ) is the number density of mercury atoms at 0degC, 1 Torr, E/N is also equal to 2.828 x 10 -17 E/p 0 from the relation of the ideal gas equation, p 0 (Torr) is gas pressure at 0degC, 1 Torr=1.33322 x 10 -2 N/cm -2 and 10 -17 V/cm 2 is called 1 Td. Thus it is ensured that our new cross section set is reasonable enough to be used up to 100 eV when considering with the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient. (author)

  8. First measurement of the Rayleigh cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.

    2000-01-01

    Rayleigh cross section for N2, Ar and SF6 was performed using the technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The experiment was based on the assumption that scattering cross section is equal to the extinction in the absence of absorption. The theory explains the molecular origin of

  9. Total cross section of highly excited strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.

    1990-01-01

    The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  10. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  11. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  12. Model cross section calculations using LAHET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prael, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of LAHET is discussed. The effect of a multistage preequilibrium exciton model following the INC is examined for neutron emission benchmark calculations, as is the use of a Fermi breakup model for light nuclei rather than an evaporation model. Comparisons are made also for recent fission cross section experiments, and a discussion of helium production cross sections is presented

  13. Vibrational enhancement of total breakup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.; Lim, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the role of multi-two-body bound states, namely vibrational excitations, on total three-body breakup cross-sections. Total cross-sections are usually easy to measure, and they play a fundamental role in chemical kinetics. (orig.)

  14. Interference analysis of fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkov, S.A.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    The formula for the reaction cross-section based on the R-matrix formalism considering the interference between the two neighbouring resonances, referred to the same value of total momentum was used for the analysis of the cross-section of resonance neutron induced fission of 230Pu. The experimental resolution and thermal motion of the target nuclei were accounted for numerical integration

  15. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  16. Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Thomas, D.K.; Dailey, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were 241 Am and 244 Cm in the forms of Am 2 O 3 , Cm 2 O 3 , and Am 6 Cm(RE) 7 O 21 , where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program

  17. Cross-sectional imaging of the Fontan circuit in adult congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.; Thorne, S.; Clift, P.; Holloway, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Fontan circuit is the result of a palliative surgical procedure that is performed in patients with a functionally single ventricle cardiac anomaly. The success of this operation has resulted in an increasing population of adults with this anatomy and physiology. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the general radiologist with the expected anatomy and cross-sectional imaging findings, highlight special imaging considerations, and examine the common complications that are encountered in this group of patients

  18. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  19. Comparative analysis among several cross section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author) [pt

  20. Activation cross section data file, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Nobuhiro; Iijima, Shungo.

    1989-09-01

    To evaluate the radioisotope productions due to the neutron irradiation in fission of fusion reactors, the data for the activation cross sections ought to be provided. It is planning to file more than 2000 activation cross sections at final. In the current year, the neutron cross sections for 14 elements from Ni to W have been calculated and evaluated in the energy range 10 -5 to 20 MeV. The calculations with a simplified-input nuclear cross section calculation system SINCROS were described, and another method of evaluation which is consistent with the JENDL-3 were also mentioned. The results of cross section calculation are in good agreement with experimental data and they were stored in the file 8, 9 and 10 of ENDF/B format. (author)

  1. 7 CFR 225.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 225.1 Section 225.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM General § 225.1 General purpose and scope... primary purpose of the Program is to provide food service to children from needy areas during periods when...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  3. 7 CFR 2902.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose de-icers. 2902.37 Section 2902.37... Items § 2902.37 General purpose de-icers. (a) Definition. Chemical products (e.g., salt, fluids) that... preference for qualifying biobased general purpose de-icers. By that date, Federal agencies that have the...

  4. 7 CFR 285.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 285.1 Section 285.1... COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO § 285.1 General purpose and scope. This part describes the general terms and... government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the purpose of designing and conducting a nutrition...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6124 - General purpose computers expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose computers expense. 32.6124... General purpose computers expense. This account shall include the costs of personnel whose principal job is the physical operation of general purpose computers and the maintenance of operating systems. This...

  6. 7 CFR 246.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 246.1 Section 246.1... General § 246.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of... health by reason of inadequate nutrition or health care, or both. The purpose of the Program is to...

  7. Is the quasielastic pion cross section really bigger than the pion-nucleus reaction cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that soft pion charge exchanges may increase the inclusive (π + ,π 0 ') cross section, relative to the total quasielastic (π + ,π + ') cross section, by as much as a factor of two. 4 references

  8. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  9. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients' attendances in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors.

  10. Disentangling the determinants of interest and willingness-to-pay for breast cancer susceptibility testing in the general population: a cross-sectional Web-based survey among women of Québec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin-Bougie, Jolyane; Amara, Nabil; Bouchard, Karine; Simard, Jacques; Dorval, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To identify common and specific individual factors that favour or impede women’s interest in and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for breast cancer susceptibility testing (BCST) and to identify the most impactful factors on both outcome measures. Design and methods This study used a self-administered cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included hypothetical scenarios about the availability of a new genetic test for breast cancer. Participants French-speaking women of the general population of Québec (Canada), aged between 35 and 69 years, were identified from a Web-based panel (2410 met the selection criteria, 1160 were reached and 1031 completed the survey). Measures The outcomes are the level of interest in and the range of WTP for BCST. Three categories of individual factors identified in the literature were used as potential explanatory factors, that is, demographic, clinical and psychosocial. Results Descriptive statistics indicated that the vast majority of sampled women are interested in BCST (90%). Among those, more than half of them are willing-to-pay for such a test (57%). The regression models pointed out several factors associated with both outcomes (eg, age, income, family history, locus of control-powerful others) and marginal effects were used to highlight the most impactful factors for each outcome. Conclusion The results of this study provide a proxy of the readiness of women of the general population to use and to pay for BCST. They also offer insights for developing inclusive and specific strategies to foster informed decision-making and guide the services offered by health organisations corresponding to women’s preferences and needs. PMID:29487071

  11. Disentangling the determinants of interest and willingness-to-pay for breast cancer susceptibility testing in the general population: a cross-sectional Web-based survey among women of Québec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin-Bougie, Jolyane; Amara, Nabil; Bouchard, Karine; Simard, Jacques; Dorval, Michel

    2018-02-27

    To identify common and specific individual factors that favour or impede women's interest in and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for breast cancer susceptibility testing (BCST) and to identify the most impactful factors on both outcome measures. This study used a self-administered cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included hypothetical scenarios about the availability of a new genetic test for breast cancer. French-speaking women of the general population of Québec (Canada), aged between 35 and 69 years, were identified from a Web-based panel (2410 met the selection criteria, 1160 were reached and 1031 completed the survey). The outcomes are the level of interest in and the range of WTP for BCST. Three categories of individual factors identified in the literature were used as potential explanatory factors, that is, demographic, clinical and psychosocial. Descriptive statistics indicated that the vast majority of sampled women are interested in BCST (90%). Among those, more than half of them are willing-to-pay for such a test (57%). The regression models pointed out several factors associated with both outcomes (eg, age, income, family history, locus of control-powerful others) and marginal effects were used to highlight the most impactful factors for each outcome. The results of this study provide a proxy of the readiness of women of the general population to use and to pay for BCST. They also offer insights for developing inclusive and specific strategies to foster informed decision-making and guide the services offered by health organisations corresponding to women's preferences and needs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. 7 CFR 250.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 250.1 Section 250.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.1 General purpose and...

  13. Electron-impact cross sections of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...

  15. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  16. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  17. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  18. Differential Top Cross-section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  19. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  20. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  1. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Somogyi, Gabor; Trocsanyi, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of [1-4], over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  2. Are general and strategic measures of organizational context and leadership associated with knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practices in public behavioral health settings? A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Byron J; Mandell, David S; Hadley, Trevor R; Rubin, Ronnie M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-05-12

    Examining the role of modifiable barriers and facilitators is a necessary step toward developing effective implementation strategies. This study examines whether both general (organizational culture, organizational climate, and transformational leadership) and strategic (implementation climate and implementation leadership) organizational-level factors predict therapist-level determinants of implementation (knowledge of and attitudes toward evidence-based practices). Within the context of a system-wide effort to increase the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and recovery-oriented care, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of 19 child-serving agencies in the City of Philadelphia, including 23 sites, 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators. Organizational variables included characteristics such as EBP initiative participation, program size, and proportion of independent contractor therapists; general factors such as organizational culture and climate (Organizational Social Context Measurement System) and transformational leadership (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire); and strategic factors such as implementation climate (Implementation Climate Scale) and implementation leadership (Implementation Leadership Scale). Therapist-level variables included demographics, attitudes toward EBPs (Evidence-Based Practice Attitudes Scale), and knowledge of EBPs (Knowledge of Evidence-Based Services Questionnaire). We used linear mixed-effects regression models to estimate the associations between the predictor (organizational characteristics, general and strategic factors) and dependent (knowledge of and attitudes toward EBPs) variables. Several variables were associated with therapists' knowledge of EBPs. Clinicians in organizations with more proficient cultures or higher levels of transformational leadership (idealized influence) had greater knowledge of EBPs; conversely, clinicians in organizations with more resistant cultures

  3. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  4. Calculation of the resonance cross section functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipicevic, K.F.

