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Sample records for general population assessed

  1. Exposure Assessment Tools by Lifestages and Populations - General Population

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    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  2. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

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    Judith McLenan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs to an Urgent Referral Team (URT based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF RELATION BETWEEN MICROALBUMINURIA AND ISCHEMIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAM IN IRANIAN GENERAL POPULATION

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    Alireza Khosravi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Enhancement of albumin exertion in urine increases the risk of renal and ischemic heart diseases (IHD. We assessed the association of urine albumin and sub-clinical IHD in a random sample of Iranian general population.    METHODS: The random sample in general population in Isfahan County was recruited to the cross-sectional study. From the all sample blood pressure and lipid profile were assessed and morning urine spot was measured for albumin and Creatinine. Microalbuminuria was defined either Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR was 30-300mg. Also, the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out for all participants. The ECG pattern was divided to two categories; normal or ECG with ischemia. The logistic regression model was determined the odds of albuminuria for ischemic changes in ECG.    RESULTS: 999 subjects, age 35-70 years, participated to study. From all, 40.8% were male. Microalbuminuria was detected in 8% and sub-clinical ECG ischemic changes were found in 23.4%. The most frequent ischemic change was T wave inversion. The mean urine albumin levels in subjects with normal ECG was 9.6±14.6 mg/ml and in ischemic group was 8.5±12.2 mg/ml and they did not have statistically different. The odds ratios of neither Albumin-Creatinine ratio nor microalbuminuria were in significant range for risk to ischemic changes in ECG of apparently healthy participants. They was consecutively OR=0.9 (0.51-1.6, OR=0.99 (0.98-1.004.     CONCLUSION: Our finding didn’t declare any association between ACR and IHD. Because of showing this association in the other study; it needs more exploration regarding to association between microalbuminuria and cardiovascular diseases incidence.      Keywords: Ischemic heart diseases, electrocardiogram, Albumin-Creatinine Ratio, Urine Albumin

  4. Natural carcinogenic fiber and pleural plaques assessment in a general population: A cross-sectional study

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    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Legal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Bracci, Massimo [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Mangano, Dario [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ricceri, Vincenzo [Division of Radiology - Hospital of Biancavilla “Maria SS. Addolorata”, ASP Catania, Biancavilla (Italy); Musumeci, Andrea [Division of Radiology – University Hospital “Policlinico – Vittorio Emanuele”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnology Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla's general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30 km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9 cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2 cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1 cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1 cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were

  5. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  6. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

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    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  7. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

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    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  8. Psychometric properties and assessment of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale among the general Arabic population

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    Sahib MN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohanad Naji Sahib Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq Background: Any educational program should be implemented with a good understanding of the population’s beliefs. Therefore, the aims of this study were to validate the Arabic version of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS-A and assess the osteoprotective attitude among the Iraqi population. Methods: A cross-sectional design, with a random cluster sampling method from the community, was used. The forward–backward–forward translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Arabic. In addition, the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (OKT-A and the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES-A were used to assess the osteoprotective behaviors. Results: The results showed good face validity and reliability. The construct validity analysis showed seven factors that explain 72.82% of the variance. In addition, the results revealed a low health belief score (149.95±35.936 with only 36.67% of the study population found to have a high OHBS-A level. The results showed significant differences among employment status, marital status, and osteoporosis (OP awareness groups in relation to total OHBS-A scores. In addition, there were significant associations between age groups and OP awareness with health belief levels. Moreover, both exercise and calcium intake subscales of the Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (OKT positively correlated with all OHBS-A subscales. Exercise and calcium intake subscales of Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES positively correlated with the perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers toward exercise and calcium intake. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that OKT levels, OSES levels, and age were predictors of OHBS-A levels. Conclusion: Besides cultural obstacles, an educational program for both genders and all age groups is important and should be tailored according to

  9. How good is controlled attenuation parameter and fatty liver index for assessing liver steatosis in general population: correlation with ultrasound.

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    Carvalhana, Sofia; Leitão, Jorge; Alves, Ana C; Bourbon, Mafalda; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Liver steatosis measurement by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for diagnosing steatosis, based on transient elastography. Its usefulness as screening procedure for hepatic steatosis in general population has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CAP and fatty liver index (FLI) for detection and quantification of steatosis in general population. Recruitment was done from a prospective epidemiological study of the general adult population. Steatosis was evaluated using CAP, FLI and ultrasound (US). Steatosis scored according to Hamaguchi's US scoring, from 0 (S0) to 6 (S6) points. Hepatic steatosis defined by score ≥2 (S≥2) and moderate/severe steatosis by score ≥4 (S≥4). Performance of CAP and FLI for diagnosing steatosis compared with US was assessed using areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). From 219 consecutive individuals studied, 13 (5.9%) excluded because of failure/unreliable liver stiffness measurements. Steatosis prevalence: S≥2 38.4% and S≥4 12.1%. CAP significantly correlated with steatosis (ρ = 0.73, P steatosis score (ρ = 0.76; P steatosis quantification in the general population. Larger studies are needed for validation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk assessment based on urinary bisphenol A levels in the general Korean population

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    Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil, E-mail: hwang1963@korea.kr; Ko, Ahra; Jeong, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Moon, Guiim; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kho, Young-Ho; Shin, Min-Ki; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Hwang, In-Gyun, E-mail: inghwang@korea.kr

    2016-10-15

    ' exposure, we conclude that there are no health concerns for any age group as a result of current levels of dietary exposure to BPA. - Highlights: • We compared urinary bisphenol A (BPA) levels among different countries. • We evaluated the urinary BPA levels of the general Korean population. • We found that the overall GM of urinary BPA concentration was 1.83 μg/L. • We derived a TDI of 20 μg/kg bw/day for BPA. • There is no health concern for any age group from current levels of exposure to BPA.

  11. Risk assessment based on urinary bisphenol A levels in the general Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Ko, Ahra; Jeong, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Moon, Guiim; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kho, Young-Ho; Shin, Min-Ki; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    ' exposure, we conclude that there are no health concerns for any age group as a result of current levels of dietary exposure to BPA. - Highlights: • We compared urinary bisphenol A (BPA) levels among different countries. • We evaluated the urinary BPA levels of the general Korean population. • We found that the overall GM of urinary BPA concentration was 1.83 μg/L. • We derived a TDI of 20 μg/kg bw/day for BPA. • There is no health concern for any age group from current levels of exposure to BPA.

  12. Measurement properties of tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults: A systematic review.

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    Cassidy, S A; Bradley, L; Bowen, E; Wigham, S; Rodgers, J

    2018-05-05

    Adults diagnosed with autism are at significantly increased risk of suicidal thoughts, suicidal behaviours and dying by suicide. However, it is unclear whether any validated tools are currently available to effectively assess suicidality in autistic adults in research and clinical practice. This is crucial for understanding and preventing premature death by suicide in this vulnerable group. This two stage systematic review therefore aimed to identify tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults, evaluate these tools for their appropriateness and measurement properties, and make recommendations for appropriate selection of suicidality assessment tools in research and clinical practice. Three databases were searched (PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge). Four frequently used suicidality assessment tools were identified, and subsequently rated for quality of the evidence in support of their measurement properties using the COSMIN checklist. Despite studies having explored suicidality in autistic adults, none had utilised a validated tool. Overall, there was lack of evidence in support of suicidality risk assessments successfully predicting future suicide attempts. We recommend adaptations to current suicidality assessment tools and priorities for future research, in order to better conceptualise suicidality and its measurement in autism. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

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    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  14. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

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    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative performance of diabetes-specific and general population-based cardiovascular risk assessment models in people with diabetes mellitus.

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    Echouffo-Tcheugui, J-B; Kengne, A P

    2013-10-01

    Multivariable models for estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in people with diabetes comprise general population-based models and those from diabetic cohorts. Whether one set of models should receive preference is unclear. We evaluated the evidence on direct comparisons of the performance of general population vs diabetes-specific CVD risk models in people with diabetes. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2013. Two reviewers independently identified studies that compared the performance of general CVD models vs diabetes-specific ones in the same group of people with diabetes. Independent, dual data extraction on study design, risk models, outcomes; and measures of performance was conducted. Eleven articles reporting on 22 pair wise comparisons of a diabetes-specific model (UKPDS, ADVANCE and DCS risk models) to a general population model (three variants of the Framingham model, Prospective Cardiovascular Münster [PROCAM] score, CardioRisk Manager [CRM], Joint British Societies Coronary Risk Chart [JBSRC], Progetto Cuore algorithm and the CHD-Riskard algorithm) were eligible. Absolute differences in C-statistic of diabetes-specific vs general population-based models varied from -0.13 to 0.09. Comparisons for other performance measures were unusual. Outcomes definitions were congruent with those applied during model development. In 14 comparisons, the UKPDS, ADVANCE or DCS diabetes-specific models were superior to the general population CVD risk models. Authors reported better C-statistic for models they developed. The limited existing evidence suggests a possible discriminatory advantage of diabetes-specific over general population-based models for CVD risk stratification in diabetes. More robust head-to-head comparisons are needed to confirm this trend and strengthen recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-pandemic assessment of public knowledge, behavior, and skill on influenza prevention among the general population of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Seale, Holly; Wu, Shuangsheng; Yang, Peng; Zheng, Yang; Ma, Chunna; MacIntyre, Raina; Wang, Quanyi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, behavioral, and skill responses toward influenza in the general population of Beijing after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing, China, in January 2011. A survey was conducted in which information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation index system of health literacy related to influenza was built to evaluate the level of health literacy regarding influenza prevention and control among residents in Beijing. Thirteen thousand and fifty-three valid questionnaires were received. The average score for the sum of knowledge, behavior, and skill was 14.12±3.22, and the mean scores for knowledge, behavior, and skill were 4.65±1.20, 7.25±1.94, and 2.21±1.31, respectively. The qualified proportions of these three sections were 23.7%, 11.9%, and 43.4%, respectively, and the total proportion with a qualified level was 6.7%. There were significant differences in health literacy level related to influenza among the different gender, age, educational level, occupational status, and location groups (ppopulation in Beijing and the extent of relativities in knowledge, behavior, and skill about influenza was found to be weak. Therefore, improvements are needed in terms of certain aspects, particularly for the elderly and the population of rural districts. Educational level, as a significant factor in reducing the spread of influenza, should be considered seriously when intervention strategies are implemented. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Nature, Reasons, and Consequences of Self-medication Practice among General Population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sathvik B; Shariff, Atiqulla; Dallah, Lana; Anas, Doaa; Ayman, Maryam; Rao, Padma Gm

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0. The prevalence of self-medication practices among our study respondents was 52.1%. A headache (155 [37.5%]) was the most common clinical condition treated through self-medication practice. Familiarity with the treatment/medication (198 [48%]) was the most common cited reasons, whereas the advertisement and friend's advice were the most (182 [44%]) cited sources of information for self-medication usage. The majority (265 [64.1%]) of the respondents were considered self-medication practice as safe. However, 19 respondents reported side-effects or complications during the due course of self-medication. It was observed that there is a statistically significant association ( P employment status of this study participants with self-medication practices. The data from this study show that the self-medication practice is very common among the study population. Variables such as younger age group and occupation status were significantly associated with self-medication practice. We emphasize the role of pharmacist in educating the community regarding safe medication practices such as harmful effects of self-medicating and inappropriate practices such as sharing the medications among family members and friends.

  18. Assessment of postprandial triglycerides in clinical practice: Validation in a general population and coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Kabagambe, Edmon K; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tsai, Michael Y; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Kolovou, Genovefa; Straka, Robert J; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Hopkins, Paul N; Marin, Carmen; Borecki, Ingrid; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Hixson, James E; Camargo, Antonio; Province, Michael A; Lopez-Moreno, Javier; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benefit diagnostically from an oral-fat tolerance test (OFTT) in clinical practice. A population of 1002 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from the CORDIOPREV clinical trial and 1115 white US subjects from the GOLDN study underwent OFTTs. Subjects were classified into 3 groups according to fasting cut points of TGs to predict the usefulness of OFTT: (1) TG  180 mg/dl (>2 mmol/l). Postprandial TG concentration at any point > 220 mg/dl (>2.5 mmol/l) has been pre-established as an undesirable postprandial response. Of the total, 49% patients with CHD and 42% from the general population showed an undesirable response after the OFTT. The prevalence of undesirable postprandial TG in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial was 12.8, 50.3, and 89.7%, in group 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P 2 mmol/l, >180 mg/dl). Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

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    Hinz Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  20. Assessment of exposure to shiftwork mechanisms in the general population: the development of a new job-exposure matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Renae C; Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Davies, Michael J; Fritschi, Lin

    2014-10-01

    To develop a job-exposure matrix (JEM) that estimates exposure to eight variables representing different aspects of shiftwork among female workers. Occupational history and shiftwork exposure data were obtained from a population-based breast cancer case-control study. Exposure to light at night, phase shift, sleep disturbances, poor diet, lack of physical activity, lack of vitamin D, and graveyard and early morning shifts, was calculated by occupational code. Three threshold values based on the frequency of exposure were considered (10%, 30% and 50%) for use as cut-offs in determining exposure for each occupational code. JEM-based exposure classification was compared with that from the OccIDEAS application (job-specific questionnaires and assessment by rules) by assessing the effect on the OR for phase shift and breast cancer. Using data from the Australian Workplace Exposure Study, the specificity and sensitivity of the threshold values were calculated for each exposure variable. 127 of 413 occupational codes involved exposure to one or more shiftwork variables. Occupations with the highest probability of exposure shiftwork included nurses and midwives. Using the 30% threshold, the OR for the association between phase shift exposure and breast cancer was decreased and no longer statistically significant (OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.42). The 30% cut-off point demonstrated best specificity and sensitivity, although results varied between exposure variables. This JEM provides a set of indicators reflecting biologically plausible mechanisms for the potential impact of shiftwork on health and may provide an alternative method of exposure assessment in the absence of detailed job history and exposure data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Knowledge of General Nutrition, Soy Nutrition, and Consumption of Soy Products: Assessment of a Sample Adult Population in Montgomery County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lida Catherine

    1999-01-01

    KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL NUTRITION, SOY NUTRITION, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOY PRODUCTS: ASSESSMENT OF A SAMPLE ADULT POPULATION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA Lida Catherine Johnson (ABSTRACT) Nutrition education programs in the prevention of chronic diseases has flourished over the last 15 years. Investigators continue to demonstrate that soy consumption plays a role in decreasing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and problems regarding menopause....

  2. Assessment of coronary calcification using calibrated mass score with two different multidetector computed tomography scanners in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Groen, Jaap M. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Medical Physics, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Arnold, Ben A. [Image Analysis, 1380 Burkesville Road, Columbia, KY (United States); Nikolovski, Sasho [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Knudsen, Andreas D., E-mail: dehlbaek@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kühl, J. Tobias [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordestgaard, Børge G. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Greuter, Marcel J.W. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Kofoed, Klaus F. [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Radiology, The Diagnostic Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Objective: Population studies have shown coronary calcium score to improve risk stratification in subjects suspected for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to assess the validity of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for measurement of calibrated mass scores (MS) in a phantom study, and to investigate inter-scanner variability for MS and Agaston score (AS) recorded in a population study on two different high-end MDCT scanners. Materials and methods: A calcium phantom was scanned by a first (A) and second (B) generation 320-MDCT. MS was measured for each calcium deposit from repeated measurements in each scanner and compared to known physical phantom mass. Random samples of human subjects from the Copenhagen General Population Study were scanned with scanner A (N = 254) and scanner B (N = 253) where MS and AS distributions of these two groups were compared. Results: The mean total MS of the phantom was 32.9 ± 0.8 mg and 33.1 ± 0.9 mg (p = 0.43) assessed by scanner A and B respectively – the physical calcium mass was 34.0 mg. Correlation between measured MS and physical calcium mass was R{sup 2} = 0.99 in both scanners. In the population study the median total MS was 16.8 mg (interquartile range (IQR): 3.5–81.1) and 15.8 mg (IQR: 3.8–63.4) in scanner A and B (p = 0.88). The corresponding median total AS were 92 (IQR: 23–471) and 89 (IQR: 40–384) (p = 0.64). Conclusion: Calibrated calcium mass score may be assessed with very high accuracy in a calcium phantom by different generations of 320-MDCT scanners. In population studies, it appears acceptable to pool calcium scores acquired on different 320-MDCT scanners.

  3. The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA: a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Michelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain in the hand affects an estimated 12–21% of the population, and at older ages the hand is one of the most common sites of pain and osteoarthritis. The association between symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and disability in everyday life has not been studied in detail, although there is evidence that older people with hand problems suffer significant pain and disability. Despite the high prevalence of hand problems and the limitations they cause in older adults, little attention has been paid to the hand by health planners and policy makers. We plan to conduct a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study designed in parallel with our previously reported cohort study of knee pain, to describe the course of musculoskeletal hand problems in older adults and investigate the relative merits of different approaches to classification and defining prognosis. Methods/Design All adults aged 50 years and over registered with two general practices in North Staffordshire will be invited to take part in a two-stage postal survey. Respondents to the survey who indicate that they have experienced hand pain or problems within the previous 12 months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed assessment. This will consist of clinical interview, hand assessment, screening test of lower limb function, digital photography, plain x-rays, anthropometric measurement and brief self-complete questionnaire. All consenting clinic attenders will be followed up by (i general practice medical record review, (ii repeat postal questionnaire at 18-months, and (iii repeat postal questionnaire at 3 years. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA, a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study of community-dwelling older adults with hand pain and hand problems based in North Staffordshire.

  4. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  5. Hemochromatosis mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete

    2004-01-01

    The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...

  6. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S G; Premarajan, K C; Kattimani, S; Kar, S S

    2018-01-01

    There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537). Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%), followed by moderate (21, 11.6%), severe (8, 4.4%), and profound (1, 0.6%) mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064), widowed status (AOR = 27.022), separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674), currently married status (AOR = 18.487), being illiterate (AOR = 4.352), having 1st-10th standard education (AOR = 2.531), being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287) or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025), belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816), and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259) were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and conflicts were associated with mental disability after adjusting other variables. Multicentric

  7. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537. Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%, followed by moderate (21, 11.6%, severe (8, 4.4%, and profound (1, 0.6% mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064, widowed status (AOR = 27.022, separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674, currently married status (AOR = 18.487, being illiterate (AOR = 4.352, having 1st–10th standard education (AOR = 2.531, being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287 or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025, belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816, and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259 were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and

  8. Questionnaire based survey of general population to assess their views about disclosure of cancer diagnosis and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Afsar, S.; Jawaid, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain people's views regarding disclosure of cancer diagnosis and whether they would like to share this information with their family. The study also looked at whether if their parents were diagnosed to be suffering from cancer, would they like this information to be communicated to them. Results: The total number of persons surveyed were 520. Fifteen persons refused to participate in the survey, hence they were excluded and 505 respondents 299 male and 206 female were analyzed. Ages of the respondents were between 18 to 80 years. The study population belonged to different socio-economic groups in the society. Three hundred ninety-one (77.4%) responded positively that they would like to know if they ever suffer from cancer, while 112 (22.1%) said No and 2 (0.39%) said it doesn't matter. Three hundred seventeen (62.7%) wanted their family to be informed while 187 (37.%) said No and the attitude of 1 (0.19%) was Indifferent. One hundred seventy (33.6% responded positively that if their parents were diagnosed to be suffering from cancer they should be told about it, whereas 334 (66.1%) did not wish their parents to be informed and 1 (0.19%) was indecisive. All those who were indifferent were elderly, above the age of seventy yeas. Majority 326 (82.6%) who wanted to know the cancer diagnoses were literate and interestingly 57 (50.8%) who didn't wish to be informed were also literate. Conclusions: Most of the people in the survey 391 (77.4%) wanted to now the diagnosis, if they ever suffered from cancer. Again 317 (62.7%) wished this to be disclosed to their family. Only a small percentage 170 (33.6%), wanted to tell the bad news of cancer diagnosis to their parents if they ever suffered. (author)

  9. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF: study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational cohort study will describe the prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot OA, relate its occurrence to symptoms, examination findings and life-style-factors, describe the natural history of foot OA, and examine how it presents to, and is diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods All adults aged 50 years and over registered with four general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, will be invited to participate in a postal Health Survey questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire who indicate that they have experienced foot pain in the preceding twelve months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed clinical assessment. This assessment will consist of: clinical interview; physical examination; digital photography of both feet and ankles; plain x-rays of both feet, ankles and hands; ultrasound examination of the plantar fascia; anthropometric measurement; and a further self-complete questionnaire. Follow-up will be undertaken in consenting participants by postal questionnaire at 18 months (clinic attenders only and three years (clinic attenders and survey participants, and also by review of medical records. Discussion This three-year prospective epidemiological study will combine survey data, comprehensive clinical, x-ray and ultrasound assessment, and review of primary care records to identify radiographic phenotypes of foot OA in a population of community-dwelling older adults, and describe their impact on symptoms, function and

  10. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, M; Coenraads, PJ; Diepgen, T; Svensson, A; Elsner, P; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, M; Naldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology...

  11. Personality disorders and smoking in Spanish general and clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, Elena; López Durán, Ana; Martinez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. Method: The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the Inter...

  12. Occupational noise exposure assessment using O*NET and its application to a study of hearing loss in the US general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Tak, SangWoo; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Park, Sung Kyun

    2012-03-01

    Although occupational noise is a well known risk factor for hearing loss, little epidemiological evidence has been reported on its association with hearing loss in the general population, in part, because of the difficulty in exposure assessment. This study introduced a quantitative occupational noise exposure assessment tool using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and evaluated its applicability for epidemiological research using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. The O*NET noise exposure data were assessed by questionnaires across numerous occupations, asking the frequency of exposure to sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable (with five possible responses from 'never' to 'every day'). Means of the O*NET noise scores were computed to correspond to NHANES occupational categories and assigned to 3828 adults aged 20-69 years, who participated in the 1999-2004 NHANES. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA >25 dB in either ear. Linear and logistic regression models with either continuous or quintiles of the O*NET noise scores were fitted on log-transformed PTA and binary hearing loss, respectively. Noise scores ranged from 1.80 to 4.37 with mean±SE of 3.06±0.02. After controlling for potential confounders, the highest (vs lowest) noise score quintile had a 22.5% (95% CI 11.0% to 35.2%) increase in PTA, and there was a linear dose-dependent trend across the quintiles of noise scores (p trendhearing loss comparing the highest with the lowest noise score quintiles was 2.1 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.6). This study suggests that the O*NET noise score is a useful tool for examining occupational noise-induced health effects in the general population in the absence of actual occupational noise exposure assessment data.

  13. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  14. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population data sets provide baseline population information as one of the drivers of ecosystem change. The data helped in...

  15. [Health risk assessment of exposure to metals in the workers of the steel foundry and in the general population of Taranto (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleo, Leonardo; Lovreglio, Piero; Panuzzo, Laura; D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Basso, Antonella; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Drago, Ignazio; Tomasi, Cesare; Apostoli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    To study the urinary excretion of As, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Pb, Sb in workers at the Taranto integrated-cycle steel foundry and in subjects from the general population of Taranto, to assess the health risk posed by occupational exposure and environmental exposure, respectively, to these metals. The study included 49 steel foundry workers (exposed), working in the minerals and agglomerates pools, steel processing plants 1 and 2 and maritime plants, and 50 subjects belonging to the general population of Taranto resident at various distances from the factory (controls), randomly selected from the exposed subjects and controls enrolled in previous research conducted in 2005. A questionnaire was administered to all participants, enquiring into general characteristics, lifestyle, diet, and any medical conditions. Informed written consent to take part in the study was obtained from all subjects before enrolment. The results of environmental monitoring performed in 2005 in the workers' sectors, consisting of determining As, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the respirable dust, revealed by both samplers applied in fixed positions and personal samplers, were considered. Urine samples were obtained from all participants on a Friday, to determine As and Cr by AAS and all the other metal elements by a multielement technique with ICP-MS. Urinary creatinine was also determined to make any necessary adjustments. All urine analyses were performed in 2005 within one month of urine collection. In the respirable dust, As and Cd were always within the LOD, whereas Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the respective TLV-TWA of the ACGIH. Mn was the only metal element that presented significantly higher urinary concentrations in exposed subjects as compared to controls, although the values in both groups were in any case within the Italian reference range. Co, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb showed significantly higher urinary concentrations in controls than in

  16. Design and Feasibility of an International Study Assessing the Prevalence of Contact Allergy to Fragrances in the General Population : The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on

  17. Acceptable risk of contact allergy in the general population assessed by CE-DUR--a method to detect and categorize contact allergy epidemics based on patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on patch test sales data. A reverse CE-DUR was performed to make delineations between the 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and the corresponding theoretical prevalences of contact allergy observed among patients...

  18. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  19. Paranormal experiences in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C A; Joshi, S

    1992-06-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to a random sample of 502 adults in the general population of Winnipeg, a midwestern Canadian city. Results showed that paranormal/extrasensory experiences were common in the general population. They were linked to a history of childhood trauma and to other dissociative symptom clusters. A factor analysis of the paranormal experiences identified three factors which together accounted for 44.0% of the combined variance of the scores. A model is proposed in which paranormal experiences are conceptualized as an aspect of normal dissociation. Like dissociation in general, paranormal experiences can be triggered by trauma, especially childhood physical or sexual abuse. Such experiences discriminate individuals with childhood trauma histories from those without at high levels of significance.

  20. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    Many people reach adulthood without acquiring significant music performance skills (singing or instrumental playing). A substantial proportion of these adults consider that this has come about because they are "not musical." Some of these people may be "true" congenital amusics, characterized by specific and substantial anomalies in the processing of musical pitch and rhythm sequences, while at the same time displaying normal processing of speech and language. It is likely, however, that many adults who believe that they are unmusical are neurologically normal. We could call these adults "false" amusics. Acquisition of musical competence has multiple personal, social, and environmental precursors. Deficiencies in these areas may lead to lack of musical achievement, despite the fact that an individual possesses the necessary underlying capacities. Adults may therefore self-define as "unmusical" or "tone-deaf" for reasons unconnected to any underlying anomaly. This paper reports on two linked research studies. The first is an interview study with adults defining themselves as tone-deaf or unmusical. The interview schedule was designed to discover what criteria are being used in their self-definitions. Preliminary results suggest that performance criteria (e.g., judging oneself as unable to sing) play a major role, even for people who claim and demonstrate no perceptual deficits. The second study reports progress on the development of new subtests for a revised version of the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, Peretz et al., 2003). This currently contains six tests that allow for the assessment of melodic perception: contour, intervals, scale, rhythm, meter, and recognition memory. The MBEA does not assess two capacities that are generally accepted as central to normal music cognition: harmony and emotion. The development and norming of the emotion subtest will be described. When completed, the MBEA(R) will form a robust screening device for use with

  1. Attitudes of General Population and Physicians Towards Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mayda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess attitudes of general population and medical doctors towards alcohol addiction. Material and Method: 99 medical doctors who worked university hospitals, public hospitals or health centers and 101 people who selected from the community to represent the overall population enrolled in our study. All the participants were asked to anonymously complete a questinnaire about stigmatization, including questions assessing social distance, dangerousness and skillfullness. Results: Contrary to expectattions, there were not statistically significant differences in the attitudes of general poupulation and physicians towards alcohol dependences (all scales, p>0.05.Discussion: Both medical doctors and general population appear to have negative thoughts about alcohol dependence. New education strategies is developed in the field of general medical education and psychiatry in order to change negative attitudes towards alkohol addiction.

  2. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General assessment of estuarine pollution. Contamination of estuaries by untreated domestic wastewater is widespread, however, in absence of time-series studies the responses of native flora and fauna to modified environment are unclear. Agricultural runoff ...

  3. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Åke; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology and the reliability of instruments adopted and discuss the feasibility based on a pilot phase. Descriptive epidemiology survey. A random sample from the general population is selected and interviewed, and is offered patch testing in a randomized way. We specifically enquire about any skin rash reported during the previous year, and any history of reactions to products that may contain the sensitizer and/or a history of avoidance of the same products. Patch test data are linked to the questionnaire information to define clinical relevance. The questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability in 94 individuals. Patch test reading also showed a high level of interrater reliability. During the pilot phase, a total of 589 participants were recruited. The EDEN Fragrance Study is feasible and able to provide useful data on fragrance allergy.