    1967-11-01

    This paper includes the procedure for calculating the Doppler broadened line shape functions ψ and χ which are needed for calculation of resonance cross section functions. The obtained values are given in tables

  5. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  6. Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.

  7. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  8. Calculation of the resonance cross section functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slipicevic, K F [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1967-11-15

    This paper includes the procedure for calculating the Doppler broadened line shape functions {psi} and {chi} which are needed for calculation of resonance cross section functions. The obtained values are given in tables.

  9. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  10. Tachyonic ionization cross sections of hydrogenic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschitz, Roman [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagami-yama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2005-03-11

    Transition rates for induced and spontaneous tachyon radiation in hydrogenic systems as well as the transversal and longitudinal ionization cross sections are derived. We investigate the interaction of the superluminal radiation field with matter in atomic bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Estimates are given for Ly-{alpha} transitions effected by superluminal quanta in hydrogen-like ions. The tachyonic photoelectric effect is scrutinized, in the Born approximation and at the ionization threshold. The angular maxima occur at different scattering angles in the transversal and longitudinal cross sections, which can be used to sift out longitudinal tachyonic quanta in a photon flux. We calculate the tachyonic ionization and recombination cross sections for Rydberg states and study their asymptotic scaling with respect to the principal quantum number. At the ionization threshold of highly excited states of order n {approx} 10{sup 4}, the longitudinal cross section starts to compete with photoionization, in recombination even at lower levels.

  11. a cross-sectional analytic study 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014. ... There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct ...

  12. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonchev A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  13. 7 CFR 277.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 277.1 Section 277.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... AGENCIES § 277.1 General purpose and scope. (a) Purpose. This part establishes uniform requirements for the...

  14. Activities of the JILA Atomic Collisions Cross Sections Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The JILA Atomic Collisions Cross Sections Data Center compiles, critically evaluates, and reviews cross sections and rates for low energy (<100 keV) collisions of electrons, photons, and heavy particles with atoms, ions, and simple molecules. Reports are prepared which provide easily accessible recommended data with error limits, list the fundamental literature related to specific topics, identify regions where data are missing, and point out inconsistencies in existing data. The general methodology used in producing evaluated compilations is described. Recently completed projects and work in progress are reported

  15. Intubation simulation with a cross-sectional visual guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chi-Hyoung; Kang, Chul Won; Lee, Chang Ha

    2013-01-01

    We present an intubation simulation with deformable objects and a cross-sectional visual guidance using a general haptic device. Our method deforms the tube model when it collides with the human model. Mass-Spring model with the Euler integration is used for the tube deformation. For the trainee's more effective understanding of the intubation process, we provide a cross-sectional view of the oral cavity and the tube. Our system also applies a stereoscopic rendering to improve the depth perception and the reality of the simulation.

  16. Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yixin.

    1985-01-01

    The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)

  17. Heisenberg rise of total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhela, V.V.; Yushchenko, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that on the basis of the original idea of Heisenberg on the quasiclassical picture of extended particle interactions one can construct a satisfactory description of the total cross sections, elastic cross sections, elastic diffractive slopes and mean charged multiplicities in the cm energy range from 5 to 900 GeV, and produce reasonable extrapolations up to several tens of TeV. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  19. Double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T. M.; Townsend, L. W.

    2004-01-01

    Current computational tools used for space or accelerator shielding studies transport energetic heavy ions either using a one-dimensional straight-ahead approximation or by dissociating the nuclei into protons and neutrons and then performing neutron and proton transport using Monte Carlo techniques. Although the heavy secondary particles generally travel close to the beam direction, a proper treatment of the light ions produced in these reactions requires that double-differential cross sections should be utilised. Unfortunately, no fundamental nuclear model capable of serving as an event generator to provide these cross sections for all ions and energies of interest exists currently. Herein, we present a model for producing double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections that uses heavy-ion fragmentation yields produced by the NUCFRG2 fragmentation code coupled with a model of energy degradation in nucleus-nucleus collisions and systematics of momentum distributions to provide energy and angular dependences of the heavy-ion production. (authors)

  20. Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions

  1. 7 CFR 253.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 253.1 Section 253.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.1 General purpose and scope. This part describes the terms...

  2. 7 CFR 1485.10 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 1485.10 Section 1485.10... FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.10 General purpose and scope. (a.../Market Access Program (EIP/MAP). It also establishes the general terms and conditions applicable to MAP...

  3. 7 CFR 215.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 215.1 Section 215.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces the policies and prescribes the general regulations with respect to the Special Milk...

  4. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 248.1 Section 248.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of Agriculture shall carry...

  5. 46 CFR 7.1 - General purpose of boundary lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose of boundary lines. 7.1 Section 7.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES General § 7.1 General purpose of boundary lines. The lines in this part delineate the application of the...

  6. 7 CFR 251.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 251.1 Section 251.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces the policies and prescribes the regulations necessary to...

  7. 7 CFR 226.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 226.1 Section 226.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM General § 226.1 General purpose and...

  8. ANALYTIC FITS FOR PARTIAL PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS-SECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; YAKOVLEV, DG

    We present a compact, uniform and complete set of analytic fits to the partial Hartree-Dirac-Slater photoionization cross sections for the ground state shells of all atoms and ions of elements from H to Zn (Z less-than-or-equal-to 30). Comparison with experiment and theory demonstrates generally

  9. Cross sectional evaluation of awareness of prevention of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional evaluation of awareness of prevention of dental caries among general paediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. ... Pre‑tested, structured and self administered questionnaire was used in the survey and data analysis was done by using 'SPSS' software version 16.0 (IBM, United States). Results: Our study ...

  10. A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Gougar, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.

  11. Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greynat, David [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli “Federico II”,Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rafael, Eduardo de [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS,CPT, UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Université de Toulon, CNRS,CPT, UMR 7332, 83957 La Garde (France); Vulvert, Grégory [Departament de Física Teórica, IFIC,CSIC - Universitat de València, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain)

    2014-03-24

    We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log{sup 2} s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π{sup +}π{sup −}, π{sup ±}π{sup 0} and π{sup 0}π{sup 0} scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours N{sub c} and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-N{sub c} QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-N{sub c} counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σ{sub π{sup ±}π{sup 0total}}(s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-N{sub c} Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections.

  12. Neutrino-nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino-nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors, beams

  13. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  14. Role of ''standard'' fine-group cross section libraries in shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbin, C.R.; Roussin, R.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Cullen, D.E.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.

    1977-01-01

    The Divisions of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE) and Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have jointly sponsored the development of a 171 neutron, 36 gamma ray group pseudo composition independent cross section library based upon ENDF/B-IV. This library (named VITAMIN-C and packaged by RSIC as DLC-41) is intended to be generally applicable to fusion blanket and LMFBR core and shield analysis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate this library as a possible candidate for specific designation as a ''standard'' in light of American Nuclear Society standards for fine-group cross section data sets. The rationale and qualification procedure for such a standard are discussed. Finally, current limitations and anticipated extensions to this processed data file are described

  15. SFERXS, Photoabsorption, Coherent, Incoherent Scattering Cross-Sections Function for Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Mtz de la Fuente, O.; Herranz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: The use of electromagnetic radiation cross-sections in radiation shielding calculations and more generally in transport theory applications actually requires an interpolation between values which are tabulated for certain values of the energy. In order to facilitate this process and to reduce the computer memory requirements, we have developed, by a least squares method, a set of functions which represents the cross-sections for the photoelectric absorption, the coherent (Rayleigh) and the incoherent (Compton) scattering (1). For this purpose we have accepted as true values the ones tabulated by Storm and Israel (2) for the photoeffect, by Hubbell et Al. (3) for the incoherent scattering and by Hubbell and Overbo (4) for the coherent scattering

  16. Cross sections of the lumped fission products for the AMZ library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.; Corcueca, R.P.; Nascimento, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of the lumped fission product cross section for the AMZ library is described. For this purpose 100 nuclides were selected. The cross sections for each nuclide were generated by the NJOY code with evaluated nuclear data from ENDF/B-V, complemented with ENDF/B-IV data. A comparison is performed between the data obtained and the lumped fission product cross section of JFS-II [pt

  17. 7 CFR 245.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 245.1 Section 245.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... SCHOOLS § 245.1 General purpose and scope. (a) This part established the responsibilities of State...

  18. 7 CFR 220.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 220.1 Section 220.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.1 General purpose and scope. This part...

  19. 7 CFR 281.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 281.1 Section 281.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESERVATIONS § 281.1 General purpose and scope. (a) These regulations govern the operation of the Food Stamp...

  20. 7 CFR 1728.10 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 1728.10 Section 1728.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1728.10 General purpose and...

  1. 7 CFR 235.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 235.1 Section 235.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.1 General purpose and scope...

  2. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose reagent. 864.4010 Section 864.4010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2124 - General purpose computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose computers. 32.2124 Section 32... General purpose computers. (a) This account shall include the original cost of computers and peripheral... financial, statistical, or other business analytical reports; preparation of payroll, customer bills, and...

  4. Standalone General Purpose Data Logger Design and Implementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design of a general purpose data logger that is compatible with a variety of transducers, potentially permitting the measurement and recording of a wide range of phenomena. The recorded data can be retrieved to a PC via an RS-232 serial port. The standalone general purpose data logger ...

  5. Homogenized group cross sections by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Marck, S. C.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.

    2006-01-01

    Homogenized group cross sections play a large role in making reactor calculations efficient. Because of this significance, many codes exist that can calculate these cross sections based on certain assumptions. However, the application to the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, the limitations of such codes imply that the core calculations would become less accurate when using homogenized group cross sections (HGCS). Therefore we developed a method to calculate HGCS based on a Monte Carlo program, for which we chose MCNP. The implementation involves an addition to MCNP, and a set of small executables to perform suitable averaging after the MCNP run(s) have completed. Here we briefly describe the details of the method, and we report on two tests we performed to show the accuracy of the method and its implementation. By now, this method is routinely used in preparation of the cycle to cycle core calculations for HFR. (authors)

  6. Partial cross sections near the higher resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk-Vairant, P.; Valladas, G.

    1961-07-01

    As a continuation of the report given at the 10. Rochester Conference, recent measurements of charge-exchange cross section and π 0 production in π - -p interactions are presented here. Section 1 gives a summary of the known results for the elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections. Section 2 presents the behavior of the cross sections in the T=1/2 state, in order to discuss the resonances at 600 and 890 MeV. Section 3 discusses the charge-exchange scattering and the interference term between the T=1/2 and T=3/2 states. Section 4 presents some comments on inelastic processes. This report is reprinted from 'Reviews of Modern Physics', Vol. 33, No. 3, 362-367, July, 1961

  7. Photoproton cross section for /sup 19/F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Kawamura, N; Oikawa, S; Uegaki, J I

    1975-02-01

    Proton energy spectra have been measured at 90/sup 0/ for the /sup 19/F(e,e'p)/sup 18/O reaction in the giant resonance region. The (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) differential cross sections are extracted from the proton energy spectra by using virtual-photon spectra. The integrated differential cross section of the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) reactions are 1.80+-0.27 and 0.50+-0.45 MeV-mb/sr, respectively. The results are discussed with the shell model theory by comparing with the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) cross section of the neighboring 4n-nucleus /sup 20/Ne. A significant increase of the proton yield leaving the non-ground states is found at 25 MeV of the incident electron energy. This is discussed in terms of the core excitation effect.

  8. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  9. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN PH-TH, on leave from University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of HAS, H-4001 P.O.Box 51 (Hungary)

    2010-08-15

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  10. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  11. Cross sections for charm production by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushida, N [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kondo, T [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Fujioka, G; Fukushima, J; Takahashi, Y; Tatsumi, S; Yokoyama, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Homma, Y; Tsuzuki, Y [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Bahk, S

    1983-02-03

    The production of charmed particles has been measured using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative cross section for charged current charmed particle production is sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/c)/sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/) = 6.5 +- 1.9/1.8%, and the energy dependence of the cross section is presented. One event with charm pair production was observed. A limit of sigma(v -> ..mu..canti c)/sigma(v -> ..mu..c) < 6% (90% CL) is found for the ratio of charged current pair and single charm production.

  12. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  13. Positron total scattering cross-sections for alkali atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Positron-impact total scattering cross-sections for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr atoms are calculated in the energy range from 5-5000 eV employing modified spherical complex optical potential formalism. The main aim of this work is to apply this formalism to the less studied positron-target collision systems. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data, wherever available. In general, the present data show overall agreement and consistency with other results. Furthermore, we have done a comparative study of the results to investigate the effect of atomic size on the cross-sections as we descend through the group in the periodic table. We have also plotted a correlation graph of the present total cross-sections with polarizability and number of target electrons. The two correlation plots confirm the credibility and consistency of the present results. Besides, this is the first theoretical attempt to report positron-impact total cross-sections of alkali atoms over such a wide energy range.

  14. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Cao, P; Qi, X; Yu, T; Ji, X; Xie, L; An, Q

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  15. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  16. Validation of evaluated neutron standard cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, S.; Golashvili, T.

    2008-01-01

    Some steps of the validation and verification of the new version of the evaluated neutron standard cross sections were carried out. In particular: -) the evaluated covariance data was checked for physical consistency, -) energy-dependent evaluated cross-sections were tested in most important neutron benchmark field - 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron field, -) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation for preparation of specialized libraries of the neutron standards was verified. The results of the validation and verification of the neutron standards can be summarized as follows: a) the covariance data of the evaluated neutron standards is physically consistent since all the covariance matrices of the evaluated cross sections are positive definite, b) the 252 Cf spectrum averaged standard cross-sections are in agreement with the evaluated integral data (except for 197 Au(n,γ) reaction), c) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation was tested, as a result a specialized library of neutron standards in the ABBN 28-group structure was prepared for use in reactor applications. (authors)

  17. Stability of tokamaks with elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.

    1978-08-01

    Fixed boundary n = 1 MHD instabilities are studied computationally as a function of diamagnetism (β/sub pol/) and current profile in elongated toroidal equilibria (1 2) or a diamagnetic plasma (β/sub pol/ > 1) with only a mildly elongated cross section

  18. Modelisation of the fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    The neutron cross sections of four nuclear systems (n+ 235 U, n+ 233 U, n+ 241 Am and n+ 237 Np) are studied in the present document. The target nuclei of the first case, like 235 U and 239 Pu, have a large fission cross section after the absorption of thermal neutrons. These nuclei are called 'fissile' nuclei. The other type of nuclei, like 237 Np and 241 Am, fission mostly with fast neutrons, which exceed the fission threshold energy. These types of nuclei are called 'fertile'. The compound nuclei of the fertile nuclei have a binding energy higher than the fission barrier, while for the fissile nuclei the binding energy is lower than the fission barrier. In this work, the neutron induced cross sections for both types of nuclei are evaluated in the fast energy range. The total, reaction and shape-elastic cross sections are calculated by the coupled channel method of the optical model code ECIS, while the compound nucleus mechanism are treated by the statistical models implemented in the codes STATIS, GNASH and TALYS. The STATIS code includes a refined model of the fission process. Results from the theoretical calculations are compared with data retrieved from the experimental data base EXFOR. (author) [fr

  19. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  20. (, 3) Differential cross section of He

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The angular distribution of the five-fold differential cross section for the electron impact double ionization of He (21 ) and He (23 ) has been studied. The kinematical conditions for maxima/minima in the angular distribution for the two cases have been compared. The two-step process for the double ionization is found to ...

  1. Precise relative cross sections for np scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Jourdan, J.; Masson, G.; Qin, L.M.; Robinson, S.; Sick, I.; Tuccillo, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present data on the differential cross section for neutron-proton scattering for an incident neutron energy of 67 MeV. These data allow a precise determination of the 1 P 1 phase which, in phase-shift analyses, is strongly correlated with the S-D amplitude which we are measuring via different observables. ((orig.))

  2. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  3. LAMBDA p total cross-section measurement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    A view of the apparatus used for the LAMBDA p total cross-section measurement at the time of its installation. The hyperons decaying into a proton and a pion in the conical tank in front were detected in the magnet spectrometer in the upper half of the picture. A novel detection technique using exclusively multiwire proportional chambers was employed.

  4. Total cross sections and elastic scattering at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, K.J.

    1985-12-05

    The need is discussed of a special purpose detector for the measurement of elastic scattering at the SSC. The detector would cover as small a solid angle as is practical. Two techniques are described briefly to measure total cross sections at hadron storage rings. The direct method is to measure the interaction rate in an IR of known luminosity - a method that gets more difficult increasing energy. A second method is to use the optical theorem. 6 refs., 1 fig. (LEW)

  5. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.