  4. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66 and self-reported (n = 313 hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995. High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  5. Assessment of coronary calcification using calibrated mass score with two different multidetector computed tomography scanners in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Groen, Jaap M; Arnold, Ben A

    2017-01-01

    MS of the phantom was 32.9±0.8mg and 33.1±0.9mg (p=0.43) assessed by scanner A and B respectively - the physical calcium mass was 34.0mg. Correlation between measured MS and physical calcium mass was R2=0.99 in both scanners. In the population study the median total MS was 16.8mg (interquartile range...

  6. Stroke Awareness in the General Population: A Study from Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the awareness level of the Jordanian general population regarding the definition, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and consequences of stroke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was handed to participants by trained students, the participants were chosen randomly from ...

  7. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias

    2017-01-01

    regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV...... myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range...... 40-84) years. Regional LVMT and LVMM were measured, according to the American Heart Association's 17 segment model, using semi-automatic software. Mean LVMT were 6.6 mm for men and 5.4 mm for women (p normal LV was thickest in the basal septum (segment 3; men = 8.3 mm; women = 7.2 mm...

  8. Alexithymia in the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Matthias; Popp, Kerstin; Schaefer, Ralf; Sitte, Wolfgang; Schneider, Christine; Hardt, Jochen; Decker, Oliver; Braehler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    The Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20) is used worldwide as a valid measurement of alexithymia. Until now, population-based standardization and cut-off values of the German TAS-20 version have not been available. This study provides these by means of a representative German sample and by investigating the factorial structure of the TAS-20. Data were generated from a representative random sample of the German general population (1,859 subjects aged between 20 and 69). The TAS-20 sum score was normally distributed. The mean value was 49.5 (SD=9.3) in men and 48.2 (SD=9.2) in women. Divorce, single and low social status were associated with enhanced sum scores. Ten percent of the population exceeded the TAS-20 sum score threshold of >or=61. The 66th percentile reached 53 for men and 52 for women. Factor analysis identified three factors that match the scales of the English original version. An additional fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") was extracted. Total explanation of variance by these four factors was 52.27%. The sum score of the German TAS-20 version is suited for the standardized measure of alexithymia. For selecting alexithymic individuals in experimental studies, the cut-off >or=61 is possibly too restrictive. Therefore, we propose the 66th percentile for the identification of high alexithymics. The TAS-20 sum score is associated with important socio-demographic variables. The factorial structure is reliable; the fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") provides differentiation of content and allows for enhanced explanation of variance.

  9. Detection of memory impairment in the general population: Screening by questionnaire and telephone compared to subsequent face-to-face assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Klein, M.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Development of efficient methods for identifying subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from the geneneral population is warranted, because these subjects represent an important group for (epidemiological) research purposes. Objectives: (1) To describe a two-step population

  10. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  11. The use of alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol use disorder and risk drinking in the general population: validation of AUDIT using schedules for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Hallgren, Mats; Balliu, Natalja; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and AUDIT-Consumption (AUDIT-C) are commonly used in population surveys but there are few validations studies in the general population. Validity should be estimated in samples close to the targeted population and setting. This study aims to validate AUDIT and AUDIT-C in a general population sample (PART) in Stockholm, Sweden. We used a general population subsample age 20 to 64 that answered a postal questionnaire including AUDIT who later participated in a psychiatric interview (n = 1,093). Interviews using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry was used as criterion standard. Diagnoses were set according to the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Agreement between the diagnostic test and criterion standard was measured with area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). A total of 1,086 (450 men and 636 women) of the interview participants completed AUDIT. There were 96 individuals with DSM-IV-alcohol dependence, 36 DSM-IV-Alcohol Abuse, and 153 Risk drinkers. AUCs were for DSM-IV-alcohol use disorder 0.90 (AUDIT-C 0.85); DSM-IV-dependence 0.94 (AUDIT-C 0.89); risk drinking 0.80 (AUDIT-C 0.80); and any criterion 0.87 (AUDIT-C 0.84). In this general population sample, AUDIT and AUDIT-C performed outstanding or excellent in identifying dependency, risk drinking, alcohol use disorder, any disorder, or risk drinking. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  13. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huikuan Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1% and pediatric population (18.8% were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%. Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation.

  14. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  15. Subset selection from generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1997-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. These generalized logistic distributions Type-I, Type-II and Type-III are indexed by a real valued parameter. They have been derived as mixtures with the standard logistic distribution and for discrete values of the

  16. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  17. Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District (Mexico) ... in a population living close to a mine and mineral processing plant in Mexico ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  18. Effects of psychosocial work factors and psychological distress on self-assessed work ability: A 7-year follow-up in a general working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Balliu, Natalja; Lundin, Andreas; Vaez, Marjan; Kjellberg, Katarina; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Toinvestigate the effects of psychosocial work factors (PWF) and psychological distress (PD) on self-assessed work ability. This follow-up study included 7,810 individuals (55%women) with good work ability at baseline. PWFandPD (measured by GHQ-12) were assessed at baseline and work ability at 7-year follow-up. Effects of PWF and PD on work ability were analyzed by logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI, and by mediation analysisusing 4-way decomposition. Low support was associated with poor work ability for both women and men (OR 1.78 and 1.89). For men, also low skill discretion was associated with poor work ability (OR 2.07). For both women and men, PD was associated with poor work ability (OR 3.41 and 1.84). PD did not act as an intermediate variablein the association between PWF and work ability. Strategies for sustainable work ability should focus on both working conditions and health factors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:121-130, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  20. Assessment of mode of delivery and predictors of emergency caesarean section among women living with HIV in a matched-pair setting with women from the general population in Denmark, 2002-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbaek, M; Thorsteinsson, K; Helleberg, M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess mode of delivery and predictors of emergency caesarean section (EmCS) in women living with HIV (WLWH) in a matched-pair setting with women from the general population (WGP) in Denmark. Further, we analysed birth plan in WLWH. METHODS: All WLWH giving birth to live...... in the study. At delivery, all WLWH were on antiretroviral therapy and 85.6% had HIV RNA HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Mean age was 32.7 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.1-33.2 years]. Mode of delivery differed significantly between WLWH and WGP [vaginal delivery, 33.4% versus 73.3%, respectively; elective...

  1. Assessment of ASEAN population programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the 5th meeting of the ASEAN Heads of Population Program, held at Chiang Mai during November 1981, were the following: to discuss and consider the midterm reviews of some of the Phase 1 projects; to discuss and consider the ASEAN population experts' views on the progress made in the rest of the phase 1 projects; to discuss and consider the progress made in the implementation of the phase 2 projects; to discuss and consider the ASEAN population experts' recommendations on the ASEAN population program in the 1980s based on the report of the programming exercise submitted by the consultant in the expert group meeting; and to discuss administrative and other problems faced by the program implementors in the operationalization of the ongoing ASEAN population projects and provide appropriate directions to solve such problems. As a result of the programming exercise, the meeting established the directions for the future ASEAN population program and strongly recommended the continuation, intensification, and expansion of the ASEAN population program. A total of 12 projects comprise the ASEAN population program: 5 projects under phase 1 and 7 under phase 2. Under phase 1, 1 project has been completed, and the 1st parts of 2 other projects are in the process of implementation. Phase 2 projects, which started in September/October 1980, are all in the process of implementation. The following phase 1 projects are summarized: integration of population and rural development policies and programs; modular training for trainers of population and development agencies in ASEAN countries; multi-media support for population programs in the context of rural development in ASEAN countries; and migration in relation to rural development. The following phase 2 projects are also summarized: institutional development and exchange of personnel; women in development in ASEAN countries; and migration in relation to rural development. The following phase 2 projects are also

  2. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  4. Validity of the Malaise Inventory in general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, B; Pickles, A; Power, C; Collishaw, S; Maughan, B

    1999-06-01

    The Malaise Inventory is a commonly used self-completion scale for assessing psychiatric morbidity. There is some evidence that it may represent two separate psychological and somatic subscales rather than a single underlying factor of distress. This paper provides further information on the factor structure of the Inventory and on the reliability and validity of the total scale and two sub-scales. Two general population samples completed the full Inventory: over 11,000 subjects from the National Child Development Study at ages 23 and 33, and 544 mothers of adolescents included in the Isle of Wight epidemiological surveys. The internal consistency of the full 24-item scale and the 15-item psychological subscale were found to be acceptable, but the eight-item somatic sub-scale was less reliable. Factor analysis of all 24 items identified a first main general factor and a second more purely psychological factor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the validity of the scale held for men and women separately and for different socio-economic groups, by reference to external criteria covering current or recent psychiatric morbidity and service use, and that the psychological sub-scale had no greater validity than the full scale. This study did not support the separate scoring of a somatic sub-scale of the Malaise Inventory. Use of the 15-item psychological sub-scale can be justified on the grounds of reduced time and cost for completion, with little loss of reliability or validity, but this approach would not significantly enhance the properties of the Inventory by comparison with the full 24-item scale. Inclusion of somatic items may be more problematic when the full scale is used to compare particular sub-populations with different propensities for physical morbidity, such as different age groups, and in these circumstances it would be a sensible precaution to utilise the 15-item psychological sub-scale.

  5. General employee training: Initial needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    US Department of Energy Orders, including those for Emergency Preparedness, require that DOE facility employees receive a preparatory course on certain basic work practices and employee responsibilities before receiving any job-specific training. Most of this general information is required for employees to either prevent or to handle emergency situations that may arise in the workplace. While the categories are general, the information should be given at both Laboratory and individual-site levels, if possible. A simple checklist developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory proved beneficial when assessing its general employee orientation compliance status. The checklist includes subject areas covered, organizational identities and responsibilities, and documentation needs

  6. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a

  7. General Plan Environmental Assessment, Hurlburt Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    sebiferum) and cogon grass (Imperata Resource/Issue Areas Hurlburt Field General Plan Environmental Assessment 4-9 cylindrica) are most...habitat on the western portion of the installation. The restoration of a native long-leaf pine/wire grass community on Hurlburt is associated with a

  8. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  9. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  10. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessment...

  11. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Research and assessment of national population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the necessity and probability of making researches on assessment of national population dose, and discusses some problems which might be noticeable in the research work. (author)

  13. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  14. Impact of Multidetector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) On The General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)

  15. Antidepressants and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, B.; Tielemans, M.M.; Aaldering, B.R.; Eikendal, T.; Jaspers Focks, J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported adverse effects of antidepressants, but antidepressants are also a treatment modality in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to assess the association between antidepressant use and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general

  16. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bénard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  17. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  18. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  19. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in autistic traits in early adulthood and to test if there is assortative mating (non-random partner choice) for autistic traits in the general population. Design: Twin family study using structural equation

  20. Sleep and psychopatholgy : in the general population and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate the relation between sleep and psychopathology. We examined two groups; bipolar patients and adolescents from the general population that are both characterized by mood fluctuations and are vulnerable for disturbances in sleep-wake pattern. Using wearables

  1. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  2. Working situation of cancer survivors versus the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the working situation of cancer survivors and the general (cancer-free) population and investigate characteristics associated with the increased likelihood of unemployment between the two groups. We selected 1927 cancer survivors from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data less than 65 years of age and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1924 individuals from the general population who closely resembled the cancer survivors. Compared to the general population, cancer survivors were less likely to be engaged in paid work, particularly as permanent workers, and were more likely to work regular hours. Additionally, they tended to do less work that involved lifting or moving heavy objects and uncomfortable postures and were more willing to express their emotions. An increased probability of unemployment among cancer survivors was associated with being over 50 years old, being female, having a lower monthly income, having multiple comorbidities, belonging to a nuclear family, being a National Basic Livelihood Act beneficiary, and having a recent diagnosis. Cancer survivors may want to pursue flexible occupations and improve their working situation. Further, they perceive their workplace more positively compared to the general population. Respecting the cancer survivor's choice to find flexible working conditions that suit their health needs and status, health-care providers involved in managing work-related issues among cancer survivors should be aware of the interaction between work-related concerns and post-cancer disease management.

  3. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  4. Assessment of Po-210 exposure for the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.; Breuer, F.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the natural internal dose of the general population due to alpha particles is associated with 210 Po exposure. The experimental data obtained to evaluate the levels of 210 Po exposure to members of the general Italian population and to some critical population groups exposed to high radon and daughter air concentration are summarized. The 210 Po content was measured in the following: a) daily diets; b) urinary excretions from members of the general population, both non-smokers and smokers; c) urinary excretions from workers in radioactive spas and non-uranium mines; d) teeth and bone samples from the general population. In most samples the content of 210 Pb, was also measured to assess the behaviour of 210 Po in man. A mathematical model fitting the experimental data was developed to describe the metabolism of systemic 210 Po. Four different levels of 210 Po exposure were detected according to the internal burden measured in the considered subjects. The corresponding dose rate to cortical and trabecular bone and soft tissue was evaluated. The values of the mean dose to the skeleton (cortical bone) were found to range from about 70 μGy/year for non-smokers of the general population to about 2 mGy/year for individuals working inside radioactive spas. (H.K.)

  5. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi...

  6. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modifiable factors associated with copeptin concentration: a general population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastel, Maatje D A; Meijer, Esther; Scheven, Lieneke E; Struck, Joachim; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-05-01

    Vasopressin plays an important role in maintaining volume homeostasis. However, recent studies suggest that vasopressin also may play a detrimental role in the progression of chronic kidney disease. It therefore is of interest to identify factors that influence vasopressin concentration, particularly modifiable ones. Cross-sectional analyses. Data used are from participants in a large general-population cohort study (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease [PREVEND]). Patients with a missing copeptin value (n=888), nonfasting blood sample (n=495), missing or assumed incorrect 24-hour urine collection (n=388), or heart failure (n=20) were excluded, leaving 6,801 participants for analysis. Identification of lifestyle- and diet-related factors that are associated with copeptin concentration. Copeptin concentration as surrogate for vasopressin. Copeptin was measured by an immunoluminometric assay as a surrogate for vasopressin. Associations were assessed in uni- and multivariable linear regression analyses. Median copeptin concentration was 4.7 (IQR, 2.9-7.6) pmol/L. When copeptin was studied as a dependent variable, the final stepwise backward model revealed associations with higher copeptin concentrations for lower 24-hour urine volume (P firm conclusions on cause-effect relationships. Important lifestyle- and diet-related factors associated with copeptin concentration are current smoking, alcohol use, protein and potassium intake, and particularly fluid and sodium intake. These data form a rationale to investigate whether intervening on these factors results in a lower vasopressin concentration with concomitant beneficial renal effects. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  9. Preventive psychosocial parental and school programmes in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Hans O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those s...

  10. Cortical processes of speech illusions in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, E; Bodar, L; van Os, J; Lousberg, R

    2016-10-18

    There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an experiment was conducted to analyze processing of auditory illusions in a general population sample. In a follow-up design with two measurement moments (baseline and 6 months), participants (n = 83) underwent the White Noise task under simultaneous recording with a 14-lead EEG. An auditory illusion was defined as hearing any speech in a sound fragment containing white noise. A total number of 256 speech illusions (SI) were observed over the two measurements, with a high degree of stability of SI over time. There were 7 main effects of speech illusion on the EEG alpha band-the most significant indicating a decrease in activity at T3 (t = -4.05). Other EEG frequency bands (slow beta, fast beta, gamma, delta, theta) showed no significant associations with SI. SIs are characterized by reduced alpha activity in non-clinical populations. Given the association of SIs with psychosis, follow-up research is required to examine the possibility of reduced alpha activity mediating SIs in high risk and symptomatic populations.

  11. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  12. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, psleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least three insomnia symptoms (OR: 1.4) and women (OR: 1.4). The highest probability of the appearance of concentration difficulties was found in subjects younger than 65 Years, having a depressive disorder and using a psychotropic (15-44 years: OR 19.1; 45-64 years

  13. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background ?Food addiction? shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ?food addiction? contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ?food addiction? in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ?food addiction? were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than contr...

  14. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Indonesia's general population and coronary heart disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginting, H.; Näring, G.W.B.; Veld, W.M. van der; Srisayekti, W.; Becker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the validity and determines the cut-off point for the Beck Depression Inventory-II (the BDI-II) among Indonesians. The Indonesian version of the BDI-II (the Indo BDI-II) was administered to 720 healthy individuals from the general population, 215 Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

  15. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual

  16. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Sluik, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in

  17. Syncope prevalence in the ED compared to general practice and population: a strong selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; van Dijk, Nynke; Ganzeboom, Karin S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Dekker, Lukas R. C.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Wieling, Wouter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence and distribution of the different causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) in the emergency department (ED) and chest pain unit (CPU) and estimated the proportion of persons with syncope in the general population who seek medical attention from either

  18. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  19. Assessment of validity with polytrauma Veteran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shane S; Bass, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Veterans with polytrauma have suffered injuries to multiple body parts and organs systems, including the brain. The injuries can generate a triad of physical, neurologic/cognitive, and emotional symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these conditions and for fair allocation of benefits. To accurately diagnose polytrauma disorders and their related problems, clinicians take into account the validity of reported history and symptoms, as well as clinical presentations. The purpose of this article is to describe the assessment of validity with polytrauma Veteran populations. Review of scholarly and other relevant literature and clinical experience are utilized. A multimethod approach to validity assessment that includes objective, standardized measures increases the confidence that can be placed in the accuracy of self-reported symptoms and physical, cognitive, and emotional test results. Due to the multivariate nature of polytrauma and the multiple disciplines that play a role in diagnosis and treatment, an ideal model of validity assessment with polytrauma Veteran populations utilizes neurocognitive, neurological, neuropsychiatric, and behavioral measures of validity. An overview of these validity assessment approaches as applied to polytrauma Veteran populations is presented. Veterans, the VA, and society are best served when accurate diagnoses are made.

  20. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...

  1. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  2. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  3. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  4. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Decker, Oliver; Müller, Stefanie; Brähler, Elmar; Schellberg, Dieter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-03-01

    The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a practical self-report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care. However, the GAD-7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far, normative data are not available. To investigate reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the GAD-7 in the general population and to generate normative data. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8, 2006. Five thousand thirty subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years. The survey questionnaire included the GAD-7, the 2-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and demographic characteristics. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1-dimensional structure of the GAD-7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (alpha = 0.89). Intercorrelations with the PHQ-2 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were r = 0.64 (P < 0.001) and r = -0.43 (P < 0.001), respectively. As expected, women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD-7 anxiety scores compared with men [3.2 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.2); P < 0.001]. Normative data for the GAD-7 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD-7 scores of 10 or greater, and 1% had GAD-7 scores of 15 or greater. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD-7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population. The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject's GAD-7 score with those determined from a general population reference group.

  5. Teachers' Attitudes toward Assessment of Student Learning and Teacher Assessment Practices in General Educational Institutions: The Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiashvili, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study teachers' attitudes toward assessment of students' learning and their assessment practices in Georgia's general educational institutions. Georgia is a country in the South Caucasus with a population of 4.5 million people, with 2300 general educational institutions and about 559,400 students. The research…

  6. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    (General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  7. Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs

  8. Perinatal Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Assessment and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, Shaila; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Sanders, Shawn; Swift, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%-10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%-10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised. The resultant maternal dysfunction can potentially impact mother-infant bonding and influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Comorbid occurrence of GAD and major depressive disorder changes the illness course and its treatment outcome. Psychoeducation is a key component in overcoming denial/stigma and facilitating successful intervention. Treatment strategies are contingent upon illness severity. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), relaxation, and mindfulness therapy are indicated for mild GAD. Moderate/severe illness requires pharmacotherapy and CBT, individually or in combination. No psychotropic medications are approved by the FDA or Health Canada in pregnancy or the postpartum; off-label pharmacological treatment is instituted only if the benefit of therapy outweighs its risk. SSRIs/SNRIs are the first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to data supporting their efficacy and overall favorable side effect profile. Benzodiazepines are an option for short-term treatment. While research on atypical antipsychotics is evolving, some can be considered for severe manifestations where the response to antidepressants or benzodiazepines has been insufficient. A case example will illustrate the onset, clinical course, and treatment strategies of GAD through pregnancy and the postpartum.

  9. Aldosterone and glomerular filtration--observations in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dittmann, Kathleen; Völzke, Henry; Endlich, Karlhans; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2014-03-10

    Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany. A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (ß-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; ß-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD. Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.

  10. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites level in urine of general population in eight provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Chunguang; Liu, Cuilan; Wang, Gang; Song, Xinkui; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Baoli; Shao, Hua; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Yu, Shanfa; Ji, Hongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Sun, Ran; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    To assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites in urine of general population in China among 8 provinces, provide the baseline of the metabolites in the general population. From 2009 to 2010, 18 120 subjects of general population aged 6-60 years old were recruited from 24 areas among 8 provinces in east, west and central areas of China mainland by cluster random sampling. The information of the living environment and health condition were collected by questionnaire and spot urine samples were collected, 4 680 urine samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and monohydroxy metabolites distribution in urine among groups of gender and ages were analysed. Geometric means (GM) of 2-naphthol, 1-naphthol, 3-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in urine (95%CI) were 1.85 (1.75-1.95), 1.55 (1.50-1.61), 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.82 (0.78-0.85) µg/L, respectively;and median are 2.44, population were significantly different (P population aged 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were 1.60, 1.56, 1.69, 2.23, 1.91 and 1.86 µg/L (χ(2) = 17.90, P population were different, it provided a basic data for the further study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in the population.

  11. Evaluation of LLNL BSL-3 Maximum Credible Event Potential Consequence to the General Population and Surrounding Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-16

    The purpose of this evaluation is to establish reproducibility of the analysis and consequence results to the general population and surrounding environment in the LLNL Biosafety Level 3 Facility Environmental Assessment (LLNL 2008).

  12. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  13. Tobacco addiction in the psychiatric population and in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the degree of tobacco addiction and identify independently associated factors by comparing the psychiatric population of secondary and tertiary care with the general population of the primary healthcare network. Method: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted in a municipality of São Paulo, with 134 smokers of a Mental Health Outpatient Unit (MHOU, a Psychiatric Hospital (PH, and a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU. Data were collected by means of individual interviews, recorded on a mobile device. Data were statistically processed using Stata/12 Results: Of the 134 participants, 54.5% were women. While 49.1% of the psychiatric population (MHOU/PH had medium/high nicotine addiction, 58.3% of smokers of the general population had very low/low dependency. The Poisson regression model indicated a higher prevalence of smokers with high dependence among men (PR = 1.41, people aged 49 years or less (15 - 29 years, PR = 4.06, 30 - 39 PR = 2.96 years, 40 - 49 years PR = 1.84, with severe mental disorders (PR = 3.05, with anxiety disorders/other (PR = 3.98, and with high suicide risk (PR = 1.55. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence was greater in the psychiatric population than in the general population. The independent factors associated with severe dependence were sex, age group, diagnosis, and current risk of suicide. These results trigger reflection among nurses on the need to focus more attention on a neglected subject in mental health services.

  14. Clinical and economic assessment of different general population strategies of pertussis vaccine booster regarding number of doses and age of application for reducing whooping cough disease burden: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cobo, Iria; Chen, Yen-Fu; Olowokure, Babatunde; Litchfield, Ian

    2008-12-09

    Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children too young to be fully protected despite high vaccination coverage. This has been attributed to waning immunity in older people, leading to the development of strategies to increase levels of immunity. A systematic review was conducted to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of four population-based strategies for pertussis booster vaccination: single booster at 12-24 months old, single pre-school booster, single adolescent booster and multiple boosters in adulthood every 10 years. Electronic databases and Internet resources were searched to June 2006. Nine observational studies, four mathematical models and eight economic evaluations were included, evaluating four different strategies. Strong evidence to recommend any of these strategies was not found.

  15. Benzodiazepine use in general population, the municipality of Berane, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzodiazepines can be classified as one of the most frequently prescribed categories of medication. This medication category is distinguished by a high risk of tolerance and dependence, in the case of long-term, excessive use. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyse the use of benzodiazepines in the general population, municipality of Berane, Montenegro, during the previous year. Methods: Research was based on the analysis of 1000 prescriptions of benzodiazepines, issued by physicians in Primary Health Care. The diagnostic manual utilised for the purpose of this research was International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The survey was conducted for a period of 40 days during January and February 2015. Results: The study was performed in the general population, age from 18 to 98 years (621 females and 379 males. The average age of all participants in the study was 64.1±13.1 years. Analysis of data confirmed that the most frequently prescribed from the group of benzodiazepines were: diazepam (42.2%, bromazepam (30.3%, lorazepam (16.4%, alprazolam (6.4%, nitrazepam (2.6% and clonazepam (2.1%. The significant statistical difference (x2=58.664; p<0.001 was found between female patients who used benzodiazepines in 62.1% of cases, compared to male patients who used benzodiazepines in 37.9% of cases. It was confirmed that benzodiazepines were usually prescribed for 17 different diagnoses, mostly for diagnoses from the group I, viz. cluster-diseases of the circulatory system (39.7%, group F-mental and behavioural disorders (31.1% and group E-endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (7.7%. Conclusion: Studies about drug utilisation provide plenty of useful information which can be further used with the aim of achieving more rational prescribing and more effective patient treating.

  16. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insomnia and hypnotic use in Campo Grande general population, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza José Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insomnia prevalence in general population was determined by means of 408 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Campo Grande city, Brazil. The random sample was stratified by sex, age and economic social status. Insomnia subtypes evaluated were the disorders of sleep initiation (DSI, sleep maintenance (DSM and early awakening (DEA. A structured questionnaire was used with the consent from the interviewed subjects. Statistics used chi-square, and Fisher tests; and inferences based on binomial distribution parameters; the significance level was 5% and confidence interval (CI was 95%.The general prevalence of insomnia was 19.1% (sd=2.0%, mostly women (p=0.0015, and people of less years of schooling (p=0.0317, subtype DSI (14.2%, p=0.0043, and chronic (p=0.7022. Hypnotic drugs were used by 6.9%(sd=1.3% in the last month. Use in the last 2 years, 70.3% mostly insomniacs (p<0.0001, women (p=0.0372 and people over 30 years of age (p=0.0536.

  18. Mortality Rates in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C and Cirrhosis Compared With the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Sofie; Brehm Christensen, Peer; Ladelund, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about mortality rates (MRs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with cirrhosis is limited. This study aimed to estimate all-cause MRs among patients with CHC with or without cirrhosis in Denmark compared with the general population. Methods: Patients registered...... in the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C with CHC and a liver fibrosis assessment were eligible for inclusion. Liver fibrosis was assessed by means of liver biopsy, transient elastography, and clinical cirrhosis. Up to 20 sex- and age-matched individuals per patient were identified in the general population....... Data were extracted from nationwide registries. Results: A total of 3410 patients with CHC (1014 with cirrhosis), and 67 315 matched individuals were included. Adjusted MR ratios (MRRs) between patients with or without cirrhosis and their comparison cohorts were 5.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4...

  19. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Patrick [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XI, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  20. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  1. Prognostic Value of Echocardiography in Hypertensive Versus Nonhypertensive Participants From the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Daniel; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension may be the most significant cardiovascular risk factor. Few studies have assessed the prognostic value of echocardiography in hypertensive individuals. This study examines the incremental prognostic value of adding echocardiographic parameters to established risk factors in individuals...... of echocardiography in predicting cardiovascular outcomes in the general population is altered by hypertension. In hypertensive individuals, left ventricular mass index added incremental prognostic value in addition to established risk factors. In nonhypertensive individuals, global longitudinal strain added...