    2011-01-01

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  6. SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE

  7. A general purpose code for Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.; Rochester Univ., NY

    1984-01-01

    A general-purpose computer code MONTHY has been written to perform Monte Carlo simulations of physical systems. To achieve a high degree of flexibility the code is organized like a general purpose computer, operating on a vector describing the time dependent state of the system under simulation. The instruction set of the 'computer' is defined by the user and is therefore adaptable to the particular problem studied. The organization of MONTHY allows iterative and conditional execution of operations. (orig.)

  8. Efficient probabilistic model checking on general purpose graphic processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.; Sulewski, D.; Pasareanu, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    We present algorithms for parallel probabilistic model checking on general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs). For this purpose we exploit the fact that some of the basic algorithms for probabilistic model checking rely on matrix vector multiplication. Since this kind of linear algebraic

  9. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Simulation for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    wind turbines are unsafe to operate. Also, helical wind turbines generally have less environmental concerns such as killing birds , especially in...SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES by Cuong Ton June 2013 Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn Second Reader: Ric Romero THIS PAGE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Cuong Ton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  10. Testing for Unit Roots in Small Panels with Short-run and Long-run Cross-sectional Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoosoon Chang; Wonho Song

    2009-01-01

    An IV approach, using as instruments non-linear transformations of the lagged levels, is explored to test for unit roots in panels with general dependency and heterogeneity across cross-sectional units. We allow not only for the cross-sectional dependencies of innovations, but also for the presence of co-integration across cross-sectional levels. Unbalanced panels and panels with differing individual short-run dynamics and cross-sectionally related dynamics are also permitted. We also more ca...

  11. 7 CFR 227.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management training of school foodservice personnel, and (c) the conduct of nutrition education activities in... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.1 General purpose...

  12. 24 CFR 902.1 - Purpose and general description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assessments. The Real Estate Assessment Center (REAC) is responsible for assessing and scoring the performance... uniform and objective protocols for the physical inspection of properties and the financial assessment of... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 902.1 Purpose and general...

  13. Covariance matrices for nuclear cross sections derived from nuclear model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The growing need for covariance information to accompany the evaluated cross section data libraries utilized in contemporary nuclear applications is spurring the development of new methods to provide this information. Many of the current general purpose libraries of evaluated nuclear data used in applications are derived either almost entirely from nuclear model calculations or from nuclear model calculations benchmarked by available experimental data. Consequently, a consistent method for generating covariance information under these circumstances is required. This report discusses a new approach to producing covariance matrices for cross sections calculated using nuclear models. The present method involves establishing uncertainty information for the underlying parameters of nuclear models used in the calculations and then propagating these uncertainties through to the derived cross sections and related nuclear quantities by means of a Monte Carlo technique rather than the more conventional matrix error propagation approach used in some alternative methods. The formalism to be used in such analyses is discussed in this report along with various issues and caveats that need to be considered in order to proceed with a practical implementation of the methodology

  14. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  15. Jet cross sections in polarized photon-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    de Florian, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    We present a computation of one- and two-jet cross sections in polarized photon-hadron collisions, which is accurate to next-to-leading order in QCD. Our results can be used to compute photoproduction cross sections in electron-proton scattering. To this purpose, we investigate the structure of the polarized Weizsaecker-Williams function, where we include a universal, non-logarithmic term, neglected in the literature. We construct a Monte Carlo code, within the framework of the subtraction method, and we use it to study the phenomenology of jet production in the energy range relevant to HERA. In particular, we investigate the perturbative stability of our results, and we discuss the possibility of constraining polarized parton densities of the proton and the photon using jet data.

  16. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  17. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  18. Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He + impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H 2 O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied

  19. Electron-collision cross sections for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

  20. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  1. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  2. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  3. Test of RIPL-2 cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2002-01-01

    The new levels and optical segments and microscopic HF-BCS level densities (part of the density segment) were tested in practical calculations of cross sections for neutron induced reactions on 22 targets (40-Ca, 47-Ti, 52-Cr, 55-Mn, 58-Ni, 63-Cu, 71-Ga, 80-Se, 92-Mo, 93-Nb, 100-Mo, 109-Ag, 114-Cd, 124-Sn, 127-I, 133-Cs, 140-Ce, 153-Eu, 169-Tm, 186-W, 197-Au, 208-Pb). For each target all reactions involving up to 3 neutron, 1 proton and 1 α-particle emissions (subject to actual reaction thresholds) were considered in the incident energy range from 1 keV up to 20 MeV (in some cases up to 27 MeV). In addition, total, elastic, and neutron capture cross sections were calculated

  4. Double differential cross sections of ethane molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Partial and total double differential cross sections corresponding to various cations C2H6+, C2H4+, C2H5+, C2H3+, C2H2+, CH3+, H+, CH2+, C2H+, H2+, CH+, H3+, C2+ and C+ produced during the direct and dissociative electron ionization of Ethane (C2H6) molecule have been calculated at fixed impinging electron energies 200 and 500eV by using modified Jain-Khare semi empirical approach. The calculation for double differential cross sections is made as a function of energy loss suffered by primary electron and angle of incident. To the best of my knowledge no other data is available for the comparison.

  5. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies

  6. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures

  8. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  9. Total dissociation cross section of halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formanek, J. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni; Lombard, R.J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1996-10-01

    Calculations of the total dissociation cross section is performed in the impact parameter representation. The case of {sup 11}Be and {sup 11}Li loosing one and two neutron(s), respectively, by collision on a {sup 12}C target, which remains in its ground state are discussed. The results are found to depend essentially on the rms radius of the halo wave function. (author). 12 refs.

  10. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  11. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  12. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  13. Capture cross sections for very heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Ntshangase, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In intermediate-mass systems, collective excitations of the target and projectile can greatly enhance the sub-barrier capture cross section σ cap by giving rise to a distribution of Coulomb barriers. For such systems, capture essentially leads directly to fusion (formation of a compound nucleus (CN)), which then decays through the emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles). Thus the evaporation-residue (ER) cross section is essentially equal to σ cap . For heavier systems the experimental situation is significantly more complicated due to the presence of quasifission (QF) (rapid separation into two fragments before the CN is formed) and by fusion-fission (FF) of the CN itself. Thus three cross sections need to be measured in order to evaluate σ cap . Although the ER essentially recoil along the beam direction. QF and FF fragments are scattered to all angles and require the measurement of angular distribution in order to obtain the excitation function and barrier distribution for capture. Two other approaches to this problem exist. If QF is not important, one can still measure just the ER cross section and try to reconstruct the corresponding σ cap through use of an evaporation-model code that takes account of the FF degree of freedom. Some earlier results on σ cap obtained in this way will be re-analyzed with detail coupled-channels calculations, and the extra-push phenomenon discussed. One may also try to obtain σ cap by exploiting unitarity, that is, by measuring instead the flux of particles corresponding to quasielastic (QE) scattering from the Coulomb barrier. Some new QE results obtained for the 86 Kr + 208 Pb system at iThemba LABS in South Africa will be presented [ru

  14. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central (|η| ≤ 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D null based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 pb -1 ) and 1994-1995 (90 pb -1 ) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made

  15. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS-bar) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in e + e - annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-to-next-to-leading order.

  16. Atomic-process cross section data, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    Compiled by the Data Study Group, the data are intended for fusion plasma physics research. Cross sections of the latest experimental and theoretic studies cover the processes involving H,D,T as principal plasma materials as well as photons and electrons: emission and absorption of electromagnetic wave, electron collision, ion collision, recombination, neutral atom mutual collision, etc. Edition is so made to enable the future renewal by users. (J.P.N.)

  17. Neutron capture cross section of ^243Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for neutron capture cross section measurement on ^243Am. The high granularity of DANCE (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4π geometry) enables the efficient detection of prompt gamma-rays following neutron capture. DANCE is located on the 20.26 m neutron flight path 14 (FP14) at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The methods and techniques established in [1] were used for the determination of the ^243Am neutron capture cross section. The cross sections were obtained in the range of neutron energies from 0.02 eV to 400 keV. The resonance region was analyzed using SAMMY7 and resonance parameters were extracted. The results will be compared to existing evaluations and calculations. Work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. [4pt] [1] M. Jandel et al., Phys. Rev. C78, 034609 (2008)

  18. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  19. Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility

  20. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trócsányi, Z.

    2010-08-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), arXiv:hep-ph/0502226; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, (2006), arXiv:hep-ph/0609041; G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609042; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609043] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  1. Numerical computation of discrete differential scattering cross sections for Monte Carlo charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Palmer, Todd S.; Urbatsch, Todd J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Generation of discrete differential scattering angle and energy loss cross sections. • Gauss–Radau quadrature utilizing numerically computed cross section moments. • Development of a charged particle transport capability in the Milagro IMC code. • Integration of cross section generation and charged particle transport capabilities. - Abstract: We investigate a method for numerically generating discrete scattering cross sections for use in charged particle transport simulations. We describe the cross section generation procedure and compare it to existing methods used to obtain discrete cross sections. The numerical approach presented here is generalized to allow greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data computed with this method compare favorably with discrete data generated with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Milagro. We verify the implementation of charged particle transport in Milagro with analytic test problems and we compare calculated electron depth–dose profiles with another particle transport code that has a validated electron transport capability. Finally, we investigate the integration of the new discrete cross section generation method with the charged particle transport capability in Milagro.

  2. Sensitivity of LWR fuel cycle costs to uncertainties in detailed thermal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Becker, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Cross sections averaged over the thermal energy (< 1 or 2 eV) group have been shown to have an important economic role for light-water reactors. Cost implications of thermal cross section uncertainties at the few-group level were reported earlier. When it has been determined that costs are sensitive to a specific thermal-group cross section, it becomes desirable to determine how specific energy-dependent cross sections influence fuel cycle costs. Multigroup cross-section sensitivity coefficients vary with fuel exposure. By changing the shape of a cross section displayed on a view-tube through an interactive graphics system, one can compute the change in few-group cross section using the exposure dependent sensitivity coefficients. With the changed exposure dependent few-group cross section, a new fuel cycle cost is computed by a sequence of batch depletion, core analysis, and fuel batch cost code modules. Fuel cycle costs are generally most sensitive to cross section uncertainties near the peak of the hardened Maxwellian flux

  3. Methodology for safety optimization of highway cross-sections for horizontal curves with restricted sight distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  5. Effect of Coulomb screening on deuterium-deuterium fusion cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunjin

    1991-01-01

    The popular Gamow formula for the deuterium-deuterium fusion cross-section is generalized to take into account the Coulomb screening effect. The generalized formula has been used to discuss the fusion process occurring in the metal medium

  6. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. It is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.

  7. Optimization of negative central shear discharges in shaped cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S., Taylor, T.S., Casper, T.A., Rice, B.W.; Greene, J.M., Greenfield, C.M., La Haye, R.J., Lao, L.L., Lee, B.J.; Miller, R.L., Ren, C., Strait, E.J., Tritz, K.; Rettig, C.L., Rhodes, T.L.; Sauter, O.

    1996-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analyses of Negative Central Shear (NCS) equilibria have revealed a new understanding of the limiting MHD instabilities in NCS experiments. Ideal stability calculations show a synergistic effect between cross section shape and pressure profile optimization; strong shaping and broader pressure independently lead to moderately higher Β limits, but broadening of the pressure profile in a strongly dee-shaped cross- section leads to a dramatic increase in the ideal Β limit. Localized resistive interchange (RI) modes can be unstable in the negative shear region and are most restrictive for peaked pressure profiles. Resistive global modes can also be destabilized significantly below the ideal P limit. Experiments largely confirm the general trends, and diagnostic measurements and numerical stability calculations are found to be in good qualitative agreement. Observed disruptions in NCS discharges with L-mode edge and strongly peaked pressure, appear to be initiated by interactions between the RI, and the global ideal and resistive modes

  8. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Kaeppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-03-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134 Ba, 135 Ba, 136 Ba, and 137 Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π Barium Fluoride Detector. Several runs have been performed under different experimental conditions to study the systematic uncertainties, which resulted mainly from the large ratios of total to capture cross sections of up to 400. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ∼3%, an improvement by factors of five to eight compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134 Ba and 136 Ba the N s ratio was determined to 0.875±0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134 Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T 8 =2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the N s systematics in the mass range A=120 to 150 is achieved. This allows for a more reliable separation of s- and r-process yields, resulting in an improved assignment of the respective contributions to elemental barium that is required for comparison with stellar observations. (orig.) [de

  9. Monostatic radar cross section of flying wing delta planforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevoor Meenakshisundaram Vaitheeswaran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of the flying wing and its variants shapes continues to have a profound influence in the design of the current and future use of military aircraft. There is very little in the open literature available to the understanding and by way of comparison of the radar cross section of the different wing planforms, for obvious reasons of security and sensitivity. This paper aims to provide an insight about the radar cross section of the various flying wing planforms that would aid the need and amount of radar cross section suppression to escape detection from surveillance radars. Towards this, the shooting and bouncing ray method is used for analysis. In this, the geometric optics theory is first used for launching and tracing the electromagnetic rays to calculate the electromagnetic field values as the waves bounce around the target. The physical optics theory is next used to calculate the final scattered electric field using the far field integration along the observation direction. For the purpose of comparison, all the planform shapes are assumed to be having the same area, and only the aspect ratio and taper ratio are varied to feature representative airplanes.

  10. Development of General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell (GPDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kim, K.

    1995-01-01

    This note is intended as an abbreviated introduction to the concept and the structure of General Purpose Data Acquisitions Shell (GPDAS) and assumes the reader has a certain level of familiarity with programming in general. The structure of the following sections consists of brief explanations of the concepts and commands of GPDAS, followed by several examples. Some of these are tabulated in the appendices at the end of this note

  11. Simple, empirical approach to predict neutron capture cross sections from nuclear masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, A.; Casten, R. F.; Cakirli, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Background: Neutron capture cross sections are essential to understanding the astrophysical s and r processes, the modeling of nuclear reactor design and performance, and for a wide variety of nuclear forensics applications. Often, cross sections are needed for nuclei where experimental measurements are difficult. Enormous effort, over many decades, has gone into attempting to develop sophisticated statistical reaction models to predict these cross sections. Such work has met with some success but is often unable to reproduce measured cross sections to better than 40 % , and has limited predictive power, with predictions from different models rapidly differing by an order of magnitude a few nucleons from the last measurement. Purpose: To develop a new approach to predicting neutron capture cross sections over broad ranges of nuclei that accounts for their values where known and which has reliable predictive power with small uncertainties for many nuclei where they are unknown. Methods: Experimental neutron capture cross sections were compared to empirical mass observables in regions of similar structure. Results: We present an extremely simple method, based solely on empirical mass observables, that correlates neutron capture cross sections in the critical energy range from a few keV to a couple hundred keV. We show that regional cross sections are compactly correlated in medium and heavy mass nuclei with the two-neutron separation energy. These correlations are easily amenable to predict unknown cross sections, often converting the usual extrapolations to more reliable interpolations. It almost always reproduces existing data to within 25 % and estimated uncertainties are below about 40 % up to 10 nucleons beyond known data. Conclusions: Neutron capture cross sections display a surprisingly strong connection to the two-neutron separation energy, a nuclear structure property. The simple, empirical correlations uncovered provide model-independent predictions of

  12. Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)

  13. Neutron-induced fission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of fission research, neutron-induced fission has always played the most important role. The practical importance of neutron-induced fission rests upon the fact that additional neutrons are produced in the fission process, and thus a chain reaction becomes possible. The practical applications of neutron-induced fission will not be discussed in this chapter, but only the physical properties of one of its characteristics, namely (n,f) cross sections. The most important early summaries on the subject are the monograph edited by Michaudon which also deals with the practical applications, the earlier review article on fission by Michaudon, and the review by Bjornholm and Lynn, in which neutron-induced fission receives major attention. This chapter will attempt to go an intermediate way between the very detailed theoretical treatment in the latter review and the cited monograph which emphasizes the applied aspects and the techniques of fission cross-section measurements. The more recent investigations in the field will be included. Section II will survey the properties of cross sections for neutron-induced fission and also address some special aspects of the experimental methods applied in their measurement. Section Ill will deal with the formal theory of neutron-induced nuclear reactions for the resolved resonance region and the region of statistical nuclear reactions. In Section IV, the fission width, or fission transmission coefficient, will be discussed in detail. Section V will deal with the broader structures due to incompletely damped vibrational resonances, and in particular will address the special case of thorium and neighboring isotopes. Finally, Section VI will briefly discuss parity violation effects in neutron-induced fission. 74 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Uranium, thorium and bismuth photofission cross sections at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.

    1973-01-01

    The U 238 , Th 232 and Bi 209 photofission using nuclear emulsion technique for fission fragments detection is presented. The photofission cross sections were measured using Bremsstrahlung photon which were produced irradiating thin tungsten radiators with electrons accelerated at the energy range from 1,0 to 5,5 GeV in the ''Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron'' (Hamburg), and aluminium radiator with electrons accelarated at 16,0 GeV in Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A special revelation technique for nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with uranium and thorium, allowed the discrimination between alpha particles tracks and fission fragments tracks. The results show a decrease in the cross sections, which is in good agreement, within experimental errors, with the conclusions of other authors. The estimations from the two-step mechanism for high energy nuclear reactions (intranuclear cascade followed by fission-evaporation competition) show that, the primary interaction according to the photomesonic model and the quasi-deuteron photon interaction are sufficient to explain the general behavior exhibited by photofission cross sections for investigated nuclei. The calculations show a resonant structure around 300 MeV, with a width at half maximum of 200 MeV, and another not so pronounced, near to 700 MeV. (Author) [pt

  15. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic f...