  2. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  3. Nutritional assessment of Esmeraldan adult population (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia MATEOS-MARCOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyse the nutritional status of the adult population in Esmeraldas by means of anthropometric measurements, the input of macro and micronutrients in the diet, and the adequacy estimation of nutrient intake by hispanic Dietary Reference Instakes along with the sex and the age influence. Methods Nutrient intake data were obtained by personal interview with the application of two 24 hour recalls (weekend and weekday. The anthropometric indicators analysed were body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Nutriplato version 2.0 software was used for the two 24-hours food recall surveys data processing, and for the respective calculations of macronutrients, micronutrients and Dietary Reference Intakes. Means and standard deviations were calculated for anthropometry, nutrient intakes and Dietary Reference Instakes. The General Linear Model was applied to identify differences in relation to nutrient intakes considering sex, profession, body mass index, group, origin and day of the week as factors. Results Statistical analysis showed significant differences mainly in carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, iodine, and vitamin E. Dietary intakes were compared with the Federación Española de Sociedades de Nutrición, Alimentación y Dietética Dietary Reference Intakes requirements and calcium, potassium, iodine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin D, vitamin E, fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are below the Dietary Reference Instakes in all ages and gender subgroups. The anthropometric results obtained indicated that 67.0% of the population were overweight and obese, the 87.7% of the adults suffered from prehypertension and the waist circumference indicated that 73.0% of the subjects were established in the range of high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Priority nutrition actions and interventions are needed to be developed in Esmeraldas adult

  4. Cumulative trauma and current posttraumatic stress disorder status in general population and inmate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Agee, Elisha; Dietrich, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This research was undertaken to examine the role between cumulative exposure to different types of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in general population and prison samples. Two archival datasets were examined: the standardization sample for the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic States (DAPS; Briere, 2001), and data from a study on trauma and posttraumatic sequelae among inmates and others. PTSD was found in 4% of the general population sample and 48% of the prison sample. Trauma exposure was very common among prisoners, including a 70% rate of childhood sexual abuse for women and a 50% rate for men. Lifetime number of different types of trauma was associated with PTSD in both the general population and prison samples, even when controlling for the effects of sexual trauma. Cumulative interpersonal trauma predicted PTSD, whereas cumulative noninterpersonal trauma did not. In the general population sample, participants who had only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 0% likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those with 6 or more other trauma types had a 12% likelihood. In the prison sample, those with only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 17% percent likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those exposed to 6 or more other trauma types had a 64% chance of PTSD. Cumulative trauma predicts current PTSD in both general population and prison samples, even after controlling for sexual trauma. PTSD appears to develop generally as a function of exposure to multiple types of interpersonal trauma, as opposed to a single traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Napping and associated factors: a Japanese nationwide general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate napping habits and their associated factors in the Japanese adult general population. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2007 for subjects selected randomly from among 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7664 people (3527 men and 4137 women), aged 20-99 years, were analyzed. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on frequency and duration of napping. The percentage of responders for high-frequency napping, four or more days per week, was 21.2% among men and 17.1% among women. The percentage of responders for long-duration napping, 2 h or more per one nap, was 2.9% among men and 2.6% among women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that men, older age, smoking, insomnia symptoms, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and having sufficient rest obtained by sleep were positively associated with high-frequency napping, whereas alcohol drinking showed a negative association. Older age was negatively associated with long-duration napping whereas living in a large community, smoking, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and psychological stress showed a positive association. These findings provide important data for future studies aimed at improvement of sleep habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  7. Prevalence of contact allergy in the general population: Sensitization to metals with a focus on nickel sulfate, the EDEN Fragrance Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.-L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Elsner, P.; Gonçalo, M.; Naldi, L.; Svensson, Å.; Diepgen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to metals is assessed mostly in clinical populations. Studies in the general population are scarce. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of metal sensitization in the general population and to determine risk factors for nickel sensitization. In five European countries (the

  8. Level of understanding of Alzheimer disease among caregivers and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, C; Cetó, M; Arias, A; Blasco, E; Gil, M P; López, R; Dakterzada, F; Purroy, F; Piñol-Ripoll, G

    2018-05-11

    Understanding of Alzheimer disease is fundamental for early diagnosis and to reduce caregiver burden. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of understanding of Alzheimer disease among informal caregivers and different segments of the general population through the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale. We assessed the knowledge of caregivers in different follow-up periods (less than one year, between 1 and 5 years, and over 5 years since diagnosis) and individuals from the general population. Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale scores were grouped into different items: life impact, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, disease progression, and caregiving. A total of 419 people (215 caregivers and 204 individuals from the general population) were included in the study. No significant differences were found between groups for overall Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale score (19.1 vs. 18.8, P = .9). There is a scarce knowledge of disease risk factors (49.3%) or the care needed (51.2%), while symptoms (78.6%) and course of the disease (77.2%) were the best understood aspects. Older caregiver age was correlated with worse Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale scores overall and for life impact, symptoms, treatment, and disease progression (P < .05). Time since diagnosis improved caregivers' knowledge of Alzheimer disease symptoms (P = .00) and diagnosis (P = .05). Assessing the degree of understanding of Alzheimer disease is essential to the development of health education strategies both in the general population and among caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  11. A Structure for Population Education: Goals, Generalizations, and Behavioral Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mary Turner; Wileman, Ralph E.

    This book is written to assist anyone who wants to learn about, teach, or plan curricula for population education. A structure is provided that educators can use for first graders or for high school students. Chapter 1 identifies the population phenomenon and the need to study it. Chapter 2 gives the elements of the structure: goals,…

  12. General health assessment in refugees claiming to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...... (P general) health. Reliability was moderate with respect to clinical observation during interview....

  13. Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hoang Le, Quynh Ngoc; Tran, Tung Thanh; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-10-11

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a vital benchmark to assess the effects of health interventions and policies. Measuring HRQOL of the general population is essential to establish a reference for health outcomes evaluations. However, evidence on HRQOL of general populations in low and middle income countries is very limited. This study aimed to measure HRQOL of the Vietnamese population by using the EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) instrument and determine its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Hanoi with 1571 residences in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. EQ-5D-5L and EQ- visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to assess HRQOL. Potential covariates included socio-demographic characteristics, having acute symptoms in the last four weeks, chronic diseases in the last three months, having multiple health issues, and health service utilisation in the last twelve months. A generalized linear model was employed to identify the association between HRQOL and covariates. Overall, the mean EQ-5D utility index was 0.91 (SD = 0.15), and the mean EQ-VAS score was 87.4 (SD = 14.3). The highest proportion of respondents reporting any problems was in Usual activities (24.3%), followed by Anxiety/Depression (15.2%) and Pain/Discomfort (10.0%), while the lowest percentage was in Self-care (2.5%). Lower HRQOL composite scores were related to unemployment, lower income, higher education, living in urban areas, having chronic diseases, having multiple health issues and using health service. For any health problem self-reported by respondents, the health utility reduced by 0.02 (respiratory diseases) to 0.15 (musculoskeletal diseases). Health utility of the general population and reductions for self-reported health problems in this study are useful for future population health evaluations and comparisons. It also informs the development of interventions to reduce health problems of the general population.

  14. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  15. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  16. Joint Hypermobility Classes in 9-Year-Old Children from the General Population and Anxiety Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Navarro, José Blas; Osa, Núria de la; Penelo, Eva; Bulbena, Antoni

    2018-05-25

    To obtain joint hypermobility classes in children from the general population and to study their characteristics in relation to anxiety measures. A total of 336 nine-year-old children from the general population were clinically assessed through 9 items of hypermobility, and their parents reported about the severity of anxiety symptoms. Latent class analysis was estimated to group the children according to the presence of hypermobility symptoms, and the obtained classes were related to anxiety. A 2-class solution, labeled as high hypermobility and low hypermobility, best fitted the data. Children in the high hypermobility group scored higher in separation anxiety, social phobia, physical injury fears, and total anxiety than did those in the low group. When applying the threshold reference scores to the total anxiety score, 7.4% of children in the high hypermobility group versus 6% in the low group were reported to experience clinical elevations on total anxiety. High symptoms of hypermobility are associated with higher scores in anxiety symptoms in children from the general population. Children with frequent symptoms of hypermobility may benefit from screening for anxiety symptoms because a subset of them are experiencing clinical elevations and may need comprehensive physical and psychological treatment.

  17. [Criterion Validity of the German Version of the CES-D in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Rebecca; Baumgartner, Josef S; van den Nest, Miriam; Friedrich, Fabian; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Wancata, Johannes

    2018-04-17

    The "Center of Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale" (CES-D) is a well-known screening tool for depression. Until now the criterion validity of the German version of the CES-D was not investigated in a sample of the adult general population. 508 study participants of the Austrian general population completed the CES-D. ICD-10 diagnoses were established by using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted. Possible gender differences were explored. Overall discriminating performance of the CES-D was sufficient (ROC-AUC 0,836). Using the traditional cut-off values of 15/16 and 21/22 respectively the sensitivity was 43.2 % and 32.4 %, respectively. The cut-off value developed on the basis of our sample was 9/10 with a sensitivity of 81.1 % und a specificity of 74.3 %. There were no significant gender differences. This is the first study investigating the criterion validity of the German version of the CES-D in the general population. The optimal cut-off values yielded sufficient sensitivity and specificity, comparable to the values of other screening tools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general adult population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R Brock; Farrer, Thomas J; Primosch, Mark; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. To understand the extent of TBI, it is important to assess the prevalence of TBI in the general population. However, the prevalence of TBI in the general population can be difficult to measure because of differing definitions of TBI, differing TBI severity levels, and underreporting of sport-related TBI. Additionally, prevalence reports vary from study to study. In this present study, we used meta-analytic methods to estimate the prevalence of TBI in the adult general population. Across 15 studies, all originating from developed countries, which included 25,134 adults, 12% had a history of TBI. Men had more than twice the odds of having had a TBI than did women, suggesting that male gender is a risk factor for TBI. The adverse behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric effects associated with TBI coupled with the high prevalence of TBI identified in this study indicate that TBI is a considerable public and personal-health problem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Prevalence of constipation among the general population: a community-based survey from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Mamta; Saini, Sushma Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a frequent health problem leading to great discomfort to the person and affects his or her quality of life. It is considered to be highly prevalent in the general population, but there is little data supporting the findings. This study was undertaken with an objective to assess the prevalence of constipation and its associated factors among the general population of Dadu Majra Colony, UT, Chandigarh, India. A total of 505 individuals were interviewed through structured questionnaire based on ROME II criteria for constipation. Results revealed that the prevalence of self-reported constipation within the last 1 year was 24.8% whereas 16.8% of participants had constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Most of the subjects (83%) were within the age group of 18-59 years with mean age (years) of 38.64 ± 15.57. Constipation was significantly more frequent in females than in males (20% vs. 13%) and in nonworking population than in working population (20% vs. 12%). Poor dietary habits, lesser fluid intake per day, and lesser physical activity were found to be significant factors leading to the constipation. About 18% of constipated subjects reported physicians' consultation, whereas 8% reported the use of laxatives to relieve their constipation.

  20. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social stress and population cycles: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Social stress is a population hypothesis that is invoked to explain the precipitous declines observed in population levels of such rodent species as Microtus pennsylvanicus. According to this hypothesis, stress is produced by the increase in aggressive contacts between animals in a growing population. Continued contacts produce profound hormonal and behavioral changes in these animals which lead to decreases in reproduction and viability. Several theoretical weaknesses of the hypothesis are raised. First, increases in density may not be positively correlated with the number of contacts. Animals may merely build more runways. Second, even if contacts do increase, they may not necessarily be aggressive in nature. Finally, confined populations which reach excessively high densities and for which contacts between animals must increase, fail to show a precipitous decline in numbers. In addition, a major methodological problem is revealed. Although researchers tend to causally connect social stress and precipitous population declines, most studies are correlational in nature. Of those studies that involve actual manipulations of populations, these manipulations are usually performed on confined populations that fail to exhibit the desired phenomonen. The difficulties associated with manipulating unconfined populations are discussed

  2. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  3. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R. [Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, 25 Narva Road, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  4. Diagnostic devices for osteoporosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M P; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hermann, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A diagnostic gap exists in the current dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based diagnostic approach to osteoporosis. Other diagnostic devices have been developed, but no comprehensive review concerning the applicability of these diagnostic devices for population-based screening...... have been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials was performed for population-based studies that focused on technical methods that could either indicate bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, substitute for DXA...

  5. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  6. Generalizing Evidence From Randomized Clinical Trials to Target Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Properly planned and conducted randomized clinical trials remain susceptible to a lack of external validity. The authors illustrate a model-based method to standardize observed trial results to a specified target population using a seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment trial, and they provide Monte Carlo simulation evidence supporting the method. The example trial enrolled 1,156 HIV-infected adult men and women in the United States in 1996, randomly assigned 577 to a highly active antiretroviral therapy and 579 to a largely ineffective combination therapy, and followed participants for 52 weeks. The target population was US people infected with HIV in 2006, as estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results from the trial apply, albeit muted by 12%, to the target population, under the assumption that the authors have measured and correctly modeled the determinants of selection that reflect heterogeneity in the treatment effect. In simulations with a heterogeneous treatment effect, a conventional intent-to-treat estimate was biased with poor confidence limit coverage, but the proposed estimate was largely unbiased with appropriate confidence limit coverage. The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results. PMID:20547574

  7. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of

  8. Population-level ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W.); Sorensen, Mary T; Munns, Wayne R

    2008-01-01

    ... and Effect Assessment Vethaak, Schrap, de Voogt, editors 2006 Assessing the Hazard of Metals and Inorganic Metal Substances in Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems Adams and Chapman, editors 2006 Pe...

  9. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  10. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  11. The Assessment of Hyperactivity in Preschool Populations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The variety of methods available for the assessment of hyperactivity in preschool populations is reviewed. Specific procedures for assessment are presented from a multidisciplinary perspective, integrating biophysical, behavioral, cognitive, and ecological models. (Author/JDD)

  12. Health Needs Assessment of Plain Populations in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Abbott, Christina; Thompson, Scottie; Dlugi, Emily; Adams, Zachary; Schulman, Meryl; Strauss, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    We performed a health needs assessment for three Plain communities in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania from a random sample of households. Compared with the general population of adults, Plain respondents were more likely to be married, to have children, and they had large families; they were more likely to drink well water, to eat fruit and vegetables, to drink raw milk, and to live on a farm. Plain respondents had better physical and mental health and were less likely to have been diagnosed with various medical conditions compared with the general population of adults in Lancaster County but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have been diagnosed compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Plain respondents usually have a regular doctor and often receive preventive care but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have a regular doctor, to receive preventive care, to have had their children vaccinated, and to receive routine dental care compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Despite their relative geographic and genetic isolation, and despite the small, relative differences noted, the health of Plain communities in Lancaster County is similar to that of other adults in the County.

  13. Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Hassim, I; Norazman, M R; Diana, M; Khairul Hazdi, Y; Rosnah, I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

  14. Physiological Aldosterone Concentrations Are Associated with Alterations of Lipid Metabolism: Observations from the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hannich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aldosterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are involved in many pathophysiological processes that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Previously, associations between the concentrations of aldosterone and certain components of the lipid metabolism in the peripheral circulation were suggested, but data from the general population is sparse. We therefore aimed to assess the associations between aldosterone and HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL-C in the general adult population. Methods. Data from 793 men and 938 women aged 25–85 years who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were obtained. The associations of aldosterone with serum lipid concentrations were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and HbA1c. Results. The linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations of aldosterone with LDL-C (β-coefficient = 0.022, standard error = 0.010, p=0.03 and non-HDL-C (β-coefficient = 0.023, standard error = 0.009, p=0.01 as well as an inverse association of aldosterone with HDL-C (β-coefficient = −0.022, standard error = 0.011, p=0.04. Conclusions. The present data show that plasma aldosterone is positively associated with LDL-C and non-HDL-C and inversely associated with HDL-C in the general population. Our data thus suggests that aldosterone concentrations within the physiological range may be related to alterations of lipid metabolism.

  15. Physiological Aldosterone Concentrations Are Associated with Alterations of Lipid Metabolism: Observations from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannich, M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Reincke, M; Adolf, C; Völzke, H; Rettig, R; Hannemann, A

    2018-01-01

    Aldosterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are involved in many pathophysiological processes that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Previously, associations between the concentrations of aldosterone and certain components of the lipid metabolism in the peripheral circulation were suggested, but data from the general population is sparse. We therefore aimed to assess the associations between aldosterone and HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL-C in the general adult population. Data from 793 men and 938 women aged 25-85 years who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were obtained. The associations of aldosterone with serum lipid concentrations were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and HbA1c. The linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations of aldosterone with LDL-C ( β -coefficient = 0.022, standard error = 0.010, p = 0.03) and non-HDL-C ( β -coefficient = 0.023, standard error = 0.009, p = 0.01) as well as an inverse association of aldosterone with HDL-C ( β -coefficient = -0.022, standard error = 0.011, p = 0.04). The present data show that plasma aldosterone is positively associated with LDL-C and non-HDL-C and inversely associated with HDL-C in the general population. Our data thus suggests that aldosterone concentrations within the physiological range may be related to alterations of lipid metabolism.

  16. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  17. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor’s law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giometto, A.; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, A.; Cohen, J.; Maritan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 25 (2015), s. 7755-7760 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fluctuation scaling * multiplicative growth * power law * environmental stochasticity * Markovian environment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/formentin-0444162.pdf

  18. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. General siting regulation and population distribution criteria for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new national regulation for nuclear power plant siting is described. The main body of the regulation is similar in contents to the IAEA Code of Practice in siting, but exceeds its scope in certain areas and covers all aspects of the impact of the plant on the population and the environment of the region, including non-radiological effects. The regulation is accompanied by appendices which refer to site suitability criteria with respect to the radiological consequences from the operational states of the plant and with respect to accidents, including core-melt accidents; these reflect the particular geographic and demographic situation of Greece

  20. The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Cao

    Full Text Available This is the first meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of insomnia in the general population of China. A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Interne (CNKI, WanFang Data and SinoMed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. A total of 17 studies with 115,988 participants met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in China was 15.0% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 12.1%-18.5%. No significant difference was found in the prevalence between genders or across time period. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in population with a mean age of 43.7 years and older (11.6%; 95% CI: 7.5%-17.6% was significantly lower than in those with a mean age younger than 43.7 years (20.4%; 95% CI: 14.2%-28.2%. The prevalence of insomnia was significantly affected by the type of assessment tools (Q = 14.1, P = 0.001. The general population prevalence of insomnia in China is lower than those reported in Western countries but similar to those in Asian countries. Younger Chinese adults appear to suffer from more insomnia than older adults.CRD 42016043620.

  1. Interarm blood pressure difference and target organ damage in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jouni K; Puukka, Pauli J; Jula, Antti M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate interarm differences of blood pressure (BP) and its determinants, and to clarify whether both arms are equally good in assessing BP and target organ damage in the general population. We studied a representative sample of Finnish adult population with 484 study participants, ages 25-74 years. BP was measured twice by an oscillometric monitor simultaneously on both arms. Study participants underwent a clinical examination including measurements of serum lipids, glucose and indicators of target organ damage. BP was 2.3/0.2 mmHg higher on right than on left arm (P differences). SBP and DBP measured on right and left arms correlated equally with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and albuminuria. Higher SBP level was an independent determinant of both greater systolic and diastolic interarm BP difference. Exaggerated absolute diastolic interarm BP difference (>5 mmHg) was associated with higher BMI, arm circumference, LVMI, IVST and PWT, whereas exaggerated absolute systolic interarm BP difference (>10 mmHg) was not associated with any clinical variables. There was only a small difference in BP between arms in a healthy general population. Both arms are equally good determinants of target organ damage. BP should be measured at least once on both arms and prefer the arm with higher BP readings in the future BP measurements.

  2. Preoperative stoma site marking in the general surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma site marking are supported by research and professional organizations as interventions that can reduce the incidence of problematic stomas and improve patient outcomes. This study investigated the translation of this research into practice in the acute care surgery population. A retrospective chart review using convenience sampling was conducted at a large urban hospital in the Midwestern United States. Thirty patients underwent a surgical procedure that resulted in the creation of a fecal ostomy over a 5-month period. Descriptive statistical analysis examined the reason for surgery, preoperative length of stay (LOS), the percentage of patients who received preoperative teaching and stoma marking and the relationship between preoperative LOS and the use of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Twenty-one of 30 patients were admitted to hospital 24 hours or more before surgery. No participants were admitted urgently. Three (14%) of those admitted for more than 24 hours received preoperative marking or teaching. There was no significant relationship between preoperative LOS and preoperative teaching and stoma marking. The opportunity exists to promote successful adaptation in this surgical population through the implementation of the evidence-based interventions of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Additional study is needed to determine barriers to their use as well as to develop effective implementation strategies.

  3. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, Marianne; Teunis, Peter; Sabel, Rob

    2008-07-09

    Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head) was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers). Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  4. Patterns of stigma toward schizophrenia among the general population: a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre A; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Guarniero, Francisco B; Lawson, Fabio L; Hengartner, Michael P; Rössler, Wulf; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-09-01

    Our purpose was to assess stigma toward schizophrenia in a representative sample of the Brazilian general population. The sample consisted of 1015 individuals interviewed by telephone. A vignette describing someone with schizophrenia was read, and four stigma aspects regarding this hypothetical individual were assessed: stereotypes, restrictions, perceived prejudice and social distance. Latent profile analysis searched for stigma profiles among the sample. Multinomial logistic regression was used to find correlates of each class. Four stigma profiles were found; 'no stigma' individuals (n = 251) mostly displayed positive opinions. 'Labelers' (n = 222) scored high on social distance; they more often had familial contact with mental illness and more often labeled the vignette's disorder as schizophrenia. 'Discriminators', the group with the majority of individuals (n = 302), showed high levels of stigmatizing beliefs in all dimensions; discriminators were significantly older. 'Unobtrusive stigma' individuals (n = 240) seemed to demonstrate uncertainty or low commitment since they mostly answered items with the middle/impartial option. Some findings from the international literature were replicated; however, familial contact increased stigma, possibly denoting a locally modulated determinant. Hereby, our study also adds important cross-cultural data by showing that stigma toward schizophrenia is high in a Latin-American setting. We highlight the importance of analyzing the general population as a heterogeneous group, aiming to better elaborate anti-stigma campaigns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of return to work: a prospective general population-based study of individuals with all-cause sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, Gunnel; Bertilsson, Monica; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Waern, Margda; Vaez, Marjan

    2013-10-14

    Mental health problems are common in the work force and influence work capacity and sickness absence. The aim was to examine self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of time until return to work (RTW). Employed women and men (n=6140), aged 19-64 years, registered as sick with all-cause sickness absence between February 18 and April 15, 2008 received a self-administered questionnaire covering health and work situation (response rate 54%). Demographic data was collected from official registers. This follow-up study included 2502 individuals. Of these, 1082 were currently off sick when answering the questionnaire. Register data on total number of benefit compensated sick-leave days in the end of 2008 were used to determine the time until RTW. Self-reported persistent mental illness, the WHO (Ten) Mental Well-Being Index and self-assessed work capacity in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work were used as determinants. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of RTW. The likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those with persistent mental illness OR= 2.97 (95% CI, 2.10-4.20) and those with low mental well-being OR= 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31-3.62) after adjusting for gender, age, SES, hours worked and sick leave 2007. An analysis of employees who were off sick when they answered the questionnaire, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those who reported low capacity to work in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work. In a multivariable analysis, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) among those with low mental well-being remained significant OR=1.93 (95% CI 1.46-2.55) even after adjustment for all dimensions of capacity to work. Self-assessed persistent mental illness, low mental well-being and low work capacity increased the likelihood of prolonged RTW

  6. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  8. Incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann; González-Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    and assessed the incidence of these events. METHODS: Patients aged 20-89 years were identified and followed until (i) ICH or SAH was detected, (ii) the patient reached 90 years old (iii) death, or (iv) the end of the study. Computerized patient profiles were reviewed manually; those not discarded became...... stroke in THIN followed by manual review of clinical profiles is a valid method. The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke increases sharply with age. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  10. Absence of low back pain in the general population followed fortnightly over one year with automated text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to assess the usefulness of this definition of ´"non-episodes", by studying their presence over one year in the general population. Specifically, we wanted to: 1) determine the prevalence of non-episodes, 2) identify the proportion of study participants who could be classified as being...

  11. Non-right-handedness and mental health problems among adolescents from the general population : The Trails Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Bruggeman, R; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Burger, Huib

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the association between non-right-handedness and mental problems among adolescents is specific for psychotic symptoms, we included a group of 2096 adolescents with a mean age of 14 years from the general population. Mental health problems were assessed using the parent,

  12. Subclinical Disease Burden as Assessed by Whole-Body MRI in Subjects With Prediabetes, Subjects With Diabetes, and Normal Control Subjects From the General Population: The KORA-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Fabian; Hetterich, Holger; Rospleszcz, Susanne; Lorbeer, Roberto; Auweter, Sigrid D; Schlett, Christopher L; Schafnitzel, Anina; Bayerl, Christian; Schindler, Andreas; Saam, Tobias; Müller-Peltzer, Katharina; Sommer, Wieland; Zitzelsberger, Tanja; Machann, Jürgen; Ingrisch, Michael; Selder, Sonja; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Heier, Margit; Linkohr, Birgit; Meisinger, Christa; Weber, Christian; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Massberg, Steffen; Reiser, Maximilian F; Peters, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Detailed pathophysiological manifestations of early disease in the context of prediabetes are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the extent of early signs of metabolic and cardio-cerebrovascular complications affecting multiple organs in individuals with prediabetes. Subjects without a history of stroke, coronary artery disease, or peripheral artery disease were enrolled in a case-control study nested within the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 cohort and underwent comprehensive MRI assessment to characterize cerebral parameters (white matter lesions, microbleeds), cardiovascular parameters (carotid plaque, left ventricular function, and myocardial late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]), and metabolic parameters (hepatic proton-density fat fraction [PDFF] and subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat). Among 400 subjects who underwent MRI, 103 subjects had prediabetes and 54 had established diabetes. Subjects with prediabetes had an increased risk for carotid plaque and adverse functional cardiac parameters, including reduced early diastolic filling rates as well as a higher prevalence of LGE compared with healthy control subjects. In addition, people with prediabetes had significantly elevated levels of PDFF and total and visceral fat. Thus, subjects with prediabetes show early signs of subclinical disease that include vascular, cardiac, and metabolic changes, as measured by whole-body MRI after adjusting for cardiometabolic risk factors. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Parenting behaviour described by mothers in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret J J; Raynor, Alex; Cornah, Deborah; Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2002-03-01

    To collect mothers' reports of the range of behaviours used by them in the management of their children's difficult behaviour. A cross-sectional study using an interview with both semi-structured and open-ended question routes. SAMPLING FRAME: The population of mothers with 10-year-old children living in the New Forest region of Hampshire, UK. Mothers (n=67), selected from the sampling frame, were interviewed about the range of parenting behaviours they used in the management of their children's difficult behaviour. Mothers reported a wide range of behaviours. Both authoritative (e.g. reasoning was mentioned by 42%) and authoritarian (e.g. the use of physical punishment was mentioned by 37%) behaviours were mentioned frequently. Although the different behaviours within these domains were intercorrelated, there was little overlap between the two domains. The use of praise for good behaviour seemed to be independent of other behaviours. There was no association between mothers' parenting behaviours and the behaviour problems of their children. These data suggest that parenting takes many forms, with variations of behaviour across the 'normal' range being unlikely to represent a significant risk to children's development. Public funding for parenting education should be targeted at those children who are at significant risk from extreme forms of parenting.

  14. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Wojtczak

    2017-09-01

    The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  16. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A

  17. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  18. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  19. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  20. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community

  1. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  2. Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark

    This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  3. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  4. A prediction algorithm for first onset of major depression in the general population: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianLi; Sareen, Jitender; Patten, Scott; Bolton, James; Schmitz, Norbert; Birney, Arden

    2014-05-01

    Prediction algorithms are useful for making clinical decisions and for population health planning. However, such prediction algorithms for first onset of major depression do not exist. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a prediction algorithm for first onset of major depression in the general population. Longitudinal study design with approximate 3-year follow-up. The study was based on data from a nationally representative sample of the US general population. A total of 28 059 individuals who participated in Waves 1 and 2 of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and who had not had major depression at Wave 1 were included. The prediction algorithm was developed using logistic regression modelling in 21 813 participants from three census regions. The algorithm was validated in participants from the 4th census region (n=6246). Major depression occurred since Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders IV. A prediction algorithm containing 17 unique risk factors was developed. The algorithm had good discriminative power (C statistics=0.7538, 95% CI 0.7378 to 0.7699) and excellent calibration (F-adjusted test=1.00, p=0.448) with the weighted data. In the validation sample, the algorithm had a C statistic of 0.7259 and excellent calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2)=3.41, p=0.906). The developed prediction algorithm has good discrimination and calibration capacity. It can be used by clinicians, mental health policy-makers and service planners and the general public to predict future risk of having major depression. The application of the algorithm may lead to increased personalisation of treatment, better clinical decisions and more optimal mental health service planning.

  5. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  6. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  7. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  8. Celebrity suicides and their differential influence on suicides in the general population: a national population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.