  16. Adiabatic theory of Wannier threshold laws and ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Adiabatic energy eigenvalues of H 2 + are computed for complex values of the internuclear distance R. The infinite number of bound-state eigenenergies are represented by a function ε(R) that is single valued on a multisheeted Riemann surface. A region is found where ε(R) and the corresponding eigenfunctions exhibit harmonic-oscillator structure characteristic of electron motion on a potential saddle. The Schroedinger equation is solved in the adiabatic approximation along a path in the complex R plane to compute ionization cross sections. The cross section thus obtained joins the Wannier threshold region with the keV energy region, but the exponent near the ionization threshold disagrees with well-accepted values. Accepted values are obtained when a lowest-order diabatic correction is employed, indicating that adiabatic approximations do not give the correct zero velocity limit for ionization cross sections. Semiclassical eigenvalues for general top-of-barrier motion are given and the theory is applied to the ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact. The theory with a first diabatic correction gives the Wannier threshold law even for this case

  17. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Baglio, J; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Brein, O; Collins-Tooth, C; Dawson, S; Dean, S; Denner, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Grazzini, M; Hackstein, C; Hahn, T; Harlander, R; Hartonen, T; Heinemeyer, S; Huston, J; Kalinowski, A; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Lee, J S; Lehti, S; Maltoni, F; Mazumdar, K; Moch, S -O; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Nason, P; Neu, C; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilaftsis, A; Potter, C T; Puljak, I; Qian, J; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rzehak, H; Schumacher, M; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stöckli, F; Thorne, R S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Weiglein, G; Weydert, C; Yu, J; Zaro, M; Zirke, T

    2011-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the first 10 months' activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Sections Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the status-of-art on Higgs Physics at the LHC integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The Report is more than a mere collection of the proceedings of the general meetings. The subgroups have been working in different directions. An attempt has been made to present the first Report from these subgroups in a complete and homogeneous form. The subgroups' contributions correspondingly comprise the main parts of the Report. A significant amount of work has been performed in providing higher-order corrections to the Higgs-boson cross sections and pinning down the theoretical uncertainty of the Standard Model predictions. This Report comprises explicit numerical results on total cross sections, leaving the issues of event selection cuts and differential distributions to future publications. The subjects for further study a...

  18. Neutron-induced capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Meot, V.; Bail, A.; Bauge, E.; Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Gaudefroy, L.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Theroine, C.; Burke, J.T.; Companis, I.; Derkx, X.; Gunsing, F.; Matea, I.; Tassan-Got, L.; Porquet, M.G.; Serot, O.

    2011-01-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique enables neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for nuclear reactions on short-lived unstable nuclei that otherwise can not be measured. This technique has been successfully applied to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of several short-lived nuclei. In this work, we investigate whether this powerful technique can also be used to determine of neutron-induced capture cross sections. For this purpose we use the surrogate reaction 174 Yb( 3 He, pγ) 176 Lu to infer the well known 175 Lu(n, γ) cross section and compare the results with the directly measured neutron-induced data. This surrogate experiment has been performed in March 2010. The experimental technique used and the first preliminary results will be presented. (authors)

  19. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  20. How to extract cross sections from TDHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, Jean

    1979-01-01

    In spite of all the recent progress in solving numerically TDHF (Time Dependent Hartree-Fock) equations for heavy-ion collisions, this method is still far from lending itself readily to the computation of cross sections, except in the case of fusion. The theory presented here is purely formal so far and would lead to fairly heavy calculations in practice. It solves the problem of channel identification in the outgoing asymptotic region of TDHF solutions. It throws a bridge between TDHF and more traditional theories of nuclear reactions, which are time-independent

  1. Hyperon magnetic moments and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    The new data on both total cross sections and magnetic moments are simply described by beginning with the additive quark model in an SU(3) limit where all quarks behave like strange quarks and breaking both additivity and SU(3) simultaneously with an additional non-additive mechanism which affects only nonstrange quark contributions. The suggestion that strange quarks behave more simply than nonstrange may provide clues to underlying structure or dynamics. Small discrepancies in the moments are analyzed and shown to provide serious difficulties for most models if they are statistically significant. (author)

  2. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Document Server

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  3. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, H.; Greiner, D.; Lindstrom, P.; Symons, T.J.M.; Crawford, H.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.

    1984-11-01

    We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U 92+ reversible U 91+ and U 91+ reversible U 90+ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx. = 5% bare U 92+ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U 92+ at 962 MeV/nucleon. 7 references, 5 figures

  5. Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, H; Greiner, D; Lindstrom, P; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H; Thieberger, P; Wegner, H

    1985-05-15

    We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U/sup 92 +/reversibleU/sup 91 +/ and U/sup 91 +/reversibleU/sup 90 +/ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx.=5% bare U/sup 92 +/ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U/sup 92 +/ at 962 MeV/nucleon.

  6. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Han Xiaogang; Yu Weixiang; Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of 71 Ga(n, γ) 72 Ga, 94 Zr(n, γ) 95 Zr and 191 Ir(n, γ) 192 Ir m1+g,m2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of 72 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  7. Empirical continuation of the differential cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1978-12-01

    The theoretical basis as well as the practical methods of empirical continuation of the differential cross section into the nonphysical region of the cos theta variable are discussed. The equivalence of the different methods is proved. A physical applicability condition is given and the published applications are reviewed. In many cases the correctly applied procedure turns out to provide nonsignificant or even incorrect structure information which points to the necessity for careful and statistically complete analysis of the experimental data with a physical understanding of the analysed process. (author)

  8. L-shell photoelectric cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1981-05-14

    L-shell photoelectric cross sections in Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th and U at 59.5 keV have been determined using three different versions of Sood's method of measuring the absolute yield of fluorescent x-rays when a target is irradiated with a known flux of photons. The results obtained by all the methods agree with one another showing that no hidden systematic errors are involved in the measurements. The present results are found to compare well with the theoretical calculations of Scofield (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report No 51326).

  9. On the System and Engineering Design of the General Purpose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. On the System and Engineering Design of the General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer at TIFR. Rangaswamy Narasimhan. Classics Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 490-501 ...

  10. Geographical parthenogenesis: General purpose genotypes and frozen niche variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijenhoek, Robert C.; Parker, Dave

    2009-01-01

    hypotheses concerning the evolution of niche breadth in asexual species - the "general-purpose genotype" (GPG) and "frozen niche-variation" (FNV) models. The two models are often portrayed as mutually exclusive, respectively viewing clonal lineages as generalists versus specialists. Nonetheless...

  11. Sense and purpose of bilateral agreements - a general survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, O.

    1999-01-01

    Switzerland has concluded with its neighbouring States several bilateral agreements on nuclear information and on mutual help in case of catastrophes. The following general survey explains the sense and purpose of these agreements which complement the IAEA-Conventions referring to the same matters. (orig.) [de

  12. Weldability of general purpose heat source new-process iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Weldability tests on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium capsules showed that a new iridium fabrication process reduced susceptibility to underbead cracking. Seventeen capsules were welded (a total of 255 welds) in four categories and the number of cracks in each weld was measured

  13. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  14. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Michael L; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-04-29

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed.

  15. General-Purpose Data Containers for Science and Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the SG38 international committee was formed to develop a modern structure to replace the ENDF-6 format for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data on a computer system. This committee divided the project into seven tasks. One of these tasks, the design of General-Purpose Data Containers (GPDCs), is described in this article. What type of data does SG38 need to store and why is the task called General-Purpose Data Containers? The most common types of data in an evaluated nuclear reaction database are representations of physical functions in tabulated forms. There is also a need to store 1-dimensional functions using truncated Legendre or polynomial (or others) expansions. The phrase General-Purpose implies that the containers are to be designed to store generic forms of tabulated data rather than one for each physical function. Also, where possible, it would be beneficial to design containers that can store data forms not currently used in evaluated nuclear database or at least be easily extended. In addition to containers for storing physical functions as tabulated data, other types of containers are needed. There exists a desire within SG38 to support the storage of documentation at various levels within an evaluated file. Containers for storing non-functional data (e.g., a list of numbers) as well as units and labels for axes are also needed. Herein, containers for storing physical functions are called functional containers. One of the goals for the general-purpose data containers task is to design containers that will be useful to other scientific and engineering applications. To meet this goal, task members should think outside of the immediate needs of evaluated nuclear data to ensure that the containers are general- purpose rather than simply repackaged versions of existing containers. While the examples in this article may be specific to nuclear reaction data, it is hoped that the end product will be useful for other applications. To this end, some

  16. ZZ SNLRML, Dosimetry Cross-Section Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Description of program or function: Format: SAND-II; Number of groups: 640 group SAND-II group structure. Nuclides: Cd, B, Au, S, Ni, Li, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Ag, In, I, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am. Origin: ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-V, IRDF-90, JENDL-3, JEF 2.2 and GLUCS data with special modifications from private communications. Weighting spectrum: flat. SNLRML is a reactor dosimetry library that draws upon all available evaluated cross section libraries and selects the best evaluation for application to research reactor spectrum determinations. Many of the components of the SNLRML come from the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 (DLC-0161) libraries. The library format was selected for easy interface with spectrum determination codes such as SAND-II (CCC-0112 and LSL-M2 (PSR-233) and the new PSR-0345/SNL/SAND-II has been enhanced to interface with SNLRML. The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross section in wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-0547) and MCNP (CCC-0200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities for benchmark reactor experiments

  17. Total neutron cross section for 181Ta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling K.-D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The neutron time of flight facility nELBE, produces fast neutrons in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV by impinging a pulsed relativistic electron beam on a liquid lead circuit [1]. The short beam pulses (∼10 ps and a small radiator volume give an energy resolution better than 1% at 1 MeV using a short flight path of about 6 m, for neutron TOF measurements. The present neutron source provides 2 ⋅ 104  n/cm2s at the target position using an electron charge of 77 pC and 100 kHz pulse repetition rate. This neutron intensity enables to measure neutron total cross section with a 2%–5% statistical uncertainty within a few days. In February 2008, neutron radiator, plastic detector [2] and data acquisition system were tested by measurements of the neutron total cross section for 181Ta and 27Al. Measurement of 181Ta was chosen because lack of high quality data in an anergy region below 700 keV. The total neutron cross – section for 27Al was measured as a control target, since there exists data for 27Al with high resolution and low statistical error [3].

  18. Atlas of photoneutron cross sections obtained with monoenergetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, S.S.; Berman, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Photoneutron cross-section and integrated cross-section data obtained with monoenergetic photons are presented in a uniform format. All of the measured partial photoneutron cross sections, the total photoneutron cross section, and the photoneutron yield cross section are plotted as functions of the incident photon energy, as are the integrated photoneutron cross sections and their first and second moments. The values of the integrated cross sections and the moments of the integrated total cross section up to the highest photon energy for which they were measured are tabulated, as are the parameters of Lorentz curves fitted to the total photoneutron cross-section data for medium and heavy nuclei (A>50). This compilation is current as of June 1987. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  19. Applications of the nuclear theory to the computation of neutron cross sections for actinide isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron cross section calculational methods for actinides in the unresolved resonance energy range (1-150 kev) are discussed, with a special emphasis on calculation of width fluctuation factors for the generalized distribution, as well as for a sub-threshold fission. It is shown that the energy dependence of sub(J), the (n,n') -process competition and the structure in neutron cross section has to be taken into account in the energy range considered. Analysis of different approaches in the statistical theory for heavy nuclei neutron cross-section calculation is given, and it is shown to be important to allow for the (n,γf)-reaction in neutron cross section calculations for fissile nuclei. The use of the non-spherical potential, the Lorentzian spectral factor and the Fermi-gas model involving the collective modes enables to obtain the self-consistent data for all neutron cross sections, including σnγ. (author)

  20. Nuclear cross section library for oil well logging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Kitsos, S.; Aldama, D.L.; Zefran, B.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5 th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (author)

  1. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    James, G D; Michaudon, A; Michaudon, A; Cierjacks, S W; Chrien, R E

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Fission and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross-Sections is the first volume in a series on Neutron Physics and Nuclear Data in Science and Technology. This volume serves the purpose of providing a thorough description of the many facets of neutron physics in different fields of nuclear applications. This book also attempts to bridge the communication gap between experts involved in the experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear properties and those involved in the technological applications of nuclear data. This publication will be invaluable to those interested in studying nuclear fis

  2. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO 2 fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments

  3. Extranodal lymphoma in the thorax: cross-sectional imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Duddalwar, V.A.; Rouse, H.C.; Lau, E.W.F.; Bekhit, E.; Hennessy, O.F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate the spectrum of appearances of extranodal lymphoma in the thorax, including the lungs, pleura, heart, thymus, chest wall, thoracic spine, and breast, using current cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as multidetector computed tomography, positron-emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and sonography. Extranodal lymphoma can affect any organ or tissue in the thorax, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. This review should alert the radiologist to consider extranodal lymphoma in the appropriate clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis, correct staging, and accurate post-treatment evaluation to optimize treatment regimens.

  4. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.

    1978-03-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis

  6. Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)

  7. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-Saaidi, Christina; Haumba, Samson; Tagutanazvo, Oslinah Buru; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions. This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4%) participated, out of which 297 (35.9%) were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008), and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021) were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; PHIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319). Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into consideration these findings. The findings also suggest the importance of future research sensitive to the Swazi and African sociocultural contexts, especially

  8. How General-Purpose can a GPU be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Machanick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of graphics processing units (GPUs in general-purpose computation (GPGPU is a growing field. GPU instruction sets, while implementing a graphics pipeline, draw from a range of single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD architectures characteristic of the heyday of supercomputers. Yet only one of these SIMD instruction sets has been of application on a wide enough range of problems to survive the era when the full range of supercomputer design variants was being explored: vector instructions. This paper proposes a reconceptualization of the GPU as a multicore design with minimal exotic modes of parallelism so as to make GPGPU truly general.

  9. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

    This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  10. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares Delgado, Ademar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units Type: Talk Abstract: We present the ATLAS Trigger algorithms developed to exploit General­ Purpose Graphics Processor Units. ATLAS is a particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system has two levels, hardware-­based Level 1 and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. Performing the trigger event selection within the available farm resources presents a significant challenge that will increase future LHC upgrades. are being evaluated as a potential solution for trigger algorithms acceleration. Key factors determining the potential benefit of this new technology are the relative execution speedup, the number of GPUs required and the relative financial cost of the selected GPU. We have developed a trigger demonstrator which includes algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Cal...

  11. Space shuttle general purpose computers (GPCs) (current and future versions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Current and future versions of general purpose computers (GPCs) for space shuttle orbiters are represented in this frame. The two boxes on the left (AP101B) represent the current GPC configuration, with the input-output processor at far left and the central processing unit (CPU) at its side. The upgraded version combines both elements in a single unit (far right, AP101S).

  12. New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer. The new IBM unit is documented in table top views alone (S91-26867, S91-26868), with the onboard equipment it supports including the flight deck CRT screen and keypad (S91-26866), and next to the two earlier versions it replaces (S91-26869).

  13. Survey of advanced general-purpose software for robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latombe, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-controlled sensor-based robots will more and more common in industry. This paper attempts to survey the main trends of the development of advanced general-purpose software for robot manipulators. It is intended to make clear that robots are not only mechanical devices. They are truly programmable machines, and their programming, which occurs in an imperfectly modelled world,is somewhat different from conventional computer programming. (orig.)

  14. General Purpose Multimedia Dataset - GarageBand 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    This document describes a general purpose multimedia data-set to be used in cross-media machine learning problems. In more detail we describe the genre taxonomy applied at http://www.garageband.com, from where the data-set was collected, and how the taxonomy have been fused into a more human...... understandable taxonomy. Finally, a description of various features extracted from both the audio and text are presented....

  15. ENDF/B-4 General Purpose File 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, O.

    1980-04-01

    This document summarizes contents and documentation of the 1974 version of the General Purpose File of the ENDF/B Library maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. The Library contains numerical neutron reaction data for 90 isotopes or elements. The entire Library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  16. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  17. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  18. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  19. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  20. Partial cross sections in H- photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halka, M.