  9. The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-07-01

    Onset of social phobia (SP) typically occurs in adolescence. Short screening instruments for its assessment are needed for use in primary health and school settings. The 3-item Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) has demonstrated effectiveness in screening for generalized SP (GSP) in adults. This study examined the psychometrics of the Mini-SPIN in an adolescent general population sample. Three hundred fifty adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were clinically interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version for identification of SP and other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders, blind to their Mini-SPIN status. Associations between SP; subclinical SP; other anxiety, depressive, and disruptive disorders; and Mini-SPIN scores were examined, and diagnostic efficiency statistics were calculated. The association between Mini-SPIN scores and the generalized subtype of SP was also examined. As in adults, the Mini-SPIN items differentiated subjects with SP from those without. A score of 6 points or greater was found optimal in predicting SP with a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 84%, and positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 99%. The Mini-SPIN also possessed discriminative validity, as scores were higher for adolescents with SP than they were for those with depressive, disruptive, and other anxiety disorders. The Mini-SPIN was also able to differentiate adolescents with GSP from the rest of the sample. The Mini-SPIN has good psychometrics for screening SP in adolescents from general population and may have value in screening for GSP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social anxiety in the general population: introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by the experience of stress, discomfort and fear in social situations, and is associated with substantial personal and societal burden. Two questionnaires exist that assess the aspects of social anxiety, i.e. social interaction anxiety (SIAS) and social phobia (SPS). There is no agreement in literature on the dimensionality of social anxiety. Further, the length of a questionnaire may negatively affect response rates and participation at follow-up occasions. To explore the structure of social anxiety in the general population, and to examine psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Our second aim was to construct abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS that can be easily used and with minimal burden. A total of 1598 adults from the general Dutch population completed a survey asking information on social anxiety, mood and demographics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as reliability analysis with item-total statistics were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for social phobia, and a 2-factor structure for the SIAS, with the second factor containing both reversely scored items. The abbreviated versions of SPS (11 items) and SIAS (10 items) show excellent discriminant and construct validity (Cronbach's α=.90 and .92), while specificity analysis showed that gender, marital status and educational level (SIAS(10): pSIAS, reducing the questionnaire burden for participants in epidemiological and biobehavioral research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  12. Employee Health Behaviors, Self-Reported Health Status, and Association With Absenteeism: Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.

  13. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  14. General practitioner workforce planning: assessment of four policy directions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teljeur, Conor

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimating the supply of GPs into the future is important in forecasting shortages. The lengthy training process for medicine means that adjusting supply to meet demand in a timely fashion is problematic. This study uses Ireland as a case study to determine the future demand and supply of GPs and to assess the potential impact of several possible interventions to address future shortages. METHODS: Demand was estimated by applying GP visit rates by age and sex to national population projections. Supply was modelled using a range of parameters derived from two national surveys of GPs. A stochastic modelling approach was adopted to determine the probable future supply of GPs. Four policy interventions were tested: increasing vocational training places; recruiting GPs from abroad; incentivising later retirement; increasing nurse substitution to enable practice nurses to deliver more services. RESULTS: Relative to most other European countries, Ireland has few GPs per capita. Ireland has an ageing population and demand is estimated to increase by 19% by 2021. Without intervention, the supply of GPs will be 5.7% less than required in 2021. Increasing training places will enable supply to meet demand but only after 2019. Recruiting GPs from overseas will enable supply to meet demand continuously if the number recruited is approximately 0.8 per cent of the current workforce per annum. Later retirement has only a short-term impact. Nurse substitution can enable supply to meet demand but only if large numbers of practice nurses are recruited and allowed to deliver a wide range of GP services. CONCLUSIONS: A significant shortfall in GP supply is predicted for Ireland unless recruitment is increased. The shortfall will have numerous knock-on effects including price increases, longer waiting lists and an increased burden on hospitals. Increasing training places will not provide an adequate response to future shortages. Foreign recruitment has ethical considerations

  15. How many people in Canada use prescription opioids non-medically in general and street drug using populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Patra, Jayadeep; Mohapatra, Satya; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Medical prescriptions for opioids as well as their non-medical use have increased in Canada in recent years. This study aimed to estimate the number of non-medical prescription opioid (PO) users in the general and street drug using populations in Canada. The number of non-medical PO users among the general population and the number of non-medical PO users, heroin users, or both among the street drug using population was estimated for Canada and for the most populous Canadian provinces. Different estimation methods were used: 1) the number of non-medical PO users in the Canadian general population was estimated based on Canadian availability data, and the ratio of US availability to non-medical PO use from US survey data; 2) numbers within the street drug using population were indirectly estimated based on overdose death data, and a key informants survey. Distribution and trends by usage of opioids were determined by using the multi-site Canadian OPICAN cohort data. Between 321,000 to 914,000 non-medical PO users were estimated to exist among the general population in Canada in 2003. The estimated number of non-medical PO users, heroin users, or both among the street drug using population was about 72,000, with more individuals using nonmedical PO than heroin in 2003. Based on data from the OPICAN survey, in 2005 the majority of the street drug using population in main Canadian cities was non-medical PO users, with the exception of Vancouver and Montreal. A relative increase of 24% was observed from 2002 to 2005 in the proportion of the street drug using population who used non-medical POs only. There is an urgent need to further assess the extent and patterns of non-medical prescription opioid use, related problems and drug distribution channels in Canada.

  16. Population dose assessment: characteristics of PC CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Maria T.; Curti, Adriana R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the PC CREAM, a program for performing radiological impact assessments due to radioactive discharges into the environment during the operation of radioactive and nuclear facilities. PC CREAM is a suite of six programs that can be used to estimate individual and collective radiation doses. The methodology of PC CREAM is based on updated environmental and dosimetric models, including ICRP 60 recommendations. The models include several exposure pathways and the input files are easy to access. The ergonomics of the program improves the user interaction and makes easier the input of local data. This program is useful for performing sensitivity analysis, siting studies and validation of model comparing the activity concentration output data with environmental monitoring data. The methodology of each module is described as well as the output data. (author)

  17. Validity and reliability of the Traditional Chinese version of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Ling; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Huang, Ying-Zu; Wong, Alice M. K.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a common symptom in the general population and has a substantial effect on individuals’ quality of life. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) has been widely used to quantify the impact of fatigue, but no Traditional Chinese translation has yet been validated. The goal of this study was to translate the MFI from English into Traditional Chinese (‘the MFI-TC’) and subsequently to examine its validity and reliability. Methods The study recruited a convenience sample of 123 people from various age groups in Taiwan. The MFI was examined using a two-step process: (1) translation and back-translation of the instrument; and (2) examination of construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measurement error. The validity and reliability of the MFI-TC were assessed by factor analysis, Spearman rho correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman analysis. All participants completed the Short-Form-36 Health Survey Taiwan Form (SF-36-T) and the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) concurrently to test the convergent validity of the MFI-TC. Test-retest reliability was assessed by readministration of the MFI-TC after a 1-week interval. Results Factor analysis confirmed the four dimensions of fatigue: general/physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. A four-factor model was extracted, combining general fatigue and physical fatigue as one factor. The results demonstrated moderate convergent validity when correlating fatigue (MFI-TC) with quality of life (SF-36-T) and sleep disturbances (PSQI) (Spearman's rho = 0.68 and 0.47, respectively). Cronbach’s alpha for the MFI-TC total scale and subscales ranged from 0.73 (mental fatigue subscale) to 0.92 (MFI-TC total scale). ICCs ranged from 0.85 (reduced motivation) to 0.94 (MFI-TC total scale), and

  18. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, J.; Darlington, A.S.; Verhulst, F.C.; De Winter, A.F.; Ormel, J.; Hunfeld, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  19. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  20. Mental distress in the general population in Zambia: Impact of HIV and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipimo Peter J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was

  1. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner AC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.

  2. Desire for autonomy in health care decisions: a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-04-01

    To examine factors associated with desire for autonomy in health care decisions in the general population. Mailed survey of 2348 residents of Geneva, Switzerland. Participants answered questions on a scale measuring their desire for autonomy in health care decisions. The scale was scored between 0 (lowest desire for autonomy) and 100 (highest desire for autonomy). On average the respondents favoured shared or active involvement in medical decisions (mean score 62.0, SD 20.9), but attitudes varied considerably. In the multivariate model, factors associated with a higher desire for autonomy included female gender, younger age, higher education, living alone, reporting an excellent global health and - a new observation compared to previous studies - having made several medical decisions in the past 6 months. The attitudes of the general public appear to be consistent with the model of shared decision making. However, people vary considerably in their desire for autonomy. An explicit assessment of each individual's desire for autonomy may improve the decision-making process. Such an assessment should be repeated regularly, as familiarity with medical decisions may increase the desire for autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  4. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  5. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  6. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...

  7. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark PARTICIPANTS: 59 616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n=11 629) and a control group (n=47 987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up to four...... of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening. MAIN......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...

  8. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 59,616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n = 11,629) and a control group (n = 47,987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up...... sessions of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...

  9. Awareness of human papillomavirus in 23 000 Danish men from the general male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li

    2009-01-01

    Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits....... In the period from November 2006 to June 2007, more than 23 000 men were included in the study (participation rate approximately 71%). Overall, 10% of the participants reported to have heard of HPV. Comparison with an earlier study in Danish women showed lower awareness in men than in women (25%). Higher...

  10. Exposure of the German general population to platinum and rhodium - Urinary levels and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munker, Sven; Kilo, Sonja; Röß, Christoph; Jeitner, Peter; Schierl, Rudolf; Göen, Thomas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-11-01

    In this study the exposure of the general population in Germany to platinum and rhodium and its determinants was investigated in 259 participants (subdivided in three groups) by urine analyses and assessment of the dental status. Complementary, an interview including questions characterising possible exposure to traffic exhaust was conducted. The median excretion was 2.42ng platinum/g creatinine and 7.27ng rhodium/g creatinine. The detailed analysis of the collected data showed significant higher platinum excretion values with increasing number of surfaces covered with restorations containing precious metals (R=0.389; prhodium excretion values (median=7.27ng/g; 95th percentile=13.5 ng/g). In summary, the study showed that exhaust emissions have an influence on platinum and rhodium excretion, but for platinum this influence is rather low compared to the influence of precious metals containing restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Participation in daily life of people with schizophrenia in comparison to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Jarus, Tal; Easterbrook, Adam; Kotler, Moshe

    2016-12-01

    Participation in occupations is a basic human right. Although people with schizophrenia commonly experience restrictions in participation, there is a paucity of research in this area. This study aimed to compare the participation patterns of people with schizophrenia to people without mental illness (control group). A total of 140 people of similar age and sex completed the Adults Subjective Assessment of Participation and provided demographic and health-related data. People with schizophrenia tend to participate in fewer activities and to participate alone. However, they participate with similar intensity as those in the control group. The participation patterns of people with schizophrenia are both unique and similar to those of the general population. The differences in participation raise concerns due to signs of restriction and social exclusion. However, it appears that people with schizophrenia benefit from occupation and community-based services that promote and support participation with others in diverse activities.

  12. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  13. Knowledge, attitude and assessment of general study courses by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We set out to look at the knowledge, attitudes and assessment of GS courses by students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus whose courses of study are related to human health. It is hoped that the information gained from this study will help the School of General Studies (SGS) improve the set of GS courses ...

  14. Evaluation of the Yale New Haven Readmission Risk Score for Pneumonia in a General Hospital Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; El-Kareh, Robert; Quartarolo, Jennifer; Seymann, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    The Yale New Haven Readmission Risk Score (YNHRRS) for pneumonia is a clinical prediction tool developed to assess risk for 30-day readmission. This tool was validated in a cohort of Medicare patients; generalizability to a broader patient population has not been evaluated. In addition, it lacks indicators of functional status or social support, which have been shown in other studies to be predictors of readmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the YNHRRS for pneumonia in a general population of hospitalized patients, and assess the impact of incorporating measures of functional status and social support on its predictive value. This retrospective chart review comprised all patients admitted to a 563-bed academic medical center with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia between March 2014 and March 2015. Abstraction of clinical variables allowed calculation of the YNHRRS and additional indicators of functional status and social support. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission rate. We created a logistic regression model to predict readmission using the YNHRRS, functional status, and social support as covariates. Among 270 discharges with pneumonia, the observed readmission rate was 23%. The YNHRRS was a significant predictor of readmission in our multivariate model, with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.73) for each 10% increase in calculated risk. Indicators of functional status and social support were not significant predictors of readmission. The YNHRRS can be applied to an unselected population as a tool to predict patients with pneumonia at risk for readmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The consistency assessment of topological relations in cartographic generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunyan; Guo, Qingsheng; Du, Xiaochu

    2006-10-01

    The field of research in the generalization assessment has been less studied than the generalization process itself, and it is very important to keep topological relation consistency for meeting generalization quality. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the quality of generalized map from topological relations consistency. Taking roads (including railway) and residential areas for examples, from the viewpoint of the spatial cognition, some issues about topological consistency in different map scales are analyzed. The statistic information about the inconsistent topological relations can be obtained by comparing the two matrices: one is the matrix for the topological relations in the generalized map; the other is the theoretical matrix for the topological relations that should be maintained after generalization. Based on the fuzzy set theory and the classification of map object types, the consistency evaluation model of topological relations is established. The paper proves the feasibility of the method through the example about how to evaluate the local topological relations between simple roads and residential area finally.

  16. Structured assessment format for evaluating operative reports in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergis, Ashley; Gillman, Lawrence; Minor, Samuel; Taylor, Mark; Park, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Despite its multifaceted importance, no validated or reliable tools assess the quality of the dictated operative note. This study determined the construct validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency of a Structured Assessment Format for Evaluating Operative Reports (SAFE-OR) in general surgery. SAFE-OR was developed by using consensus criteria set forth by the Canadian Association of General Surgeons. This instrument includes a structured assessment and a global quality rating scale. Residents divided into novice and experienced groups viewed and dictated a videotaped laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy. Blinded, independent faculty evaluators graded the transcribed reports using SAFE-OR. Twenty-one residents participated in the study. Mean structured assessment scores (out of 44) were significantly lower for novice versus experienced residents (23.3 +/- 5.2 vs 34.1 +/- 6.0, t = .001). Mean global quality scores (out of 45) were similarly lower for novice residents (25.6 +/- 4.7 vs 35.9 +/- 7.6, t = .006). Interclass correlation coefficients were .98 (95% confidence interval, .96-.99) for structured assessment and .93 (95% confidence interval, .83-.97) for global quality scales. Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency were .85 for structured assessment and .96 for global quality assessment scales. SAFE-OR shows significant construct validity, excellent interrater reliability, and high internal consistency. This tool will allow educators to objectively evaluate the quality of trainee operative reports and provide a mechanism for implementing, monitoring, and refining curriculum for dictation skills.

  17. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  18. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Fung

    Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  19. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  20. Using occupancy and population models to assess habitat conservation opportunities for an isolated carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Spencer; Heather Rustigian-Romsos; James Strittholt; Robert Scheller; William Zielinski; Richard Truex

    2011-01-01

    An isolated population of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, is threatened by small size and habitat alteration from wildfires, fuels management, and other factors. We assessed the population’s status and conservation options for its habitat using a spatially explicit population model coupled with a...

  1. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...... on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  2. Detection of sequential activation of left atrium and coronary sinus musculature in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ota, MD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Far-field LA potentials are often recorded in the CS during sequential LA and CSM activation in the general population. The timing of LA potentials in CS recordings reflected the direction of conduction across the CSM.

  3. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  4. Genetic variation in ABCA1 predicts ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, BG; Jensen, Gorm B

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population.......We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population....

  5. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  6. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessm...

  7. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  8. Views on life and death of physicians, nurses, cancer patients and general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Noriyasu; Kuroda, Yujiro; Nakajima, Kasumi; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kanai, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kotani, Midori; Kitazawa, Yutaka; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan and examine factors affecting these views. We targeted 3,140 physicians, 470 nurses, 450 cancer patients, and 3,000 individuals from the general population. We used the Death Attitudes Inventory (DAI) to measure attitudes toward life and death. The collection rates were 35% (1,093/3,140), 78% (366/470), 69% (310/450), and 39% (1,180/3,000) for physicians, nurses, patients, and the general population, respectively. We found that age, sex, social role (i.e., physician, nurse, cancer patient, and general population) were significantly correlated with DAI subscales. Compared with general population, attitudes toward death of physicians, nurses and cancer patients differed significantly even after adjusted their age and sex. Our study is the first to analyze differences in views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan.

  9. Autistic Traits in the General Population: What Mediates the Link with Depressive and Anxious Symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…

  10. Thyroid status and mortality in nonagenarians from long-lived families and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A.; van der Spoel, Evie; Beekman, Marian

    2017-01-01

    (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured. In nonagenarians from long-lived families and from the general population, associations between thyroid parameters and mortality were similar. We found no interaction between study population and parameters of thyroid status...

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in

  12. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...

  13. Quality of life and associated factors in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Holst, R; Thilsing, T

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps describes methods to perform population-based and clinical studies on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a standardized way and it also describes how to clinical investigate CRS. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate Quality...... of life and objective findings in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis recruited from the general population....

  14. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-06-30

    The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score >/=15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients' well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital.

  15. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. Material and Methods: A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Results: Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score ≥15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Discussion: Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients’ well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital. PMID:20628652

  16. Robotics in general surgery: A systematic cost assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gkegkes, Ioannis D.; Mamais, Ioannis A.; Iavazzo, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The utilisation of robotic-assisted techniques is a novelty in the field of general surgery. Our intention was to examine the up to date available literature on the cost assessment of robotic surgery of diverse operations in general surgery. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in a systematic way to retrieve the included studies in our review. Thirty-one studies were retrieved, referring on a vast range of surgical operations. The mean cost for robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from...

  17. Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch's approach may reveal the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Linneberg, A

    2009-01-01

    subjects were tested in total. The median prevalence of FM and MP sensitization among adults was 2.3% (women, 1.7%; men, 1.3%) and 1.1% (women, 1.4%; men, 0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the reliability of patch test data from the general population and exposure data obtained from patients...... the prevalence of fragrance sensitization in the general population, and to suggest how future population-based studies and questionnaires should be constructed, better to assess the prevalence and burden of fragrance sensitization. This is of relevance as it is often difficult to establish causality...... in biological systems. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching Pubmed-Medline, Biosis and contact dermatitis textbooks. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were identified, of which 13 were performed among adults. Sample sizes varied between 82 and 2545 tested subjects, and 11 648...

  18. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of latent tuberculous infection among adults in the general population of Ca Mau, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, G B; Nhung, N V; Nguyen, T A; Hoa, N B; Khoa, T H; Son, N V; Phuong, N T B; Tin, D M; Ho, J; Fox, G J

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of persons aged 15 years living in Ca Mau Province, southern Viet Nam. To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in the general adult population of this province of Viet Nam. The secondary objective was to examine age and sex differences in prevalence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a cluster-random sample of the population. Clusters were subcommunes. The presence of LTBI was assessed using the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test system. QuantiFERON tests were performed among 1319 persons aged 15 years (77.7% of those selected). The overall prevalence of positive tests was 36.8% (95%CI 33.4-40.3). The prevalence of a positive test was lower in females than in males (31.0% vs. 44.7%, OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.45-0.72, P Viet Nam have evidence of LTBI. Although LTBI prevalence is higher in males, the sex difference is not as great as that for TB notification rates.

  20. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  1. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  2. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  3. Subset selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. We obtain exact results for the probability of correct selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations which only differ in their location parameter. Some open problems are formulated.

  4. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides: testing in general populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos, J.A. de; Hildebrandt, P.

    2008-01-01

    Screening of general populations with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) holds promise for the detection of significant underlying cardiac structural and functional abnormalities, as well as for the early detection of the propensity to develop future cardiovascular events....... In comparative studies to date, NT-proBNP performs at least as well as BNP in the detection of heart disease and prognostication in the general population. In some studies and subgroups, NT-proBNP appears to outperform BNP in population screening. More needs to be learned about noncardiac sources of NT...

  5. Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P

    2016-05-01

    Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  7. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate

    2017-05-01

    To systematically review surveys of 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide. Studies were identified via database searches to October 2015. Study quality was assessed using a six-item tool. All estimates were in the context of a survey which also reported prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use. A total of 36 surveys were included. Of these, 67% met four of six quality criteria. Twelve-month prevalence of treatment by a homeopath was reported in 24 surveys of adults (median 1.5%, range 0.2-8.2%). Estimates for children were similar to those for adults. Rates in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada all ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% and remained stable over the years surveyed (1986-2012). Twelve-month prevalence of all use of homeopathy (purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines and treatment by a homeopath) was reported in 10 surveys of adults (median 3.9%, range 0.7-9.8%) while a further 11 surveys which did not define the type of homeopathy use reported similar data. Rates in the USA and Australia ranged from 1.7% to 4.4% and remained stable over the years surveyed. The highest use was reported by a survey in Switzerland where homeopathy is covered by mandatory health insurance. This review summarises 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use from surveys conducted in eleven countries (USA, UK, Australia, Israel, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, South Korea, Japan and Singapore). Each year a small but significant percentage of these general populations use homeopathy. This includes visits to homeopaths as well as purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Glyphosate in the general population and in applicators: a critical review of studies on exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R

    2016-09-01

    The recent classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was arrived at without a detailed assessment of exposure. Glyphosate is widely used as an herbicide, which might result in exposures of the general public and applicators. Exposures were estimated from information in the open literature and unpublished reports provided by Monsanto Company. Based on the maximum measured concentration in air, an exposure dose of 1.04 × 10  -   6  mg/kg body mass (b.m.)/d was estimated. Assuming consumption of surface water without treatment, the 90th centile measured concentration would result in a consumed dose of 2.25 × 10  -   5  mg/kg b.m./d. Estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) of consumed doses in food provided a median exposure of 0.005 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.002-0.013). Based on tolerance levels, the conservative estimate by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for exposure of the general population via food and water was 0.088 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.058-0.23). For applicators, 90th centiles for systemic exposures based on biomonitoring and dosimetry (normalized for penetration through the skin) were 0.0014 and 0.021 mg/kg b.m./d, respectively. All of these exposures are less than the reference dose and the acceptable daily intakes proposed by several regulatory agencies, thus supporting a conclusion that even for these highly exposed populations the exposures were within regulatory limits.

  10. General self-efficacy in the Norwegian population: Differences and similarities between sociodemographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K; Schou-Bredal, Inger

    2018-02-01

    General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to optimistic self-beliefs of being able to perform and control behaviors, and is linked with various physical and mental health outcomes. Measures of self-efficacy are commonly used in health research with clinical populations, but are less explored in relationship to sociodemographic characteristics in general populations. This study investigated GSE in relation to sociodemographic characteristics in the general population in Norway. As part of a larger national survey, the GSE scale was administered to a general population sample, and 1787 out of 4961 eligible participants (response rate 36%) completed the scale. Group comparisons were conducted using independent t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to examine factors independently associated with GSE. GSE was lower for older compared to younger participants ( p employment were independently associated with higher GSE. Age moderated the associations between gender and employment on one hand, and GSE on the other. The association between being male and having higher GSE was more pronounced in younger age, as was the association between being employed and having higher GSE. Male gender and being employed were related to higher GSE among persons in the general population in Norway, and these associations were stronger among persons of younger age. The findings are considered fairly representative for the Norwegian population.

  11. Estimation of daily food usage factors for assessing radionuclide intakes in the US population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.Y.; Nelson, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    We have statistically analyzed data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey to estimate the daily average food intakes by individuals in the general population and various subpopulations of the United States. These estimates are intended for use in assessing radionuclide intake by individuals through food consumption. We have also compared our results with those from other studies

  12. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  13. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, A; Sluik, D; Feskens, E J M; Kok, F J; Mensink, M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in humans. 1128 men and women aged 20-70 years were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. FLI was derived from body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Associations were adjusted for energy intake, alcohol intake, age, sex, education, smoking and prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. In this population (mean age 53.0±11.4 years; BMI 25.9±4.0 kg/m 2 ; FLI 35.0±27.7), the prevalence of fatty liver as indicated by an FLI>60 was 21.5%. Subjects in the highest FLI category were more likely to be male, older and less physically active. Total protein intake and animal protein intake were positively associated with the highest FLI score versus the lowest (odds ratio (OR) 1.25 per 1 en%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.37 and OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17-1.38, respectively); for vegetable protein, an inverse association was observed (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94). A similar positive association with FLI was observed when carbohydrates and fat were iso-calorically exchanged for total and animal proteins. Subjects in the high FLI group consumed more protein, especially from animal origin, less carbohydrates and less dietary fibre. The presence of fatty liver was associated with a higher intake of animal protein and total fat, soft drinks and snacks.

  14. Sociodemographic profiles regarding bitter food consumption: cross-sectional evidence from a general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Martin, Christophe; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (e.g., cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were obtained from a minimum of twelve 24-h dietary records provided during the first 2years of follow-up. Two bitter food consumption scores were computed - one assessing the variety of items consumed (unweighted score) and the other reflecting exposure to bitterness estimated via complementary sensory panel data from the EpiPref project (weighted score). Associations with sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Among men, the variety of bitter foods consumed was positively associated with educational level and alcohol intake and inversely associated with physical activity and rural area of residence. Among women, the same outcome was positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with diabetes. In turn, Body Mass Index displayed a significant inverse association with the bitterness-weighted score across sex, whereas educational level was supported only in women. This study adds to the presently scant knowledge about non-genetic determinants or moderators of actual bitter food intake. Future studies should elucidate the impact of diabetes and body size on bitter food intake patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment.

  16. Individuals versus organisms versus populations in the definition of ecological assessment endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Glenn W; Norton, Susan B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2005-11-01

    Discussions and applications of the policies and practices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in ecological risk assessment will benefit from continued clarification of the concepts of assessment endpoints and of levels of biological organization. First, assessment endpoint entities and attributes can be defined at different levels of organization. Hence, an organism-level attribute, such as growth or survival, can be applied collectively to a population-level entity such as the brook trout in a stream. Second, assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment are often mistakenly described as "individual level," which leads to the idea that such assessments are intended to protect individuals. Finally, populations play a more important role in risk assessments than is generally recognized. Organism-level attributes are used primarily for population-level assessments. In addition, the USEPA and other agencies already are basing management decisions on population or community entities and attributes such as production of fisheries, abundance of migratory bird populations, and aquatic community composition.

  17. Grip Strength Is Associated With Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenia and the General Population: A UK Biobank Study of 476559 Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Josh A; Large, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Simon; Hallgren, Mats; Ward, Philip B; Sarris, Jerome; Yung, Alison R

    2018-04-19

    Handgrip strength may provide an easily-administered marker of cognitive functional status. However, further population-scale research examining relationships between grip strength and cognitive performance across multiple domains is needed. Additionally, relationships between grip strength and cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia, who frequently experience cognitive deficits, has yet to be explored. Baseline data from the UK Biobank (2007-2010) was analyzed; including 475397 individuals from the general population, and 1162 individuals with schizophrenia. Linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between grip strength and 5 cognitive domains (visual memory, reaction time, reasoning, prospective memory, and number memory), controlling for age, gender, bodyweight, education, and geographical region. In the general population, maximal grip strength was positively and significantly related to visual memory (coefficient [coeff] = -0.1601, standard error [SE] = 0.003), reaction time (coeff = -0.0346, SE = 0.0004), reasoning (coeff = 0.2304, SE = 0.0079), number memory (coeff = 0.1616, SE = 0.0092), and prospective memory (coeff = 0.3486, SE = 0.0092: all P reasoning (P > .1). Grip strength is significantly associated with cognitive functioning in the general population and individuals with schizophrenia, particularly for working memory and processing speed. Future research should establish directionality, examine if grip strength also predicts functional and physical health outcomes in schizophrenia, and determine whether interventions which improve muscular strength impact on cognitive and real-world functioning.

  18. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  19. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, D P; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, L K; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20-70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22-60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0-11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P Tamil speaking population.

  20. Assessing population exposure for landslide risk analysis using dasymetric cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo A. C.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Zezere, Jose L.

    2015-04-01

    Exposed Population is a major topic that needs to be taken into account in a full landslide risk analysis. Usually, risk analysis is based on an accounting of inhabitants number or inhabitants density, applied over statistical or administrative terrain units, such as NUTS or parishes. However, this kind of approach may skew the obtained results underestimating the importance of population, mainly in territorial units with predominance of rural occupation. Furthermore, the landslide susceptibility scores calculated for each terrain unit are frequently more detailed and accurate than the location of the exposed population inside each territorial unit based on Census data. These drawbacks are not the ideal setting when landslide risk analysis is performed for urban management and emergency planning. Dasymetric cartography, which uses a parameter or set of parameters to restrict the spatial distribution of a particular phenomenon, is a methodology that may help to enhance the resolution of Census data and therefore to give a more realistic representation of the population distribution. Therefore, this work aims to map and to compare the population distribution based on a traditional approach (population per administrative terrain units) and based on dasymetric cartography (population by building). The study is developed in the Region North of Lisbon using 2011 population data and following three main steps: i) the landslide susceptibility assessment based on statistical models independently validated; ii) the evaluation of population distribution (absolute and density) for different administrative territorial units (Parishes and BGRI - the basic statistical unit in the Portuguese Census); and iii) the dasymetric population's cartography based on building areal weighting. Preliminary results show that in sparsely populated administrative units, population density differs more than two times depending on the application of the traditional approach or the dasymetric

  1. Comparison of aesthetic perception of smile between dentists and general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, H.A.; Qazi, F.U.R.; Jat, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    To compare aesthetic perception of smile between general population and dentists by varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisors. Introduction: Patient perception and expectation of their smile plays a very important role when providing an anterior tooth restoration. The aim of conducting the study was to compare the perception of esthetic smile between general population and dentists by varying length of maxillary lateral incisors. Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A photograph of a female smile from frontal view was digitally altered to produce images with varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisor. These images were arranged in descending order; from most attractive to least attractive by the participants. The participants of the study included two groups; first group comprised of Dental Surgeons where as second group consisted of general population. Results: Evaluation of the results showed a significant difference in aesthetic perception of smile between the Dentist and general population. Conclusion: Perception of aesthetics is not similar between the dentists and the general population. (author)

  2. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem. 

  3. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  4. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  5. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Torben, Jørgensen; Schröder, Andreas Bak

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population....... The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized......, and self-perceived health. CONCLUSION: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The profiles have the potential to be used in further epidemiological studies on risk factors and prognosis of somatic symptoms but should be confirmed in other...

  6. Prevalence and cost of hospital medical errors in the general and elderly United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Peter J; Pandya, Bhavik; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ≥65 years. Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than four medical errors were removed from the population to avoid over-estimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people aged ≥ 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top 10 medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000). Pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.

  7. Predictive value of updating Framingham risk scores with novel risk markers in the U.S. general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart S Ferket

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to population-based cohort studies CT coronary calcium score (CTCS, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP, and ankle-brachial index (ABI are promising novel risk markers for improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Their impact in the U.S. general population is however uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the predictive value of four novel cardiovascular risk markers for the U.S. general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk profiles, CRP and ABI data of 3,736 asymptomatic subjects aged 40 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004 exam were used along with predicted CTCS and cIMT values. For each subject, we calculated 10-year cardiovascular risks with and without each risk marker. Event rates adjusted for competing risks were obtained by microsimulation. We assessed the impact of updated 10-year risk scores by reclassification and C-statistics. In the study population (mean age 56±11 years, 48% male, 70% (80% were at low (<10%, 19% (14% at intermediate (≥10-<20%, and 11% (6% at high (≥20% 10-year CVD (CHD risk. Net reclassification improvement was highest after updating 10-year CVD risk with CTCS: 0.10 (95%CI 0.02-0.19. The C-statistic for 10-year CVD risk increased from 0.82 by 0.02 (95%CI 0.01-0.03 with CTCS. Reclassification occurred most often in those at intermediate risk: with CTCS, 36% (38% moved to low and 22% (30% to high CVD (CHD risk. Improvements with other novel risk markers were limited. CONCLUSIONS: Only CTCS appeared to have significant incremental predictive value in the U.S. general population, especially in those at intermediate risk. In future research, cost-effectiveness analyses should be considered for evaluating novel cardiovascular risk assessment strategies.

  8. Predictive Value of Updating Framingham Risk Scores with Novel Risk Markers in the U.S. General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Agarwal, Isha; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Max, Wendy; Fleischmann, Kirsten E.

    2014-01-01

    Background According to population-based cohort studies CT coronary calcium score (CTCS), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are promising novel risk markers for improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Their impact in the U.S. general population is however uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the predictive value of four novel cardiovascular risk markers for the U.S. general population. Methods and Findings Risk profiles, CRP and ABI data of 3,736 asymptomatic subjects aged 40 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 exam were used along with predicted CTCS and cIMT values. For each subject, we calculated 10-year cardiovascular risks with and without each risk marker. Event rates adjusted for competing risks were obtained by microsimulation. We assessed the impact of updated 10-year risk scores by reclassification and C-statistics. In the study population (mean age 56±11 years, 48% male), 70% (80%) were at low (risk. Net reclassification improvement was highest after updating 10-year CVD risk with CTCS: 0.10 (95%CI 0.02–0.19). The C-statistic for 10-year CVD risk increased from 0.82 by 0.02 (95%CI 0.01–0.03) with CTCS. Reclassification occurred most often in those at intermediate risk: with CTCS, 36% (38%) moved to low and 22% (30%) to high CVD (CHD) risk. Improvements with other novel risk markers were limited. Conclusions Only CTCS appeared to have significant incremental predictive value in the U.S. general population, especially in those at intermediate risk. In future research, cost-effectiveness analyses should be considered for evaluating novel cardiovascular risk assessment strategies. PMID:24558385

  9. A General Framework for Setting Quantitative Population Objectives for Wildlife Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art8Quantitative population objectives are necessary to successfully achieve conservation goals of secure or robust wildlife populations. However, existing methods for setting quantitative population objectives commonly require extensive species-specific population viability data, which are often unavailable or are based on estimates of historical population sizes, which may no longer represent feasible objectives. Conservation practitioners require an alternative, science-based method for setting long-term quantitative population objectives. We reviewed conservation biology literature to develop a general conceptual framework that represents conservation biology principles and identifies key milestones a population would be expected to pass in the process of becoming a recovered or robust population. We then synthesized recent research to propose general hypotheses for the orders of magnitude at which most populations would be expected to reach each milestone. The framework is structured as a hierarchy of four population sizes, ranging from very small populations at increased risk of inbreeding depression and extirpation (< 1,000 adults to large populations with minimized risk of extirpation (> 50,000 adults, along with additional modifiers describing steeply declining and resilient populations. We also discuss the temporal and geographic scales at which this framework should be applied. To illustrate the application of this framework to conservation planning, we outline our use of the framework to set long-term population objectives for a multi-species regional conservation plan, and discuss additional considerations in applying this framework to other systems. This general framework provides a transparent, science-based method by which conservation practitioners and stakeholders can agree on long-term population objectives of an appropriate magnitude, particularly when the alternative approaches are

  10. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  11. Assessment of military population-based psychological resilience programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brenda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2011-09-01

    Active duty service members' (ADSMs) seemingly poor adaptability to traumatic stressors is a risk to force health. Enhancing the psychological resilience of ADSMs has become a key focus of Department of Defense (DoD) leaders and the numbers of military programs for enhancing psychological resilience have increased. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of an assessment conducted to determine comprehensiveness of current psychological resilience building programs that target ADSMs. A modified six-step, population-based needs assessment was used to evaluate resilience programs designed to meet the psychological needs of the ADSM population. The assessment results revealed a gap in published literature regarding program outcomes. DoD leaders may benefit from targeted predictive research that assesses program effectiveness outcomes. The necessity of including preventive, evidence-based interventions in new programs, such as positive emotion interventions shown to enhance psychological resilience in civilian samples, is also recommended.

  12. Problem drinking - detection and assessment in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol, Apo; Haber, Paul; Conigrave, Katherine

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol has long been an integral part of the social life of many Australians. However, alcohol is associated with significant harm to drinkers, and also to nondrinkers. This article explores the role of the general practitioner in the detection and assessment of problem drinking. Excessive alcohol use is a major public health problem and the majority of people who drink excessively go undetected. General practitioners are in a good position to detect excessive alcohol consumption; earlier intervention can help improve outcomes. AUDIT-C is an effective screening tool for the detection of problem drinking. National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines suggest that no more than two standard drinks on each occasion will keep lifetime risk of death from alcohol related disease or injury at a low level. Once an alcohol problem is detected it is important to assess for alcohol dependence, other substance use, motivation to change, psychiatric comorbidities and examination and investigation findings that may be associated with excessive alcohol use. A comprehensive assessment of the impact and risk of harm of the patient's drinking to themselves and others is vital, and may require several consultations.

  13. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  14. Terrestrial population models for ecological risk assessment: A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to formulate models for predicting impacts of xenobiotic chemicals on wildlife populations. However, considerable effort has been invested in wildlife optimal exploitation models. Because death from intoxication has a similar effect on population dynamics as death by harvesting, these management models are applicable to ecological risk assessment. An underlying Leslie-matrix bookkeeping formulation is widely applicable to vertebrate wildlife populations. Unfortunately, however, the various submodels that track birth, death, and dispersal rates as functions of the physical, chemical, and biotic environment are by their nature almost inevitably highly species- and locale-specific. Short-term prediction of one-time chemical applications requires only information on mortality before and after contamination. In such cases a simple matrix formulation may be adequate for risk assessment. But generally, risk must be projected over periods of a generation or more. This precludes generic protocols for risk assessment and also the ready and inexpensive predictions of a chemical's influence on a given population. When designing and applying models for ecological risk assessment at the population level, the endpoints (output) of concern must be carefully and rigorously defined. The most easily accessible and appropriate endpoints are (1) pseudoextinction (the frequency or probability of a population falling below a prespecified density), and (2) temporal mean population density. Spatial and temporal extent of predicted changes must be clearly specified a priori to avoid apparent contradictions and confusion.

  15. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  16. Low Use and Adherence to Maintenance Medication in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that use of and adherence to maintenance medication is low among individuals in the general population who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , even in cases of severe and very severe COPD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 5,812 individuals...... with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study, and classified them according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) airflow limitation grades 1-4. Dispensing of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta2-agonists, long-acting anti...... for COPD in the general population was associated with the severity of COPD as defined by GOLD, but even in severe and very severe COPD, use and adherence was low....

  17. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  18. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  20. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  1. Health Effects of Job Insecurity among Employees in Swiss General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...

  2. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  3. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; ppolice officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; ppolice officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  4. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  5. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see......, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population....

  6. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  7. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater ...... risk. However, the importance of these genetic variants if identified in particular individuals within the general population is unknown. We undertook this study to estimate the penetrance of these variants in the general population....

  8. Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Harding

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A conservative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led to increased interactions with the fishery, and demands are being raised for the re-introduction of the hunt. We provide a demographic analysis and a risk assessment of the population, and make recommendations on how to decrease the risk of over exploitation. Although hunting increases the risk of quasi-extinction, the risk can be significantly reduced by the choice of a cautious hunting regime. The least hazardous regimes allow no hunting below a ‘security level’ in population size. Obviously, to implement such a hunting regime detailed knowledge of the population size and growth rate is required. It is not possible to estimate “true” risks for quasi-extinction, but we used an approach where the relative difference for different scenarios can be compared. With a security level at 5,000 females, the population quasi-extinction risk increases 50 fold at an annual hunt of 500 females compared with a scenario with no hunting. The risk of quasi-extinction is very sensitive to declines in the mean growth rate and to increased variance in growth rate. The variance in the population estimates over the last 14 years imply that it would take 9 years to detect a declinefrom 1.075 to 1.027 in the rate of population increase. We also show how the age composition of killed animals influences the impact of the hunt. The overall recommendation is that hunting should be kept to a minimum, carefully documented and accompanied by close population monitoring.

  9. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...... ratios for HNPCC in a case-control design were 419 (95 % CI: 53-18,900) for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 19 (5-72) for 307-19A>G, 194 (21-1,768) for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca); ins(attt), and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for 1,039-8T>A in MLH1. In the general population, incidence rate ratios for 1,039-8T>A carriers versus...

  10. Associations Between Plasma Chemerin Concentrations and Bone Quality in Adults From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadric, Lejla; Zylla, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Friedrich, Nele; Hannemann, Anke

    2018-06-01

    Chemerin is an adipokine associated with parameters of inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Small observational studies suggested that high circulating chemerin levels are also related to bone erosion. We aimed to determine whether plasma chemerin levels are related to bone quality in the general population and to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on that relation. For our analyses, we obtained data from 3583 adults who participated in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania-Trend. The participants were divided into three groups according to their BMI: lean (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25 to 30 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Chemerin concentrations were determined in EDTA plasma. Bone quality was assessed using quantitative ultrasound at the heel. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index, and osteoporotic fracture risk were derived from this measurement. Sex- and BMI-specific linear regression models revealed inverse associations between chemerin levels and BUA in obese men. In obese women, inverse relations between chemerin levels and SOS or stiffness index were found. Logistic regression models revealed positive associations between chemerin levels and osteoporotic fracture risk. In lean or overweight subjects, no statistically significant associations were found. Our sex- and BMI-specific analyses showed that inverse associations between chemerin levels and bone quality are restricted to obese men and women. The observed association may be due to a chemerin-induced negative affect on bone metabolism, possibly due to abrogation of osteoblastogenesis or stimulation of adipogenesis.

  11. Health-related quality of life of prostate cancer patients compared to the general German population: age-specific results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Rabenalt, Robert; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the age-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of prostate cancer patients (PCPs). 387 PCPs were asked to self-assess their HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Patients' data were compared with those of the general German population. The reported global health/QOL scores of the study group and the general German population are nearly equal. However, most of the subdomains of HRQOL are negatively affected in PCPs, especially in younger patients (

  12. Postsystolic Shortening by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a novel marker of contractile dysfunction in the myocardium. Our objective was to assess the prognostic potential of PSS on cardiovascular events and death in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study design consisted...... of a prospective cohort study of 1296 low-risk participants from the general population, who were examined by speckle tracking echocardiography. The primary end point was the composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs...... as having MACEs and 236 participants (18%) died. Increasing number of walls with PSS predicted both end points, an association that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, global longitudinal strain, hypertension, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, LV mass...

  13. Longitudinal Relationships Between Positive Affect, Loneliness, and Suicide Ideation: Age-Specific Factors in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennardi, Marco; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Lara, Elvira; Arensman, Ella; Cabello, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The aims of this study were to analyze whether positive and negative affect, social support, and loneliness are factors longitudinally related to suicide ideation in the general population in different age groups. A total of 2,392 individuals from a nationally representative sample of the Spanish general population were evaluated in 2011-2012 and in 2014-2015. After including relevant control variables in the analyses, lower positive affect was prospectively related to ideation in 18- to 59-year-old individuals, whereas feelings of loneliness were related to ideation in 60-year-and-older individuals. Social support was not associated with suicide ideation in any age group. These results are in line with the need for age-tailored suicide prevention programs. The present findings might also suggest that health care professionals should consider feelings of loneliness rather than social support to assess the presence of suicide ideation in older people. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  15. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2015-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982-2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill PhD, MPH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p < .0001, 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity ( p < .0001, and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week ( p < .0001. Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  17. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries in childhood: a population-based survey in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otters, H.; Schellevis, F.G.; Damen, J.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A.; Koes, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional injuries presented in general practice, and to identify children at risk from experiencing an unintentional injury. We used the data of all 0–17-yearold children from a representative survey in 96 Dutch general practices in 2001. We computed

  18. Organisational determinants of production and efficiency in general practice: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Sørensen, Torben Højmark

    2013-01-01

    Shortage of general practitioners (GPs) and an increased political focus on primary care have enforced the interest in efficiency analysis in the Danish primary care sector. This paper assesses the association between organisational factors of general practices and production and efficiency. We a...

  19. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coêlho, Bruno M; Santana, Geilson L; Viana, Maria C; Andrade, Laura H; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2018-06-11

    Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment - encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence - was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

  1. Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Coêlho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversities (CAs comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Methods: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Results: Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment – encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence – was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. Conclusion: CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and loneliness among adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population. Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations. In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs. Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita V. Alfimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74. We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p=0.007 and η2=0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p=0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  4. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, Margarita V; Korovaitseva, Galina I; Lezheiko, Tatyana V; Golimbet, Vera E

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB) on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p = 0.007 and η 2 = 0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p = 0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  5. Attributable risk of carpal tunnel syndrome according to industry and occupation in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Pélier-Cady, Marie-Christine; Mariot, Camille; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Raimbeau, Guy; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2008-09-15

    An epidemiologic surveillance network for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was set up in the general population of a French region to assess the proportion of CTS cases attributable to work in high-risk industries and occupations. Cases of CTS occurring among patients ages 20-59 years living in the Maine and Loire region were included prospectively from 2002 to 2004. Medical and occupation history was gathered by mailed questionnaire for 815 women and 320 men. Age-adjusted relative risks of CTS and the attributable risk fractions of CTS among exposed persons (AFEs) were computed in relation to industry sectors and occupation categories. Twenty-one industry sectors and 8 occupational categories for women and 10 sectors and 6 occupational categories for men were characterized by a significant excess risk of CTS. High AFE values were observed in the manufacturing (42-93% for both sexes), construction (66% for men), and personal service industries (66% for women) and in the trade and commerce sectors (49% for women). High AFE values were observed in lower-grade white-collar occupations for women (43-67%) and blue-collar occupations for men (60-74%) and women (48-88%). The attributable proportions of CTS cases among workers employed in industry sectors and occupation categories identified at high risk of CTS varied between 36% and 93%.

  6. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis risk assessment in a general surgery cohort: a closed-loop audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, D M; Redmond, H P

    2017-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potential source of morbidity and mortality in surgical in-patients. A number of guidelines exist that advise on prophylactic measures. We aimed to assess VTE prophylaxis prescribing practices and compliance with a kardex-based risk assessment tool in a general surgery population. Data on general surgery in-patients were collected on two separate wards on two separate days. Drug kardexes were assessed for VTE prophylaxis measures and use of the risk assessment tool. NICE and SIGN guidelines were adopted as a gold standard. The audit results and information on the risk assessment tool were presented as an educational intervention at two separate departmental teaching sessions. A re-audit was completed after 3 months. In Audit A, 74 patients were assessed. 70% were emergency admissions. The risk assessment tool was completed in 2.7%. 75 and 97% of patients were correctly prescribed anti-embolic stockings (AES) and low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH), respectively. 30 patients were included in Audit B, 56% of whom were emergency admissions. 66% had a risk assessment performed, a statistically significant improvement (p audit and intervention.

  7. Assessing uncertainty and risk in exploited marine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogarty, M.J.; Mayo, R.K.; O'Brien, L.; Serchuk, F.M.; Rosenberg, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment and management of exploited fish and invertebrate populations is subject to several types of uncertainty. This uncertainty translates into risk to the population in the development and implementation of fishery management advice. Here, we define risk as the probability that exploitation rates will exceed a threshold level where long term sustainability of the stock is threatened. We distinguish among several sources of error or uncertainty due to (a) stochasticity in demographic rates and processes, particularly in survival rates during the early fife stages; (b) measurement error resulting from sampling variation in the determination of population parameters or in model estimation; and (c) the lack of complete information on population and ecosystem dynamics. The first represents a form of aleatory uncertainty while the latter two factors represent forms of epistemic uncertainty. To illustrate these points, we evaluate the recent status of the Georges Bank cod stock in a risk assessment framework. Short term stochastic projections are made accounting for uncertainty in population size and for random variability in the number of young surviving to enter the fishery. We show that recent declines in this cod stock can be attributed to exploitation rates that have substantially exceeded sustainable levels

  8. Integration of genetic and demographic data to assess population risk in a continuously distributed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2017-01-01

    The identification and demographic assessment of biologically meaningful populations is fundamental to species’ ecology and management. Although genetic tools are used frequently to identify populations, studies often do not incorporate demographic data to understand their respective population trends. We used genetic data to define subpopulations in a continuously distributed species. We assessed demographic independence and variation in population trends across the distribution. Additionally, we identified potential barriers to gene flow among subpopulations. We sampled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leks from across their range (≈175,000 Km2) in Wyoming and amplified DNA at 14 microsatellite loci for 1761 samples. Subsequently, we assessed population structure in unrelated individuals (n = 872) by integrating results from multiple Bayesian clustering approaches and used the boundaries to inform our assessment of long-term population trends and lek activity over the period of 1995–2013. We identified four genetic clusters of which two northern ones showed demographic independence from the others. Trends in population size for the northwest subpopulation were statistically different from the other three genetic clusters and the northeast and southwest subpopulations demonstrated a general trend of increasing proportion of inactive leks over time. Population change from 1996 to 2012 suggested population growth in the southern subpopulations and decline, or neutral, change in the northern subpopulations. We suggest that sage-grouse subpopulations in northern Wyoming are at greater risk of extirpation than the southern subpopulations due to smaller census and effective population sizes and higher variability within subpopulations. Our research is an example of incorporating genetic and demographic data and provides guidance on the identification of subpopulations of conservation concern.

  9. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population: The DanFunD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    with cold pressor pain (hand) for 2 minutes. Conditioning pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale and questionnaire data were collected. Female sex (P stress......Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM...... (P ≤ .02), and high visual analog scale score (P ≤ .02) were associated with a larger CPM response. PERSPECTIVE: Data from this large population-based study provide new insight into the gender and age variation in pain sensitivity and CPM response. Decreased CPM potency and increased pain sensitivity...

  10. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  11. A study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hair dye use among general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair dye usage is extremely common all over the world. Hair dyes have been reported to cause a wide range of adverse effects, therefore, the consumer’s knowledge about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of general population towards the use of hair dyes. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty consecutive persons using hair dyes were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 250 patients comprised 141 men (56.4% and 109 women (43.6% (M: F 1.29:1, aged between 16 and 74 (mean 47.13 years. The majority, 212 patients (84.8% were aged between 20–60 years and 66.4% (n=166 belonged to an urban background. When asked about the reason for using hair color, the principle reason was “to look younger” (59.6%, n=149. Most of the respondents were using synthetic hair dye preparations (55.2%, n=138 and when asked about the brand of hair dye being used, 25.2% (n=63 did not know about the brand they were using. When asked about their perception regarding safety of HD, 61% (n=152 respondents agreed that hair dyes are not safe and on being asked about the carcinogenic potential of HD, only 24% (n=60 respondents agreed. When enquired about the safest variety of HD, majority of respondents (52.4%, n=131 believed that plant based hair colors are the safest. When asked about the safety of HD during pregnancy and lactation, 68% (n=168 of the respondents were unaware regarding this aspect. 14.4% of the respondents reported suffering from some adverse effects due to hair dye use but only 11.11% (n=4 of those stopped using hair dyes. Conclusions: There is lack of awareness about the hair dyes and their adverse effects in the general population. There is an urgent need to increase awareness among consumers regarding the adverse effects of hair dyes and the available safer alternatives. Limitations: Small number of respondents and

  12. Screening for alcohol use disorders and at-risk drinking in the general population: psychometric performance of three questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hapke, Ulfert; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Most screening questionnaires are developed in clinical settings and there are few data on their performance in the general population. This study provides data on the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the consumption questions of the AUDIT (AUDIT-C) and the Lübeck Alcohol Dependence and Abuse Screening Test (LAST) among current drinkers (n = 3551) of a general population sample in northern Germany. Alcohol dependence and misuse according to DSM-IV and at-risk drinking served as gold standards to assess sensitivity and specificity and were assessed with the Munich-Composite Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). AUDIT and LAST showed insufficient sensitivity for at-risk drinking and alcohol misuse using standard cut-off scores, but satisfactory detection rates for alcohol dependence. The AUDIT-C showed low specificity in all criterion groups with standard cut-off. Adjusted cut-points are recommended. Among a subsample of individuals with previous general hospital admission in the last year, all questionnaires showed higher internal consistency suggesting lower reliability in non-clinical samples. In logistic regression analyses, having had a hospital admission increased the sensitivity in detecting any criterion group of the LAST, and the number of recent general practice visits increased the sensitivity of the AUDIT in detecting alcohol misuse. Women showed lower scores and larger areas under the ROC curves. It is concluded that setting specific instruments (e.g. primary care or general population) or adjusted cut-offs should be used.

  13. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  14. Drinking Distilled. Onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although most people in Western society drink alcohol and regard this to be harmless and normal, some people drink excessively and develop an alcohol use disorder. This thesis examined the onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population using 3-year longitudinal data

  15. Chronic depression : Determinants and consequences of chronic major depression in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is chronicity of major depressive disorder (MDD). The main aims of the study are to examine: 1. the duration of a major depressive episode (MDE) and the rate of a chronic duration of MDE in the general population, 2. the determinants of (chronic) duration of

  16. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  17. Nonallergic rhinitis and its association with smoking and lower airway disease: A general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; von Buchwald, Christian; Thomsen, Simon F

    2011-01-01

    The cause of nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) and its relation to lower airway disease remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the occurrence of rhinitis in a Danish general population with focus on NAR and its association with smoking and lower airway disease....

  18. Comorbid Disorders and Sociodemographic Variables in Temporomandibular Pain in the General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M.; Ligthart, Lannie; Schuller, Annemarie A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; de Jongh, Ad; van Houtem, Caroline M. H. H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  19. Comorbid disorders and sociodemographic variables in temporomandibular pain in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Ligthart, L.; Schuller, A.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  20. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  1. The prevalence and clinical significance of maxillary sinus mucous retention cysts in a general clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, N L

    1990-02-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence and potential clinical significance of MSMR cysts. Studies also have alluded to a relationship between the MSMR cyst and certain signs or symptoms of disease. We determined the prevalence of MSMR cysts in a general clinic population and identified some important correlations with clinical signs and symptoms.

  2. Risk of atherosclerosis in general Czech population is very high - preventive examinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, suppl 1 (2007), S66-S66 ISSN 1741-8267. [EuroPrevent Congress. 19.04.2007-21.04.2007, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : risk of atherosclerosis * preventive examinations * general population Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  4. Do Class III patients have a different growth spurt than the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sik; Lee, Shin-Jae; An, Hongseok; Donatelli, Richard E; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the timing and length of the growth spurt of Class III prognathic patients is fundamental to the strategy of interceptive orthopedic orthodontics as well as to the timing of orthognathic surgery. Consequently, this study was undertaken to determine whether there are any significant differences in the stature growth pattern of Class III subjects compared with non-Class III subjects and the general population. Twelve-year longitudinal stature growth data were collected for 402 randomly selected adolescents in the general population, 55 Class III mandibular prognathic patients, and 37 non-Class III patients. The growth data were analyzed by using the traditional linear interpolation method and nonlinear growth functions. The 6 stature growth parameters were measured: age at takeoff, stature at takeoff, velocity at takeoff, age at peak height velocity, stature at peak height velocity, and velocity at peak height velocity. Comparisons in the stature growth parameters and 15 cephalometric variables among the general population, Class III subjects, and non-Class III subjects were made with multivariate analysis. Patients with Class III prognathism did not have different growth parameters compared with Class II subjects or the general population. This study does not allow meaningful conclusions with regard to the relationship of mandibular size and stature growth pattern. The application of nonlinear growth curves vs the traditional linear interpolation method was also discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Matteis, S.; Consonni, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Tucker, M.; Peters, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Bertazzi, P.A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Pesatori, A.C.; Wacholder, S.; Landi, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. METHODS: We applied

  6. Prevalence of double incontinence, risk and influence on quality of life in a general female population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker- ten Hove, Marijke; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, MJ; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, CW; Vierhout, ME

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,

  7. Predictors of suicide, accidental death, and premature natural death in a general-population birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Wadsworth, M

    1998-01-01

    Background Whether putative suicide risk factors, such as conduct and emotional disorders, are specific to suicide or are general associations of a continuum between subintentional and intentional self-destruction is not clear. We undertook an investigation of this issue in a UK population-based

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  9. Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch

  10. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  11. Profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Ana Paula Costa; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de

    2017-07-01

    This paper aimed to compare the profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general population of Espírito Santo from 2003 to 2009. A search of Adventists was performed in the nominal database of the Mortality Information System containing data on Adventists provided by the administrative offices of the institution. Deaths from external causes occurred during the study period were then divided into two groups: Adventists and the general population. Adventists had lower proportional mortality from external causes (10%) than the general population (19%), and males were the main reason for this difference. In both groups, deaths prevailed in the 20-29 years age group. Deaths from accidental causes were most significant among Adventists (68.08%), while deaths from intentional causes related to assault and self-inflicted injuries were more significant in the general population (53.67% of all deaths). The standardized mortality ratio for external causes was 41.3, thus, being Adventist reduced mortality by 58.7%. It is believed that the benefit of Adventists observed for mortality from external causes is related to this group's abstinence from alcohol consumption.

  12. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  13. Explaining sex differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain in a general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Vet, Henrica C W de; Picavet, H Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in

  14. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: An EORTC-GELA general population case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); L.C. Moser (Lotte); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); B. Dubois (Brice); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C. Sebban (Catherine); W.G. Smit (Wilma); S. Bologna (Serge); J.M. Roesink (Judith); F. Ong (Francisca); J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); J. Raemaekers (John); M. Henry-Amar (Michel); J.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. Patients and Methods: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors

  15. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: an EORTC-GELA general population case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, L.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Dubois, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Sebban, C.; Smit, W.G.; Bologna, S.; Roesink, J.M.; Ong, F.; Andre, M.P.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors treated

  16. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  17. Feasibility of a Web-Based Cross-Over Paleolithic Diet Intervention in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Bikker, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The primary aim was to investigate feasibility of a web-based cross-over Paleolithic diet intervention in the general population. The secondary aim was to calculate the sample size needed to reach a statistically significant difference in effect of a Paleolithic-like diet on

  18. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  19. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  20. Mortality among patients with cleared hepatitis C virus infection compared to the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum

    2011-01-01

    The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognosis...

  1. Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a general population: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence underlines an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, data on its relation with endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis is inconclusive and limited to patient-cohort studies. We therefore investigated the association between periodontal disease and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD as a measure of endothelial dysfunction in a general population, and also addressed a possible mediation via inflammation. The study population comprised 1,234 subjects (50.5% men aged 25-85 years from the 5-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania, a population-based cohort study. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket probing depth (PPD as measures of periodontal disease were assessed half-mouth at four sites per tooth. Subjects were classified according to the periodontitis case definition proposed by Tonetti and Claffey (2005. Measurements of FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and leukocyte count were measured. Fully adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of the percentage of sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm with FMD (p(trend=0.048, with subjects within the highest category having a 0.74% higher FMD compared to subjects within the lowest category (p<0.05. Consistently, FMD values increased significantly across categories of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm (p(trend=0.01 and the periodontitis case definition (p(trend=0.006. Restrictions to subjects without antihypertensive or statin medication or current non-smokers confirmed previous results. Systemic inflammation did not seem to mediate the relation. Both PPD and CAL were not consistently associated with NMD. In contrast to previous studies, high levels of periodontal disease were significantly associated with high FMD values. This

  2. Association between serum vitamin D concentrations and inflammatory markers in the general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenthin, Liesa; Wallaschofski, Henri; Grotevendt, Anne; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Hannemann, Anke

    2014-08-01

    In recent years links among vitamin D deficiency, inflammation and cardio-metabolic disease were proposed. As information regarding the associations between vitamin D and inflammatory markers in the general population is sparse, we investigated the associations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and white blood cell count (WBC). The study population comprised 2723 men and women aged 25-88 years from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regressions were performed to assess the associations between 25(OH)D and the three inflammatory markers. The models were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory medication and month of blood sampling. The association between 25(OH)D and WBC was assessed separately in smokers (n = 718) and non-smokers (n = 2005) as effect modification was observed. We detected a U-shaped association between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP with a nadir of 21-25 ng/ml in fully-adjusted linear regression models with restricted cubic splines (p < 0.01; p' < 0.01). We further detected an inverse association between 25(OH)D and fibrinogen (p < 0.01). In addition, there was an inverse association between 25(OH)D and WBC in smokers (p = 0.02) but no association in non-smokers (p = 0.73). Our study confirms a potential role of 25(OH)D in chronic inflammation. Yet, different inflammatory biomarkers are differently associated with 25(OH)D. Beneficial effects of increasing 25(OH)D were observed for fibrinogen and WBC (in smokers only). In contrast, the U-shaped association between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP indicates that ever-increasing 25(OH)D concentrations may also be related to proinflammatory states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...... screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. Conclusions: This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons.This study included...

  4. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  5. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  6. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  7. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  9. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  10. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  11. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  12. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  13. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Interleukin 1β (+3954; −511) Genotype Polymorphism and its Association with Severe Chronic Generalized Periodontitis in the Malaysian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shelly; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Abdullah, Fawzia; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 1β (IL-1β) gene have been known to be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic periodontitis among various ethnic populations. SNPs are more commonly observed at loci + 3954 and − 511. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-1β gene polymorphism at loci +3954 and − 511, and its association with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians within the Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 120 subjects (60 cases and 60 controls) in the age group of 25–50 years were collected for isolation of genetic material using Norgen technique. Clinical attachment loss of ≥5 mm was considered as severe chronic generalized periodontitis. SNP's at loci +3954 and − 511 were identified and analyzed using Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Genotyping System (KASP™). Differences in the allele/genotype frequencies were assessed by Chi-square test (P Malaysian population was similar. Conclusion: IL-1β genotype polymorphism at +3954 and − 511 was found to be not associated with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the three ethnicities in Malaysia. Studies with larger sample size should be done to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:28566859

  15. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (H O ) and mean inbreeding (F IS ) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  16. Perception and image of dermatology in the German general population 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M; Eissing, L; Elsner, P; Strömer, K; Schäfer, I; Enk, A; Reusch, M; Kaufmann, R

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to other European countries, dermatologists in Germany provide health care for a broad spectrum of diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. Current population-based data on the perception of dermatology were lacking to date. Analysis of the perception of dermatology from the general population's perspective with regard to utilization, satisfaction and responsibility. Nation-wide survey on awareness, utilization, rating and image of dermatology in October 2014 through computer-assisted telephone interviews on a representative sample of the adult general population (n = 1015), performed by the FORSA institute. Dermatologists as a medical specialist group are familiar to 88% of the population (2002: 65%), and approx. 82% of respondents underwent dermatological treatment in the past. Satisfaction with this treatment is high to very high in 80-90% of respondents. The majority (60-80%) name dermatologists as the desired primary provider of care for the largest share of common skin diseases. For allergic diseases, mucous membrane diseases, venous disorders and paediatric skin diseases, this rate is significantly below 50%. In Germany, dermatologists are perceived and valued as providers of care. In the case of skin cancer and chronic inflammatory skin diseases, they are experienced as primary care givers, whereas they are associated less frequently than their competence would justify with providing treatment for allergic and mucous membrane diseases and venous disorders. Further education of the general public and medical profession is required. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  18. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarannum, Fouzia; Prasad, R K Shiva; Shobha, R; Kumar, B B Santosh; Ebenezer, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Preterm low birth weight (PTLBW) is a public health issue which needs to be dealt with by educating the general female population. One of the major contributing factors is periodontal disease and treatment of the same could reduce the occurrence of PTLBW babies. Therefore, awareness of this among the female population is highly essential. Hence, this survey was planned with the aim to explore the awareness of the general female population regarding the association of periodontal disease and PTLBW. This survey consisted of nine close-ended questions answered by 1284 females. Younger individuals had higher knowledge scores as compared to the older individuals (r = -0.161) and the more educated group had a higher knowledge score as compared to the less educated groups (r = 0.322). Furthermore, married women seemed to be more aware of the relation of PTLBW to periodontal disease as compared to unmarried women. Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  20. Perceptions of Oncologists, Healthcare Policy Makers, Patients and the General Population on the Value of Pharmaceutical Treatments in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, José A; Lizan, Luís; Comellas, Marta; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Dilla, Tatiana

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the main factors explaining the relative weight of the different attributes that determine the value of oncologic treatments from the different perspectives of healthcare policy makers (HCPM), oncologists, patients and the general population in Spain. Structured interviews were conducted to assess: (1) the importance of the attributes on treatment choice when comparing a new cancer drug with a standard cancer treatment; (2) the importance of survival, quality of life (QoL), costs and innovation in cancer; and (3) the most worrying side effects related to cancer drugs. A total of 188 individuals participated in the study. For all participants, when choosing treatments, the best rated characteristics were greater efficacy, greater safety, treatment adaptation to patients' individual requirements and the rapid reincorporation of patients to their daily activities. There were important differences among participants in their opinion about survival, QoL and cost. In general, oncologists, patients, and the general population gave greater value to gains in QoL than healthcare policy makers. Compared to other participants healthcare policy makers gave greater importance to the economic impact related to oncology treatments. Gains in QoL, survival, safety, cost and innovation are perceived differently by different groups of stakeholders. It is recommended to consider the perspective of different stakeholders in the assessment of a new cancer drugs to obtain more informed decisions when deciding on the most appropriate treatment to use. Eli Lilly & Co, Madrid (Spain).

  1. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  2. Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  4. Objective Assessment of General Surgery Residents Followed by Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas, Becca L; Buckarma, EeeLN H; Mohan, Monali; Pandian, T K; Farley, David R

    Surgical training programs often lack objective assessment strategies. Complicated scheduling characteristics frequently make it difficult for surgical residents to undergo formal assessment; actually having the time and opportunity to remediate poor performance is an even greater problem. We developed a novel methodology of assessment for residents and created an efficient remediation system using a combination of simulation, online learning, and self-assessment options. Postgraduate year (PGY) 2 to 5 general surgery (GS) residents were tested in a 5 station, objective structured clinical examination style event called the Surgical X-Games. Stations were 15 minutes in length and tested both surgical knowledge and technical skills. Stations were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = Fail, 2 = Mediocre, 3 = Pass, 4 = Good, and 5 = Stellar). Station scores ≤ 2 were considered subpar and required remediation to a score ≥ 4. Five remediation sessions allowed residents the opportunity to practice the stations with staff surgeons. Videos of each skill or test of knowledge with clear instructions on how to perform at a stellar level were offered. Trainees also had the opportunity to checkout take-home task trainers to practice specific skills. Residents requiring remediation were then tested again in-person or sent in self-made videos of their performance. Academic medical center. PGY2, 3, 4, and 5 GS residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. A total of, 35 residents participated in the Surgical X-Games in the spring of 2015. Among all, 31 (89%) had scores that were deemed subpar on at least 1 station. Overall, 18 (58%) residents attempted remediation. All 18 (100%) achieved a score ≥ 4 on the respective stations during a makeup attempt. Overall X-Games scores and those of PGY2s, 3s, and 4s were higher after remediation (p remediation. Despite difficulties with training logistics and busy resident schedules, it is feasible to objectively assess most GS trainees and

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in 3603 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the general population of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...

  6. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SE...

  7. Need and Demand for Sedation or General Anesthesia in Dentistry: A National Survey of the Canadian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Chanpong, B; Haas, D. A; Locker, D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia (GA) for dentistry in the Canadian adult population. A national telephone survey of 1101 Canadians found that 9.8% were somewhat afraid of dental treatment, with another 5.5% having a high level of fear. Fear or anxiety was the reason why 7.6% had ever missed, cancelled, or avoided a dental appointment. Of those with high fear, 49.2% had avoided a dental appointment at some point because of fear or anxi...

  8. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  9. [The incidence and distribution of accidents with biological fluids among health personnel and the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Iglesia, I; Gómez López, L I; Fernández Martínez, J A; Mareca Doñate, R; Sangrador Arenas, L A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the informative usefulness of the Registry, to calculate the incidence rates of accident with biological fluids among health care workers and in the community, to know about the postaccident rate of seroconversion to HIV and to identify risk groups. A descriptive study of the HIV records file of the Registry of Accidental Contacts to Biological Fluids in the Clinic Hospital of Zaragoza was conducted, between January 1987 and September 1993. The registry includes the reports of health care workers and the general population of Health Area III in Aragón (Spain), except for the Calatayud's Hospital. Incidence rates, rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total number of 595 accidents were reported, in none of them and HIV infection occurred subsequently. The incidence rate in health care workers was of 1.7 reports per 100 workers per year, while in the community it was of 8.1 per 100,000 people. The housekeeping staff was the group with a higher incidence (rate = 6.7; 95% IC: 3-14.8) and the type of accident more frequently described was needlestick injury. The incidence of reported accidents has increased in the community and in health care workers, which may be due to the increase in the reporting. In health care workers, the incidence in 1993 was within the range reported from other countries. The perception of risk is universal after accidents with unknown biological fluids. The correct disposal of material with biological contamination should be the more important preventive action.

  10. Predictive validity of the Work Ability Index and its individual items in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Leijon, Ola; Vaez, Marjan; Hallgren, Mats; Torgén, Margareta

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses the predictive ability of the full Work Ability Index (WAI) as well as its individual items in the general population. The Work, Health and Retirement Study (WHRS) is a stratified random national sample of 25-75-year-olds living in Sweden in 2000 that received a postal questionnaire ( n = 6637, response rate = 53%). Current and subsequent sickness absence was obtained from registers. The ability of the WAI to predict long-term sickness absence (LTSA; ⩾ 90 consecutive days) during a period of four years was analysed by logistic regression, from which the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) was computed. There were 313 incident LTSA cases among 1786 employed individuals. The full WAI had acceptable ability to predict LTSA during the 4-year follow-up (AUC = 0.79; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.82). Individual items were less stable in their predictive ability. However, three of the individual items: current work ability compared with lifetime best, estimated work impairment due to diseases, and number of diagnosed current diseases, exceeded AUC > 0.70. Excluding the WAI item on number of days on sickness absence did not result in an inferior predictive ability of the WAI. The full WAI has acceptable predictive validity, and is superior to its individual items. For public health surveys, three items may be suitable proxies of the full WAI; current work ability compared with lifetime best, estimated work impairment due to diseases, and number of current diseases diagnosed by a physician.

  11. Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Anil, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a primary risk factor for cancer development. While most research has focused on smoking cigarettes, the increasing popularity of shisha or water pipe smoking has received less attention. This study measured the prevalence and risk factors for shisha and cigarette smoking and related knowledge. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Participants aged ≥ 18 years were selected from restaurants. Data regarding demographic variables, smoking patterns, and knowledge about shisha smoking were collected in local languages. Logistic regression was performed to assess risk factors. Of 239 participants, 61.9 % were male and 99.2% revealed their smoking status. Some 57.4% were smokers: 50.7% only cigarettes, 5.9% only shisha and 42% both. Mean age of starting cigarette smoking was 17.5 ± 2.4 years and for shisha smoking 18.7 ± 2.0 years. In a univariate model, male gender, age 33-52 years and monthly income > MYR 4,000 increased the risk and unemployment and being a student decreased the risk. In a multivariate model, male gender increased the risk of smoking, while being a student decreased the risk, adjusting for age and income. The perception of shisha being less harmful than cigarettes was present in 14.6% and 7.5% had the opinion that shisha is not harmful at all, while 21.7% said that it is less addictive than cigarettes, 39.7% said that shisha did not contain tar and nicotine, 34.3% said that it did not contain carbon monoxide and 24.3% thought that shisha did not cause health problems. Prevalence of shisha and cigarette smoking is high in the general population in Malaysia and knowledge about shisha smoking is relatively low. The findings of our study might have implications for understanding similarities and differences in incidence of shisha and cigarette smoking in other cultural/geographic regions.

  12. Self-reported sleep duration and daytime napping are associated with renal hyperfiltration in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao; Su, Qing; Wen, Junping; Wei, Shichao; Yao, Jin; Huang, Huibin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Lin, Wei; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) has emerged as a novel marker of early renal damage in various conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aberrant sleep duration and excessive daytime napping may affect the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, the association between sleep duration, daytime napping, and renal hyperfiltration was assessed. This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 16,119 community volunteers (5735 males and 10,384 females) aged 40-65 years without CKD were included for the study. Participants with short sleep duration (naps longer than 1.5 h per day had a higher risk of renal hyperfiltration compared with those without napping (OR 1.400, 95% CI 1.018-1.924). Further joint analysis indicated that participants with long sleep duration (≥10 h/day) had a more than twofold increased risk of RHF regardless of nap status compared with those who slept 8-9 h per day without daytime napping. The association between sleep duration or daytime napping and RHF could not be explained by the influence of sleep quality. Additional subgroup analysis showed long sleep duration (≥9 h/day) and long daytime napping (≥1.5 h) were associated with an increased risk of RHF among individuals with good sleep quality. Sleep duration less than 6 h/day or more than 10 h/day and long daytime napping tend to be associated with an increased risk of renal hyperfiltration in middle-aged general population, and this relationship was independent of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or poor sleep quality.

  13. Alcohol and cancer: risk perception and risk denial beliefs among the French general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Fressard, Lisa; Verger, Pierre; Legleye, Stéphane; Peretti-Watel, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, millions of deaths each year are attributed to alcohol. We sought to examine French people's beliefs about the risks of alcohol, their correlates, and their associations with alcohol use. Data came from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer survey, a random cross-sectional telephone survey of the French general population (n = 3359 individuals aged 15-75 years). Using principal component analysis of seven beliefs about alcohol risks, we built two scores (one assessing risk denial based on self-confidence and the other risk relativization). Two multiple linear regressions explored these scores' socio-demographic and perceived information level correlates. Multiple logistic regressions tested the associations of these scores with daily drinking and with heavy episodic drinking (HED). About 60% of the respondents acknowledged that alcohol increases the risk of cancer, and 89% felt well-informed about the risks of alcohol. Beliefs that may promote risk denial were frequent (e.g. 72% agreed that soda and hamburgers are as bad as alcohol for your health). Both risk denial and risk relativization scores were higher among men, older respondents and those of low socioeconomic status. The probability of daily drinking increased with the risk relativization score and that of HED with both scores. Beliefs that can help people to deny the cancer risks due to alcohol use are common in France and may exist in many other countries where alcoholic beverages have been an integral part of the culture. These results can be used to redesign public information campaigns about the risks of alcohol. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Weight-Loss Strategies Used by the General Population: How Are They Perceived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Péneau, Sandrine; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. Result Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. Conclusion Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet. PMID:24852440

  15. Patients taking medications for bipolar disorder are more prone to metabolic syndrome than Korea's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Cho, Belong; Lee, Yeon Ji; Chang, Jae Seung; Kang, Ung Gu; Kim, Yong Sik; Ahn, Yong Min

    2010-10-01

    Despite growing concerns about the co-morbidity of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and bipolar disorder, few studies have been conducted on this topic in Asian populations. This study examined Korean patients with bipolar disorder to assess its co-morbidity with MetS and to compare the prevalence of MetS in patients with medication for bipolar disorder with that of healthy patients. We used cross-sectional data from the medical records of patients with bipolar disorder who presented to the psychiatric clinic in Seoul National University Hospital between June 2007 and June 2008. The control group, matched for age and gender, was randomly drawn from visitors to the Health Promotion Center at the same hospital during the same period. We compared the prevalence of MetS between these two groups with independent sample t-tests and chi-squared tests. We also calculated the indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) with a standardization that used the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES, 2007). The prevalence of MetS in patients who took medication for bipolar disorder (N=152) was 27.0%, 25.0% and 25.7%, based on the definitions of the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's adaptation of the Adult Treatment Panel III (AHA), the National Cholesterol Education Program for Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), respectively. The present study determined that the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in the control group; the odds ratios (OR) (95% CI) were 2.44 (1.35-4.40), 2.48 (1.34-4.59) and 2.57 (1.40-4.74), based on the definition of the AHA, ATPIII and IDF, respectively. The ISPR (95% CI) was 1.48 (1.02-1.93), 1.54 (1.05-2.03) and 1.98 (1.36-2.60), respectively. Patients with medications for bipolar disorder showed a significantly higher prevalence of increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, and

  16. What is the gap in activity and participation between people with disability and the general population in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Yen, Chia-Feng; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Fang, Wen-Hui

    2017-08-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was developed, based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF provides a common language and framework for health and health-related status and attempts to integrate the biopsychosocial model as a multidimensional perspective in understanding functioning. Activities and participation (AP) is one salient component of the ICF refers to the execution of a task by an individual, and how such tasks are involved in their daily life. It is essential to examine the gap between the general adult population and adults with disabilities. This gap may be attributed to health status, personal factors, and natural and social environments, which include social and health services and policies. The purposes: (1) To develop a normative activity and participation (AP) value for the adult population and people with disabilities; and (2) to compare the gap in AP normative values between the two groups in Taiwan. We use the WHODAS 2.0 to survey and develop a normative AP value for the general adult population, and used secondary data from National Disability Eligibility Determination System (NDEDS) of Taiwan to describe the AP functioning distribution of adult with disability. There were 1100 participants, selected by stratified proportional sampling from two cities. There were also 144,850 participants who were adults with disability, selected from the secondary database in Taiwan. The AP curve for the disabled population increased rapidly at the beginning. The summary score was 13.21 in the performance at 90 percentile for the general population and 82.61 score for disabled adults that the similar gap in every domain, its means that there are significant functioning difference and health equality in general adults population and adults with disabilities. This presents a substantial challenge for both the government and the whole

  17. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  18. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  19. [Culture and quality of life assessment in Chinese populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ping; Li, Ning-Xiu; Liu, Chao-Jie; Lü, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Ou, Ai-Hua

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the impact of cultural factors on quality of life (QOL) and to identify appropriate ways of dividing sub-populations for population norm-based quality of life assessment. The WHOQOL-BREF was used as a QOL instrument. Another questionnaire was developed to assess cultural values. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1090 Guangzhou residents, which included 635 respondents from communities and 455 patients who visited outpatient departments of hospitals. Cronbach's a coefficients and item-domain correlation coefficients were calculated to test the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Student t test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were performed to identify the variables that might have an impact on the QOL. Two regression models with and without including cultural variables were constructed, and the extent of impact exerted by the cultural factors was assessed through a comparison of the change of adjusted R square values. A total of 1052 (96%) valid questionnaire were returned. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the WHOQOL-BREF ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Age, education, occupation and family income were correlated with all of the domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Chronic condition was correlated with physical, psychological, and social relationship domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Gender was correlated with physical and psychological domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. The multiple regression analysis showed that social and demographic factors contributed to 6.3%, 13.6%, 10.4% and 8.7% of the predicted variances for the physical, psychological, social relationship, and environment domains, respectively. Social support, horizontal collectivism, vertical individualism, escape acceptance, fear of death, health value, supernatural belief had a significant impact on QOL. However, social support was the only one factor that had an impact on all of the four QOL domains. It is necessary to divide sub-cultural populations for

  20. Robotics in general surgery: A systematic cost assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkegkes, Ioannis D; Mamais, Ioannis A; Iavazzo, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The utilisation of robotic-assisted techniques is a novelty in the field of general surgery. Our intention was to examine the up to date available literature on the cost assessment of robotic surgery of diverse operations in general surgery. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in a systematic way to retrieve the included studies in our review. Thirty-one studies were retrieved, referring on a vast range of surgical operations. The mean cost for robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from 2539 to 57,002, 7888 to 16,851 and 1799 to 50,408 Euros, respectively. The mean operative charges ranged from 273.74 to 13,670 Euros. More specifically, for the robotic and laparoscopic gastric fundoplication, the cost ranged from 1534 to 2257 and 657 to 763 Euros, respectively. For the robotic and laparoscopic colectomy, it ranged from 3739 to 17,080 and 3109 to 33,865 Euros, respectively. For the robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, ranged from 1163.75 to 1291 and from 273.74 to 1223 Euros, respectively. The mean non-operative costs ranged from 900 to 48,796 from 8347 to 8800 and from 870 to 42,055 Euros, for robotic, open and laparoscopic technique, respectively. Conversions to laparotomy were present in 34/18,620 (0.18%) cases of laparoscopic and in 22/1488 (1.5%) cases of robotic technique. Duration of surgery robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from 54.6 to 328.7, 129 to 234, and from 50.2 to 260 min, respectively. The present evidence reveals that robotic surgery, under specific conditions, has the potential to become cost-effective. Large number of cases, presence of industry competition and multidisciplinary team utilisation are some of the factors that could make more reasonable and cost-effective the robotic-assisted technique.

  1. Intelligence Assessment Instruments in Adult Prison Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, A Y M; Denzel, A D; Scherder, E J A; Masthoff, E D M

    2017-10-01

    Detection of intellectual disability (ID) in the penitentiary system is important for the following reasons: (a) to provide assistance to people with ID in understanding their legal rights and court proceedings; (b) to facilitate rehabilitation programs tailored to ID patients, which improves the enhancement of their quality of life and reduces their risk of reoffending; and (c) to provide a reliable estimate of the risk of offence recidivism. It requires a short assessment instrument that provides a reliable estimation of a person's intellectual functioning at the earliest possible stage of this process. The aim of this systematic review is (a) to provide an overview of recent short assessment instruments that provide a full-scale IQ score in adult prison populations and (b) to achieve a quality measurement of the validation studies regarding these instruments to determine which tests are most feasible in this target population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement is used to ensure reliability. The Satz-Mögel, an item-reduction short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, shows the highest correlation with the golden standard and is described to be most reliable. Nevertheless, when it comes to applicability in prison populations, the shorter and less verbal Quick Test can be preferred over others. Without affecting these conclusions, major limitations emerge from the present systematic review, which give rise to several important recommendations for further research.

  2. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects.

  4. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  5. Internet Activities During Leisure: A Comparison Between Adolescents With ADHD and Adolescents From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2015-11-25

    Adolescents' leisure activities are increasingly focusing on Internet activities, and today, these coexist with traditional leisure activities such as sport and meeting friends. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leisure activities, particularly Internet activities, among boys and girls with ADHD, and compare these with boys and girls from the general population. The objective was also to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) were compared with adolescents from the general population on leisure activities and Internet use. Leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD tended to focus on Internet activities, particularly online games. Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Internet activities may provide adolescents with ADHD accessible means of social interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The Prevalence and Typologies of Controlling Behaviors in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Sleath, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and typologies of controlling behaviors within a general population sample. Participants ( N = 427) completed the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Prevalence of perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors was relatively high, although the frequency and severity of the behaviors was mainly low level. Five clusters were established based on the use of five types of controlling behaviors: economic, threatening, intimidating, emotional, and isolating. Significant differences were found between the perpetration clusters and (a) minor physical assault, (b) severe physical assault, (c) minor psychological aggression, and (d) severe psychological aggression. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the victimization clusters and (a) physical assault, (b) minor psychological aggression, and (c) severe psychological aggression. It is clear that controlling behaviors are a feature within general population relationships, and further research is required to understand when such behaviors become problematic, and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening.

  7. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  8. Causes of death in rheumatoid arthritis: How do they compare to the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdifield, Jessica; Paterson, J Michael; Huang, Anjie; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2018-03-07

    To compare mortality rates, underlying causes of death, excess mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients relative to the general population. We studied an inception cohort of 87,114 Ontario RA patients and 348,456 age/sex/area-matched general population comparators over 2000 to 2013. All-cause, cause-specific, and excess mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and YPLL were estimated. A total of 11,778 (14% of) RA patients and 32,472 (9% of) comparators died during 508,385 and 1,769,365 person-years (PY) of follow-up, respectively, for corresponding mortality rates of 232 (95% CI 228, 236) and 184 (95% CI 182, 186) per 10,000 PYs. Leading causes of death in both groups were diseases of the circulatory system, cancer, and respiratory conditions. Increased mortality for all-cause and specific causes was observed in RA relative to the general population. MRRs were elevated for most causes of death. Age-specific mortality ratios illustrated a high excess mortality among RA patients under 45 years of age for respiratory disease and circulatory disease. RA patients lost 7,436 potential years of life per 10,000 persons, compared with 4,083 YPLL among those without RA. Mortality rates were increased in RA patients relative to the general population across most causes of death. The potential life years lost (before the age of 75) among RA patients was roughly double that among those without RA, reflecting higher rate ratios for most causes of death and RA patients dying at earlier ages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenotypes of individuals affected by airborne chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, A.; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    to symptoms than less severely affected individuals, and the number of symptoms was more predictive for severity than the number of exposures. Most predictive for the severity of reported symptoms were CNS-symptoms other than headache (OR = 3.2, P ... (OR = 2.0, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CNS-symptoms except from headache were a main characteristic of individuals severely affected by common chemical exposures in a general population-based sample...

  10. Developing a General Population Job-Exposure Matrix in the Absence of Sufficient Exposure Monitoring Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tmannetje, AM; McLean, DJ; Eng, AJ; Kromhout, H; Kauppinen, T; Fevotte, J; Pearce, NE

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand, there is a need for a comprehensive and accessible database with national occupational exposure information, such as a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM). However, few New Zealand-specific exposure data exist that could be used to construct such a GPJEM. Here, we present the methods used to develop a GPJEM for New Zealand (NZJEM), by combining GPJEMs from other countries with New Zealand-specific exposure information, using wood dust as an example to illustrate thi...

  11. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....

  12. Generalized Population Analysis of Three-Center Two-Electron Bonding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponec, Robert; Cooper, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2004), s. 1002-1011 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072006; GA MŠk OC D9.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : multicenter bonding * generalized population analysis * post-Hartree Fock wave functions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2004

  13. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  14. Obesity and central fat pattern among Greenland Inuit and a general population of Denmark (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Glümer, C; Bjerregaard, P

    2003-01-01

    pressure, triglyceride, and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than the Danish participants at any given level of obesity. Fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels within obesity categories were not different in the two populations. Adjustment for physical activity, smoking, school education, and alcohol......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the obesity observed among the Inuit of Greenland and in a general Danish population was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances. DESIGN: Comparison of data from two population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999-2001. SUBJECTS...... received a standard 75 g OGTT. s-Triglyceride, s-HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2 h p-glucose and s-insulin were analysed. Blood pressure was measured. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by a questionnaire and interview. RESULTS: The Inuit had lower levels of 2-h glucose and insulin, blood...

  15. MACROD2 gene associated with autistic-like traits in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel M; Cadby, Gemma; Blangero, John; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Moses, Eric K

    2014-12-01

    There is now substantial evidence that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical autism spectrum disorders (ASD) representing the extreme end of this distribution. In this study, we sought to evaluate five independently identified genetic associations with ASD with autistic-like traits in the general population. In the study cohort, clinical phenotype and genomewide association genotype data were obtained from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The outcome measure used was the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a quantitative measure of autistic-like traits of individuals in the cohort. Total AQ scores were calculated for each individual, as well as scores for three subscales. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with ASD, reported in previously published genomewide association studies, were selected using a nominal cutoff value of P less than 1.0×10. We tested whether these five SNPs were associated with total AQ and the subscales, after adjustment for possible confounders. SNP rs4141463 located in the macro domain containing 2 (MACROD2) gene was significantly associated with the Communication/Mindreading subscale. No other SNP was significantly associated with total AQ or the subscales. The MACROD2 gene is a strong positional candidate risk factor for autistic-like traits in the general population.

  16. Sleep quality and covariates as predictors of pain intensity among the general population in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Kun; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Mi; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Hui-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of sleep quality and its relationship with the prevalence of pain among rural Chinese people and to explore the association between sleep quality and pain intensity among the general population in real-life settings. This cross-sectional survey included a total of 2052 adults from rural areas in Liuyang, Hunan Province, recruited through random multistage sampling. The distributions of sleep quality and pain prevalence among the participants over a 4-week period were described. Because of multicollinearity among variables, the influence of self-rated sleep quality and psychosocial covariates on pain intensity was explored using a ridge regression model. The data showed that participants reporting all categories of sleep quality experienced some degree of pain. Sleep quality, along with physical and mental health, was a negative predictor of pain intensity among the general population. Symptoms of depression positively predicted pain intensity. Poor sleep quality increased pain intensity among the participants. Both previous research and the present data suggest that improving sleep quality may significantly decrease pain intensity in the general population. The relationship between sleep and pain may be bidirectional. This finding also suggests that treatment for sleep disorders and insomnia should be addressed in future efforts to alleviate pain intensity.

  17. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  18. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  19. Differences Between Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal Between Heart Disease and Generalal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mirlohi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Heart disease and emotional disorders often co-occur, but effective role in dysregulation of heart disease that is often overlooked. Evidence suggests that people with heart disease are more problems in regulating their emotions. The study compared the re-evaluation of cognitive emotion regulation commonly used two strategies- and suppression- between heart disease and the general population. Methods: Sixty men (30 with heart complaints and 30 without the condition were selected by convenience sampling method and they responded to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John and a demographic questionnaire responded. To analyze the results and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and inferential statistics, independent T-test was used SPSS software was used. Results: The result shows that heart disease and general population re-evaluation strategies groups (P<0.01. This is not only different from the strategy reassessment, but in different repression, too. (P <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that heart disease and general population used different strategies to regulate their emotions. The key to finding the heart disease group prefer repression to regulate their emotions.

  20. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  1. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Roma Settlements: A Comparison with the General Population in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halánová, Monika; Veseliny, Eduard; Kalinová, Zuzana; Jarčuška, Peter; Janičko, Martin; Urbančíková, Ingrid; Pella, Daniel; Dražilová, Sylvia; Babinská, Ingrid

    2018-05-03

    Hepatitis E infection is one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis in the world. Currently five human genotypes with different geographical distributions and distinct epidemiologic patterns are identified. In Slovakia, only rare cases of hepatitis E have been reported in past years. Because the most important risk factors associated with HEV infection include consumption of contaminated pork meat and poor hygienic standards, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HEV total antibodies and the main risk factors for HEV in the population living in separated and segregated Roma settlements ( n = 195), which represent places with increased risk of infection in Slovakia and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population ( n = 69). Of 264 respondents included in the study, 47 (17.8%) showed positivity for anti-HEV antibodies, 42 of whom were Roma (21.5%, n = 195) and 5 (7.2%, n = 69) non-Roma. The population living in Roma settlements lives in poorer conditions and are at higher risk of HEV in comparison to the general population. However, differences in living conditions within the settlements do not contributed to lower risk of HEV antibody prevalence between Roma living in settlements.

  2. Occupational airborne exposure of the general population of a Norwegian county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, P; Baste, V; Hanoa, R; Gulsvik, A

    1992-02-01

    Occupational airborne exposure was examined for a stratified sample (N = 1275) of the general population aged 18-73 years in Hordaland County, Norway. The subjects identified all jobs of more than six months since leaving school and stated whether they had been occupationally exposed to specific agents and work processes potentially harmful to the lungs. The prevalence in the population ever having been exposed was 18% for asbestos, 9% for quartz, 5% for aluminum dust, 6% for wood dust, 12% for metal gases, 12% for welding, 9% for soldering, and 1% for hairdressing. According to occupational title (last job), 3% of the population had held a job with a high degree of airborne exposure, 26% a job with moderate exposure, and 70% a job with no airborne exposure. During their worklife both the men and the women tended to leave polluted jobs more often than unpolluted jobs. Occupational exposure to airborne pollutants potentially harmful to the lungs is widespread in this Norwegian general population.

  3. Deposition and retention of plutonium in the United States general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, a Los Alamos National Laboratory study has analyzed over 5000 tissues from 1100 individuals of the nonoccupationally exposed general population for fallout plutonium. These data have been useful in determining the tissue distributions and the annual baseline levels of environmental plutonium in the United States population. The effects of age, sex, date of death, cause of death and geographic location of resididence on the observed plutonium deposition have been evaluated. Because of the difference in biological turnover times of plutonium in the various organs of the body and the changing concentrations of plutonium in the atmosphere, the plutonium concentration ratios between tissues have changed as a function of time. However, our data indicate that over the past 10 years, the highest concentrations in the general population are found in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and the liver and the lowest concentrations are in the spleen, gonads and kidney. The median body burdens of plutonium in the US population are estimated to have reached 12 pCi during the 1960's and have declined to about 2 pCi in 1977. Large errors in estimated skeletal burdens of plutonium may exist because of small specimen sample sizes and a lack of knowledge concerning the relative distribution of plutonium among the various bones of the human body

  4. Assessing senescence patterns in populations of large mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaillard, J.-M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models such as those of Gompertz and Weibull are commonly used to study senescence in survival for humans and laboratory or captive animals. For wild populations of vertebrates, senescence in survival has more commonly been assessed by fitting simple linear or quadratic relationships between survival and age. By using appropriate constraints on survival parameters in Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR models, we propose a first analysis of the suitability of the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models for describing aging-related mortality in free-ranging populations of ungulates. We first show how to handle the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models in the context of CMR analyses. Then we perform a comparative analysis of senescence patterns in both sexes of two ungulate species highly contrasted according to the intensity of sexual selection. Our analyses provide support to the Gompertz model for describing senescence patterns in ungulates. Evolutionary implications of our results are discussed

  5. [Food habits and nutritional assessment in a tunisian university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Burriel, Faustino; Serrano Urrea, Ramón; Daouas, Thouraya; Delicado Soria, Amalia; García Meseguer, María José

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and health are of great importance throughout life, in particular in adulthood due to active population is included among the adults. Therefore, it is essential to assess the quality of the diet and the possible conditioning factors. The objectives of this study were to characterize food habits and assess the quality of the diet of university students from the Virtual University of Tunisia, a North African country in nutritional transition. This is a cross-sectional study performed with data collected from a sample of 54 students from this University. For each individual a questionnaire involving socio-economic and demographic data was self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by a 24 hours recall. The assessment of diet quality was conducted by Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Score. The study revealed that the diet of this population is hypocaloric. The percentage of total energy from proteins was 18% and the percentage of total energy from carbohydrates was about 40%. The diet was high in simple sugars, saturated fat and cholesterol. Apart from oils and fat, the main source of lipids had an animal origin from meat (19%), and the fish group only provided 3% of this macronutrient. According to Healthy Eating Index classification more than 50% of students scored "poor" and more than 40% "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet. The study also showed low adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Health Literacy Assessment in an Otolaryngology Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Lee, Jennifer Y

    2016-12-01

    To assess health literacy in an adult tertiary care otolaryngology clinic population and to explore potential determinants of inadequate health literacy. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care otolaryngology clinic. The study population included all adult patients treated at 3 of Stanford University's adult otolaryngology clinic sites between March 1 and 11, 2016. Data were collected via an anonymous questionnaire. Health literacy was assessed with the Brief Health Literacy Screen. Ten percent of patients had inadequate health literacy. White race (odds ratio [OR], 0.23) and having English as the primary language (OR, 0.12) were associated with adequate health literacy, while high school or lower level of education (OR, 3.2) was associated with inadequate health literacy. Age, sex, and Hispanic ethnicity were not associated with health literacy. Our study highlights the need for health literacy screening in the otolaryngology clinic setting and identifies sociodemographic risk factors for inadequate health literacy. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of health literacy on patient outcomes and to test specific interventions to address health literacy and health outcomes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  7. Assessing radiologic risk for population due to human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    The most important factor in assessing radiologic risk is ensuring scientific means for evaluation of the radioactive release impact upon humans and organisms. To evaluate quantitatively this impact not only knowledge of radioactivity distribution in these dynamical systems is necessary but also understanding the transfer mechanisms between ecosystem components is needed. Thus a complete radioecologic study appear to be very complex and needs defining the source term, dynamic description of radionuclides behavior in the ecosystem, estimation of radiation doses in the major components of the ecosystem and finally the effects of radiation doses upon different parts of the systems. A diagram of the steps implied in evaluation of the effects due to radioactive effluent release in the environment is presented and discussed. The following steps are described: - identification of radioactive sources, as well as their input rate. Presence of noxious materials such as heavy metals or some organic compounds should be taken into account to assess the synergetic or antagonistic interactions; - determination of space-time distribution of release radionuclides; - estimation of dose rates and radiation exposure of population; - estimation of radiation dose effects upon individuals, population and ecosystems. This fourth step implies: experimental field or laboratory studies to determine the somatic/genetic response to radiation as a function of the exposure dose; following-up and interpretation of the organism response to dose or dose rates in terms of radiation-induce changes in the population life cycles; forecasting the irradiation effects upon population or communities within environment. Finally, this evaluation is completed by the decision making process implying a society acceptance of the forecast and/or observed effects

  8. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  9. Rifapentine for latent tuberculosis infection treatment in the general population and human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: summary of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Souza Vidal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLatent tuberculosis infection (LTBI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-coinfection are challenges in the control of tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to assess and summarize evidence available in the literature regarding the treatment of LTBI in both the general and HIV-positive population, in order to support decision making by the Brazilian Tuberculosis Control Program for LTBI chemoprophylaxis. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Trip database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and the Brazilian Theses Repository to identify systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials, clinical guidelines, evidence-based synopses, reports of health technology assessment agencies, and theses that investigated rifapentine and isoniazid combination compared to isoniazid monotherapy. We assessed the quality of evidence from randomized clinical trials using the Jadad Scale and recommendations from other evidence sources using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations approach. The available evidence suggests that there are no differences between rifapentine + isoniazid short-course treatment and the standard 6-month isoniazid therapy in reducing active tuberculosis incidence or death. Adherence was better with directly observed rifapentine therapy compared to self-administered isoniazid. The quality of evidence obtained was moderate, and on the basis of this evidence, rifapentine is recommended by one guideline. Available evidence assessment considering the perspective of higher adherence rates, lower costs, and local peculiarity context might support rifapentine use for LTBI in the general or HIV-positive populations. Since novel trials are ongoing, further studies should include patients on antiretroviral therapy.

  10. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese L; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2014-05-13

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.55-0.80) and 0.84 (0.61-1.15). Predictors of attendance to the HIV cervical screening program were a CD4 count > 350 cells/μL and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL. Calendar period after 2002 and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL predicted attendance to the general population cervical screening program. The majority of WLWH do not follow the HIV guidelines for cervical screening. We support the idea of cytology as part of an annual review and integration of HIV care and cervical screening in a single clinic setting.

  11. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1 years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229. The total DES symptom scores (TDSS in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P  Conclusions The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.

  12. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-04-10

    general parenting dimensions from the GPOS were highly correlated with similar family functioning constructs from the MICS. This new observational tool appears to be a valid means of assessing general parenting behaviors during mealtimes and adds to our ability to measure parent-level factors affecting child weight-related outcomes. Future evaluation of this tool in a broader range of the population and other family settings should be conducted.

  13. New reference values for body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the general population: results from the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits M E; Rutten, Erica P A; Groenen, Miriam T J; Vanfleteren, Lowie E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly and patient populations. Therefore, measurement of FFM is important in nutritional assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient method to assess FFM and FFM index (FFMI; FFM/height(2)). Although reference values have been established for individuals with normal body weight, no specific cutoff values are available for overweight and obese populations. Also, limited studies accounted for the age-related decline in FFM. To determine BMI- and age-specific reference values for abnormal low FFM(I) in white-ethnic men and women free of self-reported disease from the general population. The UK Biobank is a prospective epidemiological study of the general population from the United Kingdom. Individuals in the age category 45 to 69 years were analyzed. In addition to body weight, FFM and FFMI were measured using a Tanita BC-418MA. Also, self-reported chronic conditions and ethnic background were registered, and lung function was assessed using spirometry. After exclusion of all individuals with missing data, nonwhite ethnicity, self-reported disease, body mass index (BMI) less than 14 or 36 kg/m(2) or higher, and/or an obstructive lung function, reference values for FFM and FFMI were derived from 186,975 individuals (45.9% men; age: 56.9 ± 6.8 years; BMI: 26.5 ± 3.6 kg/m(2); FFMI 18.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)). FFM and FFMI were significantly associated with BMI and decreased with age. Percentiles 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95 were calculated for FFM, FFMI, and fat mass (index), after stratification for gender, age, and BMI. Using the UK Biobank dataset, new reference values for body composition assessed with BIA were determined in white-ethnic men and women aged 45 to 69 years. Because these reference values are BMI specific, they are of broad interest for overweight and obese populations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Köck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99% susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact.

  15. The impact of general anesthesia on child development and school performance: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneuer, Francisco J; Bentley, Jason P; Davidson, Andrew J; Holland, Andrew Ja; Badawi, Nadia; Martin, Andrew J; Skowno, Justin; Lain, Samantha J; Nassar, Natasha

    2018-04-27

    There has been considerable interest in the possible adverse neurocognitive effects of exposure to general anesthesia and surgery in early childhood. The aim of this data linkage study was to investigate developmental and school performance outcomes of children undergoing procedures requiring general anesthesia in early childhood. We included children born in New South Wales, Australia of 37+ weeks' gestation without major congenital anomalies or neurodevelopmental disability with either a school entry developmental assessment in 2009, 2012, or Grade-3 school test results in 2008-2014. We compared children exposed to general anesthesia aged <48 months to those without any hospitalization. Children with only 1 hospitalization with general anesthesia and no other hospitalization were assessed separately. Outcomes included being classified developmentally high risk at school entry and scoring below national minimum standard in school numeracy and reading tests. Of 211 978 children included, 82 156 had developmental assessment and 153 025 had school test results, with 12 848 (15.7%) and 25 032 (16.4%) exposed to general anesthesia, respectively. Children exposed to general anesthesia had 17%, 34%, and 23% increased odds of being developmentally high risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29); or scoring below the national minimum standard in numeracy (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.21-1.48) and reading (aOR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12-1.36), respectively. Although the risk for being developmentally high risk and poor reading attenuated for children with only 1 hospitalization and exposure to general anesthesia, the association with poor numeracy results remained. Children exposed to general anesthesia before 4 years have poorer development at school entry and school performance. While the association among children with 1 hospitalization with 1 general anesthesia and no other hospitalization was attenuated, poor numeracy outcome remained. Further investigation of

  16. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  17. Population characteristics and assessment of overfishing for an exploited paddlefish population in the lower Tennessee River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, G.D.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Paddlefish Polyodon spathula (n = 576) were collected from Kentucky Lake, Kentucky-Tennessee, with experimental gill nets in 2003-2004 to assess population characteristics and the potential for commercial overfishing. Additional data were collected from 1,039 paddlefish caught by commercial gillnetters in this impoundment. Since the most recent study in 1991, size and age structure have been reduced and annual mortality has tripled. In the 1991 study, 37% of the fish collected were older than the maximum age we observed (age 11), and in 2003 annual mortality for paddlefish age 7 and older was high (A = 68%). Natural mortality is presumably low (overfishing probably occurs during drought years; however, variation in river discharge has prevented the population from being exploited at unsustainable rates in the past. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  19. Epidemiology of vestibular vertigo: a neurotologic survey of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, H K; von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T

    2005-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of vestibular vertigo in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors. The neurotologic survey had a two-stage general population sampling design: nationwide modified random digit dialing sampling for participation in the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) with screening of a random sample of 4,869 participants for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by detailed neurotologic interviews developed through piloting and validation (n = 1,003, response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for vestibular vertigo were rotational vertigo, positional vertigo, or recurrent dizziness with nausea and oscillopsia or imbalance. Vestibular vertigo was detected by our interview with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 84[corrected]% in a concurrent validation study using neurotology clinic diagnoses as an accepted standard (n = 61). The lifetime prevalence of vestibular vertigo was 7.4[corrected]%, the 1-year prevalence was 4.9[corrected]%, and the incidence was 1.4[corrected]%. In 80% of affected individuals, vertigo resulted in a medical consultation, interruption of daily activities, or sick leave. Female sex, age, lower educational level, and various comorbid conditions, including tinnitus, depression, and several cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, were associated with vestibular vertigo in the past year in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, only female sex, self-reported depression, tinnitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia had an independent effect on vestibular vertigo. Vestibular vertigo is common in the general population, affecting [corrected] 5% of adults in 1 year. The frequency and health care impact of vestibular symptoms at the population level have been underestimated.

  20. Association of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with symptoms of excessive exercising in an adult general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nikolas A A; Müller, Astrid; Brähler, Elmar; Philipsen, Alexandra; de Zwaan, Martina

    2014-09-12

    An increasing number of studies suggest that physical activity can alleviate symptoms of ADHD in children. In adults there are currently insufficient data available on this subject. Interestingly, ADHD and forms of excessive exercising have both been shown to occur more frequently in adult athletes. The aim of the present study was to empirically investigate the association of ADHD and excessive exercising in the adult general population. For diagnosis of adult and childhood ADHD a large representative sample of the German general population (n = 1,615) completed a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD and a self-report assessment of adult ADHD. Excessive exercising as well as putative mediating variables such as eating related psychopathology, depression, and anxiety were assessed using standardized self-rating instruments. Individuals with childhood only ADHD had a significantly higher frequency of excessive exercising (9.0%) than individuals without ADHD (2.7%). Excessive exercising was significantly associated with childhood only ADHD compared to no ADHD with an odds ratio of 3.239 even after controlling for socio-demographic variables, BMI, eating related and general psychopathology. Our data show that excessive exercising is significantly overrepresented in individuals in which ADHD symptoms in childhood have not persisted into adulthood. We thus hypothesize that a subgroup of individuals might suppress ADHD symptoms by excessive sporting activities. Although in healthy adults physical activity has been associated with immediate and long term improvements in cognitive functioning, studies empirically investigating associations between the effects of physical activity and adult ADHD are rare. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential role of physical activity in the treatment of ADHD in adults.

  1. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Vermulst, Ad A; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Gürtler, Diana; Bischof, Gallus; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. A telephone survey was conducted based on a random digit dialling procedure including landline telephone (n=14,022) and cell phone numbers (n=1,001) in participants aged 14-64. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) served as the basis for a LCA used to look for subgroups representing participants with Internet addiction or at-risk use. CIUS was given to participants reporting to use the Internet for private purposes at least 1 h on a typical weekday or at least 1 h on a day at the weekend (n=8,130). A 6-class model showed best model fit and included two groups likely to represent Internet addiction and at-risk Internet use. Both groups showed less social participation and the Internet addiction group less general trust in other people. Proportions of probable Internet addiction were 1.0% (CI 0.9-1.2) among the entire sample, 2.4% (CI 1.9-3.1) in the age group 14-24, and 4.0% (CI 2.7-5.7) in the age group 14-16. No difference in estimated proportions between males and females was found. Unemployment (OR 3.13; CI 1.74-5.65) and migration background (OR 3.04; CI 2.12-4.36) were related to Internet addiction. This LCA-based study differentiated groups likely to have Internet addiction and at-risk use in the general population and provides characteristics to further define this rather new disorder. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Patient and population protection in X-ray examinations -a general roentgenological and health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhidekov, G.; Dermendzhiev, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Population exposure in excess of that due to natural radiation background is known to result primarily (to 70-90%) from medical X-rays given in mass screening. Protection of the population is a problem of great concern in present-day radiology and is approached by balancing benefits of diagnostic X-rays against risks presented by the probability of overexposing the patient. An evaluation on such a basis necessitates detailed and accurate information on patient radiation exposure and takes into account factors leading to a population hazard by making assessments in terms of so-called genetically significant doses. Gonad doses have to be carefully analysed, implying a need for studies of various types of X-ray procedures, precautionary measures taken, etc. An important issue in the choice and adoption of an appropriate method for large-scale gonad dose assessments in routine practice. To obtain an estimate of radiation hazard from medical roentgenology in terms of genetically significant doses and identify measures necessary to limit exposure risks, collaborative efforts are needed involving participation of roentgenologists and hygienists, and use of dosimetric, organizational-methodological, and statistical techniques. These efforts should lead to an abrupt reduction in radiation burden to the population from diagnostic X-rays. (author)

  5. The water balance questionnaire: design, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to evaluate water balance in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.

  6. A comparison of techniques for assessing farmland bumblebee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T J; Holland, J M; Goulson, D

    2015-04-01

    Agri-environment schemes have been implemented across the European Union in order to reverse declines in farmland biodiversity. To assess the impact of these schemes for bumblebees, accurate measures of their populations are required. Here, we compared bumblebee population estimates on 16 farms using three commonly used techniques: standardised line transects, coloured pan traps and molecular estimates of nest abundance. There was no significant correlation between the estimates obtained by the three techniques, suggesting that each technique captured a different aspect of local bumblebee population size and distribution in the landscape. Bumblebee abundance as observed on the transects was positively influenced by the number of flowers present on the transect. The number of bumblebees caught in pan traps was positively influenced by the density of flowers surrounding the trapping location and negatively influenced by wider landscape heterogeneity. Molecular estimates of the number of nests of Bombus terrestris and B. hortorum were positively associated with the proportion of the landscape covered in oilseed rape and field beans. Both direct survey techniques are strongly affected by floral abundance immediately around the survey site, potentially leading to misleading results if attempting to infer overall abundance in an area or on a farm. In contrast, whilst the molecular method suffers from an inability to detect sister pairs at low sample sizes, it appears to be unaffected by the abundance of forage and thus is the preferred survey technique.

  7. [Food habits and nutritional assessment in a university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Burriel, Faustino; Serrano Urrea, Ramón; Vico García, Cruz; Milla Tobarra, Marta; García Meseguer, Mariá José

    2013-01-01

    The university students are in critical period for the development of life styles which are very important for their future health. The eating behaviour of other students, the alcohol consumption, their economic situation and the ability of cooking make them change their dietary habits. In Spain there are a few studies on the quality of the diet in this population group. Most of them show Spanish students diet does not follow an adequate Mediterranean dietary pattern. To describe the dietary habits of a population of university students and to assess the quality of their diet. Cross sectional study conducted on a sample of 80 students from the Faculty of Nursing of Albacete (University of Castilla-La Mancha). Nine 24-hours follow-ups questionnaires were self-administered in three different seasons. The quality of the diet was assessed by the IAS and the MDS2. In all tests a level of significance p university students. More than 91% of the students need "diet changes" in order to acquire healthier dietary patterns. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was only 53%. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying and Assessing Interesting Subgroups in a Heterogeneous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woojoo; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Pernemalm, Maria; Guegan, Justine; Dessen, Philippe; Lazar, Vladimir; Lehtiö, Janne; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-01-01

    Biological heterogeneity is common in many diseases and it is often the reason for therapeutic failures. Thus, there is great interest in classifying a disease into subtypes that have clinical significance in terms of prognosis or therapy response. One of the most popular methods to uncover unrecognized subtypes is cluster analysis. However, classical clustering methods such as k-means clustering or hierarchical clustering are not guaranteed to produce clinically interesting subtypes. This could be because the main statistical variability--the basis of cluster generation--is dominated by genes not associated with the clinical phenotype of interest. Furthermore, a strong prognostic factor might be relevant for a certain subgroup but not for the whole population; thus an analysis of the whole sample may not reveal this prognostic factor. To address these problems we investigate methods to identify and assess clinically interesting subgroups in a heterogeneous population. The identification step uses a clustering algorithm and to assess significance we use a false discovery rate- (FDR-) based measure. Under the heterogeneity condition the standard FDR estimate is shown to overestimate the true FDR value, but this is remedied by an improved FDR estimation procedure. As illustrations, two real data examples from gene expression studies of lung cancer are provided.

  9. Prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia - The RISE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Schöfer, H; Araviiskaia, E; Audibert, F; Kerrouche, N; Berg, M

    2016-03-01

    There is an unmet need for general population-based epidemiological data on rosacea based on contemporary diagnostic criteria and validated population survey methodology. To evaluate the prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia. General population screening was conducted in 9-10 cities per country to ensure adequate geographic representation. In Part I of this two-phase study, screening of a representative sample of the general population (every fifth person or every fifth door using a fixed-step procedure on a random route sample) was expedited with use of a questionnaire and algorithm based on current diagnostic criteria for rosacea. Of the subjects that screened positive in the initial phase, a randomly selected sample (every third subject) t`hen underwent diagnostic confirmation by a dermatologist in Part II. A total of 3052 and 3013 subjects (aged 18-65 years) were screened in Germany and Russia respectively. Rosacea prevalence was 12.3% [95%CI, 10.2-14.4] in Germany and 5.0% [95%CI, 2.8-7.2] in Russia. The profile of subjects with rosacea (75% women; mean age of 40 years; mainly skin phototype II or III, majority of subjects with sensitive facial skin) and subtype distribution were similar. Overall, 18% of subjects diagnosed with rosacea were aged 18-30 years. Over 80% were not previously diagnosed. Within the previous year, 47.5% of subjects had received no rosacea care and 23.7% had received topical and/or systemic drugs. Over one-third (35% Germany, 43% Russia) of rosacea subjects reported a moderate to severe adverse impact on quality of life. Rosacea is highly prevalent in Germany (12.3%) and Russia (5.0%). The demographic profile of rosacea subjects was similar between countries and the majority were previously undiagnosed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey

  11. Building Models for the Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Based on Data from General Population Surveys in Sweden, Norway, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Koposov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to build a model delineating the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior and to assess equivalence by applying the model on data from different countries. Representative samples from the general population were approached in Sweden, Norway, and Russia with the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire.…

  12. Levels of perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from the general population of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Im-Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea); Kannan, K. [Wardsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and Dept. of Env. Health and Tox., SUNY, Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was found to be widespread in human populations and wildlife Major applications of these POSF-based products have included surfactants in: specialty paper and packaging products, carpet, upholstery, and textile products and in certain insecticide formulation. Depending on the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, such POSF based products may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve environmental and dietary exposure to PFOS or to precursor molecules of PFOS. PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds have recently been detected at low parts per billion (nanogram per milliliter) concentrations in the general population from 10 different countries including Korea. In the present report, the levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in the general population from Korea were analyzed with respect to occupation, smoking status, sex, age and socio-economic status. The degree of association between the four target fluorochemicals measured in this study (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA) were also analyzed by linear regression to determine the potential association between their sources of exposure.

  13. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromsø, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromsø, Northern Norway. A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administered questionnaire. Of the adults, 531 (64%) were actually TRUE tested (using a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system) and completed the self-administered questionnaire about ear piercing, metal reactions, skin reactions to different allergens, atopic dermatitis, eczema, cooking equipment and diet. The study showed that nickel (19.2%; women 31.1% and men 5.0%), fragrance mix (3.4%) and cobalt (1.7%) were the most prevalent allergens causing contact sensitization. For all other allergens, less than 1.1% tested positive. Eighty-four (45.2%) subjects with a positive history of metal dermatitis had negative patch tests. Contact sensitization was found frequently in this general adult population, especially to nickel and perfumes with a predominance among females. An eczematous reaction caused by cheap earrings seemed to be the best indicator for metal sensitivity.

  14. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Artificial neural network models for prediction of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in general Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for cardiovascular autonomic (CA) dysfunction in the general population. Methods We analyzed a previous dataset based on a population sample consisted of 2,092 individuals aged 30–80 years. The prediction models were derived from an exploratory set using ANN analysis. Performances of these prediction models were evaluated in the validation set. Results Univariate analysis indicated that 14 risk factors showed statistically significant association with CA dysfunction (P < 0.05). The mean area under the receiver-operating curve was 0.762 (95% CI 0.732–0.793) for prediction model developed using ANN analysis. The mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were similar in the prediction models was 0.751, 0.665, 0.330 and 0.924, respectively. All HL statistics were less than 15.0. Conclusion ANN is an effective tool for developing prediction models with high value for predicting CA dysfunction among the general population. PMID:23902963

  16. General two-species interacting Lotka-Volterra system: Population dynamics and wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoqi; Wang, Mao-Xiang; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2018-05-01

    The population dynamics of two interacting species modeled by the Lotka-Volterra (LV) model with general parameters that can promote or suppress the other species is studied. It is found that the properties of the two species' isoclines determine the interaction of species, leading to six regimes in the phase diagram of interspecies interaction; i.e., there are six different interspecific relationships described by the LV model. Four regimes allow for nontrivial species coexistence, among which it is found that three of them are stable, namely, weak competition, mutualism, and predator-prey scenarios can lead to win-win coexistence situations. The Lyapunov function for general nontrivial two-species coexistence is also constructed. Furthermore, in the presence of spatial diffusion of the species, the dynamics can lead to steady wavefront propagation and can alter the population map. Propagating wavefront solutions in one dimension are investigated analytically and by numerical solutions. The steady wavefront speeds are obtained analytically via nonlinear dynamics analysis and verified by numerical solutions. In addition to the inter- and intraspecific interaction parameters, the intrinsic speed parameters of each species play a decisive role in species populations and wave properties. In some regimes, both species can copropagate with the same wave speeds in a finite range of parameters. Our results are further discussed in the light of possible biological relevance and ecological implications.

  17. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  18. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  19. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  20. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses

  1. Selected Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Vegetarians and Subjects of General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovičová, Martina; Príbojová, Jana; Urbánek, Vladimír; Bírošová, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    Besides genetic factors there are environmental effects including nutritional habits which can influence the risk of age-related diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the age dependence of selected cardiovascular risk markers in two groups of subjects with different nutritional pattern. In 470 long-term vegetarians and 478 subjects of general population the following indicators were measured: total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin concentrations, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index and insulin resistance IR(HOMA) were also calculated in studied subjects. Obtained data were evaluated according to age decades. Vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, and values of atherogenic index and IR(HOMA) were significantly reduced in all age decades. Vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian triacalglycerol concentrations were significantly reduced from 4th–7th decade. Vegetarian average decade values of all lipid parameters were in reference range. In non-vegetarian group, the risk average values of total cholesterol (>5.2 mmol/l) were found from 5th–7th decade, LDL-cholesterol (>3.3 mmol/l) in 7th decade and atherogenic index (>4) in 6th–7th decade. In vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians were noted the average decade values for total cholesterol ranging from 4.01–4.59 vs. 4.48–5.67 mmol/l, for triacylglycerols 1.00–1.33 vs. 1.13–1.74 mmol/l, for LDL-cholesterol 2.03–2.58 vs. 2.43–3.49 mmol/l, for atherogenic index 2.72–3.31 vs. 3.05–4.21 and for IR(HOMA) 0.99–1.15 vs. 1.15–1.84. Our data show significantly reduced mean age decade values of lipid and non-lipid cardiovascular risk markers in all adult vegetarians. Smaller changes of markers between decades compared to non-vegetarians document a protective effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  2. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection.

  3. Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-23

    Illness-related stigma has attracted considerable research interest, but few studies have specifically examined stigmatisation of cancer in the non-patient population. The present study developed and validated a Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) for use in the general population. An item pool was developed on the basis of previous research into illness-related stigma in the general population and patients with cancer. Two studies were carried out. The first study used Exploratory factor analysis to explore the structure of items in a sample of 462 postgraduate students recruited through a London university. The second study used Confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the structure among 238 adults recruited through an online market research panel. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were also assessed. Exploratory factor analysis suggested six subscales, representing: Awkwardness, Severity, Avoidance, Policy Opposition, Personal Responsibility and Financial Discrimination. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure with a 25-item scale. All subscales showed adequate to good internal and test-retest reliability in both samples. Construct validity was also good, with mean scores for each subscale varying in the expected directions by age, gender, experience of cancer, awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer, and social desirability. Means for the subscales were consistent across the two samples. These findings highlight the complexity of cancer stigma and provide the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS) which can be used to compare populations, types of cancer and evaluate the effects of interventions designed to reduce cancer stigma in non-patient populations.

  4. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1. Methods In 5187 adults (2669 females with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP. Results Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p Conclusion The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.

  5. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work....... Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand...

  6. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  7. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is probably the most important factor that has been associated with the development of gastric cancers in human populations. However, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this infection in the Middle East. In this article, based on a comprehensive literature review, we aimed to evaluate the situation in this region. The literature has been searched for the incidence and prevalence of H.pylori infection by Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was repeated for each of the Middle Eastern countries, and to empower the method, citations of each found article were searched for the related studies. Seventy seven reports from the countries of the Middle East region had been reviewed and they all indicated a high rate of infection either in the general population or in the dyspeptic patients, the rate seemed to be higher in patients with dyspepsia, in patients with histologically confirmed gastritis and in patients of older age groups.

  8. Serum chemerin levels are inversely associated with renal function in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zylla, Stephanie; Rettig, Rainer; Völzke, Henry

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemerin has been found to be highly expressed in the kidneys of rodents and has been suggested to affect metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related phenotypes which are in turn related to kidney damage. Only few clinical studies have addressed the relation between circulating chemerin and renal...... function in humans, and no population-based analyses have yet been performed. The potential influence of MetS-related phenotypes on the assumed association has been largely neglected. We aimed to investigate the association of serum chemerin with renal function in a general population with special regard......GFR and revealed that each increase in chemerin per 25 ng/mL was associated with an about threefold higher odds of chronic kidney disease [odds ratio 2.72 (95% confidence interval 2.26-3.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a strong inverse association between serum chemerin levels and renal function...

  9. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

     Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...

  10. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  11. Evaluation of general practitioners' routine assessment of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors wished to establish the use of existing diabetes management guidelines by general practitioners (GPs) in the City of Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropolitan Municipality of South Africa. Method: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted. A total of 50 randomly selected general practitioners participated in ...

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  13. Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam H Shah

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches.Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population.In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09-1.24 with myocardial infarction (MI. Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07-3.78; P = 0.031 increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000.Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation.

  14. Using mass media and the Internet as tools to diagnose hepatitis C infections in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, Freke R; Davidovich, Udi; Coutinho, Roel A; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J P A; van den Hoek, Anneke; Jansen, Peter L M; van Leeuwen-Gilbert, Paula; Verheuvel, Nicole C; Weegink, Christine J; Prins, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Many individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are undiagnosed. This study describes the development and the use and outcomes of a mass media campaign, combined with an Internet risk assessment and an Internet-mediated blood-testing procedure for HCV to identify individuals infected with HCV in the general population. From April 2007 to December 2008, individuals in HCV risk groups were referred to an online, previously validated risk-assessment questionnaire at www.heptest.nl. Individuals at risk could download a referral letter for a free, anonymous HCV blood test in a nonclinical setting. Test results could be obtained online, 1 week later, using a personal log-in code. Anti-HCV-positive participants were requested to visit the Public Health Service for confirmation and RNA testing. Chronically HCV-infected individuals were referred for treatment. Data were analyzed in 2009-2010. The website attracted 40,902 visitors. Of the 9653 who completed the questionnaire, 2553 were at risk for HCV (26.4%). Main reported risk factors were a blood transfusion prior to 1992 and noninjecting drug use. Of the 1480 eligible for the blood test, 420 opted for testing (28%). HCV antibodies were detected in 3.6% (n=15, 95% CI=2.1%, 5.7%); of the 12 with a chronic HCV infection, six began treatment. Internet-mediated risk-based testing for HCV has proved to be a feasible and effective strategy to identify undiagnosed HCV infection in the general population. All HCV-infected individuals belonged to hard-to-reach populations. Test uptake was 28%, which is high for an online project that includes blood testing. Because Internet-mediated testing is low-cost, this strategy holds promise for future screening. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  16. Elevated plasma YKL-40, lipids and lipoproteins, and ischemic vascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically elevated YKL-40 is associated with elevated lipids and lipoproteins and with increased risk of ischemic vascular disease. METHODS: We conducted cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96 110 individuals from...... the Danish general population, with measured plasma levels of YKL-40 (n=21 647), plasma lipids and lipoproteins (n=94 461), and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (n=94 579). RESULTS: From 1977 to 2013, 3256 individuals developed ischemic stroke, 5629 ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 4183 myocardial infarction...

  17. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins...... in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene...

  18. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Interleukin 1β (+3954; −511 genotype polymorphism and its association with severe chronic generalized periodontitis in the Malaysian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in interleukin 1β (IL-1β gene have been known to be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic periodontitis among various ethnic populations. SNPs are more commonly observed at loci + 3954 and − 511. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-1β gene polymorphism at loci +3954 and − 511, and its association with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians within the Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 120 subjects (60 cases and 60 controls in the age group of 25–50 years were collected for isolation of genetic material using Norgen technique. Clinical attachment loss of ≥5 mm was considered as severe chronic generalized periodontitis. SNP's at loci +3954 and − 511 were identified and analyzed using Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Genotyping System (KASP™. Differences in the allele/genotype frequencies were assessed by Chi-square test (P < 0.05. Results: On the comparison between cases and controls of IL-1β genotype polymorphism (+3954 and − 511, the difference in the genotype frequencies was statistically insignificant in all the three ethnicities. The genotype frequency in both groups in all three ethnicities of the Malaysian population was similar. Conclusion: IL-1β genotype polymorphism at +3954 and − 511 was found to be not associated with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the three ethnicities in Malaysia. Studies with larger sample size should be done to confirm the findings of this study.

  20. Are MAO-A deficiency states in the general population and in putative high-risk populations highly uncommon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K; Eisenhofer, G; Greenberg, B D; George, T; Berlin, F; Zametkin, A; Ernst, M; Breakefield, X O

    1998-01-01

    Lack of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) due to either Xp chromosomal deletions or alterations in the coding sequence of the gene for this enzyme are associated with marked changes in monoamine metabolism and appear to be associated with variable cognitive deficits and behavioral changes in humans and in transgenic mice. In mice, some of the most marked behavioral changes are ameliorated by pharmacologically-induced reductions in serotonin synthesis during early development, raising the question of possible therapeutic interventions in humans with MAO deficiency states. At the present time, only one multi-generational family and a few other individuals with marked MAO-A deficiency states have been identified and studied in detail. Although MAO deficiency states associated with Xp chromosomal deletions were identified by distinct symptoms (including blindness in infancy) produced by the contiguous Norrie disease gene, the primarily behavioral phenotype of individuals with the MAO mutation is less obvious. This paper reports a sequential research design and preliminary results from screening several hundred volunteers in the general population and from putative high-risk groups for possible MAO deficiency states. These preliminary results suggest that marked MAO deficiency states are very rare.

  1. Heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon in the general population: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Sbrana, Alfredo; Rucci, Paola; Cherici, Luca; Mungai, Francesco; Gonnelli, Chiara; Massimetti, Enrico; Raimondi, Francesca; Doria, Maria Rosaria; Spagnolli, Sabrina; Ravani, Laura; Consoli, Giorgio; Catena Dell Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Despite the general agreement that normal jealousy is heterogenous, little is known about this specific topic. In the present study, we explored the possibility of distinguishing between four subtypes of "normal" jealousy (depressive, anxious, obsessive, and paranoid) amongst a cohort of 500 healthy university students by means of a specifically designed questionnaire, "Ouestionario della gelosia" (QUEGE). QUEGE is a self-report instrument of 30 items which explores the presence, frequency, and duration of feelings and behaviors related to jealousy. It was devised to investigate four hypothetical psychopathological profiles: depressive, paranoid, obsessive, and anxious. The factor analysis identified five rather than four clear-cut factors: self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal Sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessionality. Women showed statistically significant lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality than men. Younger age (jealousy phenomenon in the general population.

  2. Reliability assessment of competing risks with generalized mixed shock models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Koosha; Feng, Qianmei; Coit, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates reliability modeling for systems subject to dependent competing risks considering the impact from a new generalized mixed shock model. Two dependent competing risks are soft failure due to a degradation process, and hard failure due to random shocks. The shock process contains fatal shocks that can cause hard failure instantaneously, and nonfatal shocks that impact the system in three different ways: 1) damaging the unit by immediately increasing the degradation level, 2) speeding up the deterioration by accelerating the degradation rate, and 3) weakening the unit strength by reducing the hard failure threshold. While the first impact from nonfatal shocks comes from each individual shock, the other two impacts are realized when the condition for a new generalized mixed shock model is satisfied. Unlike most existing mixed shock models that consider a combination of two shock patterns, our new generalized mixed shock model includes three classic shock patterns. According to the proposed generalized mixed shock model, the degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can simultaneously shift multiple times, whenever the condition for one of these three shock patterns is satisfied. An example using micro-electro-mechanical systems devices illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • A rich reliability model for systems subject to dependent failures is proposed. • The degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can shift simultaneously. • The shift is triggered by a new generalized mixed shock model. • The shift can occur multiple times under the generalized mixed shock model.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to hair cosmetic products by the French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Dornic, N; Roudot, A C

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic exposure data are limited in Europe and especially in France. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to hair cosmetics using recent consumption data (percentage of users, frequency of use and amount per use) generated for the French population (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for eleven hair products: liquid shampoo, dry shampoo, conditioner, hair mask, hair serum, hair oil, styling lacquer, styling gel, styling foam, styling wax and styling spray. Exposure was assessed by sex and by age classes in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. For liquid shampoo, conditioner and some styling products (gel, lacquer and foam), the levels of exposure were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for styling wax and styling spray were lower than SCCS values. Exposure was assessed for the first time for dry shampoo, hair mask, hair serum and hair oil products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Andersen, Anne T.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To address the possible prospective association between smoking habits and risk of later heavy drinking in the adult population. DESIGN: Pooled population-based long-term cohort studies with repeated assessments of smoking and alcohol habits. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: A total of 14,130 non- to moderate drinkers at baseline, who attended re-examination. MEASUREMENTS: Among the non- to moderate drinkers we addressed the relation between smoking habits at first examination and the risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker at follow-up. FINDINGS: Level of tobacco...... consumption at first examination predicted an increased risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker in a dose-dependent manner. Men who smoked more than 25 g of tobacco per day had adjusted odds ratios of 2.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.11) and 3.95 (95% CI: 1.93-8.95) for becoming heavy...

  5. Personality factors and suicide risk in a representative sample of the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Blüml

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555 in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10 and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality.

  6. Neuropathic pain is not adequately treated in the older general population: Results from the KORA F4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Christa; Bongaerts, Brenda W C; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kowall, Bernd; Herder, Christian; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Ziegler, Dan

    2018-05-24

    We evaluated the pharmacological treatment of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) among older subjects from the general population. The study included subjects aged 61 to 82 years from the KORA F4 survey (2006-2008). DSPN was defined as the presence of bilaterally impaired foot-vibration perception and/or bilaterally impaired foot-pressure sensation. Pain intensity was assessed with the painDETECT questionnaire. From the included 1076 older persons, 172 (16%) persons reported pain in the lower extremities and DSPN was present in 150 (14%) subjects. Forty-eight people with pain in the lower extremities reported DSPN. Only 38% of the subjects with DSPN reporting an average pain level of ≥4 during the past 4 weeks received medical treatment, predominantly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs 20% and opioids 12%). The medication of choice for neuropathic pain, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids was relatively being underused. However, opioids and neuropathy preparations were prescribed preferably for subjects with painful DSPN. In the older general population, only a small proportion of subjects with painful DSPN receive analgesic pharmacotherapy. Although not recommended by guidelines for the treatment of neuropathic pain, NSAIDs were the most frequently used class of analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a self-administered questionnaire (ORTO-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, C E; Perrone, P; Coli, E; Burgalassi, A; Conversano, C; Massimetti, G; Dell'Osso, L

    2011-06-01

    Orthorexia, from the Greek words orthos (straight, proper) and orexis (appetite), is a newly conceptualized disorder characterized by distorted eating habits and cognitions concerning supposedly healthy nutrition. In this article we present preliminary results of a wider research aimed to investigate the diffusion of Orthorexia in the general population and to highlight its characteristics and particularly the relationship with Eating Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. One-hundred and seventy seven adult subjects from the general population, were administered the ORTO-15 test, a selfadministered questionnaire specifically designed to assess orthorexic symptomatology; note that statistical analyses were repeated twice, referring to different diagnostic thresholds (40/35). Orthorexia had a 57.6% prevalence in our sample, using the 40-point threshold, with a female/male ratio 2:1; the figure was sensibly lower with the 35-point threshold (21%). The results of this study highlight the diffusion of Orthorexia which may constitute an important risk factor for mental and physical health, but also the opportunity of more specific diagnostic instruments, so to facilitate a thorough understanding of this disorder.

  8. Changes in major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders in the national French working population between 2006 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, Lucile; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in mental disorders in the French working population between 2006 and 2010, using nationally representative prospective data and a structured diagnostic interview for major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and also at exploring the differential changes in mental disorders according to age, origin, occupation, public/private sector, self-employed/employee status and work contract. The data came from the prospective national representative Santé et Itinéraire Professionnel (SIP) survey, including a sample of 5600 French workers interviewed in 2006 and 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure MDE and GAD. Analyses were performed using weighted generalized estimation equations, and were stratified by gender. No changes in MDE and GAD were observed for both genders among the working population. No differential changes were observed, except one: the prevalence of GAD increased among women working in the public sector while there was no change among women in the private sector. Two data collections over a 4-year period may not capture the effects of the crisis on mental disorders properly. No changes in mental disorders between 2006 and 2010 were found but the increase in the prevalence of anxiety among women in the public sector may be of particular interest for prevention policies. High levels of social protection in France might contribute to explain these non-significant results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan

    Full Text Available Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness.This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor.From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore.Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception.There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  10. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  11. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p HDL cholesterol(p body mass index(p HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p adiposity.

  12. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms: A Japanese general adult population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  14. Attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in cases of mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskar, Saska; Bracic, Mark Floyd; Kolar, Urska; Lekic, Ksenija; Juricic, Nusa Konec; Grum, Alenka Tancic; Dobnik, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Vatovec, Mojca

    2017-11-01

    Although effective treatment is available for a variety of mental disorders, the treatment and help-seeking gap remains high. One of the main obstacles to help-seeking behaviour is prevailing stigmatizing attitudes. To examine attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in times of mental distress. A representative general population survey ( N = 594) was conducted in Slovenia by means of an Internet-based questionnaire, covering data on demographic variables and attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour. More stigmatizing attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour were found in men, single persons, those of a younger age and lower educational achievement and in respondents coming from regions with a high suicide rate. Furthermore, 52.50% of the total sample have had an experience with psychological problems, yet only 41.50% of those have sought professional help. Experience with help-seeking behaviour in the past was associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. Knowledge and understanding of mental health problems are necessary prerequisites to seeking help, but not the only ones. To improve help-seeking behaviour, it is also important to combat stigmatizing attitudes. Additionally, destigmatizing campaigns should also focus on social norms.

  15. Measuring the impact of alcohol-related disorders on quality of life through general population preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva; Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto

    To estimate the intangible effects of alcohol misuse on the drinker's quality of life, based on general population preferences METHODS: The most important effects (dimensions) were identified by means of two focus groups conducted with patients and specialists. The levels of these dimensions were combined to yield different scenarios. A sample of 300 people taken from the general Spanish population evaluated a subset of these scenarios, selected by using a fractional factorial design. We used the probability lottery equivalent method to derive the utility score for the evaluated scenarios, and the random-effects regression model to estimate the relative importance of each dimension and to derive the utility score for the rest of scenarios not directly evaluated. Four main dimensions were identified (family, physical health, psychological health and social) and divided into three levels of intensity. We found a wide variation in the utilities associated with the scenarios directly evaluated (ranging from 0.09 to 0.78). The dimensions with the greatest relative importance were physical health (36.4%) and family consequences (31.3%), followed by psychological (20.5%) and social consequences (11.8%). Our findings confirm the benefits of adopting a heterogeneous approach to measure the effects of alcohol misuse. The estimated utilities could have both clinical and economic applications. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts in a general population of young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...

  17. Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of the Risk between Physicians and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment. PMID:25802869

  18. Prognosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population...... of COPD are needed. Funding:The Danish Lung Association, the Danish Cancer Society, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, and University of Copenhagen.......Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population......%) were at high risk of having COPD. 3699 (11%) of these participants met the COPD criteria and 2903 (78%) were undiagnosed, of whom 2052 (71%) were symptomatic. During a median follow-up of 6·1 years (IQR 4·9), we recorded 800 exacerbations, 2038 cases of pneumonia, and 2789 deaths in the 32 518...

  19. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  20. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  1. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  2. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy; Todd, Stacy; de Bruin, Erwin; Thao, Tran Thi Nhu; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Quan, Tran Minh; Vinh, Dao Nguyen; van Beek, Janko; Anh, Pham Hong; Lam, Ha Minh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Ha, Vo Thi Hong; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Koopmans, Marion; Boni, Maciej F

    2017-07-20

    Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity. In this study, we investigate 20,152 general-population serum samples from southern Vietnam collected between 2009 and 2013 from which we report antibody titers to the influenza virus HA1 protein using a continuous titer measurement from a protein microarray assay. We describe the distributions of antibody titers to subtypes 2009 H1N1 and H3N2. Using a model selection approach to fit mixture distributions, we show that 2009 H1N1 antibody titers fall into four titer subgroups and that H3N2 titers fall into three subgroups. For H1N1, our interpretation is that the two highest-titer subgroups correspond to recent and historical infection, which is consistent with 2009 pandemic attack rates. Similar interpretations are available for H3N2, but right-censoring of titers makes these interpretations difficult to validate.

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in the general population of Andalusia, South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Fernando; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis F.; De Santiago, Esperanza; Ballesta, Julio; Pla, Antonio; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquin; Gomez, Joaquin; Lopez-Guarnido, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Villanueva, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Levels of metalloids (As - urine) and heavy metals (Hg - urine, Cd - whole blood and Zn - serum) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 601 subjects living in the area affected by the Aznalcollar mine spill (SW, Spain) and compared with those of a representative sample (960 subjects) selected from the Andalusian community (non-affected area), southern Spain. The characteristic parameters of the analytical method including uncertainty were determined for each metal. Potential associations of metal concentration with age, sex and body mass index as well as life-style habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and food habits) were explored. Concentrations of all the metals studied were statistically higher in the population of the affected area with respect to that of the non-affected area in Andalusia, although levels were always lower or similar to the values reported for the general population and below occupational reference limits. In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence that the spill had any incidence on human health in the population living in the affected area. There are few references in scientific literature reporting values from large series of samples, and hence our data could be useful for further studies

  4. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  5. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  6. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  7. Respiratory symptoms and occupation: a cross-sectional study of the general population

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    Smit Henriëtte A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focused on respiratory symptoms due to occupational exposures in a contemporary general population cohort. Subjects were from the Dutch Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN. The composition of this population enabled estimation of respiratory risks due to occupation from the recent past for both men and women. Methods The study subjects (aged 20–59 were all inhabitants of Doetinchem, a small industrial town, and came from a survey of a random sample of 1104 persons conducted in 1993. A total of 274 cases with respiratory symptoms (subdivided in asthma and bronchitis symptoms and 274 controls without symptoms were matched for age and sex. Relations between industry and occupation and respiratory symptoms were explored and adjusted for smoking habits and social economic status. Results Employment in the 'construction' (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.02 – 11.27, 'metal' (OR = 3.17; 95%CI 0. 98 – 10.28, 'rubber, plastics and synthetics' (OR = 6.52; 95%CI 1.26 – 53.80, and 'printing' industry (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 0.85 – 18.48 were positively associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms. In addition, the 'metal' industry was found to be weakly associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.87 – 7.69. Duration of employment within these industries was also positively associated with respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in the general population are traceable to employment in particular industries even in a contemporary cohort with relatively young individuals.

  8. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Satele, Daniel; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Sloan, Jeff; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of burnout and other forms of distress across career stages and the experiences of trainees and early career (EC) physicians versus those of similarly aged college graduates pursuing other careers. In 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted a national survey of medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians (≤ 5 years in practice) and of a probability-based sample of the general U.S. population. All surveys assessed burnout, symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, quality of life, and fatigue. Response rates were 35.2% (4,402/12,500) for medical students, 22.5% (1,701/7,560) for residents/fellows, and 26.7% (7,288/27,276) for EC physicians. In multivariate models that controlled for relationship status, sex, age, and career stage, being a resident/fellow was associated with increased odds of burnout and being a medical student with increased odds of depressive symptoms, whereas EC physicians had the lowest odds of high fatigue. Compared with the population control samples, medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians were more likely to be burned out (all P prevalence of burnout, depressive symptoms, and recent suicidal ideation are relatively small. At each stage, burnout is more prevalent among physicians than among their peers in the U.S. population.

  9. Validation of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Patrick, Donald L; Edwards, Todd C; Skalicky, Anne M; Zeng, Hai-Yan; Gu, Wen-Wen

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China. Thousand and eight hundred respondents in 18 communities of Hangzhou, China were recruited by multi-stage stratified random sampling. Respondents self-administered a questionnaire including the EQ-5D, the SF-36, and demographic questions. Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was evaluated using Kappa coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to indicate the absolute measurement error. Construct validity was established using convergent, discriminant, and known groups analyses. Complete data for all EQ-5D dimensions were available for 1,747 respondents (97%). Kappa values were from 0.35 to 1.0. The ICCs of test-retest reliability were 0.53 for the EQ-5D index score and 0.87 for the EQ VAS score. The SEM values were 0.13 (9.22% range) and 4.20 (4.20% range) for the EQ-5D index and EQ VAS scores, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the EQ-5D and the SF-36 were stronger between comparable dimensions than those between less comparable dimensions, demonstrating convergent and discriminant evidence of construct validity. The Chinese EQ-5D distinguished well between known groups: respondents who reported poor general health and chronic diseases had worse HRQoL than those without. Older people, females, people widowed or divorced, and those with a lower socioeconomic status reported poorer HRQoL. Respondents reporting no problems on any EQ-5D dimension had better scores on the SF-36 summary scores than those reporting problems. The Chinese version of the EQ-5D demonstrated acceptable construct validity and fair to moderate levels of test-retest reliability in an urban general population in China.

  10. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

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    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  11. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

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    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  12. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men <