    1993-04-01

    This dissertation reports experimental measurements of partial decay cross sections in the H - photodetachment spectrum. Observed decays of the 1 P 0 H -** (n) doubly-excitedresonances to the H(N=2) continuum are reported for n=2,3, and 4 from 1990 runs in which the author participated. A recent analysis of 1989 data revealing effects of static electric fields on the partial decay spectrum above 13.5 eV is also presented. The experiments were performed at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, with a relativistic H - beam (β=0.842)intersecting a ND:YAG laser. Variation of the intersection angle amounts to Doppler-shifting the photon energy, allowing continuous tuning of the laser energy as viewed from the moving ions' frame

  1. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  2. Electroweak Boson Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the ATLAS prospects for the measurement of W and Z pro- duction cross-section at the LHC. The electron and muon decay channels are considered. Focusing on the early data taking phase, strategies are presented that allow a fast and robust extraction of the signals. An overall uncertainty of about 5% can be achieved with 50 pb−1 in the W channels, where the background uncertainty dominates (the luminosity measurement uncertainty is not discussed here). In the Z channels, the expected preci- sion is 3%, the main contribution coming from the lepton selection efficiency uncertainty. Extrapolating to 1 fb−1 , the uncertainties shrink to incompressible values of 1-2%, de- pending on the final state. This irreducible uncertainty is essentially driven by strong interaction effects, notably parton distribution uncertainties and non-perturbative effects, affecting the W and Z rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. These effects can be constrained by measuring these distributions. Al...

  3. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  4. Topological supersymmetric structure of hadron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.

    1980-12-01

    Recently a way of fully implementing unitarity in the framework of a Dual Topological Unitarization theory, including not only mesons but also baryons, was found. This theory consists in the topological description of hadron interactions involving confined quarks in terms of two 2-dimensional surfaces (a closed 'quantum' surface and a bounded 'classical' surface). We show that this description directly leads, at the zeroth order of the topological expansion, to certain relations between hadron cross-sections, in nice agreement with experimental data. A new topological suppression mechanism is shown to play an important dynamical role. We also point out a new topological supersymmetry property, which leads to realistic experimental consequences. A possible topological origin of the rho and ω universality relations emerges as a by-product of our study

  5. Neutron scattering cross sections of uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.; Marcella, T.V.; Barnes, B.K.; Couchell, G.P.; Egan, J.J.; Mittler, A.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Lowell high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer was used to measure angular distributions and 90-deg excitation functions for neutrons scattered from 238 U in the energy range from 0.9 to 3.1 MeV. This study was limited to the elastic and the first two inelastic groups, corresponding to states of 238 U at 45 keV (2 + ) and 148 keV (4 + ). Angular distributions were measured at primary neutron energies of 1.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.1 MeV for the same three neutron groups. Whereas the elastic data are in fair agreement with the evaluation in the ENDF/B-IV file, there is substantial disagreement between the inelastic measurements and the evaluated cross sections. 12 figures

  6. Fission cross-section normalization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.; Ghent Rijksuniversiteit; Deruytter, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The present measurements yield σsub(f)-data in the neutron energy from 20 MeV to 30 keV directly normalized in the thermal region. In the keV-region these data are consistent with the absolute σsub(f)-measurements of Szabo and Marquette. For the secondary normalization integral I 2 values have been obtained in agreement with those of Gwin et al. and Czirr et al. which were also directly normalized in the thermal region. For the I 1 integral, however, puzzling low values have been obtained. This was also the case for σsub(f)-bar in neutron energy intervals containing strong resonances. Three additional measurements are planned to further investigate these observations: (i) maintaining the actual approx.2π-geometry but using a 10 B-foil for the neutron flux detection (ii) using a low detection geometry with a 10 B- as well as a 6 Li-flux monitor. Only after these measurements definite conclusions on the I 1 and I 2 integrals can be formulated and final σsub(f)-bar-values can be released. The present study also gives some evidence for a correlation between the integral I 2 and the neutron flux monitor used. The influence of a normalization via I 1 or I 2 on the final cross-section has been shown. The magnitude of possible normalization errors is illustrated. Finally, since 235 U is expected to be an ''easy'' nucleus (low α-activity high σsub(f)-values), there are some indications that the important discrepancies still present in 235 U(n,f) cross-section measurements might partially be due to errors in the neutron flux determination

  7. Neutron cross section standards evaluations for ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Poenitz, W.P.; Hale, G.M.; Peelle, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron cross section standards are now being evaluated as the initial phase in the development of the new ENDF/B-VI file. These standards evaluations are following a somewhat different process compared with that used for earlier versions of ENDF. The primary effort is concentrated on a simultaneous evaluation using a generalized least squares program, R-matrix evaluations, and a procedure for combining the results of these evaluations. The ENDF/B-VI standards evaluation procedure is outlined, and preliminary simultaneous evaluation and R-matrix results are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs

  8. Summary report of technical meeting on neutron cross section covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Smith, D.L.; Capote Noy, R.

    2011-01-01

    A summary is given of the Technical Meeting on Neutron Cross Section Covariances. The meeting goal was to assess covariance data needs and recommend appropriate methodologies to address those needs. Discussions on covariance data focused on three general topics: 1) Resonance and unresolved resonance regions; 2) Fast neutron region; and 3) Users' perspective: benchmarks' uncertainty and reactor dosimetry. A number of recommendations for further work were generated and the important work that remains to be done in the field of covariances was identified. (author)

  9. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  10. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg i. B (Germany); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  11. Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Dwayne C; Saha, Bidhan C

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections

  12. Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2009-11-01

    The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections

  13. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  14. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, B K; Joshipura, K N; Mason, N J

    2005-01-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF 4 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 and CF 3 I and the CF x (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF x (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species

  15. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    -known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform

  16. Incremental and developmental perspectives for general-purpose learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Plumed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stupefying success of Articial Intelligence (AI for specic problems, from recommender systems to self-driving cars, has not yet been matched with a similar progress in general AI systems, coping with a variety of (dierent problems. This dissertation deals with the long-standing problem of creating more general AI systems, through the analysis of their development and the evaluation of their cognitive abilities. It presents a declarative general-purpose learning system and a developmental and lifelong approach for knowledge acquisition, consolidation and forgetting. It also analyses the use of the use of more ability-oriented evaluation techniques for AI evaluation and provides further insight for the understanding of the concepts of development and incremental learning in AI systems.

  17. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions.This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4% participated, out of which 297 (35.9% were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008, and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021 were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; P<0.001, and ever cohabited (AOR, 2.39; CI, 1.66-3.43; P = 0.00. The most cited reason for having multiple sexual partners was financial gain. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319.Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into

  18. WHEELSET AXLE WITH THE CAVITY OF UNIFORM CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolesnykov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to operation in complex loading conditions, the rolling stock wheelsets should provide high reliability, since the train traffic safety largely depends on them. Design and technical condition of wheelsets affect the smoothness, intensity of forces generated by the interaction between the car and track, and the motion resistance. Specificity of the axle operation consists in the fact that it undergoes the bending stresses under loading. These stresses are unevenly distributed along the cross-sectional area, reaching the highest values in the outer fibers and the minimal values in the internal ones. This aspect sets the problem of replacement of the uniform cross section with the hollow cross section. The disadvantages of hollow axle design, which are used at the present time, should include a significant manufacturing complexity of the variable section cavity. The purpose is to develop a modernized design of the wheelset axle. Methodology. A construction of the hollow axle having an inner longitudinal cylindrical through hole of the constant diameter throughout its length was proposed. The item is made of steel seamless tube. The inner surface of the tube is treated by mechanical means to remove the voltage concentrations in the internal longitudinal cylindrical through hole, which has a constant diameter along the entire length of the axle. Findings. Application of this design will facilitate manufacturing of the hollow axle and the machining of the inner longitudinal through hole, while retaining all the use advantages of the hollow axle in the rolling stock wheel pairs. Another use advantage of the hollow axle of this design is the absence of partial heterogeneity of the metal, which is inevitably, occurs during the solid axles blanking. Originality. A new design of the wheelset hollow axle of railway rolling stock was proposed. Practical value. Introduction of the new design simplifying the manufacture and mechanical treatment of

  19. The investigation of the elastic photon scattering cross sections by copper atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplyauskene, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The differential cross sections of coherent scattering of photons on a copper atom and ions Cu + and Cu 2+ and also on ions Zn + and Ga 2+ in their ground states have been studied theoretically. The energy of an incident photon has varied in the range from 0.5 keV to 200 keV, and the scattering cross sections are given for angles of 30 deg, 60 deg, 90 deg, 120 deg, 150 deg. The calculations are performed in the formfactor approximation with the use of generalized hydrogen-like analytical radial orbitals. To clarify the contribution from individual shells the cross sections of photon scattering on individual electron of shells are calculated. It follows from the calculations that when the energies of the incident photon are less than 4 keV, the main contribution into the differential cross section is made by external electrons. Then, alongside with the increase of the energy, the contribution of the electrons decreases, and the inner shells begin to play a more important role. Therefore the photon cross sections for the energies greater than 50 keV practically coincide for atoms and ions of copper. The general regularities of the cross section variation accompanying the increase of the photon energy are similar for all the elements under study. The angular dependences of cross sections are such that they decrease first and after reaching the minimum at angles of 90 deg - 120 deg increase again

  20. Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei