Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves
Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.
We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.
Investigation of energetic particle induced geodesic acoustic mode
Schneller, Mirjam; Fu, Guoyong; Chavdarovski, Ilija; Wang, Weixing; Lauber, Philipp; Lu, Zhixin
2017-10-01
Energetic particles are ubiquitous in present and future tokamaks due to heating systems and fusion reactions. Anisotropy in the distribution function of the energetic particle population is able to excite oscillations from the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), which cannot be driven by plasma pressure gradients due to their toroidally and nearly poloidally symmetric structures. These oscillations are known as energetic particle-induced geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs) [G.Y. Fu'08] and have been observed in recent experiments [R. Nazikian'08]. EGAMs are particularly attractive in the framework of turbulence regulation, since they lead to an oscillatory radial electric shear which can potentially saturate the turbulence. For the presented work, the nonlinear gyrokinetic, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code GTS [W.X. Wang'06] has been extended to include an energetic particle population following either bump-on-tail Maxwellian or slowing-down [Stix'76] distribution function. With this new tool, we study growth rate, frequency and mode structure of the EGAM in an ASDEX Upgrade-like scenario. A detailed understanding of EGAM excitation reveals essential for future studies of EGAM interaction with micro-turbulence. Funded by the Max Planck Princeton Research Center. Computational resources of MPCDF and NERSC are greatefully acknowledged.
Kuniyal, Ravi Shankar; Uniyal, Rashmi; Biswas, Anindya; Nandan, Hemwati; Purohit, K. D.
2018-06-01
We investigate the geodesic motion of massless test particles in the background of a noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The behavior of effective potential is analyzed in the equatorial plane and the possible motions of massless particles (i.e. photons) for different values of impact parameter are discussed accordingly. We have also calculated the frequency shift of photons in this space-time. Further, the mass parameter of a noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole is computed in terms of the measurable redshift of photons emitted by massive particles moving along circular geodesics in equatorial plane. The strength of gravitational fields of noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole and usual Schwarzschild black hole in General Relativity is also compared.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowland, D R
2006-01-01
Introductory courses covering modern physics sometimes introduce some elementary ideas from general relativity, though the idea of a geodesic is generally limited to shortest Euclidean length on a curved surface of two spatial dimensions rather than extremal aging in spacetime. It is shown that Epstein charts provide a simple geometric picture of geodesics in one space and one time dimension and that for a hypothetical uniform gravitational field, geodesics are straight lines on a planar diagram. This means that the properties of geodesics in a uniform field can be calculated with only a knowledge of elementary geometry and trigonometry, thus making the calculation of some basic results of general relativity accessible to students even in an algebra-based survey course on physics
Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes
2010-01-01
Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.
Pottmann, Helmut
2010-07-26
Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.
Geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles with bump-on-tail distribution
Ren, Haijun; Wang, Hao
2018-04-01
Energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is analytically investigated by adopting the bump-on-tail distribution for energetic particles (EPs), which is created by the fact that the charge exchange time (τcx ) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τsl ). The dispersion relation is derived in the use of gyro-kinetic equations. Due to the finite ratio of the critical energy and the initial energy of EPs, defined as τc , the dispersion relation is numerically evaluated and the effect of finite τc is examined. Following relative simulation and experimental work, we specifically considered two cases: τsl/τcx = 3.4 and τsl/τcx = 20.4 . The pitch angle is shown to significantly enhance the growth rate and meanwhile, the real frequency is dramatically decreased with increasing pitch angle. The excitation of high-frequency EGAM is found, and this is consistent with both the experiment and the simulation. The number density effect of energetic particles, represented by \
Dynamics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazanski, S.L.
1977-01-01
Several variational principles which lead to the first and the second geodesic deviation equations, recently formulated by the author and used for the description of the relative motion of test particles in general relativity are presented. Relations between these principles are investigated and exhibited. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also studied for these generalized deviations and the conservation laws appearing here are discussed
Deng, Gao-Ming; Huang, Yong-Chang
2018-03-01
The geodesics of tunneling particles were derived unnaturally and awkwardly in previous works. For one thing, the previous derivation was inconsistent with the variational principle of action. Moreover, the definition of geodesic equations for massive particles was quite different from that of massless case. Even worse, the relativistic and nonrelativistic foundations were mixed with each other during the past derivation of geodesics. As a highlight, remedying the urgent shortcomings, we improve treatment to derive the geodesic equations of massive and massless particles in a unified and self-consistent way. Besides, we extend to investigate the Hawking radiation via tunneling from Reissner-Nordström black holes in the context of AdS spacetime. Of special interest, the trick of utilizing the first law of black hole thermodynamics manifestly simplifies the calculation of tunneling integration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grunau, Saskia; Kagramanova, Valeria
2011-01-01
We present the full set of analytical solutions of the geodesic equations of charged test particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time in terms of the Weierstrass weierp, σ, and ζ elliptic functions. Based on the study of the polynomials in the θ and r equations, we characterize the motion of test particles and discuss their properties. The motion of charged test particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time is compared with the motion of neutral test particles in the field of a gravitomagnetic monopole. Electrically or magnetically charged particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time with magnetic or electric charges, respectively, move on cones similar to neutral test particles in the Taub-NUT space-times.
Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric
Colistete, R J; Kerner, R
2002-01-01
Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).
On geodesics in low regularity
Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland
2018-02-01
We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.
Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.
1989-01-01
A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)
Exact geodesic distances in FLRW spacetimes
Cunningham, William J.; Rideout, David; Halverson, James; Krioukov, Dmitri
2017-11-01
Geodesics are used in a wide array of applications in cosmology and astrophysics. However, it is not a trivial task to efficiently calculate exact geodesic distances in an arbitrary spacetime. We show that in spatially flat (3 +1 )-dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes, it is possible to integrate the second-order geodesic differential equations, and derive a general method for finding both timelike and spacelike distances given initial-value or boundary-value constraints. In flat spacetimes with either dark energy or matter, whether dust, radiation, or a stiff fluid, we find an exact closed-form solution for geodesic distances. In spacetimes with a mixture of dark energy and matter, including spacetimes used to model our physical universe, there exists no closed-form solution, but we provide a fast numerical method to compute geodesics. A general method is also described for determining the geodesic connectedness of an FLRW manifold, provided only its scale factor.
Geodesic motion and confinement in Goedel's universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Soares, I.D.; Tiomno, J.
1982-01-01
A complete study of geodesic motion in Goedel's universe, using the method of the Effective Potential is presented. It then emerges a clear physical picture of free motion and its stability in this universe. Geodesics of a large class have finite intervals in which the particle moves back in time (dt/ds [pt
Space–time and spatial geodesic orbits in Schwarzschild geometry
Resca, Lorenzo
2018-05-01
Geodesic orbit equations in the Schwarzschild geometry of general relativity reduce to ordinary conic sections of Newtonian mechanics and gravity for material particles in the non-relativistic limit. On the contrary, geodesic orbit equations for a proper spatial submanifold of Schwarzschild metric at any given coordinate-time correspond to an unphysical gravitational repulsion in the non-relativistic limit. This demonstrates at a basic level the centrality and critical role of relativistic time and its intimate pseudo-Riemannian connection with space. Correspondingly, a commonly popularised depiction of geodesic orbits of planets as resulting from the curvature of space produced by the Sun, represented as a rubber sheet dipped in the middle by the weighing of that massive body, is mistaken and misleading for the essence of relativity, even in the non-relativistic limit.
Accelerating particles in general relativity (stationary C-metric)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhoosh, H.
1979-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to study the physical and geometrical properties of uniformly accelerating particles in the general theory of relativity and it consists of four main parts. In the first part the structure of the Killing horizons in the static vacuum C-metric which represents the gravitational field of a uniformly accelerating Schwarzschild like particle (non-rotating and spherically symmetric) is studied. In the second part these results are generalized to include the effects of the rotation of the source. For small acceleration and small rotation this solution reveals the existance of three Killing horizons. Two the these horizons are the Schwarzschild and the Rindler surfaces which are mainly due to the mass and the acceleration of the particle, respectively. In part three the radial geodesic and non-geodesic motions in the static vacuum C-metric (non-rotating case) are investigated. The effect of the dragging of the inertial frame is also shown in this part. In part four the radiative behavior of the stationary charged C-metric representing the electro-gravitational field of a uniformly accelerating and rotating charged particle with magnetic monopole and the NUT-parameter are investigated. The physical quantities - the news function, mass loss, mass, charge and the multipole moments - are calculated. It is also shown in this part that the magnetic monopole in the presence of rotation and acceleration affects the electric charge
On Geodesic Exponential Kernels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feragen, Aasa; Lauze, François; Hauberg, Søren
2015-01-01
This extended abstract summarizes work presented at CVPR 2015 [1]. Standard statistics and machine learning tools require input data residing in a Euclidean space. However, many types of data are more faithfully represented in general nonlinear metric spaces or Riemannian manifolds, e.g. shapes, ......, symmetric positive definite matrices, human poses or graphs. The underlying metric space captures domain specific knowledge, e.g. non-linear constraints, which is available a priori. The intrinsic geodesic metric encodes this knowledge, often leading to improved statistical models....
Busemann, Herbert
2005-01-01
A comprehensive approach to qualitative problems in intrinsic differential geometry, this text examines Desarguesian spaces, perpendiculars and parallels, covering spaces, the influence of the sign of the curvature on geodesics, more. 1955 edition. Includes 66 figures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speliotopoulos, A.D.; Chiao, Raymond Y.
2004-01-01
The coupling of gravity to matter is explored in the linearized gravity limit. The usual derivation of gravity-matter couplings within the quantum-field-theoretic framework is reviewed. A number of inconsistencies between this derivation of the couplings and the known results of tidal effects on test particles according to classical general relativity are pointed out. As a step towards resolving these inconsistencies, a general laboratory frame fixed on the worldline of an observer is constructed. In this frame, the dynamics of nonrelativistic test particles in the linearized gravity limit is studied, and their Hamiltonian dynamics is derived. It is shown that for stationary metrics this Hamiltonian reduces to the usual Hamiltonian for nonrelativistic particles undergoing geodesic motion. For nonstationary metrics with long-wavelength gravitational waves present (GWs), it reduces to the Hamiltonian for a nonrelativistic particle undergoing geodesic deviation motion. Arbitrary-wavelength GWs couple to the test particle through a vector-potential-like field N a , the net result of the tidal forces that the GW induces in the system, namely, a local velocity field on the system induced by tidal effects, as seen by an observer in the general laboratory frame. Effective electric and magnetic fields, which are related to the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor, are constructed from N a that obey equations of the same form as Maxwell's equations. A gedankin gravitational Aharonov-Bohm-type experiment using N a to measure the interference of quantum test particles is presented
Kinematics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazanski, S.L.
1977-01-01
A detailed mathematical study of the concept of geodesic deviation in pseudo-riemannian geometry is presented. A generalization of this concept to geodesic deviations of a higher order is then introduced and the second geodesic deviation is investigated in some detail. A geometric interpretation of the set of generalized geodesic deviations is given and applied in general relativity to determine a covariant and local description (with a desired order of accuracy) of test motions which take place in a certain finite neighbourhood of a given world line of an observer. The proper time evolution of two other objects related to geodesic deviation is also discussed: the space separation vector and the telescopic vector. This last name is given here to a field of null vectors along observer's world line which always point towards the same adjacent world line. The telescopic equations allow to determine the evolution of the frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation sent from and received on neighbouring world lines. On the basis of these equations also certain relations have been derived which connect the frequencies or frequency shifts with the curvature of space-time
Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Suman; Dasgupta, Anirvan; Kar, Sayan
2011-01-01
In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer's point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.
Revisiting scalar geodesic synchrotron radiation in Kerr spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macedo, Caio F.B.; Crispino, Luis C.B.
2011-01-01
Full text: The Kerr solution [R. P. Kerr, Phys. Rev. D 11, 5 (1963)] is one of the most important black hole solutions of Einstein equations. It describes a chargeless rotating black hole, with Schwarzschild black hole as a particular case. It is estimated, inferred using distinct methods, that most black hole candidates have a considerable value of the rotation parameter [E. Berti, V. Cardoso, and A. Starinets, Classical Quantum Gravity 26, 163001 (2009)]. Although the Schwarzschild solution is suitable for a great variety of phenomena in star and black hole physics, the Kerr solution becomes very important in the explanation of the electrodynamical aspects of accretion disks for binary X-ray sources [The Kerr Spacetime: Rotating Black Holes in General Relativity, edited by D. L. Wiltshire, M. Visser, and S. M. Scott (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009)]. Thus, the investigation of how radiation emission processes are modified by the nontrivial curvature of rotating black holes is particularly important. As a first approximation to the problem, one can consider a moving particle, minimally coupled to the massless scalar field, in circular geodesic motion. The radiation emitted in this configuration is called scalar geodesic synchrotron radiation. In this work, we revisit the main aspects of scalar geodesic synchrotron radiation in Kerr spacetime, including some effects occurring in the high-frequency approximation. Our results can be readily compared with the results of the equivalent phenomena in Schwarzschild spacetime. (author)
General-Covariant Quantum Mechanics of Dirac Particle in Curved Space-Times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagirov, Eh.A.
1994-01-01
A general covariant analog of the standard non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics with relativistic corrections in normal geodesic frames in the general Riemannian space-time is constructed for the Dirac particle. Not only the Pauli equation with hermitian Hamiltonian and the pre-Hilbert structure of space of its solutions but also the matrix elements of hermitian operators of momentum, (curvilinear) spatial coordinates and spin of the particle are deduced as general-covariant asymptotic approximation in c -2 , c being the velocity of light, to their naturally determined general-relativistic pre images. It is shown that the Hamiltonian in the Pauli equation originated by the Dirac equation is unitary equivalent to the operator of energy, originated by the metric energy-momentum tensor of the spinor field. Commutation and other properties of the observables connected with the considered change of geometrical background of Quantum Mechanics are briefly discussed. 7 refs
Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kyono, Hideki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2017-05-12
We revisit the so-called “Geodesic Witten Diagrams” (GWDs) https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2016)146, proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related “split representation” for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.
Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, P.C.
1975-01-01
The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet KILIÇ
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The notion of geodesic, which may be regarded as an extension of the line segment in Euclidean geometry to the space we study in, has an important place in many branches of geometry, such as Riemannian geometry, Metric geometry, to name but a few. In this article, the concept of geodesic in a metric space will be introduced, then geodesics in the space (Rn, d1 will be characterized. Furthermore, some examples will be presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the main result.
Instantons from geodesics in AdS moduli spaces
Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas
2018-03-01
We investigate supergravity instantons in Euclidean AdS5 × S5/ℤk. These solutions are expected to be dual to instantons of N = 2 quiver gauge theories. On the supergravity side the (extremal) instanton solutions are neatly described by the (lightlike) geodesics on the AdS moduli space for which we find the explicit expression and compute the on-shell actions in terms of the quantised charges. The lightlike geodesics fall into two categories depending on the degree of nilpotency of the Noether charge matrix carried by the geodesic: for degree 2 the instantons preserve 8 supercharges and for degree 3 they are non-SUSY. We expect that these findings should apply to more general situations in the sense that there is a map between geodesics on moduli-spaces of Euclidean AdS vacua and instantons with holographic counterparts.
Equatorial Geodesics Around the Magnetars
Alfradique, Viviane A. P.; Troconis, Orlenys N.; Negreiros, Rodrigo P.
Neutron stars manifest themselves as different classes of astrophysical sources that are associated to distinct phenomenology. Here we focus our attention on magnetars (or strongly magnetized neutron stars) that are associated to Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars. The magnetic field on surface of these objects, reaches values greater than 1015 G. Under intense magnetic fields, relativistic effects begin to be decisive for the definition of the structure and evolution of these objects. We are tempted to question ourselves to how strengths fields affect the structure of neutron star. In this work, our objective is study and compare two solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations: the Bonnor solution, which is an analytical solution that describe the exterior spacetime for a massive compact object which has a magnetic field that is characterize as a dipole field and a complete solution that describe the interior and exterior spacetime for the same source found by numerical methods). For this, we describe the geodesic equations generated by such solutions. Our results show that the orbits generated by the Bonnor solution are the same as described by numerical solution. Also, show that the inclusion of magnetic fields with values up to 1017G in the center of the star does not modify sharply the particle orbits described around this star, so the use of Schwarzschild solution for the description of these orbits is a reasonable approximation.
Geodesic B-Preinvex Functions and Multiobjective Optimization Problems on Riemannian Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng-lan Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a class of functions called geodesic B-preinvex and geodesic B-invex functions on Riemannian manifolds and generalize the notions to the so-called geodesic quasi/pseudo B-preinvex and geodesic quasi/pseudo B-invex functions. We discuss the links among these functions under appropriate conditions and obtain results concerning extremum points of a nonsmooth geodesic B-preinvex function by using the proximal subdifferential. Moreover, we study a differentiable multiobjective optimization problem involving new classes of generalized geodesic B-invex functions and derive Kuhn-Tucker-type sufficient conditions for a feasible point to be an efficient or properly efficient solution. Finally, a Mond-Weir type duality is formulated and some duality results are given for the pair of primal and dual programming.
Quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force: Geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry
2008-01-01
We consider a scalar charge travelling in a curved background space-time. We calculate the quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force experienced by such a particle following a geodesic in a general space-time. We also show that if we assume a massless field and a vacuum background space-time, the expression for the self-force simplifies significantly. We consider some specific cases whose gravitational analogs are of immediate physical interest for the calculation of radiation-reaction corrected orbits of binary black hole systems. These systems are expected to be detectable by the LISA space based gravitational wave observatory. We also investigate how alternate techniques may be employed in some specific cases and use these as a check on our own results
General particle transport equation. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lafi, A.Y.; Reyes, J.N. Jr.
1994-12-01
The general objectives of this research are as follows: (1) To develop fundamental models for fluid particle coalescence and breakage rates for incorporation into statistically based (Population Balance Approach or Monte Carlo Approach) two-phase thermal hydraulics codes. (2) To develop fundamental models for flow structure transitions based on stability theory and fluid particle interaction rates. This report details the derivation of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for a distribution of spherical, chemically non-reacting fluid particles of variable size and velocity. To study the effects of fluid particle interactions on interfacial transfer and flow structure requires detailed particulate flow conservation equations. The equations are derived using a particle continuity equation analogous to Boltzmann's transport equation. When coupled with the appropriate closure equations, the conservation equations can be used to model nonequilibrium, two-phase, dispersed, fluid flow behavior. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time averaged conservation equations, the statistically averaged conservation equations contain additional terms that take into account the change due to fluid particle interfacial acceleration and fluid particle dynamics. Two types of particle dynamics are considered; coalescence and breakage. Therefore, the rate of change due to particle dynamics will consider the gain and loss involved in these processes and implement phenomenological models for fluid particle breakage and coalescence
Semi-local inversion of the geodesic ray transform in the hyperbolic plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courdurier, Matias; Saez, Mariel
2013-01-01
The inversion of the ray transform on the hyperbolic plane has applications in geophysical exploration and in medical imaging techniques (such as electrical impedance tomography). The geodesic ray transform has been studied in more general geometries and including attenuation, but all of the available inversion formulas require knowledge of the ray transform for all the geodesics. In this paper we present a different inversion formula for the ray transform on the hyperbolic plane, which has the advantage of only requiring knowledge of the ray transform in a reduced family of geodesics. The required family of geodesics is directly related to the set where the original function is to be recovered. (paper)
Geodesic distance in planar graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.
2003-01-01
We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy
Geodesic deviation and Minikowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barraco, D.; Kozameh, C.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, P.
1990-01-01
The authors study the properties of the solution space of local surface-forming null sub-congruences in the neighborhood of a given null geodesic in a pseudo-Riemannian space-time. This solution space is a three-dimensional manifold, naturally endowed with a conformal Minkowski metric
Geodesic in Godel type universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, M.O.
1985-01-01
We find out the timelike and null geodesics of a certain family of Goedel-like universes, carrying out, at first, a qualitative analysis through the method of the effective potential and, subsequently, proceeding to the exact integration of the equations of motion. (author) [pt
A prescribing geodesic curvature problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, K.C.; Liu, J.Q.
1993-09-01
Let D be the unit disk and k be a function on S 1 = δD. Find a flat metric which is pointwise conformal to the standard metric and has k as the geodesic curvature of S 1 . A sufficient condition for the existence of such a metric is that the harmonic extension of k in D has saddle points. (author). 11 refs
General algebraic theory of identical particle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bencze, G.; Redish, E.F.
1978-01-01
We consider the nonrelativistic N-body scattering problem for a system of particles in which some subsets of the particles are identical. We demonstrate how the particle identity can be included in a general class of linear integral equations for scattering operators or components of scattering operators. The Yakubovskii, Yakubovskii--Narodestkii, Rosenberg, and Bencze--Redish--Sloan equations are included in this class. Algebraic methods are used which rely on the properties of the symmetry group of the system. Operators depending only on physically distinguishable labels are introduced and linear integral equations for them are derived. This procedure maximally reduces the number of coupled equations while retaining the connectivity properties of the original equations
A Generalized Slave-Particle Method
Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
2015-03-01
Two slave-particle methods, namely the slave-rotor and the slave-spin approaches, have been of recent interest in the computational correlated electron community. Both methods solve Hubbard-type models and go beyond the single-particle approximations by describing aspects of correlated electron behavior in a computationally efficient manner. We present a generalized slave-particle formalism that connects the the two while reproducing the results of each method in the appropriate limit. The framework automatically corrects the problematic small U behavior of the slave-rotor approach while reproducing its behavior in situations where it has been found physically relevant (e.g., for nickelate heterostructures). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant MRSEC NSF DMR-1119826.
Geodesics in Goedel-type space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvao, M.O.; Soares, I.D.; Tiomno, J.
1988-01-01
The geodesic curves of the homogeneous Goedel-type space-times, which constitute a two-parameter ({ l and Ω}) class of solutions presented to several theories of gravitation (general relativity, Einstein-Cartan and higher derivative) are investigated. The qualitative properties of those curves by means of the introduction of an effective potential and then accomplish the analytical integration of the equations of motion are examined. It is shown that some of the qualitative features of the free motion in Godel's universe (l 2 =2Ω 2 ) are preserved in all space-times, namely the projections of the geodesics onto the 2-surface (r,ψ) are simple closed curves, and the geodesics for which the ratio of azymuthal angular momentum to total energy, υ is equal to zero always cross the origin r = o. However, two new cases appear: (i) radially unbounded geodesics with υ assuming any (real) value, which may occur only for the causal space-times (l 2 ≥ 4 Ω 2 ), and (ii) geodesics with υ bounded both below and above, which always occur for the circular family (l 2 [pt
The Jacobi metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes
Gibbons, G. W.
2016-01-01
It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes is given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.
Geodesics in hypercomplex number systems. Application to commutative quaternions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catoni, Francesco; Zampetti, Paolo; Cannata, Roberto; Bordoni, Luciana
1997-10-01
The functions of hypercomplex variable can be related to the physical fields. Following the Einstein's ideas, by which the Theory of General Relativity was developed, they want to verify if a generalisation is possible, in order to described the motion of a body in a gravitational field, by the geodesics in spaces ''deformed'' by functional transformations of hypercomplex variables. These number systems introduce new space symmetries. This paper is just a first step in the more extended study. As a first application they consider the ''commutative quaternions'' system that may be considered as a composition of complex and hyperbolic numbers. By using in this system the same functional transformations valid for the two dimensional case, elliptical geodesics are obtained, with the eccentricity related to the angle between the orbit plane and a reference plane. These geodesics do not describe the Kepler orbits, but they show a space anisotropy that might be related to planet orbits of the solar system
Geodesic detection of Agulhas rings
Beron-Vera, F. J.; Wang, Y.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Goni, G. J.; Haller, G.
2012-12-01
Mesoscale oceanic eddies are routinely detected from instantaneous velocities. While simple to implement, this Eulerian approach gives frame-dependent results and often hides true material transport by eddies. Building on the recent geodesic theory of transport barriers, we develop an objective (i.e., frame-independent) method for accurately locating coherent Lagrangian eddies. These eddies act as compact water bodies, with boundaries showing no leakage or filamentation over long periods of time. Applying the algorithm to altimetry-derived velocities in the South Atlantic, we detect, for the first time, Agulhas rings that preserve their material coherence for several months, while eddy candidates yielded by other approaches tend to disperse or leak within weeks. These findings suggest that current Eulerian estimates of the Agulhas leakage need significant revision.Temporal evolution of fluid patches identified as eddies by different methods. First column: eddies extracted using geodesic eddy identification [1,2]. Second column: eddies identified from sea surface height (SSH) using the methodology of Chelton et al. [2] with U/c > 1. Third column: eddies identified as elliptic regions by the Okubo-Weiss (OW) criterion [e.g., 3]. Fourth column: eddies identified as mesoelliptic (ME) regions by Mezic et al.'s [4] criterion. References: [1] Beron-Vera et al. (2012). Geodesic eddy detection suggests reassessment of Agulhas leakage. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, submitted. [2] Haller & Beron-Vera (2012). Geodesic theory of transport barriers in two-dimensional flows. Physica D, in press. [2] Chelton et al. (2011). Prog. Oceanog. 91, 167. [3] Chelton et al. (2007). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L5606. [4] Mezic et al. (2010). Science 330, 486.
Geodesic stability, Lyapunov exponents, and quasinormal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Miranda, Alex S.; Berti, Emanuele; Witek, Helvi; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2009-01-01
Geodesic motion determines important features of spacetimes. Null unstable geodesics are closely related to the appearance of compact objects to external observers and have been associated with the characteristic modes of black holes. By computing the Lyapunov exponent, which is the inverse of the instability time scale associated with this geodesic motion, we show that, in the eikonal limit, quasinormal modes of black holes in any dimensions are determined by the parameters of the circular null geodesics. This result is independent of the field equations and only assumes a stationary, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat line element, but it does not seem to be easily extendable to anti-de Sitter spacetimes. We further show that (i) in spacetime dimensions greater than four, equatorial circular timelike geodesics in a Myers-Perry black-hole background are unstable, and (ii) the instability time scale of equatorial null geodesics in Myers-Perry spacetimes has a local minimum for spacetimes of dimension d≥6.
On certain geodesic conjugacies of flat cylinders
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Moreover, these base points must lie on different parallels. By continuity of F ◦α we conclude that the above parallel geodesics fill out a neighborhood of (r0, 0) in S. We conclude that f (r) = 0 for all r close to r0. This proves that R \\ A must be open. D. We call a closed geodesic slant if it is not a parallel geodesic. We have the ...
2T Physics, Weyl Symmetry and the Geodesic Completion of Black Hole Backgrounds
Araya Quezada, Ignacio Jesus
In this thesis, we discuss two different contexts where the idea of gauge symmetry and duality is used to solve the dynamics of physical systems. The first of such contexts is 2T-physics in the worldline in d+2 dimensions, where the principle of Sp(2,R) gauge symmetry in phase space is used to relate different 1T systems in (d -- 1) + 1 dimensions, such as a free relativistic particle, and a relativistic particle in an arbitrary V(x2) potential. Because each 1T shadow system corresponds to a particular gauge of the underlying symmetry, there is a web of dualities relating them. The dualities between said systems amount to canonical transformations including time and energy, which allows the different systems to be described by different Hamiltonians, and consequently, to correspond to different dynamics in the (d -- 1)+1 phase space. The second context, corresponds to a Weyl invariant scalar-tensor theory of gravity, obtained as a direct prediction of 2T gravity, where the Weyl symmetry is used to obtain geodesically complete dynamics both in the context of cosmology and black hole (BH) backgrounds. The geodesic incompleteness of usual Einstein gravity, in the presence of singularities in spacetime, is related to the definition of the Einstein gauge, which fixes the sign and magnitude of the gravitational constant GN, and therefore misses the existence of antigravity patches, which are expected to arise generically just beyond gravitational singularities. The definition of the Einstein gauge can be generalized by incorporating a sign flip of the gravitational constant GN at the transitions between gravity and antigravity. This sign is a key aspect that allows us to define geodesically complete dynamics in cosmology and in BH backgrounds, particularly, in the case of the 4D Schwarzschild BH and the 2D stringy BH. The complete nature of particle geodesics in these BH backgrounds is exhibited explicitly at the classical level, and the extension of these results to the
Geodesics in thermodynamic state spaces of quantum gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshima, H.; Obata, T.; Hara, H.
2002-01-01
The geodesics for ideal quantum gases are numerically studied. We show that 30 ideal quantum state is connected to an ideal classical state by geodesics and that the bundle of geodesics for Bose gases have a tendency of convergence
Singularities in geodesic surface congruence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae
2008-01-01
In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.
Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.
Oliver, Marcel
2017-11-01
This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.
Generating geodesic flows and supergravity solutions
Bergshoeff, E.; Chemissany, W.; Ploegh, A.; Trigiante, M.; Van Riet, T.
2009-01-01
We consider the geodesic motion on the symmetric moduli spaces that arise after timelike and spacellike reductions of supergravity theories. The geodesics correspond to timelike respectively spacelike p-brane Solutions when they are lifted over a p-dimensional flat space. In particular, we consider
Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.
1986-01-01
Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved
Twisting null geodesic congruences and the Einstein-Maxwell equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, Ezra T; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto
2006-01-01
In a recent article, we returned to the study of asymptotically flat solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations with a rather unconventional point of view. The essential observation in that work was that from a given asymptotically flat vacuum spacetime with a given Bondi shear, one can find a class of asymptotically shear-free (but, in general, twisting) null geodesic congruences where the class was uniquely given up to the arbitrary choice of a complex analytic 'worldline' in a four-dimensional complex space. By imitating certain terms in the Weyl tensor that are found in the algebraically special type II metrics, this complex worldline could be made unique and given-or assigned-the physical meaning as the complex centre of mass. Equations of motion for this case were found. The purpose of the present work is to extend those results to asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. Once again, in this case, we get a class of asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences depending on a complex worldline in the same four-dimensional complex space. However in this case there will be, in general, two distinct but uniquely chosen worldlines, one of which can be assigned as the complex centre of charge while the other could be called the complex centre of mass. Rather than investigating the situation where there are two distinct complex worldlines, we study instead the special degenerate case where the two worldlines coincide, i.e., where there is a single unique worldline. This mimics the case of algebraically special Einstein-Maxwell fields where the degenerate principle null vector of the Weyl tensor coincides with a Maxwell principle null vector. Again we obtain equations of motion for this worldline-but explicitly found here only in an approximation. Though there are ambiguities in assigning physical meaning to different terms it appears as if reliance on the Kerr and charged Kerr metrics and classical electromagnetic radiation theory helps
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florinski, V.; Guo, X.; Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C.
2013-01-01
This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.
Statistics of geodesics in large quadrangulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouttier, J; Guitter, E
2008-01-01
We study the statistical properties of geodesics, i.e. paths of minimal length, in large random planar quadrangulations. We extend Schaeffer's well-labeled tree bijection to the case of quadrangulations with a marked geodesic, leading to the notion of 'spine trees', amenable to a direct enumeration. We obtain the generating functions for quadrangulations with a marked geodesic of fixed length, as well as with a set of 'confluent geodesics', i.e. a collection of non-intersecting minimal paths connecting two given points. In the limit of quadrangulations with a large area n, we find in particular an average number 3 x 2 i of geodesics between two fixed points at distance i >> 1 from each other. We show that, for generic endpoints, two confluent geodesics remain close to each other and have an extensive number of contacts. This property fails for a few 'exceptional' endpoints which can be linked by truly distinct geodesics. Results are presented both in the case of finite length i and in the scaling limit i ∼ n 1/4 . In particular, we give the scaling distribution of the exceptional points
Some clarifications about the Bohmian geodesic deviation equation and Raychaudhuri's equation
Rahmani, Faramarz; Golshani, Mehdi
2017-01-01
One of the important and famous topics in general theory of relativity and gravitation is the problem of geodesic deviation and its related singularity theorems. An interesting subject is the investigation of these concepts when quantum effects are considered. Since, the definition of trajectory is not possible in the framework of standard quantum mechanics (SQM), we investigate the problem of geodesic equation and its related topics in the framework of Bohmian quantum mechanics in which the ...
Newtonian potential and geodesic completeness in infinite derivative gravity
Edholm, James; Conroy, Aindriú
2017-08-01
Recent study has shown that a nonsingular oscillating potential—a feature of infinite derivative gravity theories—matches current experimental data better than the standard General Relativity potential. In this work, we show that this nonsingular oscillating potential can be given by a wider class of theories which allows the defocusing of null rays and therefore geodesic completeness. We consolidate the conditions whereby null geodesic congruences may be made past complete, via the Raychaudhuri equation, with the requirement of a nonsingular Newtonian potential in an infinite derivative gravity theory. In doing so, we examine a class of Newtonian potentials characterized by an additional degree of freedom in the scalar propagator, which returns the familiar potential of General Relativity at large distances.
Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network
Zhao, Junli; Liu, Cuiting; Wu, Zhongke; Duan, Fuqing; Wang, Kang; Jia, Taorui; Liu, Quansheng
2014-01-01
Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the or...
A general method to coat colloidal particles with titiana
Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.
2010-01-01
We describe a general one-pot method for coating colloidal particles with amorphous titania. Various colloidal particles such as silica particles, large silver colloids, gibbsite platelets, and polystyrene spheres were successfully coated with a titania shell. Although there are several ways of
Timelike geodesics around a charged spherically symmetric dilaton black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blaga C.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the timelike geodesics around a spherically symmetric charged dilaton black hole. The trajectories around the black hole are classified using the effective potential of a free test particle. This qualitative approach enables us to determine the type of orbit described by test particle without solving the equations of motion, if the parameters of the black hole and the particle are known. The connections between these parameters and the type of orbit described by the particle are obtained. To visualize the orbits we solve numerically the equation of motion for different values of parameters envolved in our analysis. The effective potential of a free test particle looks different for a non-extremal and an extremal black hole, therefore we have examined separately these two types of black holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando
2009-01-01
An exact solution of Einstein's field equations in empty space first found in 1985 by Quevedo and Mashhoon is analyzed in detail. This solution generalizes Kerr spacetime to include the case of matter with an arbitrary mass quadrupole moment and is specified by three parameters, the mass M, the angular momentum per unit mass a and the quadrupole parameter q. It reduces to the Kerr spacetime in the limiting case q = 0 and to the Erez-Rosen spacetime when the specific angular momentum a vanishes. The geometrical properties of such a solution are investigated. Causality violations, directional singularities and repulsive effects occur in the region close to the source. Geodesic motion and accelerated motion are studied on the equatorial plane which, due to the reflection symmetry property of the solution, also turns out to be a geodesic plane.
Particle field in bimetric general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falik, D.; Rosen, N.
1980-01-01
The field equations of the bimetric general relativity theory proposed recently by one of the authors (N. Rosen) are put into a static form. The equations are solved near the Schwarzschild sphere, and it is found that the field differs from that of the Einstein general relativity theory: instead of a black hole, one has an impenetrable sphere. For larger distances the field is found to agree with that of ordinary general relativity, so that solar system observations cannot distinguish between the two theories. For very large distances one gets a cosmic contribution to the field which may affect the dynamics of clusters of galaxies
Cosmology and particle physics: A general review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, K.A.
1986-01-01
Cosmology today does not stop at t = 1 s. Indeed, ''reasonable'' statements begin at the Planck epoch or when t ≅ 10/sup -44/s. In this review, the author attempts to highlight the current understanding of the various stages in the evolution of the universe from -- 10/sup -4/s to the period of galaxy formation at t≅10/sup 5/ years. He tries to follow a chronological order for the discussion and begins with the Planck epoch. In the section entitled INFLATION, discusses the inflationary epoch. In the section, GUTs and COSMOLOGY, he reviews the present status of big bang baryosynthesis, i.e., the origin of the apparent slight excess of baryons over antibaryons. This is perhaps the third most reliable piece of evidence indicating a hot big bang. He also reviews the present status of big bang nucleosynthesis and discuss why he feels it is one of the greatest successes of the standard big bang model. Finally, in the last section, he reviews the present role of particles in the universe; that is, their effects on galaxy formation and constraints from present observations that can be placed on particle properties
GEODESIC RECONSTRUCTION, SADDLE ZONES & HIERARCHICAL SEGMENTATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serge Beucher
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The morphological reconstruction based on geodesic operators, is a powerful tool in mathematical morphology. The general definition of this reconstruction supposes the use of a marker function f which is not necessarily related to the function g to be built. However, this paper deals with operations where the marker function is defined from given characteristic regions of the initial function f, as it is the case, for instance, for the extrema (maxima or minima but also for the saddle zones. Firstly, we show that the intuitive definition of a saddle zone is not easy to handle, especially when digitised images are involved. However, some of these saddle zones (regional ones also called overflow zones can be defined, this definition providing a simple algorithm to extract them. The second part of the paper is devoted to the use of these overflow zones as markers in image reconstruction. This reconstruction provides a new function which exhibits a new hierarchy of extrema. This hierarchy is equivalent to the hierarchy produced by the so-called waterfall algorithm. We explain why the waterfall algorithm can be achieved by performing a watershed transform of the function reconstructed by its initial watershed lines. Finally, some examples of use of this hierarchical segmentation are described.
The motion of a charged particle in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludvigsen, M.
1979-01-01
A new approach to the problem of the motion of a self-interacting massive charged particle in general relativity is presented. A charged Robinson-Trautman solution is used as a general relativistic model of such a particle. Such a solution is shown to generate a unique world line in its own H space, which is interpreted as the world line of the particle. Using the R-T dynamical relations, the equation of motion of the particle is derived, which, in the limiting case of zero curvature, is shown to be the same as the classical Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion. (author)
Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junli Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the original face are built, respectively, by geodesics and isogeodesics, whose intersections are network vertices. Then, the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of the features of all corresponding geodesic network vertices between two models is taken as the holistic similarity, where the weighted average of the shape index values in a neighborhood is defined as the feature of each network vertex. Moreover, the geodesic network vertices of each model are divided into six subareas, that is, forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin, and the local similarity is measured for each subarea. Experiments using 100 pairs of reconstructed craniofacial faces and their corresponding original faces show that the evaluation by our method is roughly consistent with the subjective evaluation derived from thirty-five persons in five groups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans
2006-01-01
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity
Geodesic structure of Lifshitz black holes in 2+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, Norman; Olivares, Marco; Villanueva, J.R.
2013-01-01
We present a study of the geodesic equations of a black hole space-time which is a solution of the three-dimensional NMG theory and is asymptotically Lifshitz with z=3 and d=1 as found in Ayon-Beato et al. (Phys. Rev. D 80:104029, 2009). By means of the corresponding effective potentials for massive particles and photons we find the allowed motions by the energy levels. Exact solutions for radial and non-radial geodesics are given in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic p, σ, and ζ functions. (orig.)
NVU dynamics. I. Geodesic motion on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole
2011-01-01
that ensures potential-energy and step-length conservation; center-of-mass drift is also eliminated. Analytical arguments confirmed by simulations demonstrate that the modified NVU algorithm is absolutely stable. Finally, we present simulations showing that the NVU algorithm and the standard leap-frog NVE......An algorithm is derived for computer simulation of geodesics on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface of a system of N classical particles. First, a basic time-reversible geodesic algorithm is derived by discretizing the geodesic stationarity condition and implementing the constant......-potential-energy constraint via standard Lagrangian multipliers. The basic NVU algorithm is tested by single-precision computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones liquid. Excellent numerical stability is obtained if the force cutoff is smoothed and the two initial configurations have identical potential energy within machine...
Integrability of geodesics and action-angle variables in Sasaki-Einstein space T{sup 1,1}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Visinescu, Mihai [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department Theoretical Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)
2016-09-15
We briefly describe the construction of Staekel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds without working out intricate generalized Killing equations. The integrals of geodesic motions are expressed in terms of Killing vectors and Killing-Yano tensors of the homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein space T{sup 1,1}. We discuss the integrability of geodesics and construct explicitly the action-angle variables. Two pairs of frequencies of the geodesic motions are resonant giving way to chaotic behavior when the system is perturbed. (orig.)
Geodesic exponential kernels: When Curvature and Linearity Conflict
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feragen, Aase; Lauze, François; Hauberg, Søren
2015-01-01
manifold, the geodesic Gaussian kernel is only positive definite if the Riemannian manifold is Euclidean. This implies that any attempt to design geodesic Gaussian kernels on curved Riemannian manifolds is futile. However, we show that for spaces with conditionally negative definite distances the geodesic...
Parallel-propagated frame along null geodesics in higher-dimensional black hole spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubiznak, David; Frolov, Valeri P.; Connell, Patrick; Krtous, Pavel
2009-01-01
In [arXiv:0803.3259] the equations describing the parallel transport of orthonormal frames along timelike (spacelike) geodesics in a spacetime admitting a nondegenerate principal conformal Killing-Yano 2-form h were solved. The construction employed is based on studying the Darboux subspaces of the 2-form F obtained as a projection of h along the geodesic trajectory. In this paper we demonstrate that, although slightly modified, a similar construction is possible also in the case of null geodesics. In particular, we explicitly construct the parallel-transported frames along null geodesics in D=4, 5, 6 Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes. We further discuss the parallel transport along principal null directions in these spacetimes. Such directions coincide with the eigenvectors of the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor. Finally, we show how to obtain a parallel-transported frame along null geodesics in the background of the 4D Plebanski-Demianski metric which admits only a conformal generalization of the Killing-Yano tensor.
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florinski, V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Guo, X. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
2013-04-01
This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.
Diffeomorphometry and geodesic positioning systems for human anatomy.
Miller, Michael I; Younes, Laurent; Trouvé, Alain
2014-03-01
The Computational Anatomy project has largely been a study of large deformations within a Riemannian framework as an efficient point of view for generating metrics between anatomical configurations. This approach turns D'Arcy Thompson's comparative morphology of human biological shape and form into a metrizable space. Since the metric is constructed based on the geodesic length of the flows of diffeomorphisms connecting the forms, we call it diffeomorphometry . Just as importantly, since the flows describe algebraic group action on anatomical submanifolds and associated functional measurements, they become the basis for positioning information, which we term geodesic positioning . As well the geodesic connections provide Riemannian coordinates for locating forms in the anatomical orbit, which we call geodesic coordinates . These three components taken together - the metric, geodesic positioning of information, and geodesic coordinates - we term the geodesic positioning system . We illustrate via several examples in human and biological coordinate systems and machine learning of the statistical representation of shape and form.
On geodesics with negative energies in the ergoregions of dirty black holes
Zaslavskii, O. B.
2015-03-01
We consider behavior of equatorial geodesics with the negative energy in the ergoregion of a generic rotating "dirty" (surrounded by matter) black hole. It is shown that under very simple and generic conditions on the metric coefficients, there are no such circular orbits. This entails that such geodesic must originate and terminate under the event horizon. These results generalize the observation made for the Kerr metric in A. A. Grib, Yu. V. Pavlov and V. D. Vertogradov, Mod. Phys. Lett.29, 1450110 (2014), arXiv:1304.7360.
Some clarifications about the Bohmian geodesic deviation equation and Raychaudhuri’s equation
Rahmani, Faramarz; Golshani, Mehdi
2018-01-01
One of the important and famous topics in general theory of relativity and gravitation is the problem of geodesic deviation and its related singularity theorems. An interesting subject is the investigation of these concepts when quantum effects are considered. Since the definition of trajectory is not possible in the framework of standard quantum mechanics (SQM), we investigate the problem of geodesic equation and its related topics in the framework of Bohmian quantum mechanics in which the definition of trajectory is possible. We do this in a fixed background and we do not consider the backreaction effects of matter on the space-time metric.
A generalized transport-velocity formulation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2017-05-15
The standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method suffers from tensile instability. In fluid-dynamics simulations this instability leads to particle clumping and void regions when negative pressure occurs. In solid-dynamics simulations, it results in unphysical structure fragmentation. In this work the transport-velocity formulation of Adami et al. (2013) is generalized for providing a solution of this long-standing problem. Other than imposing a global background pressure, a variable background pressure is used to modify the particle transport velocity and eliminate the tensile instability completely. Furthermore, such a modification is localized by defining a shortened smoothing length. The generalized formulation is suitable for fluid and solid materials with and without free surfaces. The results of extensive numerical tests on both fluid and solid dynamics problems indicate that the new method provides a unified approach for multi-physics SPH simulations.
Investigation of Free Particle Propagator with Generalized Uncertainty Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanabadi, H.; Ghobakhloo, F.
2016-01-01
We consider the Schrödinger equation with a generalized uncertainty principle for a free particle. We then transform the problem into a second-order ordinary differential equation and thereby obtain the corresponding propagator. The result of ordinary quantum mechanics is recovered for vanishing minimal length parameter.
Black hole decay as geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha
2003-01-01
We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes
Perfect fluid cosmology with geodesic world lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Maity, S.R.
1978-01-01
It is shown that for a perfect fluid with an equation of state p = p (rho), if the world lines are geodesics, then they are hypersurface orthogonal and the scalars p, rho, sigma 2 , and theta 2 are all constants over these hypersurfaces, irrespective of any spatial-homogeneity assumption. However, an examination of some simple cases does not reveal any spatially nonhomogeneous solution with these properties
Gravitational Self-Force: Orbital Mechanics Beyond Geodesic Motion
Barack, Leor
The question of motion in a gravitationally bound two-body system is a longstanding open problem of General Relativity. When the mass ratio eta; is small, the problem lends itself to a perturbative treatment, wherein corrections to the geodesic motion of the smaller object (due to radiation reaction, internal structure, etc.) are accounted for order by order in η, using the language of an effective gravitational self-force. The prospect for observing gravitational waves from compact objects inspiralling into massive black holes in the foreseeable future has in the past 15 years motivated a program to obtain a rigorous formulation of the self-force and compute it for astrophysically interesting systems. I will give a brief survey of this activity and its achievements so far, and will identify the challenges that lie ahead. As concrete examples, I will discuss recent calculations of certain conservative post-geodesic effects of the self-force, including the O(η ) correction to the precession rate of the periastron. I will highlight the way in which such calculations allow us to make a fruitful contact with other approaches to the two-body problem.
Demirchian, Hovhannes; Nersessian, Armen; Sadeghian, Saeedeh; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.
2018-05-01
We investigate dynamics of probe particles moving in the near-horizon limit of extremal Myers-Perry black holes in arbitrary dimensions. Employing ellipsoidal coordinates we show that this problem is integrable and separable, extending the results of the odd dimensional case discussed by Hakobyan et al. [Phys. Lett. B 772, 586 (2017)., 10.1016/j.physletb.2017.07.028]. We find the general solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equations for these systems and present explicit expressions for the Liouville integrals and discuss Killing tensors and the associated constants of motion. We analyze special cases of the background near-horizon geometry were the system possesses more constants of motion and is hence superintegrable. Finally, we consider a near-horizon extremal vanishing horizon case which happens for Myers-Perry black holes in odd dimensions and show that geodesic equations on this geometry are also separable and work out its integrals of motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barack, Leor; Sago, Norichika
2011-01-01
We study conservative finite-mass corrections to the motion of a particle in a bound (eccentric) strong-field orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We assume the particle's mass μ is much smaller than the black hole mass M, and explore post-geodesic corrections of O(μ/M). Our analysis uses numerical data from a recently developed code that outputs the Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force (GSF) acting on the particle along the eccentric geodesic. First, we calculate the O(μ/M) conservative correction to the periastron advance of the orbit, as a function of the (gauge-dependent) semilatus rectum and eccentricity. A gauge-invariant description of the GSF precession effect is made possible in the circular-orbit limit, where we express the correction to the periastron advance as a function of the invariant azimuthal frequency. We compare this relation with results from fully nonlinear numerical-relativistic simulations. In order to obtain a gauge-invariant measure of the GSF effect for fully eccentric orbits, we introduce a suitable generalization of Detweiler's circular-orbit ''redshift'' invariant. We compute the O(μ/M) conservative correction to this invariant, expressed as a function of the two invariant frequencies that parametrize the orbit. Our results are in good agreement with results from post-Newtonian calculations in the weak-field regime, as we shall report elsewhere. The results of our study can inform the development of analytical models for the dynamics of strongly gravitating binaries. They also provide an accurate benchmark for future numerical-relativistic simulations.
Branching geodesics in normed spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A
2002-01-01
We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal
Charged point particles with magnetic moment in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amorim, R.; Tiomno, J.
1977-01-01
Halbwachs Lagrangean formalism for the theory of charged point particles with spin (g = 2) is generalized and formulated in General Relativity for particles of arbitrary charge and magnetic moment. Equations are obtained, both corresponding to Frenkel's condition Ssub(μν)Xsup(ν) = 0 and to Nakano's condition Ssub(μν)Psup(ν) = 0. With the later condition the exact equations are highly coupled and non linear. When linearized in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields they coincide with de Groot-Suttorp equations for vanishing gravitational fields and with Dixon-Wald equations in the absence of electromagnetic field. The equations corresponding to Frenkel's condition, when linearized in Ssub(μν), coincide with Papapetrou's and Frenkel's equations in the corresponding limits [pt
Non-relativistic spinning particle in a Newton-Cartan background
Barducci, Andrea; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim
2018-01-01
We construct the action of a non-relativistic spinning particle moving in a general torsionless Newton-Cartan background. The particle does not follow the geodesic equations, instead the motion is governed by the non-relativistic analog of Papapetrou equation. The spinning particle is described in terms of Grassmann variables. In the flat case the action is invariant under the non-relativistic analog of space-time vector supersymmetry.
Self-Gravitating Stellar Collapse: Explicit Geodesics and Path Integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakrishna, Jayashree; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Moran, Christine C.
2016-01-01
We extend the work of Oppenheimer and Synder to model the gravitational collapse of a star to a black hole by including quantum mechanical effects. We first derive closed-form solutions for classical paths followed by a particle on the surface of the collapsing star in Schwarzschild and Kruskal coordinates for space-like, time-like, and light-like geodesics. We next present an application of these paths to model the collapse of ultra-light dark matter particles, which necessitates incorporating quantum effects. To do so we treat a particle on the surface of the star as a wavepacket and integrate over all possible paths taken by the particle. The waveform is computed in Schwarzschild coordinates and found to exhibit an ingoing and an outgoing component, where the former contains the probability of collapse, while the latter contains the probability that the star will disperse. These calculations pave the way for investigating the possibility of quantum collapse that does not lead to black hole formation as well as for exploring the nature of the wavefunction inside r = 2M.
Self-Gravitating Stellar Collapse: Explicit Geodesics and Path Integration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balakrishna, Jayashree [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Harris-Stowe State University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bondarescu, Ruxandra [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Moran, Christine C., E-mail: corbett@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Department of Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
2016-11-25
We extend the work of Oppenheimer and Synder to model the gravitational collapse of a star to a black hole by including quantum mechanical effects. We first derive closed-form solutions for classical paths followed by a particle on the surface of the collapsing star in Schwarzschild and Kruskal coordinates for space-like, time-like, and light-like geodesics. We next present an application of these paths to model the collapse of ultra-light dark matter particles, which necessitates incorporating quantum effects. To do so we treat a particle on the surface of the star as a wavepacket and integrate over all possible paths taken by the particle. The waveform is computed in Schwarzschild coordinates and found to exhibit an ingoing and an outgoing component, where the former contains the probability of collapse, while the latter contains the probability that the star will disperse. These calculations pave the way for investigating the possibility of quantum collapse that does not lead to black hole formation as well as for exploring the nature of the wavefunction inside r = 2M.
Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing in a String Cloud Background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to studying two interesting issues of a black hole with string cloud background. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics and find unstable orbital motion of particles. Secondly, we calculate deflection angle in strong field limit. We then find positions, magnifications, and observables of relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the galactic center. We conclude that string parameter highly affects the lensing process and results turn out to be quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole
Geodesics of black holes with dark energy
Ghaderi, K.
2017-12-01
Dark energy is the most popular hypothesis to explain recent observations suggesting that the world will increasingly expand. One of the models of dark energy is quintessence which is highly plausible. In this paper, we investigate the effect of dark energy on the null geodesics of Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Bardeen black holes. Using the definition of effective potential, the radius of the circular orbits, the period, the instability of the circular orbits, the force exerted on the photons and the deviation angle of light in quintessence field are calculated and the results are analyzed and discussed.
Arcmancer: Geodesics and polarized radiative transfer library
Pihajoki, Pauli; Mannerkoski, Matias; Nättilä, Joonas; Johansson, Peter H.
2018-05-01
Arcmancer computes geodesics and performs polarized radiative transfer in user-specified spacetimes. The library supports Riemannian and semi-Riemannian spaces of any dimension and metric; it also supports multiple simultaneous coordinate charts, embedded geometric shapes, local coordinate systems, and automatic parallel propagation. Arcmancer can be used to solve various problems in numerical geometry, such as solving the curve equation of motion using adaptive integration with configurable tolerances and differential equations along precomputed curves. It also provides support for curves with an arbitrary acceleration term and generic tools for generating ray initial conditions and performing parallel computation over the image, among other tools.
Some remarks on geodesics in gauge groups and harmonic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valli, G.
1987-08-01
The following topics are discussed: Euler's equations for geodesics in the gauge groups and in gauge orbits of connections, conserved quantities and moment map, existence and uniqueness of solutions for the Cauchy problem, stationary solutions and harmonic bundles, harmonic gauges on Riemann surfaces and Lax pairs, low geodesics in gauge groups over Riemann surfaces produce, by Hodge decomposition, paths of holomorphic differentials. 19 refs
First integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meshkov, A.G.; Dordzhiev, P.B.
1984-01-01
Linear and quadratic velocity integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space are calculated. The Schwarzschild geodesics equations have only four independent linear integrals. Quadratic integrals are polynomials from linear ones with constant coefficients. Total separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Schwarzschild metric is possible only in two coordinate systems: ''spherical'' and ''conic'' systems
Gravitational field of massive point particle in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiziev, P.P.
2003-10-01
Using various gauges of the radial coordinate we give a description of the static spherically symmetric space-times with point singularity at the center and vacuum outside the singularity. We show that in general relativity (GR) there exist infinitely many such solutions to the Einstein equations which are physically different and only some of them describe the gravitational field of a single massive point particle. In particular, we show that the widespread Hilbert's form of Schwarzschild solution does not solve the Einstein equations with a massive point particle's stress-energy tensor. Novel normal coordinates for the field and a new physical class of gauges are proposed, in this way achieving a correct description of a point mass source in GR. We also introduce a gravitational mass defect of a point particle and determine the dependence of the solutions on this mass defect. In addition we give invariant characteristics of the physically and geometrically different classes of spherically symmetric static space-times created by one point mass. (author)
AdS/CFT prescription for angle-deficit space and winding geodesics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref’eva, Irina Ya.; Khramtsov, Mikhail A.
2016-01-01
We present the holographic computation of the boundary two-point correlator using the GKPW prescription for a scalar field in the AdS_3 space with a conical defect. Generally speaking, a conical defect breaks conformal invariance in the dual theory, however we calculate the classical bulk-boundary propagator for a scalar field in the space with conical defect and use it to compute the two-point correlator in the boundary theory. We compare the obtained general expression with previous studies based on the geodesic approximation. They are in good agreement for short correlators, and main discrepancy comes in the region of long correlations. Meanwhile, in case of ℤ_r-orbifold, the GKPW result coincides with the one obtained via geodesic images prescription and with the general result for the boundary theory, which is conformal in this special case.
Generalized nonlinear Proca equation and its free-particle solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nobre, F.D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Plastino, A.R. [Universidad Nacional Buenos Aires-Noreoeste, CeBio y Secretaria de Investigacion, Junin (Argentina)
2016-06-15
We introduce a nonlinear extension of Proca's field theory for massive vector (spin 1) bosons. The associated relativistic nonlinear wave equation is related to recently advanced nonlinear extensions of the Schroedinger, Dirac, and Klein-Gordon equations inspired on the non-extensive generalized thermostatistics. This is a theoretical framework that has been applied in recent years to several problems in nuclear and particle physics, gravitational physics, and quantum field theory. The nonlinear Proca equation investigated here has a power-law nonlinearity characterized by a real parameter q (formally corresponding to the Tsallis entropic parameter) in such a way that the standard linear Proca wave equation is recovered in the limit q → 1. We derive the nonlinear Proca equation from a Lagrangian, which, besides the usual vectorial field Ψ{sup μ}(vector x,t), involves an additional field Φ{sup μ}(vector x,t). We obtain exact time-dependent soliton-like solutions for these fields having the form of a q-plane wave, and we show that both field equations lead to the relativistic energy-momentum relation E{sup 2} = p{sup 2}c{sup 2} + m{sup 2}c{sup 4} for all values of q. This suggests that the present nonlinear theory constitutes a new field theoretical representation of particle dynamics. In the limit of massless particles the present q-generalized Proca theory reduces to Maxwell electromagnetism, and the q-plane waves yield localized, transverse solutions of Maxwell equations. Physical consequences and possible applications are discussed. (orig.)
Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sgalla, R. J. F., E-mail: reneesgalla@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)
2015-02-15
A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)
A regularized approach for geodesic-based semisupervised multimanifold learning.
Fan, Mingyu; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Zhongfei; Bao, Hujun
2014-05-01
Geodesic distance, as an essential measurement for data dissimilarity, has been successfully used in manifold learning. However, most geodesic distance-based manifold learning algorithms have two limitations when applied to classification: 1) class information is rarely used in computing the geodesic distances between data points on manifolds and 2) little attention has been paid to building an explicit dimension reduction mapping for extracting the discriminative information hidden in the geodesic distances. In this paper, we regard geodesic distance as a kind of kernel, which maps data from linearly inseparable space to linear separable distance space. In doing this, a new semisupervised manifold learning algorithm, namely regularized geodesic feature learning algorithm, is proposed. The method consists of three techniques: a semisupervised graph construction method, replacement of original data points with feature vectors which are built by geodesic distances, and a new semisupervised dimension reduction method for feature vectors. Experiments on the MNIST, USPS handwritten digit data sets, MIT CBCL face versus nonface data set, and an intelligent traffic data set show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Efficiently computing exact geodesic loops within finite steps.
Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Fu, Chi-Wing
2012-06-01
Closed geodesics, or geodesic loops, are crucial to the study of differential topology and differential geometry. Although the existence and properties of closed geodesics on smooth surfaces have been widely studied in mathematics community, relatively little progress has been made on how to compute them on polygonal surfaces. Most existing algorithms simply consider the mesh as a graph and so the resultant loops are restricted only on mesh edges, which are far from the actual geodesics. This paper is the first to prove the existence and uniqueness of geodesic loop restricted on a closed face sequence; it contributes also with an efficient algorithm to iteratively evolve an initial closed path on a given mesh into an exact geodesic loop within finite steps. Our proposed algorithm takes only an O(k) space complexity and an O(mk) time complexity (experimentally), where m is the number of vertices in the region bounded by the initial loop and the resultant geodesic loop, and k is the average number of edges in the edge sequences that the evolving loop passes through. In contrast to the existing geodesic curvature flow methods which compute an approximate geodesic loop within a predefined threshold, our method is exact and can apply directly to triangular meshes without needing to solve any differential equation with a numerical solver; it can run at interactive speed, e.g., in the order of milliseconds, for a mesh with around 50K vertices, and hence, significantly outperforms existing algorithms. Actually, our algorithm could run at interactive speed even for larger meshes. Besides the complexity of the input mesh, the geometric shape could also affect the number of evolving steps, i.e., the performance. We motivate our algorithm with an interactive shape segmentation example shown later in the paper.
Rationale of beings: Recent developments in particle, nuclear and general physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, K.; Kawazoc, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Takahashi, K.
1986-01-01
This book presents papers on particle physics and nuclear physics. The chapters are on gravity, particles and fields, quantum theories, field theories, nuclei and atoms and general physics. Recent developments in various fields of physics in general are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea
2006-01-01
The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations
A visualization of null geodesics for the bonnor massive dipole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Andree Oliva Mercado
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this work we simulate null geodesics for the Bonnor massive dipole metric by implementing a symbolic-numerical algorithm in Sage and Python. This program is also capable of visualizing in 3D, in principle, the geodesics for any given metric. Geodesics are launched from a common point, collectively forming a cone of light beams, simulating a solid-angle section of a point source in front of a massive object with a magnetic field. Parallel light beams also were considered, and their bending due to the curvature of the space-time was simulated.
Cosmological models in globally geodesic coordinates. II. Near-field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Hongya
1987-01-01
A near-field approximation dealing with the cosmological field near a typical freely falling observer is developed within the framework established in the preceding paper [J. Math. Phys. 28, xxxx(1987)]. It is found that for the matter-dominated era the standard cosmological model of general relativity contains the Newtonian cosmological model, proposed by Zel'dovich, as its near-field approximation in the observer's globally geodesic coordinate system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Sasaki, Misao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to a treatment of the gravitational effects (redshift, time delay and lensing) on the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies based on the Boltzmann equation. From the Liouville's theorem in curved spacetime, the intensity of photons is conserved along a photon geodesic when non-gravitational scatterings are absent. Motivated by this fact, we derive a second-order line-of-sight formula by integrating the Boltzmann equation along a perturbed geodesic (curve) instead of a background geodesic (line). In this approach, the separation of the gravitational and intrinsic effects are manifest. This approach can be considered as a generalization of the remapping approach of CMB lensing, where all the gravitational effects can be treated on the same footing
General relativistic variation formalism for a probe particle with momenta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minkevich, A V; Sokol' skii, A A [Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk
1975-01-01
On the basis of a model of an oriental particle a variational formalism was developed for a rotating test particle having momenta and moving in inhomogeneous space-time: the Lagrange equations for translational and rotational motion were obtained, and a metric pulse energy tensor was found. The formalism applies to a charged rotating particle with an electrical and a magnetic moment and a rotating particle in space with curvature and torsion.
General relativistic variation formalism for a probe particle with momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minkevich, A.V.; Sokol'skij, A.A.
1975-01-01
On the basis of a model of an oriental particle a variational formalism was developed for a rotating test particle having momenta and moving in inhomogeneous space-time: the Lagrange equations for translational and rotational motion were obtained, and a metric pulse energy tensor was found. The formalism applies to a charged rotating particle with an electrical and a magnetic moment and a rotating particle in space with curvature and torsion. (author)
Geodesic congruences in the Palatini f(R) theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shojai, Fatimah; Shojai, Ali
2008-01-01
We shall investigate the properties of a congruence of geodesics in the framework of Palatini f(R) theories. We shall evaluate the modified geodesic deviation equation and the Raychaudhuri's equation and show that f(R) Palatini theories do not necessarily lead to attractive forces. Also, we shall study energy condition for f(R) Palatini gravity via a perturbative analysis of the Raychaudhuri's equation.
Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics: a model forcurved wood design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens
2017-01-01
Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle......Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle...
Do extended objects move along the geodesics in the Riemann space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1981-01-01
Movement of an extended self-gravitating body in the gravitational field of another distant body is studied in the postnewtonian approximation of arbitrary metrical gravitational theory. Comparison of the mass center acceleration of the extended body with the acceleration of a point body moving in the Riemann space-time, the metrics of which is formally equivalent to the metrics of two moving extended bodies, shows that in any metrical gravitation theory with conservation laws of energy and momentum of the matter and gravitational field taken together, the mass center of the extended body does not, in general case, move along the geodesics of the Riemann space-time. Application of the general formulas obtained to the system Sun-Earth combined with the experimental data of the lunar laser ranging, shows that the Earth in its orbital motion is oscillating with respect to reference geodesics, with the period about one hour and the amplitude not less than 10 -2 cm. This amplitude is of the postnewtonian magnitude and as a consequence, the deviation of the Earth movement from the geodesical movement can be observed in the experiment possessing the postnewtonian accuracy. The difference between the acceleration of the Earth mass center and that of a test body in the postnewtonian approximation is equal to 10 -7 part of the Earth acceleration. The ratio of the passive gravitational mass of the Earth (defined according to Will) and its inert mass differs from 1 by 10 -8 approximately [ru
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown One-Particle State by a Three-Particle General W State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiu Xiaoming; Dong Li; Gao Yajun
2007-01-01
Two schemes for teleporting an unknown one-particle state are proposed when a general W state is utilized as quantum channel. In the first scheme, after the sender (Alice) makes a Bell-state measurement on her particles, the recipient (Bob) performs a Von Neumann measurement and introduces an auxiliary particle, and carries out a unitary transformation on his particle and the auxiliary particle, and performs a Von Neumann measurement on the auxiliary particle to confirm whether the teleportation succeeds or not. In the second scheme, the recipient (Bob) does not need to perform the first Von Neumann measurement or introduce the auxiliary particle, which is necessary in the first scheme. It is shown that the maximal probabilities of successful teleportation of the two schemes are identical if the recipient (Bob) performs an appropriate unitary transformation and adopts a proper particle on which he recovers the quantum information of state to be teleported.
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown One-Particle State by a Three-Particle General W State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIU Xiao-Ming; DONG Li; GAO Ya-Jun
2007-01-01
Two schemes for teleporting an unknown one-particle state are proposed when a general W state is utilized as quantum channel.In the first scheme,after the sender (Alice) makes a Bell-state measurement on her particles,the recipient (Bob) performs a Von Neumann measurement and introduces an auxiliary particle,and carries out a unitary transformation on his particle and the auxiliary particle,and performs a Von Neumann measurement on the auxiliary particle to confirm whether the teleportation succeeds or not.In the second scheme,the recipient (Bob) does not need to perform the first Von Neumann measurement or introduce the auxiliary particle,which is necessary in the first scheme.It is shown that the maximal probabilities of successful teleportation of the two schemes are identical if the recipient (Bob) performs an appropriate unitary transformation and adopts a proper particle on which he recovers the quantum information of state to be teleported.
General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.
Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O
2010-05-21
This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.
Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la
2012-01-01
We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds
Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R. [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la, E-mail: fdalbareti@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: alvaro.delacruz-dombriz@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)
2012-12-01
We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.
Superintegrability of geodesic motion on the sausage model
Arutyunov, Gleb; Heinze, Martin; Medina-Rincon, Daniel
2017-06-01
Reduction of the η-deformed sigma model on AdS_5× S5 to the two-dimensional squashed sphere (S^2)η can be viewed as a special case of the Fateev sausage model where the coupling constant ν is imaginary. We show that geodesic motion in this model is described by a certain superintegrable mechanical system with four-dimensional phase space. This is done by means of explicitly constructing three integrals of motion which satisfy the sl(2) Poisson algebra relations, albeit being non-polynomial in momenta. Further, we find a canonical transformation which transforms the Hamiltonian of this mechanical system to the one describing the geodesic motion on the usual two-sphere. By inverting this transformation we map geodesics on this auxiliary two-sphere back to the sausage model. This paper is a tribute to the memory of Prof Petr Kulish.
Non-integrability of geodesic flow on certain algebraic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waters, T.J.
2012-01-01
This Letter addresses an open problem recently posed by V. Kozlov: a rigorous proof of the non-integrability of the geodesic flow on the cubic surface xyz=1. We prove this is the case using the Morales–Ramis theorem and Kovacic algorithm. We also consider some consequences and extensions of this result. -- Highlights: ► The behaviour of geodesics on surfaces defined by algebraic expressions is studied. ► The non-integrability of the geodesic equations is rigorously proved using differential Galois theory. ► Morales–Ramis theory and Kovacic's algorithm is used and the normal variational equation is of Fuchsian type. ► Some extensions and limitations are discussed.
Special relativity in general frames from particles to astrophysics
Gourgoulhon, Éric
2013-01-01
Special relativity is the basis of many fields in modern physics: particle physics, quantum field theory, high-energy astrophysics, etc. This theory is presented here by adopting a four-dimensional point of view from the start. An outstanding feature of the book is that it doesn’t restrict itself to inertial frames but considers accelerated and rotating observers. It is thus possible to treat physical effects such as the Thomas precession or the Sagnac effect in a simple yet precise manner. In the final chapters, more advanced topics like tensorial fields in spacetime, exterior calculus and relativistic hydrodynamics are addressed. In the last, brief chapter the author gives a preview of gravity and shows where it becomes incompatible with Minkowsky spacetime. Well illustrated and enriched by many historical notes, this book also presents many applications of special relativity, ranging from particle physics (accelerators, particle collisions, quark-gluon plasma) to astrophysics (relativistic jets, active g...
Spherical null geodesics of rotating Kerr black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hod, Shahar
2013-01-01
The non-equatorial spherical null geodesics of rotating Kerr black holes are studied analytically. Unlike the extensively studied equatorial circular orbits whose radii are known analytically, no closed-form formula exists in the literature for the radii of generic (non-equatorial) spherical geodesics. We provide here an approximate formula for the radii r ph (a/M;cosi) of these spherical null geodesics, where a/M is the dimensionless angular momentum of the black hole and cos i is an effective inclination angle (with respect to the black-hole equatorial plane) of the orbit. It is well-known that the equatorial circular geodesics of the Kerr spacetime (the prograde and the retrograde orbits with cosi=±1) are characterized by a monotonic dependence of their radii r ph (a/M;cosi=±1) on the dimensionless spin-parameter a/M of the black hole. We use here our novel analytical formula to reveal that this well-known property of the equatorial circular geodesics is actually not a generic property of the Kerr spacetime. In particular, we find that counter-rotating spherical null orbits in the range (3√(3)−√(59))/4≲cosi ph (a/M;cosi=const) on the dimensionless rotation-parameter a/M of the black hole. Furthermore, it is shown that spherical photon orbits of rapidly-rotating black holes are characterized by a critical inclination angle, cosi=√(4/7), above which the coordinate radii of the orbits approach the black-hole radius in the extremal limit. We prove that this critical inclination angle signals a transition in the physical properties of the spherical null geodesics: in particular, it separates orbits which are characterized by finite proper distances to the black-hole horizon from orbits which are characterized by infinite proper distances to the horizon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, A.V.; Singatullin, R.S.
1981-01-01
The inverse problem is solved in general relativity theory (GRT) consisting in determining the metric and potentials of an electromagnetic field by their values in the nonsingular point of the V 4 space and present functions, being the generalized momenta of a test charged particle. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for a test charged particle in GRT is used. The general form of the generalized momentum dependence on the initial values is determined. It is noted that the inverse problem solution of dynamics in GRT contains arbitrariness which depends on the choice of the metric and potential values of the electromagnetic field in the nonsingular point [ru
Polyaffine parametrization of image registration based on geodesic flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Sass; Thorup, Signe Strann; Warfield, Simon K.
2012-01-01
Image registration based on geodesic flows has gained much popularity in recent years. We describe a novel parametrization of the velocity field in a stationary flow equation. We show that the method offers both precision, flexibility, and simplicity of evaluation. With our representation, which ...... of geodesic shooting for computational anatomy. We avoid to do warp field convolution by interpolation in a dense field, we can easily calculate warp derivatives in a reference frame of choice, and we can consequently avoid interpolation in the image space altogether....
Geodesics and symmetries of doubly spinning black rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durkee, Mark
2009-01-01
This paper studies various properties of the Pomeransky-Sen'kov doubly spinning black ring spacetime. I discuss the structure of the ergoregion, and then go on to demonstrate the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for null, zero energy geodesics, which exist in the ergoregion. These geodesics are used to construct geometrically motivated coordinates that cover the black hole horizon. Finally, I relate this weak form of separability to the existence of a conformal Killing tensor in a particular four-dimensional spacetime obtained by Kaluza-Klein reduction, and show that a related conformal Killing-Yano tensor only exists in the singly spinning case.
Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. I. General considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.
1980-01-01
The radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks in dilute aqueous solution is considered in a unified manner. Emphasis is on the physical and chemical phenomena which are involved rather than on the construction of models to be used in actual calculations although the latter problem is discussed. A differential segment of a heavy-particle track is composed of two parts which we call core and penumbra; elementary considerations show that all properties of such a differential track can be uniquely specified in terms of a two-parameter system, and we choose energy per nucleon (E) and atomic numbers (Z) as independent parameters. The nature of heavy-particle-track processes varies with the magnitude of the energy deposit (LET), and we discuss three categories of track problems, for low-, intermediate-, and high-LET cases, respectively. Scavenger reactions normally terminate radical recombination in a track, and for heavy-particle tracks we find a criterion involving the scavenger concentration for a convenient separation of core and penumbra into essentially noninteracting parts which can be treated independently. Problems of the core expansion in the three regions are considered, and it is found that a versatile model can be constructed on concepts previously introduced by Ganguly and Magee. A model for the penumbra, based on the authors' electron-track theory, is presented and discussed
Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.
2004-01-01
In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)
Geodesic flows in a charged black hole spacetime with quintessence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nandan, Hemwati [Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Physics, Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India); Uniyal, Rashmi [Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Physics, Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India); Government Degree College, Department of Physics, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand (India)
2017-08-15
We investigate the evolution of timelike geodesic congruences, in the background of a charged black hole spacetime surrounded by quintessence. The Raychaudhuri equations for three kinematical quantities namely the expansion scalar, shear and rotation along the geodesic flows in such spacetime are obtained and solved numerically. We have also analysed both the weak and the strong energy conditions for the focussing of timelike geodesic congruences. The effect of the normalisation constant (α) and the equation of state parameter (ε) on the evolution of the expansion scalar is discussed, for the congruences with and without an initial shear and rotation. It is observed that there always exists a critical value of the initial expansion below which we have focussing with smaller values of the normalisation constant and the equation of state parameter. As the corresponding values of both of these parameters are increased, no geodesic focussing is observed. The results obtained are then compared with those of the Reissner Nordstroem and Schwarzschild black hole spacetimes as well as their de Sitter black hole analogues accordingly. (orig.)
Ergodic Properties of the Quantum Geodesic Flow on Tori
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimek, SLawomir [Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Department of Mathematics (United States); Kondracki, Witold [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematics (Poland)
2005-05-15
We study ergodic averages for a class of pseudo-differential operators on the flat N-dimensional torus with respect to the Schroedinger evolution. The later can be consider a quantization of the geodesic flow on T{sup N}. We prove that, up to semi-classically negligible corrections, such ergodic averages are translationally invariant operators.
Geodesic flows in a charged black hole spacetime with quintessence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nandan, Hemwati; Uniyal, Rashmi
2017-01-01
We investigate the evolution of timelike geodesic congruences, in the background of a charged black hole spacetime surrounded by quintessence. The Raychaudhuri equations for three kinematical quantities namely the expansion scalar, shear and rotation along the geodesic flows in such spacetime are obtained and solved numerically. We have also analysed both the weak and the strong energy conditions for the focussing of timelike geodesic congruences. The effect of the normalisation constant (α) and the equation of state parameter (ε) on the evolution of the expansion scalar is discussed, for the congruences with and without an initial shear and rotation. It is observed that there always exists a critical value of the initial expansion below which we have focussing with smaller values of the normalisation constant and the equation of state parameter. As the corresponding values of both of these parameters are increased, no geodesic focussing is observed. The results obtained are then compared with those of the Reissner Nordstroem and Schwarzschild black hole spacetimes as well as their de Sitter black hole analogues accordingly. (orig.)
On the Robinson theorem and shearfree geodesic null congruences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tafel, J.
1985-01-01
Null electromagnetic fields and shearfree geodesic null congruences in curved and flat spacetimes are studied. We point out some mathematical problems connected with the validity of the Robinson theorem. The problem of finding nonanalytic twisting congruences in the Minkowski space is reduced to the construction of holomorphic functions with specific boundary conditions. (orig.)
A comment on the null geodesic equations in Schwarzschild geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, M.A.F.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.
1986-01-01
An integration of the null geodesic equations in the Schwarzschild geometry, which is valid to first order in GM/Rc 2 is presented. The solution is compared with others published in the literature and their range of validity is analysed. Some misunderstandings are also clarified. (Author) [pt
Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy M. Adamo
2009-09-01
Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi’s integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum–conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.
Do extended bodies move alon.o the geodesics of the Riemannian space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1980-01-01
Motion of a massive self-gravitating body in the gravitational field of a distant massive source has been considered in the post-Newtonian approximation of the arbitrary metric gravitational theory. The comparison of the massive body center of mass acceleration with that of a point one, moving in Riemannian space-time, whose metrics formally is equivalent to the metrics of two moving massive bodies, makes it clear that in any metric gravitation theory, possessing energy-momentum conservation lows for matter and gravitational field, taken together, massive body does not move generally speaking along the geodesics of Riemannian space-time. Application of the obtained general formulae to the system Earth-Sun and using of the experimental results from lunar-laser-ranging has shown that the Earth during its motion along the orbit, oscillates with respect to the reference geodesic of the geometry with the period of 1 hour and the amplitude not less than 10 -2 cm, which is a post-Newtonian quantity. Therefore the deviation of the Earth motion from the geodesic may be observed in a relevant experiment, which will have a post-Newtonian accuracy. The difference in accelerations of the Earth c.m. and a prob body makes up 10 -7 in the post-Newtonian approximation from the value of the Earth acceleration. The ratio of the passive gravitational mass (defined according to Will) to the inertial mass for the Earth is not equal to unity, and differs from it by the value of approximately 10 -8
Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy M. Adamo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in an auxiliary four-complex dimensional space, H-space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi's integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum--conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.
Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation.
Adamo, Timothy M; Newman, Ezra T; Kozameh, Carlos
2012-01-01
A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in an auxiliary four-complex dimensional space, [Formula: see text]-space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell) field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss) by (Bondi's) integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum-conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.
Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation in the Framework of General Geometry
Shahverdiyev, Shervgi
2005-01-01
A new geometry, called General geometry, is constructed. It is proven that its the most simplest special case is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Another special case is Riemannian geometry. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. It is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic field coincides exactly with equation for geodesics of geometry underlying Electromag...
Generalized field quantization and statistics of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.V.
1994-01-01
Generalized schemes for the quantization of free fields based on the deformed trilinear relations of Green are investigated. A theorem shows that in reality continuous deformation is impossible. In particular, it is shown that a open-quotes smallclose quotes violation of the ordinary Fermi and Bose statistics is impossible both in the framework of local field theory, corresponding to parastatistics of finite orders, and in the framework of nonlocal field theory, corresponding to infinite statistics. The existence of antiparticles plays a decisive role in establishing the matter case. 23 refs
Generalized one-loop neutrino mass model with charged particles
Cheung, Kingman; Okada, Hiroshi
2018-04-01
We propose a radiative neutrino-mass model by introducing 3 generations of fermion pairs E-(N +1 )/2E+(N +1 )/2 and a couple of multicharged bosonic doublet fields ΦN /2,ΦN /2 +1, where N =1 , 3, 5, 7, 9. We show that the models can satisfy the neutrino masses and oscillation data, and are consistent with lepton-flavor violations, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, the oblique parameters, and the beta function of the U (1 )Y hypercharge gauge coupling. We also discuss the collider signals for various N , namely, multicharged leptons in the final state from the Drell-Yan production of E-(N +1 )/2E+(N +1 )/2. In general, the larger the N the more charged leptons will appear in the final state.
Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory
Moffat, J. W.
1987-06-01
A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor gμν, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor Rμν. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r=0.
Two schemes of perfect teleportation one-particle state by a three-particle general W state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In teleportation, it can be seen that the probability of success is determined by Alice's measurement and quantum channel. If the Alice's measurement is appropriate, the teleportation can be successfully realized with the maximal probability. In accordance with transformation operator, two schemes are proposed for teleportation of an unknown one-particle state via a general W state, through which the successful probability and the fidelity of both schemes reach 1. Furthermore, two optimal matches of orthogonal complete measurement bases are given for teleporting an unknown one-particle state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourgoulhon, Eric
2013-01-01
The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes
Can geodesics in extra dimensions solve the cosmological horizon problem?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Daniel J. H.; Freese, Katherine
2000-01-01
We demonstrate a non-inflationary solution to the cosmological horizon problem in scenarios in which our observable universe is confined to three spatial dimensions (a three-brane) embedded in a higher dimensional space. A signal traveling along an extra-dimensional null geodesic may leave our three-brane, travel into the extra dimensions, and subsequently return to a different place on our three-brane in a shorter time than the time a signal confined to our three-brane would take. Hence, these geodesics may connect distant points which would otherwise be ''outside'' the four dimensional horizon (points not in causal contact with one another). (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
A Finsler geodesic spray paradigm for wildfire spread modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2015-01-01
represents the local fire templates. The ‘paradigm’ part of the present proposal is thus concerned with the corresponding shift of attention from the actual fire-lines to consider instead the geodesic spray - the ‘fire-particles’ - which together, side by side, mold the fire-lines at each instant of time...... and thence eventually constitute the local and global structure of the wildfire spread....
A Continuum Mechanical Approach to Geodesics in Shape Space
2010-01-01
mean curvature flow equation. Calc. Var., 3:253–271, 1995. [30] Siddharth Manay, Daniel Cremers , Byung-Woo Hong, Anthony J. Yezzi, and Stefano Soatto...P. W. Michor and D. Mumford. Riemannian geometries on spaces of plane curves. J. Eur. Math. Soc., 8:1–48, 2006. 37 [33] Peter W. Michor, David ... Cremers . Shape matching by variational computation of geodesics on a manifold. In Pattern Recognition, LNCS 4174, pages 142–151, 2006. [38] P
Geodesic atlas-based labeling of anatomical trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan
2015-01-01
We present a fast and robust atlas-based algorithm for labeling airway trees, using geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for an unlabeled airway tree are evaluated using distances to a training set of labeled airway trees. In tree-space, airway tree t...... equally complete airway trees, and comparable in performance to that of experts in pulmonary medicine, emphasizing the suitability of the labeling algorithm for clinical use....
Average geodesic distance of skeleton networks of Sierpinski tetrahedron
Yang, Jinjin; Wang, Songjing; Xi, Lifeng; Ye, Yongchao
2018-04-01
The average distance is concerned in the research of complex networks and is related to Wiener sum which is a topological invariant in chemical graph theory. In this paper, we study the skeleton networks of the Sierpinski tetrahedron, an important self-similar fractal, and obtain their asymptotic formula for average distances. To provide the formula, we develop some technique named finite patterns of integral of geodesic distance on self-similar measure for the Sierpinski tetrahedron.
Orbifold Riemann surfaces: Teichmueller spaces and algebras of geodesic functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazzocco, Marta [Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Chekhov, Leonid O [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation State Scientific Center), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2009-12-31
A fat graph description is given for Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces with holes and with Z{sub 2}- and Z{sub 3}-orbifold points (conical singularities) in the Poincare uniformization. The corresponding mapping class group transformations are presented, geodesic functions are constructed, and the Poisson structure is introduced. The resulting Poisson algebras are then quantized. In the particular cases of surfaces with n Z{sub 2}-orbifold points and with one and two holes, the respective algebras A{sub n} and D{sub n} of geodesic functions (classical and quantum) are obtained. The infinite-dimensional Poisson algebra D{sub n}, which is the semiclassical limit of the twisted q-Yangian algebra Y'{sub q}(o{sub n}) for the orthogonal Lie algebra o{sub n}, is associated with the algebra of geodesic functions on an annulus with n Z{sub 2}-orbifold points, and the braid group action on this algebra is found. From this result the braid group actions are constructed on the finite-dimensional reductions of this algebra: the p-level reduction and the algebra D{sub n}. The central elements for these reductions are found. Also, the algebra D{sub n} is interpreted as the Poisson algebra of monodromy data of a Frobenius manifold in the vicinity of a non-semisimple point. Bibliography: 36 titles.
Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images
Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang
2014-03-01
Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.
Geodesic paths and topological charges in quantum systems
Grangeiro Souza Barbosa Lima, Tiago Aecio
This dissertation focuses on one question: how should one drive an experimentally prepared state of a generic quantum system into a different target-state, simultaneously minimizing energy dissipation and maximizing the fidelity between the target and evolved-states? We develop optimal adiabatic driving protocols for general quantum systems, and show that these are geodesic paths. Geometric ideas have always played a fundamental role in the understanding and unification of physical phenomena, and the recent discovery of topological insulators has drawn great interest to topology from the field of condensed matter physics. Here, we discuss the quantum geometric tensor, a mathematical object that encodes geometrical and topological properties of a quantum system. It is related to the fidelity susceptibility (an important quantity regarding quantum phase transitions) and to the Berry curvature, which enables topological characterization through Berry phases. A refined understanding of the interplay between geometry and topology in quantum mechanics is of direct relevance to several emergent technologies, such as quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum sensors. As a demonstration of how powerful geometric and topological ideas can become when combined, we present the results of an experiment that we recently proposed. This experimental work was done at the Google Quantum Lab, where researchers were able to visualize the topological nature of a two-qubit system in sharp detail, a startling contrast with earlier methods. To achieve this feat, the optimal protocols described in this dissertation were used, allowing for a great improvement on the experimental apparatus, without the need for technical engineering advances. Expanding the existing literature on the quantum geometric tensor using notions from differential geometry and topology, we build on the subject nowadays known as quantum geometry. We discuss how slowly changing a parameter of a quantum
Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe
2014-02-01
In this paper, we present an efficient numerical scheme for the recently introduced geodesic active fields (GAF) framework for geometric image registration. This framework considers the registration task as a weighted minimal surface problem. Hence, the data-term and the regularization-term are combined through multiplication in a single, parametrization invariant and geometric cost functional. The multiplicative coupling provides an intrinsic, spatially varying and data-dependent tuning of the regularization strength, and the parametrization invariance allows working with images of nonflat geometry, generally defined on any smoothly parametrizable manifold. The resulting energy-minimizing flow, however, has poor numerical properties. Here, we provide an efficient numerical scheme that uses a splitting approach; data and regularity terms are optimized over two distinct deformation fields that are constrained to be equal via an augmented Lagrangian approach. Our approach is more flexible than standard Gaussian regularization, since one can interpolate freely between isotropic Gaussian and anisotropic TV-like smoothing. In this paper, we compare the geodesic active fields method with the popular Demons method and three more recent state-of-the-art algorithms: NL-optical flow, MRF image registration, and landmark-enhanced large displacement optical flow. Thus, we can show the advantages of the proposed FastGAF method. It compares favorably against Demons, both in terms of registration speed and quality. Over the range of example applications, it also consistently produces results not far from more dedicated state-of-the-art methods, illustrating the flexibility of the proposed framework.
Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing of Black Hole with Global Monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.
2015-01-01
We study two interesting features of a black hole with an ordinary as well as phantom global monopole. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics which imply unstable orbital motion of particles for both cases. Secondly, we evaluate deflection angle in strong field regime. We then find Einstein rings, magnifications, and observables of the relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy NGC4486B. We also examine time delays for different galaxies and present our results numerically. It is found that the deflection angle for ordinary/phantom global monopole is greater/smaller than that of Schwarzschild black hole. In strong field limit, the remaining properties of these black holes are quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole
Quantum Radiation Properties of Dirac Particles in General Nonstationary Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jia-Chen Hua
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum radiation properties of Dirac particles in general nonstationary black holes in the general case are investigated by both using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation and considering simultaneously the asymptotic behaviors of the first-order and second-order forms of Dirac equation near the event horizon. It is generally shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on both the time and different angles. Further, we give a general expression of the new extra coupling effect in thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles which is absent from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Also, we reveal a relationship that is ignored before between thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation in the case of scalar particles, which is that the chemical potential in thermal radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of scalar particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2003-01-01
We elaborate the idea that the matrix models equipped with the gauge symmetry provide a natural framework to describe identical particles. After demonstrating the general prescription, we study an exactly solvable harmonic oscillator type gauged matrix model. The model gives a generalization of the Calogero-Sutherland system where the strength of the inverse square potential is not fixed but dynamical bounded by below
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paudel, Eak Raj
2007-01-01
Gravitational field of Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de-sitter Black hole with a straight string passing through it. In such space analytical and numerical solutions of null and time like geodesics are investigated. The string parameter a + is found to affect both the angle of deflection in null geodesics and the precession of perihelion on time like geodesics .It is seen that the deflection of null and time like geodesics near the gravitating mass of de-sitter space time increases with t he gravitational field of a straight string in flat space time has the property that the Newtonian potential vanishes yet there are non trivial gravitational effects. A test particle is neither attracted nor repelled by a string, yet the conical nature of space outside of string produces observable effects such as light deflection . Schwarzschild Black hole is a mathematical solution to the Einstein's field equations and corresponds to the gravitational field of massive compact spherically symmetric ob normal. References 1. Aryal, M.M, A. Vilenkin and L.H Ford, 1986, Phys.Rev. D32 ,2262 2. Moriyasu ,K ., 1980 , An introduction to gauge Invariance 3. Vilenkin A., 1985 , Physical reports , cosmic strings and Domain walls 4. Berry, M. , 1976 , Principle of cosmology and Gravitation 5. Mishner , C.W ., K.S .Throne , J.A wheeler , 1973. (Author)
Vacuum solutions admitting a geodesic null congruence with shear proportional to expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupeli, A.H.
1988-01-01
Algebraically general, nontwisting solutions for the vacuum to vacuum generalized Kerr--Schild (GKS) transformation are obtained. These solutions admit a geodesic null congruence with shear proportional to expansion. In the Newman--Penrose formalism, if l/sup μ/ is chosen to be the null vector of the GKS transformation, this property is stated as σ = arho and Da = 0. It is assumed that a is a constant, and the background is chosen as a pp-wave solution. For generic values of a, the GKS metrics consist of the Kasner solutions. For a = +- (1 +- (2)/sup 1/2/), there are solutions with less symmetries including special cases of the Kota--Perjes and Lukacs solutions
Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport monte carlo code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Niita, Koji
2002-01-01
The high-energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which has been developed at JAERI, was improved for the high-energy heavy ion transport calculation by incorporating the JQMD code, the SPAR code and the Shen formula. The new NMTC/JAM named PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) is the first general-purpose heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code over the incident energies from several MeV/nucleon to several GeV/nucleon. (author)
Possible generalization of Yang variables for the study of many particle final states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, L.; Schiller, H.
1976-01-01
Starting from a discussion of constraints on invariant variables a generalization of the so called Yang-variables is discussed for the case of 5 and 6 particles in the final states. The obtained Lorentz-invariant variables are ''quasi permutation invariant'' with respect to the final state particles. The influence of Gram determinants is discussed in the context of the application of a cluster algorithm. (author)
Duality on Geodesics of Cartan Distributions and Sub-Riemannian Pseudo-Product Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishikawa Goo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Given a five dimensional space endowed with a Cartan distribution, the abnormal geodesics form another five dimensional space with a cone structure. Then it is shown in (15, that, if the cone structure is regarded as a control system, then the space of abnormal geodesics of the cone structure is naturally identified with the original space. In this paper, we provide an exposition on the duality by abnormal geodesics in a wider framework, namely, in terms of quotients of control systems and sub-Riemannian pseudo-product structures. Also we consider the controllability of cone structures and describe the constrained Hamiltonian equations on normal and abnormal geodesics.
A general concurrent algorithm for plasma particle-in-cell simulation codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liewer, P.C.; Decyk, V.K.
1989-01-01
We have developed a new algorithm for implementing plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation codes on concurrent processors with distributed memory. This algorithm, named the general concurrent PIC algorithm (GCPIC), has been used to implement an electrostatic PIC code on the 33-node JPL Mark III Hypercube parallel computer. To decompose at PIC code using the GCPIC algorithm, the physical domain of the particle simulation is divided into sub-domains, equal in number to the number of processors, such that all sub-domains have roughly equal numbers of particles. For problems with non-uniform particle densities, these sub-domains will be of unequal physical size. Each processor is assigned a sub-domain and is responsible for updating the particles in its sub-domain. This algorithm has led to a a very efficient parallel implementation of a well-benchmarked 1-dimensional PIC code. The dominant portion of the code, updating the particle positions and velocities, is nearly 100% efficient when the number of particles is increased linearly with the number of hypercube processors used so that the number of particles per processor is constant. For example, the increase in time spent updating particles in going from a problem with 11,264 particles run on 1 processor to 360,448 particles on 32 processors was only 3% (parallel efficiency of 97%). Although implemented on a hypercube concurrent computer, this algorithm should also be efficient for PIC codes on other parallel architectures and for large PIC codes on sequential computers where part of the data must reside on external disks. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
General decay law for emission of charged particles and exotic cluster radioactivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahu, Basudeb; Paira, Ramkrishna; Rath, Biswanath
2013-01-01
For the emission of charged particles from metastable nuclei, a general decay formula is developed based on the basic phenomenon of resonances occurring in quantum scattering process under Coulomb-nuclear potential. It relates the half-lives of monopole radioactive decays with the Q-values of the outgoing elements in different angular momentum states as well as the masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. The relation is found to be a generalization of the Geiger–Nuttall law in α radioactivity and it explains well all known emission of charged particles including clusters, alpha and proton carrying angular momenta
The topology of geodesically complete space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, C.W.
1983-01-01
Two theorems are given on the topology of geodesically complete space-times which satisfy the energy condition. Firstly, the condition that a compact embedded 3-manifold in space-time be dentless is defined in terms of causal structure. Then it is shown that a dentless 3-manifold must separate space-time, and that it must enclose a compact portion of space-time. Further, it is shown that if the dentless 3-manifold is homeomorphic to S 3 then the part of space-time that it encloses must be simply connected. (author)
A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan
2012-01-01
We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....... In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...
Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asenjo, Felipe A; Hojman, Sergio A
2017-01-01
We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non–rotating, as well as in Gödel and Kerr spacetimes. We show that Maxwell equations can be reduced to two uncoupled second-order differential equations for combinations of the components of the four-vector potential. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non–rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic waves on Gödel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior. (paper)
Fundamental geodesic deformations in spaces of treelike shapes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feragen, Aasa; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads
2010-01-01
This paper presents a new geometric framework for analysis of planar treelike shapes for applications such as shape matching, recognition and morphology, using the geometry of the space of treelike shapes. Mathematically, the shape space is given the structure of a stratified set which...... is a quotient of a normed vector space with a metric inherited from the vector space norm. We give examples of geodesic paths in tree-space corresponding to fundamental deformations of small trees, and discuss how these deformations are key building blocks for understanding deformations between larger trees....
Geodesic acoustic modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com; Lakhin, V. P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
The influence of the shape of the plasma cross section on the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak is analyzed in the framework of the MHD model. An expression for the frequency of a local GAM for a model noncircular cross section plasma equilibrium is derived. Amendments to the oscillation frequency due to the plasma elongation and triangularity and finite tokamak aspect ratio are calculated. It is shown that the main factor affecting the GAM spectrum is the plasma elongation, resulting in a significant decrease in the mode frequency.
Divided Spheres Geodesics and the Orderly Subdivision of the Sphere
Popko, Edward S
2012-01-01
This well-illustrated book-in color throughout-presents a thorough introduction to the mathematics of Buckminster Fuller's invention of the geodesic dome, which paved the way for a flood of practical applications as diverse as weather forecasting and fish farms. The author explains the principles of spherical design and the three main categories of subdivision based on geometric solids (polyhedra). He illustrates how basic and advanced CAD techniques apply to spherical subdivision and covers modern applications in product design, engineering, science, games, and sports balls.
A Generalized Weight-Based Particle-In-Cell Simulation Scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Jenkins, T.G.; Ethier, S.
2010-01-01
A generalized weight-based particle simulation scheme suitable for simulating magnetized plasmas, where the zeroth-order inhomogeneity is important, is presented. The scheme is an extension of the perturbative simulation schemes developed earlier for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The new scheme is designed to simulate both the perturbed distribution ((delta)f) and the full distribution (full-F) within the same code. The development is based on the concept of multiscale expansion, which separates the scale lengths of the background inhomogeneity from those associated with the perturbed distributions. The potential advantage for such an arrangement is to minimize the particle noise by using (delta)f in the linear stage stage of the simulation, while retaining the flexibility of a full-F capability in the fully nonlinear stage of the development when signals associated with plasma turbulence are at a much higher level than those from the intrinsic particle noise.
Perturbative evolution of particle orbits around Kerr black holes: time-domain calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Aleman, Ramon [Physical Sciences Department, University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Khanna, Gaurav [Natural Science Division, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968 (United States); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)
2003-07-21
We consider the problem of the gravitational waves produced by a particle of negligible mass orbiting a Kerr black hole. We treat the Teukolsky perturbation equation in the time domain numerically as a 2 + 1 partial differential equation. We model the particle by smearing the singularities in the source term by the use of narrow Gaussian distributions. We have been able to reproduce earlier results for equatorial circular orbits that were computed using the frequency-domain formalism. The time-domain approach is however geared for a more general evolution, for instance of nearly geodesic orbits under the effects of radiation reaction.
Perturbative evolution of particle orbits around Kerr black holes: time-domain calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Aleman, Ramon; Khanna, Gaurav; Pullin, Jorge
2003-01-01
We consider the problem of the gravitational waves produced by a particle of negligible mass orbiting a Kerr black hole. We treat the Teukolsky perturbation equation in the time domain numerically as a 2 + 1 partial differential equation. We model the particle by smearing the singularities in the source term by the use of narrow Gaussian distributions. We have been able to reproduce earlier results for equatorial circular orbits that were computed using the frequency-domain formalism. The time-domain approach is however geared for a more general evolution, for instance of nearly geodesic orbits under the effects of radiation reaction
Null geodesics and shadow of a rotating black hole in extended Chern-Simons modified gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amarilla, Leonardo; Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Giribet, Gaston
2010-01-01
The Chern-Simons modification to general relativity in four dimensions consists of adding to the Einstein-Hilbert term a scalar field that couples to the first-class Pontryagin density. In this theory, which has attracted considerable attention recently, the Schwarzschild metric persists as an exact solution, and this is why this model resists several observational constraints. In contrast, the spinning black hole solution of the theory is not given by the Kerr metric but by a modification of it, so far only known for slow rotation and small coupling constant. In the present paper, we show that, in this approximation, the null geodesic equation can be integrated, and this allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole. We discuss how, in addition to the angular momentum of the solution, the coupling to the Chern-Simons term deforms the shape of the shadow.
Quantum maps of geodesic flows on surfaces of constant negative curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogomolny, E.B.; Carioli, M.
1992-01-01
The Selberg zeta function Z(s) yields an exact relationship between the periodic orbits of a fully chaotic Hamiltonian system (the geodesic flow on surfaces of constant negative curvature) and the corresponding quantum system (the spectrum of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the same manifold). It was found that for certain manifolds Z(s) can be exactly rewritten as the Fredholm determinant det(1-T s ), where T s is the generalization of the Ruelle-Perron-Frobenius transfer operator. An alternative derivation of this result is presented, yielding a method to find not only the spectrum but also the eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in terms of eigenfunctions of T s . Various properties of the transfer operator are investigated both analytically and numerically. (author) 15 refs., 10 figs
From geodesics of the multipole solutions to the perturbed Kepler problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Ospino, J.
2010-01-01
A static and axisymmetric solution of the Einstein vacuum equations with a finite number of relativistic multipole moments (RMM) is written in multipole symmetry adapted (MSA) coordinates up to certain order of approximation, and the structure of its metric components is explicitly shown. From the equation of equatorial geodesics, we obtain the Binet equation for the orbits and it allows us to determine the gravitational potential that leads to the equivalent classical orbital equations of the perturbed Kepler problem. The relativistic corrections to Keplerian motion are provided by the different contributions of the RMM of the source starting from the monopole (Schwarzschild correction). In particular, the perihelion precession of the orbit is calculated in terms of the quadrupole and 2 4 -pole moments. Since the MSA coordinates generalize the Schwarzschild coordinates, the result obtained allows measurement of the relevance of the quadrupole moment in the first order correction to the perihelion frequency-shift.
General structure of a two-body operator for spin-(1/2) particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ershov, S.N.
2004-01-01
A direct derivation of the operator structure for two spin-(1/2) particles is presented subject to invariance under basic symmetries and Galilean frame transformation. The partial wave decomposition for coefficient functions, valid on- and off-shell, is explicitly deduced. The momentum transfer representation and angular momentum decomposition for general spin-dependent potentials are obtained
Generalized Sturmian Solutions for Many-Particle Schrödinger Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, John; Avery, James Emil
2004-01-01
The generalized Sturmian method for obtaining solutions to the many-particle Schrodinger equation is reviewed. The method makes use of basis functions that are solutions of an approximate Schrodinger equation with a weighted zeroth-order potential. The weighting factors are especially chosen so...
Smooth and Energy Saving Gait Planning for Humanoid Robot Using Geodesics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liandong Zhang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel gait planning method using geodesics for humanoid robot is given in this paper. Both the linear inverted pendulum model and the exact Single Support Phase (SSP are studied in our energy optimal gait planning based on geodesics. The kinetic energy of a 2-dimension linear inverted pendulum is obtained at first. We regard the kinetic energy as the Riemannian metric and the geodesic on this metric is studied and this is the shortest line between two points on the Riemannian surface. This geodesic is the optimal kinetic energy gait for the COG because the kinetic energy along geodesic is invariant according to the geometric property of geodesics and the walking is smooth and energy saving. Then the walking in Single Support Phase is studied and the energy optimal gait for the swing leg is obtained using our geodesics method. Finally, experiments using state-of-the-art method and using our geodesics optimization method are carried out respectively and the corresponding currents of the joint motors are recorded. With the currents comparing results, the feasibility of this new gait planning method is verified.
Properties of an Arithmetic Code for Geodesic Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, Daniel P B; Palazzo, Reginaldo Jr; Rios Leite, Jose R
2011-01-01
Topological analysis of chaotic dynamical systems emerged in the nineties as a powerful tool in the study of strange attractors in low-dimensional dynamical systems. It is based on identifying the stretching and squeezing mechanisms responsible for creating a strange attractor and organize all the unstable periodic orbits in this attractor. This method is concerned with the manifold generated by the chaotic system. Furthermore, as a mathematical object, the manifolds have a well studied geometric and algebraic structure, particularly for the case of compact surfaces. Intending to use this structure in the analysis and application of chaotic systems through their topological characteristics, we determine properties of geodesic codes for compact surfaces necessary for the construction of encoders from the symbolic sequences of experimental data generated by the unstable periodic orbits of the strange attractor (related to the behavior changes of the system with the variation of control parameters) to the geodesic code sequences, which permits to use the surface structure to study the system orbits.
Kastor-Traschen black holes, null geodesics and conformal circles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casey, Stephen
2012-01-01
The Kastor-Traschen metric is a time-dependent solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with positive cosmological constant Λ which can be used to describe an arbitrary number of charged dynamical black holes. In this paper, we consider the null geodesic structure of this solution, in particular, focusing on the projection to the space of orbits of the timelike conformal retraction. It is found that these projected light rays arise as integral curves of a system of third-order ordinary differential equations. This system is not uniquely defined, however, and we use the inherent freedom to construct a new system whose integral curves coincide with the projection of distinguished null curves of Kastor-Traschen arising from a magnetic flow. We discuss our results in the one-centre case and demonstrate a link to conformal circles in the limit Λ → 0. We also show how to construct analytic expressions for the projected null geodesics of this metric by exploiting a well-known diffeomorphism between the K-T metric and extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter. We make some remarks about the two-centre solution and demonstrate a link with the one-centre case. (paper)
Circular geodesics of naked singularities in the Kehagias-Sfetsos metric of Hořava's gravity
Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Schee, Jan; Kluźniak, Włodek; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Abramowicz, Marek
2014-07-01
We discuss photon and test-particle orbits in the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) metric of Hořava's gravity. For any value of the Hořava parameter ω, there are values of the gravitational mass M for which the metric describes a naked singularity, and this is always accompanied by a vacuum "antigravity sphere" on whose surface a test particle can remain at rest (in a zero angular momentum geodesic), and inside which no circular geodesics exist. The observational appearance of an accreting KS naked singularity in a binary system would be that of a quasistatic spherical fluid shell surrounded by an accretion disk, whose properties depend on the value of M, but are always very different from accretion disks familiar from the Kerr-metric solutions. The properties of the corresponding circular orbits are qualitatively similar to those of the Reissner-Nordström naked singularities. When event horizons are present, the orbits outside the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole are qualitatively similar to those of the Schwarzschild metric.
Modelling of a general purpose irradiation chamber using a Monte Carlo particle transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi; Sheik, F.O.A.; Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah
2013-01-01
Full-text: The aim of this research is to stimulate the effectiveness use of a general purpose irradiation chamber to contain pure neutron particles obtained from a research reactor. The secondary neutron and gamma particles dose discharge from the chamber layers will be used as a platform to estimate the safe dimension of the chamber. The chamber, made up of layers of lead (Pb), shielding, polyethylene (PE), moderator and commercial grade aluminium (Al) cladding is proposed for the use of interacting samples with pure neutron particles in a nuclear reactor environment. The estimation was accomplished through simulation based on general Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code using Los Alamos MCNPX software. Simulations were performed on the model of the chamber subjected to high neutron flux radiation and its gamma radiation product. The model of neutron particle used is based on the neutron source found in PUSPATI TRIGA MARK II research reactor which holds a maximum flux value of 1 x 10 12 neutron/ cm 2 s. The expected outcomes of this research are zero gamma dose in the core of the chamber and neutron dose rate of less than 10 μSv/ day discharge from the chamber system. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.
Circular geodesic of Bardeen and Ayon-Beato-Garcia regular black-hole and no-horizon spacetimes
Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study circular geodesic motion of test particles and photons in the Bardeen and Ayon-Beato-Garcia (ABG) geometry describing spherically symmetric regular black-hole or no-horizon spacetimes. While the Bardeen geometry is not exact solution of Einstein's equations, the ABG spacetime is related to self-gravitating charged sources governed by Einstein's gravity and nonlinear electrodynamics. They both are characterized by the mass parameter m and the charge parameter g. We demonstrate that in similarity to the Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) naked singularity spacetimes an antigravity static sphere should exist in all the no-horizon Bardeen and ABG solutions that can be surrounded by a Keplerian accretion disc. However, contrary to the RN naked singularity spacetimes, the ABG no-horizon spacetimes with parameter g/m > 2 can contain also an additional inner Keplerian disc hidden under the static antigravity sphere. Properties of the geodesic structure are reflected by simple observationally relevant optical phenomena. We give silhouette of the regular black-hole and no-horizon spacetimes, and profiled spectral lines generated by Keplerian rings radiating at a fixed frequency and located in strong gravity region at or nearby the marginally stable circular geodesics. We demonstrate that the profiled spectral lines related to the regular black-holes are qualitatively similar to those of the Schwarzschild black-holes, giving only small quantitative differences. On the other hand, the regular no-horizon spacetimes give clear qualitative signatures of their presence while compared to the Schwarschild spacetimes. Moreover, it is possible to distinguish the Bardeen and ABG no-horizon spacetimes, if the inclination angle to the observer is known.
Some general features of alpha-particle pick-up reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becchetti, F.D.; Jaenecke, J.
1982-01-01
The general features of single- and multi-α transfer reactions are discussed. While there are numerous difficulties in extracting α-particle ''spectroscopic'' factors, the reduced α-widths extracted appear to be meaningful. These can be related, in an absolute fashion, to α-decay widths (or α-decay lifetimes). Simpler theories describing α-particle transfer reactions are needed and should be formulated in terms of α-widths, i.e. α-particle densities in the nuclear periphery. These are the quantities measured in most experiments. IBA and SU 3 models appear to be most relevant and should be extended to α-transfer reactions for heavy nuclei. (Auth.)
Dynamics of continua and particles from general covariance of Newtonian gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C.; Kunzle, H.P.
1976-07-01
The principle of general covariance, which states that the total action functional in General Relativity is independent of coordinate transformations, is shown to be also applicable to the four-dimensional geometric theory of Newtonian gravitation. It leads to the correct conservation (or balance) equations of continuum mechanics as well as the equations of motion of test particles in a gravitational field. The degeneracy of the ''metric'' of Newtonian space-time forces to introduce a ''gauge field'' which fixes the connection and leads to a conserved current, the mass flow. The particle equations are also derived from an invariant Hamiltonian structure on the extended Galilei group and a minimal interaction principle. One not only finds the same equations of motion but even the same gauge fields
Statistical distribution for generalized ideal gas of fractional-statistics particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.
1994-01-01
We derive the occupation-number distribution in a generalized ideal gas of particles obeying fractional statistics, including mutual statistics, by adopting a state-counting definition. When there is no mutual statistics, the statistical distribution interpolates between bosons and fermions, and respects a fractional exclusion principle (except for bosons). Anyons in a strong magnetic field at low temperatures constitute such a physical system. Applications to the thermodynamic properties of quasiparticle excitations in the Laughlin quantum Hall fluid are discussed
Electromagnetic characteristics of geodesic acoustic mode in the COMPASS tokamak
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Seidl, Jakub; Krbec, Jaroslav; Hron, Martin; Adámek, Jiří; Hidalgo, C.; Markovič, Tomáš; Melnikov, A.V.; Stöckel, Jan; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Bogár, Ondrej; Böhm, Petr; Eliseev, L.G.; Háček, Pavel; Havlíček, Josef; Horáček, Jan; Imríšek, Martin; Kovařík, Karel; Mitošinková, Klára; Pánek, Radomír; Tomeš, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr
2017-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 126048. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA16-24724S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : geodesic acoustic mode * tokamak * turbulence * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016
Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Arata; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson–O’Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four-dimensions, by using the Maciejewski–Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing–Yano tensors. (paper)
Geodesic acoustic modes excited by finite beta drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, Nikhil Kumar; Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.
2008-01-01
Presented in this paper is a mode-coupling analysis for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by finite beta drift waves. The finite beta effects give rise to a strong stabilizing influence on the parametric excitation process. The dominant finite beta...... effect is the combination of the Maxwell stress, which has a tendency to cancel the primary drive from the Reynolds stress, and the finite beta modification of the drift waves. The zonal magnetic field is also excited at the GAM frequency. However, it does not contribute to the overall stability...... of the three-wave process for parameters of relevance to the edge region of tokamaks....
CUDA-Accelerated Geodesic Ray-Tracing for Fiber Tracking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evert van Aart
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI allows to noninvasively measure the diffusion of water in fibrous tissue. By reconstructing the fibers from DTI data using a fiber-tracking algorithm, we can deduce the structure of the tissue. In this paper, we outline an approach to accelerating such a fiber-tracking algorithm using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU. This algorithm, which is based on the calculation of geodesics, has shown promising results for both synthetic and real data, but is limited in its applicability by its high computational requirements. We present a solution which uses the parallelism offered by modern GPUs, in combination with the CUDA platform by NVIDIA, to significantly reduce the execution time of the fiber-tracking algorithm. Compared to a multithreaded CPU implementation of the same algorithm, our GPU mapping achieves a speedup factor of up to 40 times.
Geodesic Monitoring of Settling in Vertical Fuel Tanks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Enrique Acosta-González
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The behavior of the settling in a vertical tank used for fuel storage was studied. Monitoring was conducted using the geodesic model for the geometric leveling of high accuracy category II. The original project varied during construction by replacing deep foundations with a surface one applying compaction techniques to improve soil resistance. The deformation values obtained provided valuable information on the implementation of the proposed foundation alternative depending on time and loads. The maximum settling was reported to be 132,6 mm. The displacements in the control points located in the perimeter of the tank had a distinct nature with a maximum of 44,2 mm, which caused the foundation structure to crack.
Nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, N.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.; Guzdar, P. N.
2007-01-01
In this paper, two mode-coupling analyses for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by drift waves are presented. The first approach is a coherent parametric process, which leads to a three-wave resonant interaction. This investigation allows for the drift waves and the GAMs to have comparable scales. The second approach uses the wave-kinetic equations for the drift waves, which then couples to the GAMs. This requires that the GAM scale length be large compared to the wave packet associated with the drift waves. The resonance conditions for these two cases lead to specific predictions of the radial wave number of the excited GAMs
Maxwell fields and shear-free null geodesic congruences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, Ezra T
2004-01-01
We study and report on the class of vacuum Maxwell fields in Minkowski space that possess a non-degenerate, diverging, principal null vector field (null eigenvector field of the Maxwell tensor) that is tangent to a shear-free null geodesics congruence. These congruences can be either surface forming (the tangent vectors being proportional to gradients) or not, i.e., the twisting congruences. In the non-twisting case, the associated Maxwell fields are precisely the Lienard-Wiechert fields, i.e., those Maxwell fields arising from an electric monopole moving on an arbitrary worldline. The null geodesic congruence is given by the generators of the light-cones with apex on the worldline. The twisting case is much richer, more interesting and far more complicated. In a twisting subcase, where our main interests lie, the following strange interpretation can be given. If we allow the real Minkowski space to be complexified so that the real Minkowski coordinates x a take complex values, i.e., x a → z a = x a + iy a with complex metric g η ab dz a dz b , the real vacuum Maxwell equations can be extended into the complex space and rewritten as curl W=i W radical, div W=0 with W=E+iB. This subcase of Maxwell fields can then be extended into the complex space so as to have as source, a complex analytic worldline, i.e., to now become complex Lienard-Wiechart fields. When viewed as real fields on the real Minkowski space (z a = x a ), they possess a real principal null vector that is shear-free but twisting and diverging. The twist is a measure of how far the complex worldline is from the real 'slice'. Most Maxwell fields in this subcase are asymptotically flat with a time-varying set of electric and magnetic moments, all depending on the complex displacements and the complex velocities
Particles and holes equivalence for generalized seniority and the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talmi, I.
1982-01-01
An apparent ambiguity was recently reported in coupling either pairs of identical fermions or hole pairs. This is explained here as due to a Hamiltonian whose lowest eigenstates do not have the structure prescribed by generalized seniority. It is shown that generalized seniority eigenstates can be equivalently constructed from correlated J = 0 and J = 2 pair states of either particles or holes. The interacting boson model parameters calculated can be unambiguously interpreted and then are of real interest to the shell model basis of interacting boson model
General treatment of quantum and classical spinning particles in external fields
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2017-11-01
We develop the general theory of spinning particles with electric and magnetic dipole moments moving in arbitrary electromagnetic, inertial, and gravitational fields. Both the quantum-mechanical and classical dynamics is investigated. We start from the covariant Dirac equation extended to a spin-1/2 fermion with anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments and then perform the relativistic Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. This transformation allows us to obtain the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for the physical operators in the Schrödinger form and to establish the classical limit of relativistic quantum mechanics. The results obtained are then compared to the general classical description of the spinning particle interacting with electromagnetic, inertial and gravitational fields. The complete agreement between the quantum mechanics and the classical theory is proven in the general case. As an application of the results obtained, we consider the dynamics of a spinning particle in a gravitational wave and analyze the prospects of using the magnetic resonance setup to find possible manifestations of the gravitational wave on spin.
Optimized curve design for image analysis using localized geodesic distance transformations
Braithwaite, Billy; Niska, Harri; Pöllänen, Irene; Ikonen, Tiia; Haataja, Keijo; Toivanen, Pekka; Tolonen, Teemu
2015-03-01
We consider geodesic distance transformations for digital images. Given a M × N digital image, a distance image is produced by evaluating local pixel distances. Distance Transformation on Curved Space (DTOCS) evaluates shortest geodesics of a given pixel neighborhood by evaluating the height displacements between pixels. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework for geodesic distance transformations in a pattern recognition scheme, yielding more accurate machine learning based image analysis, exemplifying initial experiments using complex breast cancer images. Furthermore, we will outline future research work, which will complete the research work done for this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.J.; Mekjian, A.Z.
2004-01-01
Various phenomenological models of particle multiplicity distributions are discussed using a general form of a unified model which is based on the grand canonical partition function and Feynman's path integral approach to statistical processes. These models can be written as special cases of a more general distribution which has three control parameters which are a,x,z. The relation to these parameters to various physical quantities are discussed. A connection of the parameter a with Fisher's critical exponent τ is developed. Using this grand canonical approach, moments, cumulants and combinants are discussed and a physical interpretation of the combinants are given and their behavior connected to the critical exponent τ. Various physical phenomena such as hierarchical structure, void scaling relations, Koba-Nielson-Olesen or KNO scaling features, clan variables, and branching laws are shown in terms of this general approach. Several of these features which were previously developed in terms of the negative binomial distribution are found to be more general. Both hierarchical structure and void scaling relations depend on the Fisher exponent τ. Applications of our approach to the charged particle multiplicity distribution in jets of L3 and H1 data are given
Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet.
Hisayoshi, K; Uyeda, C; Terada, K
2016-12-08
Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.
Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet
Hisayoshi, K.; Uyeda, C.; Terada, K.
2016-12-01
Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.
Active motions of Brownian particles in a generalized energy-depot model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yong; Koo Kim, Chul; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock
2008-01-01
We present a generalized energy-depot model in which the rate of conversion of the internal energy into motion can be dependent on the position and velocity of a particle. When the conversion rate is a general function of the velocity, the active particle exhibits diverse patterns of motion, including a braking mechanism and a stepping motion. The phase trajectories of the motion are investigated in a systematic way. With a particular form of the conversion rate dependent on the position and velocity, the particle shows a spontaneous oscillation characterizing a negative stiffness. These types of active behaviors are compared with similar phenomena observed in biology, such as the stepping motion of molecular motors and amplification in the hearing mechanism. Hence, our model can provide a generic understanding of the active motion related to the energy conversion and also a new control mechanism for nano-robots. We also investigate the effect of noise, especially on the stepping motion, and observe random walk-like behavior as expected.
Dirac Particle for the Position Dependent Mass in the Generalized Asymmetric Woods-Saxon Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soner Alpdoğan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dirac equation with position dependent mass in the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential is solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The transmission and reflection coefficients are obtained by considering the one-dimensional electric current density for the Dirac particle and the equation describing the bound states is found by utilizing the continuity conditions of the obtained wave function. Also, by using the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential solutions, the scattering states are found out without making calculation for the Woods-Saxon, Hulthen, cusp potentials, and so forth, which are derived from the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential and the conditions describing transmission resonances and supercriticality are achieved. At the same time, the data obtained in this work are compared with the results achieved in earlier studies and are observed to be consistent.
Geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with maximum of local GAM frequency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhin, V.P. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sorokina, E.A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-01-24
The geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with the maximum of local GAM frequency is found analytically in the frame of MHD model. The analysis is based on the asymptotic matching technique.
Are eikonal quasinormal modes linked to the unstable circular null geodesics?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.A. Konoplya
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In Cardoso et al. [6] it was claimed that quasinormal modes which any stationary, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat black hole emits in the eikonal regime are determined by the parameters of the circular null geodesic: the real and imaginary parts of the quasinormal mode are multiples of the frequency and instability timescale of the circular null geodesics respectively. We shall consider asymptotically flat black hole in the Einstein–Lovelock theory, find analytical expressions for gravitational quasinormal modes in the eikonal regime and analyze the null geodesics. Comparison of the both phenomena shows that the expected link between the null geodesics and quasinormal modes is violated in the Einstein–Lovelock theory. Nevertheless, the correspondence exists for a number of other cases and here we formulate its actual limits.
Are eikonal quasinormal modes linked to the unstable circular null geodesics?
Konoplya, R. A.; Stuchlík, Z.
2017-08-01
In Cardoso et al. [6] it was claimed that quasinormal modes which any stationary, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat black hole emits in the eikonal regime are determined by the parameters of the circular null geodesic: the real and imaginary parts of the quasinormal mode are multiples of the frequency and instability timescale of the circular null geodesics respectively. We shall consider asymptotically flat black hole in the Einstein-Lovelock theory, find analytical expressions for gravitational quasinormal modes in the eikonal regime and analyze the null geodesics. Comparison of the both phenomena shows that the expected link between the null geodesics and quasinormal modes is violated in the Einstein-Lovelock theory. Nevertheless, the correspondence exists for a number of other cases and here we formulate its actual limits.
A generalization of Dirac non-linear electrodynamics, and spinning charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Vaz Junior, J.; Recami, E.
1992-08-01
The Dirac non-linear electrodynamics is generalized by introducing two potentials (namely, the vector potential a and the pseudo-vector potential γ 5 B of the electromagnetic theory with charges and magnetic monopoles), and by imposing the pseudoscalar part of the product W W * to BE zero, with W = A + γ 5 B. Also, is demonstrated that the field equations of such a theory posses a soliton-like solution which can represent a priori a charged particle. (L.C.J.A.)
Vol. 1: Physics of Elementary Particles and Quantum Field Theory. General Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, A.
1993-01-01
Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceedings are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to elementary particle physics and quantum field theory. The main attention is paid to the following problems: - development of science in Ukraine and its role in the state structures; - modern state of scientific research in Ukraine; - education and training of specialists; - history of Ukrainian physics and contribution of Ukrainian scientists in the world science; - problems of the Ukrainian scientific terminology
High energy particle collisions near black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaslavskii O. B.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect. The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchlik, Zdenek; Hledik, Stanislav; Soltes, Jiri; Ostgaard, Erlend
2001-01-01
Null geodesics and embedding diagrams of central planes in the ordinary space geometry and the optical reference geometry of the interior Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes with uniform density are studied. For completeness, both positive and negative values of the cosmological constant are considered. The null geodesics are restricted to the central planes of these spacetimes, and their properties can be reflected by an 'effective potential.' If the interior spacetime is extremely compact, the effective potential has a local maximum corresponding to a stable circular null geodesic around which bound null geodesics are concentrated. The upper limit on the size of the interior spacetimes containing bound null geodesics is R=3M, independently of the value of the cosmological constant. The embedding diagrams of the central planes of the ordinary geometry into three-dimensional Euclidean space are well defined for the complete interior of all spacetimes with a repulsive cosmological constant, but the planes cannot be embedded into the Euclidean space in the case of spacetimes with subcritical values of an attractive cosmological constant. On the other hand, the embedding diagrams of the optical geometry are well defined for all of the spacetimes, and the turning points of these diagrams correspond to the radii of the circular null geodesics. All the embedding diagrams, for both the ordinary and optical geometry, are smoothly matched to the corresponding embedding diagrams of the external vacuum Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes
A computer program for two-particle generalized coefficients of fractional parentage
Deveikis, A.; Juodagalvis, A.
2008-10-01
We present a FORTRAN90 program GCFP for the calculation of the generalized coefficients of fractional parentage (generalized CFPs or GCFP). The approach is based on the observation that the multi-shell CFPs can be expressed in terms of single-shell CFPs, while the latter can be readily calculated employing a simple enumeration scheme of antisymmetric A-particle states and an efficient method of construction of the idempotent matrix eigenvectors. The program provides fast calculation of GCFPs for a given particle number and produces results possessing numerical uncertainties below the desired tolerance. A single j-shell is defined by four quantum numbers, (e,l,j,t). A supplemental C++ program parGCFP allows calculation to be done in batches and/or in parallel. Program summaryProgram title:GCFP, parGCFP Catalogue identifier: AEBI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 199 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 88 658 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77/90 ( GCFP), C++ ( parGCFP) Computer: Any computer with suitable compilers. The program GCFP requires a FORTRAN 77/90 compiler. The auxiliary program parGCFP requires GNU-C++ compatible compiler, while its parallel version additionally requires MPI-1 standard libraries Operating system: Linux (Ubuntu, Scientific) (all programs), also checked on Windows XP ( GCFP, serial version of parGCFP) RAM: The memory demand depends on the computation and output mode. If this mode is not 4, the program GCFP demands the following amounts of memory on a computer with Linux operating system. It requires around 2 MB of RAM for the A=12 system at E⩽2. Computation of the A=50 particle system requires around 60 MB of
Effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution on plasma nuclear fusion rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.
2006-01-01
We investigate the effect of a generalized particle momentum distribution derived by Galitskii and Yakimets (GY) on nuclear reaction rates in plasma. We derive an approximate semi-analytical formula for nuclear fusion reaction rate between nuclei in a plasma (quantum plasma nuclear fusion; or QPNF). The QPNF formula is applied to calculate deuteron-deuteron fusion rate in a plasma, and the results are compared with the results calculated with the conventional Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. As an application, we investigate the deuteron-deuteron fusion rate for mobile deuterons in a deuterated metal/alloy. The calculated deuteron-deuteron fusion rates at low energies are enormously enhanced due to the modified tail of the GY's generalized momentum distribution. Our preliminary estimates indicate also that the deuteron-lithium (D+Li) fusion rate and the proton-lithium (p+Li) fusion rate in a metal/alloy at ambient temperatures are also substantially enhanced. (author)
Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain
González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.
2012-08-01
The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.
Extreme super-resolution using the spherical geodesic waveguide
Miñano, Juan Carlos; González, Juan Carlos; Benítez, Pablo; Grabovičkić, Dejan
2012-06-01
Leonhardt demonstrated (2009) that the 2D Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency, i.e., it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a "perfect point drain" located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution (SR) property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al, 2010). Although this prototype has been loaded with an impedance different from the "perfect point drain", it has shown super-resolution property. However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here we present steady state simulations for two cases, using perfect drain as suggested by Leonhardt and without perfect drain as in the prototype. All the simulations have been done using a device equivalent to the MFE, called the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW). The results show the super-resolution up to λ/3000, for the system loaded with the perfect drain, and up to λ /500 for a not perfect load. In both cases super-resolution only happens for discrete number of frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out.
Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González, Juan C; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C
2012-01-01
The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000. (paper)
Lagrangian dynamics of spinning particles and polarized media in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, Ian.
1980-01-01
The dynamic laws governing spinning multipole test particles and polarized media with internal spin are derived from both variational principles and the multipole formalism of extended bodies. The general form of the Lagrangian equations of motion is derived for a spinning multipole particle in given external fields. The author then considers the dynamics of a continuous medium with internal spin and multipole structure. From a four-dimensional action integral the field equations relating to fields generated by the medium to its bulk properties are derived, together with the balance laws expressing conservation of total four-momentum and spin. A natural splitting of the total energy-momentum tensor into matter and field parts is adopted that leads to a generalized Minkowski electromagnetic energy tensor. In both the electromagnetic and the gravitational field equations the source terms contain polarization contributions. It is shown that the multipole formalism may be used to formulate the same equations of motion, balance laws and decomposition of total energy-momentum as those resulting from variational principles
Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moffat, J.W.
1987-01-01
A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor g/sub μ//sub ν/, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor R/sub μ//sub ν/. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r = 0
Geodesically complete BTZ-type solutions of 2 + 1 Born–Infeld gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazeia, D; Losano, L; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D
2017-01-01
We study Born–Infeld gravity coupled to a static, non-rotating electric field in 2 + 1 dimensions and find exact analytical solutions. Two families of such solutions represent geodesically complete, and hence nonsingular, spacetimes. Another family represents a point-like charge with a singularity at the center. Despite the absence of rotation, these solutions resemble the charged, rotating BTZ solution of general relativity but with a richer structure in terms of horizons. The nonsingular character of the first two families turn out to be attached to the emergence of a wormhole structure on their innermost region. This seems to be a generic prediction of extensions of general relativity formulated in metric-affine (or Palatini) spaces, where metric and connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, C.R.
1985-01-01
We develop a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. The method is also applicable to Einstein's gravitational theory. Particles are represented by singularities in the field. The method is covariant at each step of the analysis. We also apply the method and find both in Einstein's unified field theory and in Einstein's gravitational theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In the case of Einstein's gravitational theory the results are the well-known equations of structure and motion of a neutral pole-dipole test particle in a given background gravitational field. In the case of Einstein's unified field theory the results are the same, providing we identify a certain symmetric second-rank tensor field appearing in Einstein's theory with the metric and gravitational field. We therefore discover not only the equations of structure and motion of a neutral test particle in Einstein's unified field theory, but we also discover what field in Einstein's theory plays the role of metric and gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effenberger, F.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Barra, S.; Kleimann, J.; Strauss, R. D.
2012-01-01
The spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can, in the most general case, be fully anisotropic, i.e., one has to distinguish three diffusion axes in a local, field-aligned frame. We reexamine the transformation for the diffusion tensor from this local to a global frame, in which the Parker transport equation for energetic particles is usually formulated and solved. Particularly, we generalize the transformation formulae to allow for an explicit choice of two principal local perpendicular diffusion axes. This generalization includes the 'traditional' diffusion tensor in the special case of isotropic perpendicular diffusion. For the local frame, we describe the motivation for the choice of the Frenet-Serret trihedron, which is related to the intrinsic magnetic field geometry. We directly compare the old and the new tensor elements for two heliospheric magnetic field configurations, namely the hybrid Fisk and Parker fields. Subsequently, we examine the significance of the different formulations for the diffusion tensor in a standard three-dimensional model for the modulation of galactic protons. For this, we utilize a numerical code to evaluate a system of stochastic differential equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation and present the resulting modulated spectra. The computed differential fluxes based on the new tensor formulation deviate from those obtained with the 'traditional' one (only valid for isotropic perpendicular diffusion) by up to 60% for energies below a few hundred MeV depending on heliocentric distance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaslavskii, Oleg B
2012-01-01
We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, E c.m. ∼ κ −n where for the ISCO, n= 1/3 in case (i) or n= 1/2 in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n= 1/2 in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon. (paper)
Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2012-10-01
We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, Ec.m. ˜ κ-n where for the ISCO, n=\\frac{1}{3} in case (i) or n=\\frac{1}{2} in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n=\\frac{1}{2} in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang-Qian Li
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This study considers the generalized uncertainty principle, which incorporates the central idea of large extra dimensions, to investigate the processes involved when massive spin-1 particles tunnel from Reissner–Nordstrom and Kerr black holes under the effects of quantum gravity. For the black hole, the quantum gravity correction decelerates the increase in temperature. Up to O(1Mf2, the corrected temperatures are affected by the mass and angular momentum of the emitted vector bosons. In addition, the temperature of the Kerr black hole becomes uneven due to rotation. When the mass of the black hole approaches the order of the higher dimensional Planck mass Mf, it stops radiating and yields a black hole remnant.
Yin, Yong; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Feng
2018-03-01
A generalized irreversible quantum Stirling refrigeration cycle (GIQSRC) is proposed. The working substance of the GIQSRC is a particle confined in a general 1D potential which energy spectrum can be expressed as εn = ℏωnσ . Heat leakage and non-ideal regeneration loss are taken into account. The expressions of coefficient of performance (COP) and dimensionless cooling load are obtained. The different practical cases of the energy spectrum are analyzed. The results of this paper are meaningful to understand the quantum thermodynamics cycles with a particle confined in different potential as working substance.
3D Facial Similarity Measure Based on Geodesic Network and Curvatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junli Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Automated 3D facial similarity measure is a challenging and valuable research topic in anthropology and computer graphics. It is widely used in various fields, such as criminal investigation, kinship confirmation, and face recognition. This paper proposes a 3D facial similarity measure method based on a combination of geodesic and curvature features. Firstly, a geodesic network is generated for each face with geodesics and iso-geodesics determined and these network points are adopted as the correspondence across face models. Then, four metrics associated with curvatures, that is, the mean curvature, Gaussian curvature, shape index, and curvedness, are computed for each network point by using a weighted average of its neighborhood points. Finally, correlation coefficients according to these metrics are computed, respectively, as the similarity measures between two 3D face models. Experiments of different persons’ 3D facial models and different 3D facial models of the same person are implemented and compared with a subjective face similarity study. The results show that the geodesic network plays an important role in 3D facial similarity measure. The similarity measure defined by shape index is consistent with human’s subjective evaluation basically, and it can measure the 3D face similarity more objectively than the other indices.
Influence of geometry variations on the gravitational focusing of timelike geodesic congruences
Seriu, Masafumi
2015-10-01
We derive a set of equations describing the linear response of the convergence properties of a geodesic congruence to arbitrary geometry variations. It is a combination of equations describing the deviations from the standard Raychaudhuri-type equations due to the geodesic shifts and an equation describing the geodesic shifts due to the geometry variations. In this framework, the geometry variations, which can be chosen arbitrarily, serve as probes to investigate the gravitational contraction processes from various angles. We apply the obtained framework to the case of conformal geometry variations, characterized by an arbitrary function f (x ), and see that the formulas get simplified to a great extent. We investigate the response of the convergence properties of geodesics in the latest phase of gravitational contractions by restricting the class of conformal geometry variations to the one satisfying the strong energy condition. We then find out that in the final stage, f and D .D f control the overall contraction behavior and that the contraction rate gets larger when f is negative and |f | is so large as to overwhelm |D .D f |. (Here D .D is the Laplacian operator on the spatial hypersurfaces orthogonal to the geodesic congruence in concern.) To get more concrete insights, we also apply the framework to the time-reversed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model as the simplest case of the singularity formations.
Forces between a rigid probe particle and a liquid interface. II. The general case.
Dagastine, R R; White, L R
2002-03-15
The semianalytic theory developed previously (Chan, D. Y. C., Dagastine, R. R., and White, L. R., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 236, 141 (2001)) to predict the force curve of an AFM measurement at a liquid interface using a colloidal probe has been expanded to incorporate a general force law with both attractive and repulsive forces. Expressions for the gradient of the force curve are developed to calculate the point at which the probe particle on the cantilever will spontaneously jump in toward the liquid interface. The calculation of the jump instability is reduced to a straightforward embroidery of the simple algorithms presented in Chan et al. In a variety of sample calculations using force laws including van der Waals, electrostatic, and hydrophobic forces for both oil/water and bubble/water interfaces, we have duplicated the general behaviors observed in several AFM investigations at liquid interfaces. The behavior of the drop as a Hookean spring and the numerical difficulties of a full numerical calculation of F(deltaX) are also discussed.
Stability of geodesic imcompleteness for Robertson-Walker space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beem, J.K.
1981-01-01
Let (M,g) be a Lorentzian warped product space-time M = (a, b) X H,g = -dt 2 x fh, where -infinity -infinity and (H,h) is homogeneous, then the past incompleteness of every timelike geodesic of (M,g) is stable under small C 0 perturbations in the space Lor(M) of Lorentzian metrics for M. Also it is shown that if (H,h) is isotropic and (M,g) contains a past-inextendible, past-incomplete null geodesic, then the past incompleteness of all null geodesics is stable under small C 1 perturbations in Lor(M). Given either the isotropy or homogeneity of the Riemannian factor, the background space-time (M,g) is globally hyperbolic. The results of this paper, in particular, answer a question raised by D. Lerner for big bang Robertson-Walker cosmological models affirmatively. (author)
Elizondo-Aguilera, L. F.; Zubieta Rico, P. F.; Ruiz-Estrada, H.; Alarcón-Waess, O.
2014-11-01
A self-consistent generalized Langevin-equation theory is proposed to describe the self- and collective dynamics of a liquid of linear Brownian particles. The equations of motion for the spherical harmonics projections of the collective and self-intermediate-scattering functions, Fl m ,l m(k ,t ) and Flm ,l m S(k ,t ) , are derived as a contraction of the description involving the stochastic equations of the corresponding tensorial one-particle density nl m(k ,t ) and the translational (α =T ) and rotational (α =R ) current densities jlm α(k ,t ) . Similar to the spherical case, these dynamic equations require as an external input the equilibrium structural properties of the system contained in the projections of the static structure factor, denoted by Sl m ,l m(k ) . Complementing these exact equations with simple (Vineyard-like) approximate relations for the collective and the self-memory functions we propose a closed self-consistent set of equations for the dynamic properties involved. In the long-time asymptotic limit, these equations become the so-called bifurcation equations, whose solutions (the nonergodicity parameters) can be written, extending the spherical case, in terms of one translational and one orientational scalar dynamic order parameter, γT and γR, which characterize the possible dynamical arrest transitions of the system. As a concrete illustrative application of this theory we determine the dynamic arrest diagram of the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. In qualitative agreement with mode coupling theory, the present self-consistent equations also predict three different regions in the state space spanned by the macroscopic control parameters η (volume fraction) and T* (scaled temperature): a region of fully ergodic states, a region of mixed states, in which the translational degrees of freedom become arrested while the orientational degrees of freedom remain ergodic, and a region of fully nonergodic states.
Calculation of positron binding energies using the generalized any particle propagator theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Jonathan; Charry, Jorge A.; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Reyes, Andrés
2014-01-01
We recently extended the electron propagator theory to any type of quantum species based in the framework of the Any-Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) approach [J. Romero, E. Posada, R. Flores-Moreno, and A. Reyes, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074105 (2012)]. The generalized any particle molecular orbital propagator theory (APMO/PT) was implemented in its quasiparticle second order version in the LOWDIN code and was applied to calculate nuclear quantum effects in electron binding energies and proton binding energies in molecular systems [M. Díaz-Tinoco, J. Romero, J. V. Ortiz, A. Reyes, and R. Flores-Moreno, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194108 (2013)]. In this work, we present the derivation of third order quasiparticle APMO/PT methods and we apply them to calculate positron binding energies (PBEs) of atoms and molecules. We calculated the PBEs of anions and some diatomic molecules using the second order, third order, and renormalized third order quasiparticle APMO/PT approaches and compared our results with those previously calculated employing configuration interaction (CI), explicitly correlated and quantum Montecarlo methodologies. We found that renormalized APMO/PT methods can achieve accuracies of ∼0.35 eV for anionic systems, compared to Full-CI results, and provide a quantitative description of positron binding to anionic and highly polar species. Third order APMO/PT approaches display considerable potential to study positron binding to large molecules because of the fifth power scaling with respect to the number of basis sets. In this regard, we present additional PBE calculations of some small polar organic molecules, amino acids and DNA nucleobases. We complement our numerical assessment with formal and numerical analyses of the treatment of electron-positron correlation within the quasiparticle propagator approach
Elizondo-Aguilera, L F; Zubieta Rico, P F; Ruiz-Estrada, H; Alarcón-Waess, O
2014-11-01
A self-consistent generalized Langevin-equation theory is proposed to describe the self- and collective dynamics of a liquid of linear Brownian particles. The equations of motion for the spherical harmonics projections of the collective and self-intermediate-scattering functions, F_{lm,lm}(k,t) and F_{lm,lm}^{S}(k,t), are derived as a contraction of the description involving the stochastic equations of the corresponding tensorial one-particle density n_{lm}(k,t) and the translational (α=T) and rotational (α=R) current densities j_{lm}^{α}(k,t). Similar to the spherical case, these dynamic equations require as an external input the equilibrium structural properties of the system contained in the projections of the static structure factor, denoted by S_{lm,lm}(k). Complementing these exact equations with simple (Vineyard-like) approximate relations for the collective and the self-memory functions we propose a closed self-consistent set of equations for the dynamic properties involved. In the long-time asymptotic limit, these equations become the so-called bifurcation equations, whose solutions (the nonergodicity parameters) can be written, extending the spherical case, in terms of one translational and one orientational scalar dynamic order parameter, γ_{T} and γ_{R}, which characterize the possible dynamical arrest transitions of the system. As a concrete illustrative application of this theory we determine the dynamic arrest diagram of the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. In qualitative agreement with mode coupling theory, the present self-consistent equations also predict three different regions in the state space spanned by the macroscopic control parameters η (volume fraction) and T* (scaled temperature): a region of fully ergodic states, a region of mixed states, in which the translational degrees of freedom become arrested while the orientational degrees of freedom remain ergodic, and a region of fully nonergodic states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kun-Lin Wu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, mobile robot navigation on a 3D terrain with a single obstacle is addressed. The terrain is modelled as a smooth, complete manifold with well-defined tangent planes and the hazardous region is modelled as an enclosing circle with a hazard grade tuned radius representing the obstacle projected onto the terrain to allow efficient path-obstacle intersection checking. To resolve the intersections along the initial geodesic, by resorting to the geodesic ideas from differential geometry on surfaces and manifolds, we present a geodesic-based planning and replanning algorithm as a new method for obstacle avoidance on a 3D terrain without using boundary following on the obstacle surface. The replanning algorithm generates two new paths, each a composition of two geodesics, connected via critical points whose locations are found to be heavily relying on the exploration of the terrain via directional scanning on the tangent plane at the first intersection point of the initial geodesic with the circle. An advantage of this geodesic path replanning procedure is that traversability of terrain on which the detour path traverses could be explored based on the local Gauss-Bonnet Theorem of the geodesic triangle at the planning stage. A simulation demonstrates the practicality of the analytical geodesic replanning procedure for navigating a constant speed point robot on a 3D hill-like terrain.
Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.
A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…
Geodesics on a hot plate: an example of a two-dimensional curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkal, Cahit
2006-01-01
The equation of the geodesics on a hot plate with a radially symmetric temperature profile is derived using the Lagrangian approach. Numerical solutions are presented with an eye towards (a) teaching two-dimensional curved space and the metric used to determine the geodesics (b) revealing some characteristics of two-dimensional curved spacetime and (c) providing insight into understanding the curved space which emerges in teaching relativity. In order to provide a deeper insight, we also present the analytical solutions and show that they represent circles whose characteristics depend on curvature of the space, conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion
Geodesics on a hot plate: an example of a two-dimensional curved space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erkal, Cahit [Department of Geology, Geography, and Physics, University of Tennessee, Martin, TN 38238 (United States)
2006-07-01
The equation of the geodesics on a hot plate with a radially symmetric temperature profile is derived using the Lagrangian approach. Numerical solutions are presented with an eye towards (a) teaching two-dimensional curved space and the metric used to determine the geodesics (b) revealing some characteristics of two-dimensional curved spacetime and (c) providing insight into understanding the curved space which emerges in teaching relativity. In order to provide a deeper insight, we also present the analytical solutions and show that they represent circles whose characteristics depend on curvature of the space, conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion.
Null geodesics in black hole metrics with non-zero cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchlik, Z.; Calvani, M.
1990-02-01
We study the radial motion along null geodesics in the Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter and Kerr-de Sitter space-times. We analyze the properties of the effective potential and we discuss circular orbits. We find that the radii of circular geodesics in the Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter space-time do not depend on the cosmological constant, and we explain this property using the optical reference geometry. In addition, we describe the unusual consequences of the interplay between rotation of the source and cosmological repulsion. (author). 16 refs, 8 figs
From Geodesic Flow on a Surface of Negative Curvature to Electronic Generator of Robust Chaos
Kuznetsov, Sergey P.
2016-12-01
Departing from the geodesic flow on a surface of negative curvature as a classic example of the hyperbolic chaotic dynamics, we propose an electronic circuit operating as a generator of rough chaos. Circuit simulation in NI Multisim software package and numerical integration of the model equations are provided. Results of computations (phase trajectories, time dependencies of variables, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectra) show good correspondence between the chaotic dynamics on the attractor of the proposed system and of the Anosov dynamics for the original geodesic flow.
Unique Two-Way Field Probe Concept Utilizing a Geodesic Sphere and Quad-Rotor
2015-03-26
encompass the quad-rotor. This cage will behave like a faraday cage of sorts, shielding the quad-rotor’s RCS phenomenology from the radar’s antenna...test volume. Second, because the quad-rotor’s structural geometry is a cause for concern, a geodesic cage , in the shape of a sphere, will be built to...be the development of the geodesic cage that will encompass the quad-rotor along with an analysis of its scattering statistics as function of the
Twisting null geodesic congruences, scri, H-space and spin-angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozameh, Carlos; Newman, E T; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto
2005-01-01
The purpose of this work is to return, with a new observation and rather unconventional point of view, to the study of asymptotically flat solutions of Einstein equations. The essential observation is that from a given asymptotically flat spacetime with a given Bondi shear, one can find (by integrating a partial differential equation) a class of asymptotically shear-free (but, in general, twisting) null geodesic congruences. The class is uniquely given up to the arbitrary choice of a complex analytic world line in a four-parameter complex space. Surprisingly, this parameter space turns out to be the H-space that is associated with the real physical spacetime under consideration. The main development in this work is the demonstration of how this complex world line can be made both unique and also given a physical meaning. More specifically, by forcing or requiring a certain term in the asymptotic Weyl tensor to vanish, the world line is uniquely determined and becomes (by several arguments) identified as the 'complex centre of mass'. Roughly, its imaginary part becomes identified with the intrinsic spin-angular momentum while the real part yields the orbital angular momentum. One should think of this work as developing a generalization of the properties of the algebraically special spacetimes in the sense that the term that is forced here to vanish is automatically vanishing (among many other terms) for all the algebraically special metrics. This is demonstrated in the several given examples. It was, in fact, an understanding of the algebraically special metrics and their associated shear-free null congruence that led us to this construction of the asymptotically shear-free congruences and the unique complex world line. The Robinson-Trautman metrics and the Kerr and charged Kerr metrics with their properties are explicit examples of the construction given here
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panou G.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The direct geodesic problem on an oblate spheroid is described as an initial value problem and is solved numerically using both geodetic and Cartesian coordinates. The geodesic equations are formulated by means of the theory of differential geometry. The initial value problem under consideration is reduced to a system of first-order ordinary differential equations, which is solved using a numerical method. The solution provides the coordinates and the azimuths at any point along the geodesic. The Clairaut constant is not used for the solution but it is computed, allowing to check the precision of the method. An extensive data set of geodesics is used, in order to evaluate the performance of the method in each coordinate system. The results for the direct geodesic problem are validated by comparison to Karney’s method. We conclude that a complete, stable, precise, accurate and fast solution of the problem in Cartesian coordinates is accomplished.
Point-particle limit and the far-zone quadrupole formula in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futamase, T.
1985-01-01
Strong internal gravity is incorporated in a divergent-free post-Newtonian approximation scheme by introducing a body-zone limit. When incorporated into the notion of sequences of solutions, this provides the first rigorous point-particle limit in general relativity. The scheme is applied to construct an asymptotic approximation to a binary system composed of two rotating neutron stars. The lowest-order calculation is carried out in the near and far zones, giving Newton's equations of motion and the far-zone quadrupole formula. The quadrupole moment of the system is expressed in terms of a mass integral over each compact star. The same mass appears in Newton's equations of motion. The mass is indeed the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass the compact star would have if it were isolated. Thus the equivalence principle for strong gravity is confirmed, even for gravitational radiation: gravitational potential energy radiates the same amount of gravitational waves as any other form of energy does
Towards a generalized Landau theory of quasi-particles for hot dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leermakers, R.
1985-01-01
In this thesis it is tried to construct a Landau quasi-particle theory for relativistic systems, using field-theoretical methods. It includes a perturbative calculation of the pressure of a quark-gluon plasma. It reports the existence of a hitherto unnoticed plasmon contribution of the order g 3 due to transverse quasi-gluons. A new and Lorentz covariant formulation of the Landau theory is being developed, for a general relativistic system. A detailed calculation is presented of the observables of a quantum electrodynamical (QED) plasma, in lowest orders of perturbation theory. A transverse plasmon effect is discovered, both analytically and numerically. In addition, the analysis shows quasi-electrons and positrons to be stable excitations at any temperature. This is proven in all orders of perturbation theory. Along with a Landau theory for quark-gluon matter, a linearized kinetic equation is derived for the singlet quark distribution function, with a collision term for soft encounters between quasi-quarks. (Auth.)
On the geodesic incompleteness of spacetimes containing marginally (outer) trapped surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa e Silva, I P
2012-01-01
In a recent paper, Eichmair et al (2012 arXiv:1204.0278v1) have proved a Gannon–Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. A natural question is whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this paper, some variants of their result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting that the answer is generically negative, at least if the putative extension has no closed timelike curves. We consider first marginally trapped surfaces (MTS) in chronological spacetimes, introducing the natural notion of a generic MTS, a notion also applicable to MOTS. In particular, a Hawking–Penrose-type singularity theorem is proven in chronological spacetimes with dimension n ⩾ 3 containing a generic MTS. Such surfaces naturally arise as cross-sections of quasi-local generalizations of black hole horizons, such as dynamical and trapping horizons, and we discuss some natural conditions which ensure the existence of MTS in initial data sets. Nevertheless, much of the more recent literature has focused on MOTS rather than MTS as quasi-local substitutes for the description of black holes, as they are arguably more natural and easier to handle in a number of situations. It is therefore pertinent to ask to what extent one can deduce the existence of singularities in the presence of MOTS alone. We address this issue and show that singularities indeed arise in the presence of generic MOTS, but under slightly stronger causal conditions than those in the case of MTS (specifically, for causally simple spacetimes). On the other hand, we show that with additional conditions on the MOTS itself, namely that it is either the boundary of a compact spatial region, or strictly stable in a suitable sense, a Penrose–Hawking-type singularity theorem can still be established for
An equation satisfied by the tangent to a shear-free, geodesic, null congruence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogan, P.A.; Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies
1987-01-01
A tensorial equation satisfied by the tangent to a shear-free geodesic, null congruence is presented. If the congruence is neither twist-free nor expansion-free then the equation defines a second, unique, null direction previously obtained, using the spinor formalism, by Somers. Some further properties of the equation are discussed. (orig.)
High-speed scattering of charged and uncharged particles in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westphal, K.
1985-01-01
After a brief consideration of the high-speed scattering of two point charges high-speed scattering is thoroughly discussed for a charged particle by a fixed mass and of two uncharged particles of comparable masses. Perturbation technique is used over Minkowski spacetime in the de Donder gauge and the field equations and the resulting equations of motion (which take the reaction of the particles' quasistatic self-field into account) are solved by iteration. The obtained energy-momentum conservation laws allow the computation of second-order corrections for the scattering angle and the cross section. The asymptotic structure of the far-field indicates synchrotron radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational, respectively) which causes an energy loss whose reaction on the motion is briefly considered in the low-velocity limit including bound motion. (For neutral particles this is a third-order effect.) (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bekir Can LÜTFÜOĞLU
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The energy eigenvalues and the wave functions of an α particle in a Bohrium 270 nucleus have been calculated by solving Schrödinger equation for Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon potential. Using the energy spectrum by excluding and including the quasi-bound eigenvalues, entropy, internal energy, Helmholtz energy, and specific heat, as functions of reduced temperature have been calculated. Stability and emission characteristics have been interpreted in terms of the wave and thermodynamic functions. The kinetic energy of a decayed α particle was calculated using the quasi-bound states, which has been found close to the experimental value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Toshmatov, Bobir; Hladík, Jan; Novotný, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: bobir.toshmatov@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: jan.hladik@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: jan.novotny@fpf.slu.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2017-06-01
We study behaviour of gravitational waves in the recently introduced general relativistic polytropic spheres containing a region of trapped null geodesics extended around radius of the stable null circular geodesic that can exist for the polytropic index N > 2.138 and the relativistic parameter, giving ratio of the central pressure p {sub c} to the central energy density ρ{sub c}, higher than σ = 0.677. In the trapping zones of such polytropes, the effective potential of the axial gravitational wave perturbations resembles those related to the ultracompact uniform density objects, giving thus similar long-lived axial gravitational modes. These long-lived linear perturbations are related to the stable circular null geodesic and due to additional non-linear phenomena could lead to conversion of the trapping zone to a black hole. We give in the eikonal limit examples of the long-lived gravitational modes, their oscillatory frequencies and slow damping rates, for the trapping zones of the polytropes with N element of (2.138,4). However, in the trapping polytropes the long-lived damped modes exist only for very large values of the multipole number ℓ > 50, while for smaller values of ℓ the numerical calculations indicate existence of fast growing unstable axial gravitational modes. We demonstrate that for polytropes with N ≥ 3.78, the trapping region is by many orders smaller than extension of the polytrope, and the mass contained in the trapping zone is about 10{sup −3} of the total mass of the polytrope. Therefore, the gravitational instability of such trapping zones could serve as a model explaining creation of central supermassive black holes in galactic halos or galaxy clusters.
Mishchenko, Michael I
2017-10-01
The majority of previous studies of the interaction of individual particles and multi-particle groups with electromagnetic field have focused on either elastic scattering in the presence of an external field or self-emission of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper we apply semi-classical fluctuational electrodynamics to address the ubiquitous scenario wherein a fixed particle or a fixed multi-particle group is exposed to an external quasi-polychromatic electromagnetic field as well as thermally emits its own electromagnetic radiation. We summarize the main relevant axioms of fluctuational electrodynamics, formulate in maximally rigorous mathematical terms the general scattering-emission problem for a fixed object, and derive such fundamental corollaries as the scattering-emission volume integral equation, the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the dyadic transition operator, the multi-particle scattering-emission equations, and the far-field limit. We show that in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, the computation of the self-emitted component of the total field is completely separated from that of the elastically scattered field. The same is true of the computation of the emitted and elastically scattered components of quadratic/bilinear forms in the total electromagnetic field. These results pave the way to the practical computation of relevant optical observables.
Noise-to-signal transition of a Brownian particle in the cubic potential: I. general theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Filip, R.; Zemánek, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 6 (2016), 065401:1-8 ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optically trapped particles * Brownian motion * optomechanics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.741, year: 2016
General classification of charged test particle circular orbits in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Quevedo, H. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ruffini, R. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy)
2017-04-15
We investigate charged particles' circular motion in the gravitational field of a charged mass distribution described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We introduce a set of independent parameters completely characterizing the different spatial regions in which circular motion is allowed. We provide a most complete classification of circular orbits for different sets of particle and source charge-to-mass ratios. We study both black holes and naked singularities and show that the behavior of charged particles depend drastically on the type of source. Our analysis shows in an alternative manner that the behavior of circular orbits can in principle be used to distinguish between black holes and naked singularities. From this analysis, special limiting values for the dimensionless charge of black hole and naked singularity emerge, namely, Q/M = 1/2, Q/M = √(13)/5 and Q/M = √(2/3) for the black hole case and Q/M = 1, Q/M = 5/(2√(6)), Q/M = 3√(6)/7, and finally Q/M = √(9/8) for the naked singularity case. Similarly and surprisingly, analogous limits emerge for the orbiting particles charge-to-mass ratio ε, for positive charges ε = 1, ε = 2 and ε = M/Q. These limits play an important role in the study of the coupled electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, and the investigation of the role of the charge in the gravitational collapse of compact objects. (orig.)
A Generalized Boltzmann Fokker-Planck Method for Coupled Charged Particle Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prinja, Anil K
2012-01-09
The goal of this project was to develop and investigate the performance of reduced-physics formulations of high energy charged particle (electrons, protons and heavier ions) transport that are computationally more efficient than not only analog Monte Carlo methods but also the established condensed history Monte Carlo technique. Charged particles interact with matter by Coulomb collisions with target nuclei and electrons, by bremsstrahlung radiation loss and by nuclear reactions such as spallation and fission. Of these, inelastic electronic collisions and elastic nuclear collisions are the dominant cause of energy-loss straggling and angular deflection or range straggling of a primary particle. These collisions are characterized by extremely short mean free paths (sub-microns) and highly peaked, near-singular differential cross sections about forward directions and zero energy loss, with the situation for protons and heavier ions more extreme than for electrons. For this reason, analog or truephysics single-event Monte Carlo simulation, while possible in principle, is computationally prohibitive for routine calculation of charged particle interaction phenomena.
Lie symmetries for charged particles in the presence of a general electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medeiros Ritter, Oswaldo de.
1991-10-01
We discuss the Lie method and apply it to differential equations obtaining their symmetries. We also discuss methods of how to obtain first integrals from these symmetries. We apply these methods to some interesting physical problems, all of them involving charged particles in electromagnetic fields. (author). 77 refs
Digital in-line holography assessment for general phase and opaque particle
Coëtmellec, S.; Wichitwong, W.; Gréhan, G.; Lebrun, D.; Brunel, M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.
2014-01-01
We propose using the circle polynomials to describe a particle’s transmission function in a digital holography setup. This allows both opaque and phase particles to be determined. By means of this description, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the digital in-line hologram produced by a
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations
Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P
We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Espanol and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.; Lieberman, J.
1978-01-01
We reanalyze the problem of regularization of the stress-energy tensor for massless vector particles propating in a general background metric, using covariant point separation techniques applied to the Hadamard elementary solution. We correct an error, point out by Wald, in the earlier formulation of Adler, Lieberman, and Ng, and find a stress-energy tensor trace anomaly agreeing with that found by other regularization methods
Biancalani, A.; Bottino, A.; Ehrlacher, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Merlo, G.; Novikau, I.; Qiu, Z.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Garbet, X.; Görler, T.; Leerink, S.; Palermo, F.; Zarzoso, D.
2017-06-01
The linear properties of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamaks are investigated by means of the comparison of analytical theory and gyrokinetic numerical simulations. The dependence on the value of the safety factor, finite-orbit-width of the ions in relation to the radial mode width, magnetic-flux-surface shaping, and electron/ion mass ratio are considered. Nonuniformities in the plasma profiles (such as density, temperature, and safety factor), electro-magnetic effects, collisions, and the presence of minority species are neglected. Also, only linear simulations are considered, focusing on the local dynamics. We use three different gyrokinetic codes: the Lagrangian (particle-in-cell) code ORB5, the Eulerian code GENE, and semi-Lagrangian code GYSELA. One of the main aims of this paper is to provide a detailed comparison of the numerical results and analytical theory, in the regimes where this is possible. This helps understanding better the behavior of the linear GAM dynamics in these different regimes, the behavior of the codes, which is crucial in the view of a future work where more physics is present, and the regimes of validity of each specific analytical dispersion relation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Yuji
1999-01-01
The one-loop effective action for general trajectories of D-particles in Matrix theory is calculated in the expansion with respect to the number of derivatives up to six, which gives the equation of motion consistently. The result shows that the terms with six derivatives vanish for straight-line trajectories, however, they do not vanish in general. This provides a concrete example that non-renormalization of twelve-fermion terms does not necessarily imply that of six-derivative terms
Fröb, Markus B.
2018-02-01
We study a proposal for gauge-invariant correlation functions in perturbative quantum gravity, which are obtained by fixing the geodesic distance between points in the fluctuating geometry. These correlation functions are non-local and strongly divergent, and we show how to renormalise them by performing a ‘wave function renormalisation’ of the geodesic embedding coordinates. The result is finite and gauge-independent, but displays unusual features such as double logarithms at one-loop order.
Null geodesics and wave front singularities in the Gödel space-time
Kling, Thomas P.; Roebuck, Kevin; Grotzke, Eric
2018-01-01
We explore wave fronts of null geodesics in the Gödel metric emitted from point sources both at, and away from, the origin. For constant time wave fronts emitted by sources away from the origin, we find cusp ridges as well as blue sky metamorphoses where spatially disconnected portions of the wave front appear, connect to the main wave front, and then later break free and vanish. These blue sky metamorphoses in the constant time wave fronts highlight the non-causal features of the Gödel metric. We introduce a concept of physical distance along the null geodesics, and show that for wave fronts of constant physical distance, the reorganization of the points making up the wave front leads to the removal of cusp ridges.
Geodesic least squares regression for scaling studies in magnetic confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdoolaege, Geert
2015-01-01
In regression analyses for deriving scaling laws that occur in various scientific disciplines, usually standard regression methods have been applied, of which ordinary least squares (OLS) is the most popular. However, concerns have been raised with respect to several assumptions underlying OLS in its application to scaling laws. We here discuss a new regression method that is robust in the presence of significant uncertainty on both the data and the regression model. The method, which we call geodesic least squares regression (GLS), is based on minimization of the Rao geodesic distance on a probabilistic manifold. We demonstrate the superiority of the method using synthetic data and we present an application to the scaling law for the power threshold for the transition to the high confinement regime in magnetic confinement fusion devices
Vacuum non-expanding horizons and shear-free null geodesic congruences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamo, T M; Newman, E T
2009-01-01
We investigate the geometry of a particular class of null surfaces in spacetime called vacuum non-expanding horizons (NEHs). Using the spin-coefficient equation, we provide a complete description of the horizon geometry, as well as fixing a canonical choice of null tetrad and coordinates on a NEH. By looking for particular classes of null geodesic congruences which live exterior to NEHs but have the special property that their shear vanishes at the intersection with the horizon, a good cut formalism for NEHs is developed which closely mirrors asymptotic theory. In particular, we show that such null geodesic congruences are generated by arbitrary choice of a complex worldline in a complex four-dimensional space, each such choice induces a CR structure on the horizon, and a particular worldline (and hence CR structure) may be chosen by transforming to a privileged tetrad frame.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yehia, Hamad M
2013-01-01
In this study we have formulated a theorem that generates deformations of the natural integrable conservative systems in the plane into integrable systems on Riemannian and other manifolds by introducing additional parameters into their structures. The relation of explicit solutions of the new and the original dynamics to the corresponding Jacobi (Maupertuis) geodesic flow is clarified. For illustration, we apply the result to three concrete examples of the many available integrable systems in the literature. Complementary integrals in those systems are polynomial in velocity with degrees 3, 4 and 6, respectively. As a special case of the first deformed system, a new several-parameter family of integrable mechanical systems (and geodesic flows) on S 2 is constructed. (paper)
New perspectives for high accuracy SLR with second generation geodesic satellites
Lund, Glenn
1993-01-01
This paper reports on the accuracy limitations imposed by geodesic satellite signatures, and on the potential for achieving millimetric performances by means of alternative satellite concepts and an optimized 2-color system tradeoff. Long distance laser ranging, when performed between a ground (emitter/receiver) station and a distant geodesic satellite, is now reputed to enable short arc trajectory determinations to be achieved with an accuracy of 1 to 2 centimeters. This state-of-the-art accuracy is limited principally by the uncertainties inherent to single-color atmospheric path length correction. Motivated by the study of phenomena such as postglacial rebound, and the detailed analysis of small-scale volcanic and strain deformations, the drive towards millimetric accuracies will inevitably be felt. With the advent of short pulse (less than 50 ps) dual wavelength ranging, combined with adequate detection equipment (such as a fast-scanning streak camera or ultra-fast solid-state detectors) the atmospheric uncertainty could potentially be reduced to the level of a few millimeters, thus, exposing other less significant error contributions, of which by far the most significant will then be the morphology of the retroreflector satellites themselves. Existing geodesic satellites are simply dense spheres, several 10's of cm in diameter, encrusted with a large number (426 in the case of LAGEOS) of small cube-corner reflectors. A single incident pulse, thus, results in a significant number of randomly phased, quasi-simultaneous return pulses. These combine coherently at the receiver to produce a convolved interference waveform which cannot, on a shot to shot basis, be accurately and unambiguously correlated to the satellite center of mass. This paper proposes alternative geodesic satellite concepts, based on the use of a very small number of cube-corner retroreflectors, in which the above difficulties are eliminated while ensuring, for a given emitted pulse, the return
Particle penetration and radiation effects. General aspects and stopping of swift point charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmund, P.
2006-01-01
This book, which has evolved from the author's lectures at the University of Copenhagen and the University of Southern Denmark, draws on his experience as an active researcher in the interaction of charged particles with matter over more than forty years. The emphasis is on the theoretical description of fundamental phenomena, and much attention has been given to classic topics such as: Rutherford scattering; the theory of particle stopping as developed by Bohr, Bethe, Bloch and Lindhard; the statistical description of energy loss as developed by Bohr, Bothe, Williams and Landau; and numerous more recent developments. An attempt has been made to provide at least one complete derivation of a theoretical description for all central aspects. The presentation is intended to respect the ideas of the original authors, but much effort has been invested in establishing a unified and appealing notation consistent with present-day standards. It is intended that this volume will satisfy a long-standing need for a textbook suitable for introductory courses on interactions of charged particles with matter for students of physics, chemistry and related fields at the graduate and postgraduate level. In order to make it useful for researchers in materials science, electrical engineering, medical technique and other application areas in science and engineering, a large number of appendices has been added with background material that should be familiar to physicists but not necessarily to others. Chapters 1-5 are predominantly tutorial, while chapters 6-9 develop topics leading to the frontiers of research. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, A.L.; Alexander, F.J.; Alder, B.J.
1997-01-01
The consistent Boltzmann algorithm (CBA) for dense, hard-sphere gases is generalized to obtain the van der Waals equation of state and the corresponding exact viscosity at all densities except at the highest temperatures. A general scheme for adjusting any transport coefficients to higher values is presented
Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; McDole, Thoren; Kühl, Patrick; Appel, Jan C.; Matthiä, Daniel; Krauss, Johannes; Köhler, Jan
2018-01-01
For future human missions to Mars, it is important to study the surface radiation environment during extreme and elevated conditions. In the long term, it is mainly galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) modulated by solar activity that contribute to the radiation on the surface of Mars, but intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events may induce acute health effects. Such events may enhance the radiation level significantly and should be detected as immediately as possible to prevent severe damage to humans and equipment. However, the energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that in deep space due to the influence of the Martian atmosphere. Depending on the intensity and shape of the original solar particle spectra, as well as particle types, the surface spectra may induce entirely different radiation effects. In order to give immediate and accurate alerts while avoiding unnecessary ones, it is important to model and well understand the atmospheric effect on the incoming SEPs, including both protons and helium ions. In this paper, we have developed a generalized approach to quickly model the surface response of any given incoming proton/helium ion spectra and have applied it to a set of historical large solar events, thus providing insights into the possible variety of surface radiation environments that may be induced during SEP events. Based on the statistical study of more than 30 significant solar events, we have obtained an empirical model for estimating the surface dose rate directly from the intensities of a power-law SEP spectra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.
1978-05-01
A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-β micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.
1978-05-01
A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-..beta.. micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Ran
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Optimal allocation of generalized power sources in distribution network is researched. A simple index of voltage stability is put forward. Considering the investment and operation benefit, the stability of voltage and the pollution emissions of generalized power sources in distribution network, a multi-objective optimization planning model is established. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the optimal model. In order to improve the global search ability, the strategies of fast non-dominated sorting, elitism and crowding distance are adopted in this algorithm. Finally, tested the model and algorithm by IEEE-33 node system to find the best configuration of GP, the computed result shows that with the generalized power reasonable access to the active distribution network, the investment benefit and the voltage stability of the system is improved, and the proposed algorithm has better global search capability.
Shearfree congruences of null geodesics and Killing tensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietz, W.; Ruediger, R.
1980-01-01
In this communication, the mutual connections between quantities that are generalizations of the notion of a a Killing vector field are investigated. A classification of these quantities in terms of a complex vector field αsub(a) is given. A common feature of all these quantities is that they imply the existence of a pair of shearfree geodetic null congruences. There are no explicit restrictions posed on the Ricci tensor. (author)
Geometrical determination of the constant of motion in General Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catoni, F.; Cannata, R.; Zampetti, P.
2009-01-01
In recent time a theorem, due to E. Beltrami, through which the integration of the geodesic equations of a curved manifold is obtained by means of a merely geometric method, has been revisited. This way of dealing with the problem is well in accordance with the geometric spirit of the Theory of General Relativity. In this paper we show another relevant consequence of this method. Actually, the constants of the motion, introduced in this geometrical way that is completely independent of Newton theory, are related to the conservation laws for test particles in the Einstein theory. These conservation laws may be compared with the conservation laws of Newton. In particular, by the conservation of energy (E) and the L z component of angular momentum, the equivalence of the conservation laws for the Schwarzschild field is verified and the difference between Newton and Einstein theories for the rotating bodies (Kerr metric) is obtained in a straightforward way.
Extremal surfaces and the rigidity of null geodesic incompleteness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, I P Costa e; Flores, J L
2015-01-01
An important, if relatively less well known aspect of the singularity theorems in Lorentzian geometry, is to understand how their conclusions fare upon weakening or suppression of one or more of their hypotheses. Then, theorems with modified conclusion may arise, showing that those conclusions will fail only in special cases, at least some of which may be described. These are the so-called rigidity theorems, and have many important examples in the specialized literature. In this paper, we prove rigidity results for generalized plane waves and certain globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the presence of extremal compact surfaces. (paper)
Generalized Boltzmann equations for on-shell particle production in a hot plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakovac, A.
2002-01-01
A novel refinement of the conventional treatment of Kadanoff-Baym equations is suggested. In addition to the Boltzmann equation, another differential equation is used for calculating the evolution of the nonequilibrium two-point function. Although it was usually interpreted as a constraint on the solution of the Boltzmann equation, we argue that its dynamics is relevant to the determination and resummation of the particle production cut contributions. The differential equation for this new contribution is illustrated in the example of the cubic scalar model. The analogue of the relaxation time approximation is suggested. It results in the shift of the threshold location and in a smearing out of the nonanalytic threshold behavior of the spectral function. The possible consequences for the dilepton production are discussed
A Generalized Schwartz Model for Energy Spot Prices - Estimation using a Particle MCMC Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde, Asger; Brix, Anne Floor; Wei, Wei
structure. Instead of using various filtering techniques for splitting the two factors, as often found in the literature, we estimate the model in one step using an adaptive MCMC method with a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter. We fit the model to UK natural gas spot prices and investigate the importance......We propose an energy spot price model featuring a two-factor price process and a two-component stochastic volatility process. The first factor in the price process captures the normal variations; the second accounts for spikes. The two-component volatility allows for a flexible autocorrelation...... of spikes and stochastic volatility. We find that the inclusion of stochastic volatility is crucial and that it strongly impacts the jump intensity in the spike process. Furthermore, our estimation method enables us to consider both continuous and purely jump-driven volatility processes, and thereby assess...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westervelt, Robert; Klein, William; Kroupa, Michael; Olsson, Eric; Rothrock, Rick
1999-01-01
Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms
Introduction to general relativity
Parthasarthy, R
2016-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.
Collisional Penrose process with spinning particles
Mukherjee, Sajal
2018-03-01
In this article, we have investigated collisional Penrose process (CPP) using spinning particles in a Kerr spacetime. Recent studies have shown that the collision between two spinning particles can produce a significantly high energy in the center of mass frame. Here, we explicitly compute the energy extraction and efficiency as measured by an observer at infinity. We consider the colliding particles as well as the escaping particles may contain spins. It has been shown that the energy extraction is larger than the non-spinning case and also their possibility to escape to infinity is wider than the geodesics.
Lagrangian formulation of the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect
De Falco, Vittorio; Battista, Emmanuele; Falanga, Maurizio
2018-04-01
We propose the Lagrangian formulation for describing the motion of a test particle in a general relativistic, stationary, and axially symmetric spacetime. The test particle is also affected by a radiation field, modeled as a coherent flux of photons traveling along the null geodesics of the background spacetime, including the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect. The innovative part of this work is to prove the existence of the potential linked to the dissipative action caused by the Poynting-Robertson effect in general relativity through the help of an integrating factor, depending on the energy of the system. Generally, such kinds of inverse problems involving dissipative effects might not admit a Lagrangian formulation; especially, in general relativity, there are no examples of such attempts in the literature so far. We reduce this general relativistic Lagrangian formulation to the classic case in the weak-field limit. This approach facilitates further studies in improving the treatment of the radiation field, and it contains, for example, some implications for a deeper comprehension of the gravitational waves.
Clifford Space as a Generalization of Spacetime: Prospects for QFT of Point Particles and Strings
Pavsic, Matej
2005-01-01
The idea that spacetime has to be replaced by Clifford space (C-space) is explored. Quantum field theory (QFT) and string theory are generalized to C-space. It is shown how one can solve the cosmological constant problem and formulate string theory without central terms in the Virasoro algebra by exploiting the peculiar pseudo-Euclidean signature of C-space and the Jackiw definition of the vacuum state. As an introduction into the subject, a toy model of the harmonic oscillator in pseudo-Eucl...
Design of tallying function for general purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shangguan Danhua; Li Gang; Deng Li; Zhang Baoyin
2013-01-01
A new postponed accumulation algorithm was proposed. Based on JCOGIN (J combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport infrastructure) framework and the postponed accumulation algorithm, the tallying function of the general purpose Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code JMCT was improved markedly. JMCT gets a higher tallying efficiency than MCNP 4C by 28% for simple geometry model, and JMCT is faster than MCNP 4C by two orders of magnitude for complicated repeated structure model. The available ability of tallying function for JMCT makes firm foundation for reactor analysis and multi-step burnup calculation. (authors)
Lockwood, M.; Smith, M. F.
1994-01-01
We present predictions of the signatures of magnetosheath particle precipitation (in the regions classified as open low-latitude boundary layer, cusp, mantle and polar cap) for periods when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. These are made using the 'pulsating cusp' model of the effects of time-varying magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Predictions are made for both low-altitude satellites in the topside ionosphere and for midaltitude spacecraft in the magnetosphere. Low-altitude cusp signatures, which show a continuous ion dispersion signature, reveal 'quasi-steady reconnection' (one limit of the pulsating cusp model), which persists for a period of at least 10 min. We estimate that 'quasi-steady' in this context corresponds to fluctuations in the reconnection rate of a factor of 2 or less. The other limit of the pulsating cusp model explains the instantaneous jumps in the precipitating ion spectrum that have been observed at low altitudes. Such jumps are produced by isolated pulses of reconnection: that is, they are separated by intervals when the reconnection rate is zero. These also generate convecting patches on the magnetopause in which the field lines thread the boundary via a rotational discontinuity separated by more extensive regions of tangential discontinuity. Predictions of the corresponding ion precipitation signatures seen by midaltitude spacecraft are presented. We resolve the apparent contradiction between estimates of the width of the injection region from midaltitude data and the concept of continuous entry of solar wind plasma along open field lines. In addition, we reevaluate the use of pitch angle-energy dispersion to estimate the injection distance.
Mean E×B shear effect on geodesic acoustic modes in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Rameswar; Gurcan, Ozgur D.
2015-01-01
E × B shearing effect on geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is investigated for the first time both as an initial value problem in the shearing frame and as an eigenvalue value problem in the lab frame. The nontrivial effects are that E × B shearing couples the standard GAM perturbations to their complimentary poloidal parities. The resulting GAM acquires an effective inertia increasing in time leading to GAM damping. Eigenmode analysis shows that GAMs are radially localized by E × B shearing with the mode width being inversely proportional and radial wave number directly proportional to the shearing rate for weak shear. (author)
Nonlocal analysis of the excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode by drift waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.; Chakrabarti, N.
2009-01-01
The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are typically observed in the edge region of toroidal plasmas. Drift waves have been identified as a possible cause of excitation of GAMs by a resonant three wave parametric process. A nonlocal theory of excitation of these modes in inhomogeneous plasmas typical...... of the edge region of tokamaks is presented in this paper. The continuum GAM modes with coupling to the drift waves can create discrete "global" unstable eigenmodes localized in the edge "pedestal" region of the plasma. Multiple resonantly driven unstable radial eigenmodes can coexist on the edge pedestal....
A geodesic atmospheric model with a quasi-Lagrangian vertical coordinate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heikes, Ross; Konor, Celal; Randall, David A
2006-01-01
The development of the Coupled Colorado State Model (CCoSM) is ultimately motivated by the need to predict and study climate change. All components of CCoSM innovatively blend unique design ideas and advanced computational techniques. The atmospheric model combines a geodesic horizontal grid with a quasi-Lagrangian vertical coordinate to improve the quality of simulations, particularly that of moisture and cloud distributions. Here we briefly describe the dynamical core, physical parameterizations and computational aspects of the atmospheric model, and present our preliminary numerical results. We also briefly discuss the rational behind our design choices and selection of computational techniques
Asymptotically shear-free and twist-free null geodesic congruences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozameh, Carlos; Newman, Ezra T
2007-01-01
The Robinson-Trautman spacetime is a special case of asymptotically flat spacetimes that possess asymptotically shear-free and twist-free (surface forming) null geodesic congruences. In this paper we show that, although they are rare, a larger class of asymptotically flat spacetimes with this property does exist. In particular, we display the class of spacetimes that possess this dual property and demonstrate how these congruences can be found. In addition, we show that in each case the congruence is isolated in the sense that there are no other neighbouring congruences with this dual property
Robust analysis of trends in noisy tokamak confinement data using geodesic least squares regression
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verdoolaege, G., E-mail: geert.verdoolaege@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Royal Military Academy, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Shabbir, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hornung, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2016-11-15
Regression analysis is a very common activity in fusion science for unveiling trends and parametric dependencies, but it can be a difficult matter. We have recently developed the method of geodesic least squares (GLS) regression that is able to handle errors in all variables, is robust against data outliers and uncertainty in the regression model, and can be used with arbitrary distribution models and regression functions. We here report on first results of application of GLS to estimation of the multi-machine scaling law for the energy confinement time in tokamaks, demonstrating improved consistency of the GLS results compared to standard least squares.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Hauberg, Søren
2010-01-01
, we present a comparison between the non-linear analog of Principal Component Analysis, Principal Geodesic Analysis, in its linearized form and its exact counterpart that uses true intrinsic distances. We give examples of datasets for which the linearized version provides good approximations...... and for which it does not. Indicators for the differences between the two versions are then developed and applied to two examples of manifold valued data: outlines of vertebrae from a study of vertebral fractures and spacial coordinates of human skeleton end-effectors acquired using a stereo camera and tracking...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Camilo de Souza, F.; Elfimov, A.; Galvão, R.M.O.; Krbec, Jaroslav; Seidl, Jakub; Stöckel, Jan; Hron, Martin; Havlíček, Josef; Mitošinková, Klára
2017-01-01
Roč. 381, č. 36 (2017), s. 3066-3070 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Geodesic acoustic modes * Kinetic theory * Instability * Landau damping Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375960117306989
Generalized Fermat's principle and action for light rays in a curved spacetime
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-09-01
We start with formulation of the generalized Fermat’s principle for light propagation in a curved spacetime. We apply Pontryagin’s minimum principle of the optimal control theory and obtain an effective Hamiltonian for null geodesics in a curved spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical equations for this Hamiltonian correctly reproduce null geodesic equations. Other forms of the action for light rays in a curved spacetime are also discussed.
Environmental sciences: general. 2. Water Adsorption/Absorption by CsOH Particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riggs, C.A.; Ghosh, T.K.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.; Viswanath, D.S.
2001-01-01
Cesium hydroxide in aerosol form is likely to be a significant source of radio-cesium released during a reactor transient. Cesium hydroxide particles are hydrophilic and absorb/adsorb water rapidly. The result is a rapid growth of cesium hydroxide wetted agglomerates that can deposit on surfaces by gravitational settling. However, they can also react with iodine gas to form CsI according to Eq. (1). The rapid absorption/adsorption of water by CsOH may increase the rate of absorption of iodine by CsOH. Iodine may attach itself to adsorbed water molecules on CsOH and facilitate the reaction by bringing iodine to CsOH. Thus, the iodine removal mechanism from the pressurized water reactor containment atmosphere may change: I 2(g) + 4CsOH (s) ↔ 2CsI (s) + 2CsO (s) + 2H 2 O (l) . (1) Despite the importance of CsOH as an aerosol material released during a reactor transient, we have been unable to find any isotherm data of water on cesium hydroxide in the literature. The significant hydrophilic nature of CsOH, together with its being the strongest base currently known, present challenges to collection of water adsorption data. The objective in this research was to experimentally obtain isotherm data of water vapor on CsOH for a range of temperatures and pressures on macroscopic samples using an electro-balance. These data then may be used to predict the amount of water vapor adsorbed on CsOH at other temperatures and pressures by existing models. The adsorption apparatus using a Cahn 2000 electro-balance is shown in Fig. 1. The water adsorption/absorption data on CsOH at different relative pressures of water vapor were obtained gravimetrically. A detailed description of the experimental system is given in Hassan et al. An∼70-mg sample of CsOH.H 2 O (s) was placed onto a platinum weighing dish in the hang-down tube of the balance. The sample was regenerated by heating it at 100 deg. C under a vacuum of 3.5x10 -2 mm Hg for 24 h to remove adsorbed water and other gases
Cosmology as relativistic particle mechanics: from big crunch to big bang
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russo, J G [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Departament ECM, Facultat de FIsica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Townsend, P K [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Departament ECM, Facultat de FIsica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2005-02-21
Cosmology can be viewed as geodesic motion in an appropriate metric on an 'augmented' target space; here we obtain these geodesics from an effective relativistic particle action. As an application, we find some exact (flat and curved) cosmologies for models with N scalar fields taking values in a hyperbolic target space for which the augmented target space is a Milne universe. The singularities of these cosmologies correspond to points at which the particle trajectory crosses the Milne horizon, suggesting a novel resolution of them, which we explore via the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Zarrinpanjeh
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Automatic car detection and recognition from aerial and satellite images is mostly practiced for the purpose of easy and fast traffic monitoring in cities and rural areas where direct approaches are proved to be costly and inefficient. Towards the goal of automatic car detection and in parallel with many other published solutions, in this paper, morphological operators and specifically Geodesic dilation are studied and applied on GeoEye-1 images to extract car items in accordance with available vector maps. The results of Geodesic dilation are then segmented and labeled to generate primitive car items to be introduced to a fuzzy decision making system, to be verified. The verification is performed inspecting major and minor axes of each region and the orientations of the cars with respect to the road direction. The proposed method is implemented and tested using GeoEye-1 pansharpen imagery. Generating the results it is observed that the proposed method is successful according to overall accuracy of 83%. It is also concluded that the results are sensitive to the quality of available vector map and to overcome the shortcomings of this method, it is recommended to consider spectral information in the process of hypothesis verification.
Conformal gravity, the Einstein equations and spaces of complex null geodesics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baston, R.J.; Mason, L.J.
1987-07-01
The aim of the paper is to give a twistorial characterisation of the field equations of conformal gravity and of Einstein spacetimes. Strong evidence is provided for a particularly concise characterisation of these equations in terms of 'formal neighbourhoods'of the space of complex null geodesics. Second-order perturbations of the metric of complexified Minkowski space are considered. These correspond to certain infinitesimal deformations of its space of complex null geodesics, PN. PN has a natural codimension one embedding into a larger space. It is shown that deformations extend automatically to the fourth-order embedding (that is, the fourth formal neighbourhood). They extend to the fifth formal neighbourhood if and only if the corresponding perturbation in the metric has vanishing Bach tensor. Finally, deformations which extend to the sixth formal neighbourhood correspond to perturbations in the metric that are conformally related to ones satisfying the Einstein equations. The authors present arguments which suggest that the results will also hold when spacetime is fully curved.
Conformal gravity, the Einstein equations and spaces of complex null geodesics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baston, R.J.; Mason, L.J.
1987-01-01
The aim of the paper is to give a twistorial characterisation of the field equations of conformal gravity and of Einstein spacetimes. Strong evidence is provided for a particularly concise characterisation of these equations in terms of 'formal neighbourhoods'of the space of complex null geodesics. Second-order perturbations of the metric of complexified Minkowski space are considered. These correspond to certain infinitesimal deformations of its space of complex null geodesics, PN. PN has a natural codimension one embedding into a larger space. It is shown that deformations extend automatically to the fourth-order embedding (that is, the fourth formal neighbourhood). They extend to the fifth formal neighbourhood if and only if the corresponding perturbation in the metric has vanishing Bach tensor. Finally, deformations which extend to the sixth formal neighbourhood correspond to perturbations in the metric that are conformally related to ones satisfying the Einstein equations. The authors present arguments which suggest that the results will also hold when spacetime is fully curved. (author)
An exact Jacobi map in the geodesic light-cone gauge
Fanizza, G.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.
2013-11-07
The remarkable properties of the recently proposed geodesic light-cone (GLC) gauge allow to explicitly solve the geodetic-deviation equation, and thus to derive an exact expression for the Jacobi map J^A_B(s,o) connecting a generic source s to a geodesic observer o in a generic space time. In this gauge J^A_B factorizes into the product of a local quantity at s times one at o, implying similarly factorized expressions for the area and luminosity distance. In any other coordinate system J^A_B is simply given by expressing the GLC quantities in terms of the corresponding ones in the new coordinates. This is explicitly done, at first and second order, respectively, for the synchronous and Poisson gauge-fixing of a perturbed, spatially-flat cosmological background, and the consistency of the two outcomes is checked. Our results slightly amend previous calculations of the luminosity-redshift relation and suggest a possible non-perturbative way for computing the effects of inhomogeneities on observations based on l...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DanFang Yan
Full Text Available OBJECTS: To introduce a new method for generating the clinical target volume (CTV from gross tumor volume (GTV using the geodesic distance calculation for glioma. METHODS: One glioblastoma patient was enrolled. The GTV and natural barriers were contoured on each slice of the computer tomography (CT simulation images. Then, a graphic processing unit based on a parallel Euclidean distance transform was used to generate the CTV considering natural barriers. Three-dimensional (3D visualization technique was applied to show the delineation results. Speed of operation and precision were compared between this new delineation method and the traditional method. RESULTS: In considering spatial barriers, the shortest distance from the point sheltered from these barriers equals the sum of the distance along the shortest path between the two points; this consists of several segments and evades the spatial barriers, rather than being the direct Euclidean distance between two points. The CTV was generated irregularly rather than as a spherical shape. The time required to generate the CTV was greatly reduced. Moreover, this new method improved inter- and intra-observer variability in defining the CTV. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the traditional CTV delineation, this new method using geodesic distance calculation not only greatly shortens the time to modify the CTV, but also has better reproducibility.
Zarrinpanjeh, N.; Dadrassjavan, F.
2017-09-01
Automatic car detection and recognition from aerial and satellite images is mostly practiced for the purpose of easy and fast traffic monitoring in cities and rural areas where direct approaches are proved to be costly and inefficient. Towards the goal of automatic car detection and in parallel with many other published solutions, in this paper, morphological operators and specifically Geodesic dilation are studied and applied on GeoEye-1 images to extract car items in accordance with available vector maps. The results of Geodesic dilation are then segmented and labeled to generate primitive car items to be introduced to a fuzzy decision making system, to be verified. The verification is performed inspecting major and minor axes of each region and the orientations of the cars with respect to the road direction. The proposed method is implemented and tested using GeoEye-1 pansharpen imagery. Generating the results it is observed that the proposed method is successful according to overall accuracy of 83%. It is also concluded that the results are sensitive to the quality of available vector map and to overcome the shortcomings of this method, it is recommended to consider spectral information in the process of hypothesis verification.
YNOGK: A NEW PUBLIC CODE FOR CALCULATING NULL GEODESICS IN THE KERR SPACETIME
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Xiaolin; Wang Jiancheng, E-mail: yangxl@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)
2013-07-01
Following the work of Dexter and Agol, we present a new public code for the fast calculation of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. Using Weierstrass's and Jacobi's elliptic functions, we express all coordinates and affine parameters as analytical and numerical functions of a parameter p, which is an integral value along the geodesic. This is the main difference between our code and previous similar ones. The advantage of this treatment is that the information about the turning points does not need to be specified in advance by the user, and many applications such as imaging, the calculation of line profiles, and the observer-emitter problem, become root-finding problems. All elliptic integrations are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method as in Dexter and Agol, which guarantees the fast computational speed of our code. The formulae to compute the constants of motion given by Cunningham and Bardeen have been extended, which allow one to readily handle situations in which the emitter or the observer has an arbitrary distance from, and motion state with respect to, the central compact object. The validation of the code has been extensively tested through applications to toy problems from the literature. The source FORTRAN code is freely available for download on our Web site http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/{approx}yangxl/yxl.html.
YNOGK: A NEW PUBLIC CODE FOR CALCULATING NULL GEODESICS IN THE KERR SPACETIME
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiaolin; Wang Jiancheng
2013-01-01
Following the work of Dexter and Agol, we present a new public code for the fast calculation of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. Using Weierstrass's and Jacobi's elliptic functions, we express all coordinates and affine parameters as analytical and numerical functions of a parameter p, which is an integral value along the geodesic. This is the main difference between our code and previous similar ones. The advantage of this treatment is that the information about the turning points does not need to be specified in advance by the user, and many applications such as imaging, the calculation of line profiles, and the observer-emitter problem, become root-finding problems. All elliptic integrations are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method as in Dexter and Agol, which guarantees the fast computational speed of our code. The formulae to compute the constants of motion given by Cunningham and Bardeen have been extended, which allow one to readily handle situations in which the emitter or the observer has an arbitrary distance from, and motion state with respect to, the central compact object. The validation of the code has been extensively tested through applications to toy problems from the literature. The source FORTRAN code is freely available for download on our Web site http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/~yangxl/yxl.html.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas P. Bailey, Trond S. Ingebrigtsen, Jesper Schmidt Hansen, Arno A. Veldhorst, Lasse Bøhling, Claire A. Lemarchand, Andreas E. Olsen, Andreas K. Bacher, Lorenzo Costigliola, Ulf R. Pedersen, Heine Larsen, Jeppe C. Dyre, Thomas B. Schrøder
2017-12-01
Full Text Available RUMD is a general purpose, high-performance molecular dynamics (MD simulation package running on graphical processing units (GPU's. RUMD addresses the challenge of utilizing the many-core nature of modern GPU hardware when simulating small to medium system sizes (roughly from a few thousand up to hundred thousand particles. It has a performance that is comparable to other GPU-MD codes at large system sizes and substantially better at smaller sizes.RUMD is open-source and consists of a library written in C++ and the CUDA extension to C, an easy-to-use Python interface, and a set of tools for set-up and post-simulation data analysis. The paper describes RUMD's main features, optimizations and performance benchmarks.
The rotation curve of a point particle in stringy gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ko, Sung Moon; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Suh, Minwoo, E-mail: sinsmk2003@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: park@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: minsuh@usc.edu [Department of Physics, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 04107 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-01
Double Field Theory suggests to view the whole massless sector of closed strings as the gravitational unity. The fundamental symmetries therein, including the O( D , D ) covariance, can determine unambiguously how the Standard Model as well as a relativistic point particle should couple to the closed string massless sector. The theory also refines the notion of singularity. We consider the most general, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat, static vacuum solution to D =4 Double Field Theory, which contains three free parameters and consequently generalizes the Schwarzschild geometry. Analyzing the circular geodesic of a point particle in string frame, we obtain the orbital velocity as a function of R /( M {sub ∞} G ) which is the dimensionless radial variable normalized by mass. The rotation curve generically features a maximum and thus non-Keplerian over a finite range, while becoming asymptotically Keplerian at infinity, R /( M {sub ∞} G )→ ∞. The adoption of the string frame rather than Einstein frame is the consequence of the fundamental symmetry principle. Our result opens up a new scheme to solve the dark matter/energy problems by modifying General Relativity at 'short' range of R /( M {sub ∞} G ).
F.W. Bessel (1825): The calculation of longitude and latitude from geodesic measurements
Karney, C. F. F.; Deakin, R. E.
2010-08-01
Issue No. 86 (1825 October) of the Astronomische Nachrichten was largely devoted to a single paper by F. W. Bessel on the solution of the direct geodesic problem (see the first sentences of the paper). For the most part, the paper stands on its own and needs little introduction. However, a few words are in order to place this paper in its historical context. First of all, it should be no surprise that a paper on this subject appeared in an astronomical journal. At the time, the disciplines of astronomy, navigation, and surveying were inextricably linked -- the methods and, in many cases, the practitioners (in particular, Bessel) were the same. Prior to Bessel's paper, the solution of the geodesic problem had been the subject of several studies by Clairaut, Euler, du Séjour, Legendre, Oriani, and others. The interest in the subject was twofold. It combined several new fields of mathematics: the calculus of variations, the theory of elliptic functions, and the differential geometry of curved surfaces. It also addressed very practical needs: the determination of the figure of the earth, the requirements of large scale surveys, and the construction of map projections. With the papers of Legendre and of Oriani in 1806, the framework for the mathematical solution for an ellipsoid of revolution had been established. However, Bessel was firmly in the practical camp; he carried out the East Prussian survey that connected the West European and Russian triangulation networks and later he made the first accurate estimate of the figure of the Earth, the ``Bessel ellipsoid''. He lays out his goal for this paper in its first section: to simplify the numerical solution of the geodesic problem. In Sects. \\ref{sec2}--\\ref{sec4}, Bessel gives a clear and concise summary of the previous work on the problem. In the remaining sections, he develops series for the distance and longitude integrals and constructs the tables which allow geodesics to be calculated to an accuracy of about 3
Liouville's equation and radiative acceleration in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keane, A.J.
1999-01-01
This thesis examines thoroughly the general motion of a material charged particle in the intense radiation field of a static spherically symmetric compact object with spherical emitting surface outside the Schwarzschild radius. Such a test particle will be pulled in by the gravitational attraction of the compact object and pushed out by the radiation pressure force, therefore the types of trajectory admitted will depend the gravitational field, the radiation field and the particle cross-section. The presence of a strong gravitational field demands a fully general relativistic treatment of the problem. This type of calculation is interesting not only as a formal problem in general relativity but also since it has important astrophysical implications, for example, application to astrophysical discs and jets. In chapter 1 we review the classical radiation force problem and outline the transition to a fully general relativistic scenario. We discuss the method for obtaining the radiation pressure force and calculating the particle trajectories. We review previous work in this area and outline the aims of the thesis. Then we consider some astrophysical applications and discuss how realistic our calculations are. In chapter 2 we give an introduction and overview of differential geometry as this is necessary for an accurate description of tensors on a curved manifold. Then we review the general theory of relativity and in particular obtain the Schwarzschild metric describing a static spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime. Chapter 3 deals with test particle motion through a curved spacetime. Liouville's equation describes the statistical distribution in phase space of a collection of test particles and is based upon a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamical system - this material also relies heavily upon the concepts of differential geometry introduced in chapter 2. In particular we are interested in photon transport and find the general solutions for some symmetric
A conformal invariant model of localized spinning test particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Fliche, H.H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille
1977-02-01
A purely classical model of massless test particle with spin s is introduced as the dynamical system defined by the 10 dimensional 0(4,2) co-adjoint orbit with Casimir numbers (s 2 ,0,0). The Mathisson Papapetrou et al. equations of motion in a gravitational field are recovered, and moreover the particle appears to travel on null geodesics. Several implications are discussed
On the motion of particles in covariant Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and the meaning of the A-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, Elcio; Silva, Alan M. da
2012-01-01
We studied the low energy motion of particles in the general covariant version of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity proposed by Hořava and Melby-Thompson. Using a scalar field coupled to gravity according to the minimal substitution recipe proposed by da Silva and taking the geometrical optics limit, we could write an effective relativistic metric for a general solution. As a result, we discovered that the equivalence principle is not in general recovered at low energies, unless the spatial Laplacian of A vanishes. Finally, we analyzed the motion on the spherical symmetric solution proposed by Hořava and Melby-Thompson, where we could find its effective line element and compute spin-0 geodesics. Using standard methods we have shown that such an effective metric cannot reproduce Newton's gravity law even in the weak gravitational field approximation.
Jacobson, Daniel; Stratt, Richard M.
2014-05-01
Because the geodesic pathways that a liquid follows through its potential energy landscape govern its slow, diffusive motion, we suggest that these pathways are logical candidates for the title of a liquid's "inherent dynamics." Like their namesake "inherent structures," these objects are simply features of the system's potential energy surface and thus provide views of the system's structural evolution unobstructed by thermal kinetic energy. This paper shows how these geodesic pathways can be computed for a liquid of linear molecules, allowing us to see precisely how such molecular liquids mix rotational and translational degrees of freedom into their dynamics. The ratio of translational to rotational components of the geodesic path lengths, for example, is significantly larger than would be expected on equipartition grounds, with a value that scales with the molecular aspect ratio. These and other features of the geodesics are consistent with a picture in which molecular reorientation adiabatically follows translation—molecules largely thread their way through narrow channels available in the potential energy landscape.
Particles and Dirac-type operators on curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visinescu, Mihai
2003-01-01
We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. From the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors of this space we construct three new Dirac-type operators which are equivalent with the standard Dirac operator. Finally the Runge-Lenz operator for the Dirac equation in this background is expressed in terms of the fourth Killing-Yano tensor which is not covariantly constant. As a rule the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors realize certain square roots of the metric tensor. Such a Killing-Yano tensor produces simultaneously a Dirac-type operator and the generator of a one-parameter Lie group connecting this operator with the standard Dirac one. On the other hand, the not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors are important in generating hidden symmetries. The presence of not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors implies the existence of non-standard supersymmetries in point particle theories on curved background. (author)
Light-cone observables and gauge-invariance in the geodesic light-cone formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: fulvio@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)
2017-06-01
The remarkable properties of the geodesic light-cone (GLC) coordinates allow analytic expressions for the light-cone observables, providing a new non-perturbative way for calculating the effects of inhomogeneities in our Universe. However, the gauge-invariance of these expressions in the GLC formalism has not been shown explicitly. Here we provide this missing part of the GLC formalism by proving the gauge-invariance of the GLC expressions for the light-cone observables, such as the observed redshift, the luminosity distance, and the physical area and volume of the observed sources. Our study provides a new insight on the properties of the GLC coordinates and it complements the previous work by the GLC collaboration, leading to a comprehensive description of light propagation in the GLC representation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petarpa Boonserm
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Geodesics (by definition have an intrinsic 4-acceleration zero. However, when expressed in terms of coordinates, the coordinate acceleration d 2 x i / d t 2 can very easily be non-zero, and the coordinate velocity d x i / d t can behave unexpectedly. The situation becomes extremely delicate in the near-horizon limit—for both astrophysical and idealised black holes—where an inappropriate choice of coordinates can quite easily lead to significant confusion. We shall carefully explore the relative merits of horizon-penetrating versus horizon-non-penetrating coordinates, arguing that in the near-horizon limit the coordinate acceleration d 2 x i / d t 2 is best interpreted in terms of horizon-penetrating coordinates.
Analytic continuation of tgensor fields along geodesics by covariant Taylor series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsirulev, A.N.
1995-01-01
It is shown that in a certain normal neighborhood of a submanifold-the analog of a normal neighborhood of a point-the covariant derivatives of all orders of an arbitrary tensor field and of the curvature and torsion along geodesics normal to the submanifold, taken at points of the submanifold, determine under conditions of analyticity the given tensor field by Taylor series with tensor coefficients. Explicit expressions are obtained that provide a recursive procedure for calculating the coefficients of the series in any order. Special cases of the expansion of the components of a pseudo-Riemannian metric with respect to a metric connection without torsion for a point and hypersurface are considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Hatzky, R; Jolliet, S; Sauter, O; Tran, T M; Villard, L
2006-01-01
The mutual interactions of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes, zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in tokamak plasmas are investigated using a global nonlinear gyrokinetic formulation with totally unconstrained evolution of temperature gradient and profile. A series of numerical simulations with the same initial temperature and density profile specifications is performed using a sequence of ideal MHD equilibria differing only in the value of the total plasma current, in particular with identical magnetic shear profiles and shapes of magnetic surfaces. On top of a bursty or quasi-steady state behaviour the zonal flows oscillate at the GAM frequency. The amplitude of these oscillations increases with the value of the safety factor q, resulting in a less effective suppression of ITG turbulence by zonal flows at a lower plasma current. The turbulence-driven volume-averaged radial heat transport is found to scale inversely with the total plasma current
Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Yading; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi
2015-01-01
Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm 3 , whereas it was 1719 cm 3 for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also clearly demonstrated
Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, G F R
2005-01-01
considered study of the properties of horizons. Linearized relativity is dealt with in depth leading to the standard weak field gravitational wave formulae and a study of their effects on test particles, together with a very useful discussion of the analogy between weak gravity and the electromagnetic field. Thus this is a straightforward detailed presentation of both special and general relativity theory and their applications. It has many examples and is well suited as a text on these topics, giving a clear relativists' view all the way through. It does not go into astrophysical or particle physics aspects, which is fine given its focus. Personally I would have liked a bit more emphasis on the geodesic deviation equation on the one hand, and on holonomy (which provides a link into particle gauge theories) on the other. But that is a matter of taste. This is an excellent book, which can be highly recommended. Just one quibble: what is the reason for the blurred picture of Einstein on the cover? The whole point of the book is its clarity: why the implication of this picture that it presents a blurred vision? (book review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.
2001-01-01
We have investigated Monte Carlo schemes for analyzing particle transport through media with exponentially varying time-dependent cross sections. For such media, the cross sections are represented in the form Σ(t) = Σ 0 e -at (1) or equivalently as Σ(x) = Σ 0 e -bx (2) where b = av and v is the particle speed. For the following discussion, the parameters a and b may be either positive, for exponentially decreasing cross sections, or negative, for exponentially increasing cross sections. For most time-dependent Monte Carlo applications, the time and spatial variations of the cross-section data are handled by means of a stepwise procedure, holding the cross sections constant for each region over a small time interval Δt, performing the Monte Carlo random walk over the interval Δt, updating the cross sections, and then repeating for a series of time intervals. Continuously varying spatial- or time-dependent cross sections can be treated in a rigorous Monte Carlo fashion using delta-tracking, but inefficiencies may arise if the range of cross-section variation is large. In this paper, we present a new method for sampling collision distances directly for cross sections that vary exponentially in space or time. The method is exact and efficient and has direct application to Monte Carlo radiation transport methods. To verify that the probability density function (PDF) is correct and that the random-sampling procedure yields correct results, numerical experiments were performed using a one-dimensional Monte Carlo code. The physical problem consisted of a beam source impinging on a purely absorbing infinite slab, with a slab thickness of 1 cm and Σ 0 = 1 cm -1 . Monte Carlo calculations with 10 000 particles were run for a range of the exponential parameter b from -5 to +20 cm -1 . Two separate Monte Carlo calculations were run for each choice of b, a continuously varying case using the random-sampling procedures described earlier, and a 'conventional' case where the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Haiyu; Wang, Xingzhe
2014-01-01
We present an analytic approach to evaluate the effective permeability of multi-chain-structured magnetic particle-filled composites which is formulated by a microstructure-based double-inclusion magnetic model with the generalized Mori–Tanaka theorem. The local magnetic field in a representative volume element (RVE) containing multi-chain-structured particles is derived by using a modified Green’s function. The average fields in the particles, in a matrix coated by particles, and in an effective medium far away from particles are rendered by homogenization of the local magnetic distributions. By means of the relation between the average magnetic field and induction, the effective magnetic permeability of magnetoactive composites is explicitly derived; it exhibits anisotropic and universal behavior. The proposed model has been compared with the available experimental data and other microstructure-based models in the literature; it shows good agreement and gives reliable predictions for magnetic particle-filled composites, especially in terms of capturing the magnetic anisotropic characteristics with respect to the multi-chain-structured particle distribution. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, J.T.
1999-01-01
Using a lowest-order approximation, the field equations of a general relativistic spinor-connection theory are solved semi-analytically for the fields of a stable, spin-half changed particle near the spin axis. With the exception of the atomic fine-structure constant, all parameters arising in the solution, including the rest mass of the source particle, are found by imposing the standard junction conditions of general relativity and electromagnetism. Using the empirical value for the fine-structure constant, the value derived for the rest mass gives some reason to identify the source particle with the electron. Moreover, since the rest mass is independent of the sign of the electron charge carried by the source, the solution is equally applicable to the positron
Kuterbekov, K A; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Zholdybaev, T K
2003-01-01
Energy and mass dependences of the semi-microscopic alpha-particle potential parameters have been investigated for the first time. In general, a good description of elastic and inelastic differential and total reaction cross sections for different nuclei using the revealed global parameters has been obtained within the framework of semi-microscopic approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, R.
1995-05-01
We investigate the behaviour of the remainder term R(E) in the Weyl formula {nvertical stroke E n ≤E}=Vol(M).E d/2 /[(4π) d/2 Γ(d/2+1)]+R(E) for the eigenvalues E n of a Schroedinger operator on a d-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold all of whose geodesics are closed. We show that R(E) is of the form E (d-1)/2 Θ(√E), where Θ(x) is an almost periodic function of Besicovitch class B 2 which has a limit distribution whose density is a box-shaped function. Furthermore we derive a trace formula and study higher order terms in the asymptotics of the coefficients related to the periodic orbits. The periodicity of the geodesic flow leads to a very simple structure of the trace formula which is the reason why the limit distribution can be computed explicitly. (orig.)
Sefton-Nash, E.; Williams, J.-P.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Aye, K.-M.; Paige, D. A.
2017-12-01
An approach is presented to efficiently produce high quality gridded data records from the large, global point-based dataset returned by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The need to minimize data volume and processing time in production of science-ready map products is increasingly important with the growth in data volume of planetary datasets. Diviner makes on average >1400 observations per second of radiance that is reflected and emitted from the lunar surface, using 189 detectors divided into 9 spectral channels. Data management and processing bottlenecks are amplified by modeling every observation as a probability distribution function over the field of view, which can increase the required processing time by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Geometric corrections, such as projection of data points onto a digital elevation model, are numerically intensive and therefore it is desirable to perform them only once. Our approach reduces bottlenecks through parallel binning and efficient storage of a pre-processed database of observations. Database construction is via subdivision of a geodesic icosahedral grid, with a spatial resolution that can be tailored to suit the field of view of the observing instrument. Global geodesic grids with high spatial resolution are normally impractically memory intensive. We therefore demonstrate a minimum storage and highly parallel method to bin very large numbers of data points onto such a grid. A database of the pre-processed and binned points is then used for production of mapped data products that is significantly faster than if unprocessed points were used. We explore quality controls in the production of gridded data records by conditional interpolation, allowed only where data density is sufficient. The resultant effects on the spatial continuity and uncertainty in maps of lunar brightness temperatures is illustrated. We identify four binning regimes based on trades between the
Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olivares, Marco; Villanueva, J.R.
2013-01-01
The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter α, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in α, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q s un ≅ 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M s un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)
Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olivares, Marco [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)
2013-12-15
The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter {alpha}, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in {alpha}, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q{sub s}un {approx_equal} 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M{sub s}un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)
The Motion of Point Particles in Curved Spacetime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Poisson
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This review is concerned with the motion of a point scalar charge, a point electric charge, and a point mass in a specified background spacetime. In each of the three cases the particle produces a field that behaves as outgoing radiation in the wave zone, and therefore removes energy from the particle. In the near zone the field acts on the particle and gives rise to a self-force that prevents the particle from moving on a geodesic of the background spacetime. The self-force contains both conservative and dissipative terms, and the latter are responsible for the radiation reaction. The work done by the self-force matches the energy radiated away by the particle. The field's action on the particle is difficult to calculate because of its singular nature: the field diverges at the position of the particle. But it is possible to isolate the field's singular part and show that it exerts no force on the particle -- its only effect is to contribute to the particle's inertia. What remains after subtraction is a regular field that is fully responsible for the self-force. Because this field satisfies a homogeneous wave equation, it can be thought of as a free field that interacts with the particle; it is this interaction that gives rise to the self-force. The mathematical tools required to derive the equations of motion of a point scalar charge, a point electric charge, and a point mass in a specified background spacetime are developed here from scratch. The review begins with a discussion of the basic theory of bitensors (Part I. It then applies the theory to the construction of convenient coordinate systems to chart a neighbourhood of the particle's word line (Part II. It continues with a thorough discussion of Green's functions in curved spacetime (Part III. The review presents a detailed derivation of each of the three equations of motion (Part IV. Because the notion of a point mass is problematic in general relativity, the review concludes (Part V
Computerized liver volumetry on MRI by using 3D geodesic active contour segmentation.
Huynh, Hieu Trung; Karademir, Ibrahim; Oto, Aytekin; Suzuki, Kenji
2014-01-01
Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated 3D liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes on MRI. Our scheme for MRI liver volumetry consisted of three main stages. First, the preprocessing stage was applied to T1-weighted MRI of the liver in the portal venous phase to reduce noise and produce the boundary-enhanced image. This boundary-enhanced image was used as a speed function for a 3D fast-marching algorithm to generate an initial surface that roughly approximated the shape of the liver. A 3D geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm refined the initial surface to precisely determine the liver boundaries. The liver volumes determined by our scheme were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as the reference standard. The two volumetric methods reached excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.98) without statistical significance (p = 0.42). The average (± SD) accuracy was 99.4% ± 0.14%, and the average Dice overlap coefficient was 93.6% ± 1.7%. The mean processing time for our automated scheme was 1.03 ± 0.13 minutes, whereas that for manual volumetry was 24.0 ± 4.4 minutes (p volumetry based on our automated scheme agreed excellently with reference-standard volumetry, and it required substantially less completion time.
Ben Slama, Amine; Mouelhi, Aymen; Sahli, Hanene; Manoubi, Sondes; Mbarek, Chiraz; Trabelsi, Hedi; Fnaiech, Farhat; Sayadi, Mounir
2017-07-01
The diagnostic of the vestibular neuritis (VN) presents many difficulties to traditional assessment methods This paper deals with a fully automatic VN diagnostic system based on nystagmus parameter estimation using a pupil detection algorithm. A geodesic active contour model is implemented to find an accurate segmentation region of the pupil. Hence, the novelty of the proposed algorithm is to speed up the standard segmentation by using a specific mask located on the region of interest. This allows a drastically computing time reduction and a great performance and accuracy of the obtained results. After using this fast segmentation algorithm, the obtained estimated parameters are represented in temporal and frequency settings. A useful principal component analysis (PCA) selection procedure is then applied to obtain a reduced number of estimated parameters which are used to train a multi neural network (MNN). Experimental results on 90 eye movement videos show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed estimation algorithm versus previous work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alim Samat
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In order to deal with scenarios where the training data, used to deduce a model, and the validation data have different statistical distributions, we study the problem of transformed subspace feature transfer for domain adaptation (DA in the context of hyperspectral image classification via a geodesic Gaussian flow kernel based support vector machine (GFKSVM. To show the superior performance of the proposed approach, conventional support vector machines (SVMs and state-of-the-art DA algorithms, including information-theoretical learning of discriminative cluster for domain adaptation (ITLDC, joint distribution adaptation (JDA, and joint transfer matching (JTM, are also considered. Additionally, unsupervised linear and nonlinear subspace feature transfer techniques including principal component analysis (PCA, randomized nonlinear principal component analysis (rPCA, factor analysis (FA and non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF are investigated and compared. Experiments on two real hyperspectral images show the cross-image classification performances of the GFKSVM, confirming its effectiveness and suitability when applied to hyperspectral images.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Sandoval-Santana, J.C.; Cardoso, J.L.; Kunold, A.
2015-01-01
We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai–Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. -- Highlights: •We deal with the general quadratic Hamiltonian and a particle in electromagnetic fields. •The evolution operator is worked out through the Lie algebraic approach. •We also obtain the propagator and Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. •Analytical expressions for a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Sandoval-Santana, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Cardoso, J.L. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)
2015-11-15
We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai–Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. -- Highlights: •We deal with the general quadratic Hamiltonian and a particle in electromagnetic fields. •The evolution operator is worked out through the Lie algebraic approach. •We also obtain the propagator and Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. •Analytical expressions for a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Ahirwar
2006-08-01
Full Text Available The effect of parallel electric field on the growth rate, parallel and perpendicular resonant energy and marginal stability of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC wave with general loss-cone distribution function in a low β homogeneous plasma is investigated by particle aspect approach. The effect of the steepness of the loss-cone distribution is investigated on the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron wave. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles. It is assumed that resonant particles participate in the energy exchange with the wave, whereas non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The effect of the parallel electric field with the general distribution function is to control the growth rate of the EMIC waves, whereas the effect of steep loss-cone distribution is to enhance the growth rate and perpendicular heating of the ions. This study is relevant to the analysis of ion conics in the presence of an EMIC wave in the auroral acceleration region of the Earth's magnetoplasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brockmann, H.
1992-01-01
Using the discrete ordinates method for the treatment of neutral particle transport through voids serious flux distortions may occur due to the restricted streaming of particles along discrete directions. For mitigating this type of ray effect the method of view factors is proposed which has been developed in the theory of thermal radiation for describing the radiant exchange among surfaces. In order to apply this method to transport theory generalized view factors are defined which regard the angular dependence of the radiation leaving the surfaces. The generalized view factors are calculated analytically for r-z cylinder geometries and by applying the view factor algebra. The method was realized in the discrete ordinates transport code DOT 4.2 and applied to an r-z analogue of the S I S (Square-In-Square) sample problem. The results of the proposed method are compared with those calculated by the common discrete ordinates method and the Monte Carlo method
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bessel (1825) calculation for geodesic measurements (Karney+, 2010)
Karney, C. F. F.; Deakin, R. E.
2010-06-01
The solution of the geodesic problem for an oblate ellipsoid is developed in terms of series. Tables are provided to simplify the computation. Included here are the tables that accompanied Bessel's paper (with corrections). The tables were crafted by Bessel to be minimize the labor of hand calculations. To this end, he adjusted the intervals in the tables, the number of terms included in the series, and the number of significant digits given so that the final results are accurate to about 8 places. For that reason, the most useful form of the tables is as the PDF file which provides the tables in a layout close to the original. Also provided is the LaTeX source file for the PDF file. Finally, the data has been put into a format so that it can be read easily by computer programs. All the logarithms are in base 10 (common logarithms). The characteristic and the mantissa should be read separately (indicated as x.c and x.m in the file description). Thus the first entry in the table, -4.4, should be parsed as "-4" (the characteristic) and ".4" (the mantissa); the anti-log for this entry is 10(-4+0.4)=2.5e-4. The "Delta" columns give the first difference of the preceding column, i.e., the difference of the preceding column in the next row and the preceding column in the current row. In the printed tables these are expressed as "units in the last place" and the differences are of the rounded representations in the preceding columns (to minimize interpolation errors). In table1.dat these are given scaled to a match the format used for the preceding column, as indicated by the units given for these columns. The unit log(") (in the description within square brackets [arcsec]) means the logarithm of a quantity expressed in arcseconds. (3 data files).
CT liver volumetry using geodesic active contour segmentation with a level-set algorithm
Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Obajuluwa, Ademola; Xu, Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi; Baron, Richard
2010-03-01
Automatic liver segmentation on CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes. We developed an automated volumetry scheme for the liver in CT based on a 5 step schema. First, an anisotropic smoothing filter was applied to portal-venous phase CT images to remove noise while preserving the liver structure, followed by an edge enhancer to enhance the liver boundary. By using the boundary-enhanced image as a speed function, a fastmarching algorithm generated an initial surface that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour-evolution refined the initial surface so as to more precisely fit the liver boundary. The liver volume was calculated based on the refined liver surface. Hepatic CT scans of eighteen prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multi-detector CT system. Automated liver volumes obtained were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as "gold standard." The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1,520 cc, whereas the mean manual volume was 1,486 cc, with the mean absolute difference of 104 cc (7.0%). CT liver volumetrics based on an automated scheme agreed excellently with "goldstandard" manual volumetrics (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (p(F<=f)=0.32), and required substantially less completion time. Our automated scheme provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes.
Computational Analysis of Natural Ventilation Flows in Geodesic Dome Building in Hot Climates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zohreh Soleimani
2016-08-01
Full Text Available For centuries, dome roofs were used in traditional houses in hot regions such as the Middle East and Mediterranean basin due to its thermal advantages, structural benefits and availability of construction materials. This article presents the computational modelling of the wind- and buoyancy-induced ventilation in a geodesic dome building in a hot climate. The airflow and temperature distributions and ventilation flow rates were predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations were solved using the CFD tool ANSYS FLUENT15. The standard k-epsilon was used as turbulence model. The modelling was verified using grid sensitivity and flux balance analysis. In order to validate the modelling method used in the current study, additional simulation of a similar domed-roof building was conducted for comparison. For wind-induced ventilation, the dome building was modelled with upper roof vents. For buoyancy-induced ventilation, the geometry was modelled with roof vents and also with two windows open in the lower level. The results showed that using the upper roof openings as a natural ventilation strategy during winter periods is advantageous and could reduce the indoor temperature and also introduce fresh air. The results also revealed that natural ventilation using roof vents cannot satisfy thermal requirements during hot summer periods and complementary cooling solutions should be considered. The analysis showed that buoyancy-induced ventilation model can still generate air movement inside the building during periods with no or very low wind.
Dragt, A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Dragt, A. Bodoh-Creed A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Bodoh-Creed, A.; Walstrom, P. L.
2010-01-01
Three-dimensional field distributions from realistic beamline elements can be obtained only by measurement or by numerical solution of a boundary-value problem. In numerical charged-particle map generation, fields along a reference trajectory are differentiated multiple times. Any attempt to differentiate directly such field data multiple times is soon dominated by "noise" due to finite meshing and/or measurement errors. This problem can be overcome by the use of field data on a surface outsi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Chakraborty, Shantanu; Abdur Razzak, S.M.; Senjyu, Tomonobu
2009-01-01
This paper presents a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) for constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Real cost functions are more complex than conventional second order cost functions when multi-fuel operations, valve-point effects, accurate curve fitting, etc., are considering in deregulated changing market. The proposed modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) consists of problem dependent variable number of promising values (in velocity vector), unit vector and error-iteration dependent step length. It reliably and accurately tracks a continuously changing solution of the complex cost function and no extra concentration/effort is needed for the complex higher order cost polynomials in ELD. Constraint management is incorporated in the modified PSO. The modified PSO has balance between local and global searching abilities, and an appropriate fitness function helps to converge it quickly. To avoid the method to be frozen, stagnated/idle particles are reset. Sensitivity of the higher order cost polynomials is also analyzed visually to realize the importance of the higher order cost polynomials for the optimization of ELD. Finally, benchmark data sets and methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)
GEODESIC MONITORING OF VERTICAL MOVEMENT OF JSC «GRODNO AZOT» BUILDINGS USING DIGITAL DNA 03 LEVEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Mikhailov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents peculiar features and methodology pertaining to application of digital DNA 03 level for monitoring vertical movement of load-carrying structures in the workshops and foundations of various capacities, exhaust pipes and granulation towers having height from 100 to150 meters. The proposed methods presuppose usage of the results of engineering and geological investigations and highly accurate geodesic measurements considered in the process of hydro- and pneumatic tests of an isothermic storage of liquid ammonia and a production “Ammonia” shop taken as an example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.
1991-01-01
This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bailey, Nicholas; Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2017-01-01
RUMD is a general purpose, high-performance molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package running on graphical processing units (GPU’s). RUMD addresses the challenge of utilizing the many-core nature of modern GPU hardware when simulating small to medium system sizes (roughly from a few thousand up...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.
1986-01-01
Some general problems of the theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions are considered. It is assumed that such ions are due to either ionization of fast neutral atoms, injected into the tokamak, or production of them under thermo-nuclear conditions. Small-oscillation equations are derived for the Alfven-type waves, which allow for both destabilizing effects, associated with the high-energy particles, and stabilizing ones, such as effects of shear and bulk-plasm dissipation. A high-energy ion contribution is calculated into the growth rate of the Alfven waves. The author considers the role of trapped-electron collisional dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Hong; Guan Xiaoyin
2008-01-01
A variational symplectic integrator for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic fields is developed for long-time simulation studies of magnetized plasmas. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The variational symplectic integrator conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure, and has better numerical properties over long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and variable time-step fourth order Runge-Kutta methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, H.; Guan, X.
2008-01-01
A variational symplectic integrator for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic fields is developed for long-time simulation studies of magnetized plasmas. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The variational symplectic integrator conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure, and has better numerical properties over long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and variable time-step fourth order Runge-Kutta methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakiel, J.; Olkhovsky, V.S.
1998-01-01
It is known that, under certain conditions, the tunnelling time becomes independent of barrier width (the Hartman and Fletcher effect). Here, the generality of this effect is shown for mean tunnelling times in all known nonrelativistic approaches, in the cases of rectangular potential barriers without absorption and dissipation. On the base of this effect and the reshaping phenomenon, taking the analogy between nonrelativistic-particle and photon tunnelling into, account, one can self-consistently explain the observed superluminal effective (group) velocities in various photon tunnelling experiments without violation of the Einstein causality
He, Nana; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhao, Huilan; Qiang, Yan
2017-07-01
While the popular thin layer scanning technology of spiral CT has helped to improve diagnoses of lung diseases, the large volumes of scanning images produced by the technology also dramatically increase the load of physicians in lesion detection. Computer-aided diagnosis techniques like lesions segmentation in thin CT sequences have been developed to address this issue, but it remains a challenge to achieve high segmentation efficiency and accuracy without much involvement of human manual intervention. In this paper, we present our research on automated segmentation of lung parenchyma with an improved geodesic active contour model that is geodesic active contour model based on similarity (GACBS). Combining spectral clustering algorithm based on Nystrom (SCN) with GACBS, this algorithm first extracts key image slices, then uses these slices to generate an initial contour of pulmonary parenchyma of un-segmented slices with an interpolation algorithm, and finally segments lung parenchyma of un-segmented slices. Experimental results show that the segmentation results generated by our method are close to what manual segmentation can produce, with an average volume overlap ratio of 91.48%.
Exact Descriptions of General Relativity Derived from Newtonian Mechanics within Curved Geometries
Savickas, David
2015-04-01
General relativity and Newtonian mechanics are shown to be exactly related when Newton's second law is written in a curved geometry by using the physical components of a vector as is defined in tensor calculus. By replacing length within the momentum's velocity by the vector metric in a curved geometry the second law can then be shown to be exactly identical to the geodesic equation of motion occurring in general relativity. When time's vector direction is constant, as similarly occurs in Newtonian mechanics, this equation can be reduced to a curved three-dimensional equation of motion that yields the the Schwarzschild equations of motion for an isolated particle. They can be used to describe gravitational behavior for any array of masses for which the Newtonian gravitational potential is known, and is shown to describe a mass particle's behavior in the gravitational field of a thin mass-rod. This use of Newton's laws allows relativistic behavior to be described in a physically comprehensible manner. D. Savickas, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 23 1430018, (2014).
Lecture II. Charmed particle spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1978-01-01
The discussion of charmed particle spectroscopy covers the particle properties and interrelations from a charmed quark composition point of view including SU(4)-symmetry generalities, mesons, baryons, charmed particle masses, and decays of charmed particles. 6 references
AUTHOR|(CDS)2243922; Ekelin, Svea Magdalena; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Christiansen, Iben
2017-08-15
In 2016, the ATLAS experiment at CERN released data from 100 trillion proton-proton collisions to the general public. In connection to this release the ATLAS Outreach group has developed several tools for visualizing and analyzing the data, one of which is a Histogram analyzer. The focus of this project is to bridge the gap between the general public's knowledge in physics and what is needed to use this Histogram analyzer. The project consists of both the development and an evaluation of a learning resource that explains experimental particle physics for a general public audience. The learning resource is a website making use of analogies and two perspectives on learning: Variation Theory and Cognitive Load Theory. The evaluation of the website was done using a survey with 10 respondents and it focused on whether analogies and the perspectives on learning helped their understanding. In general the respondents found the analogies to be helpful for their learning, and to some degree they found the explanations ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nasr, S.; Ashry, K.; El-Gayar, A.; Zawahry, K.; Mohamed, F.
2005-01-01
Viral Infections are more more likely to cause generalized lymphadenopathy than other type of infections. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified as the etiological agent in infectious mononucleosis and has been proved to be an oncogenic virus. It has been reported to be associated with Burkett's lymphoma. The present work aimed at studying the frequency of Epstein-Barr virus in relation to lymphadenopathy in Egyptian children, immunological, ultra-structural and epidemiological studies of Epstein-Barr virus infection in relation to different age groups and sex factors. The study also correlates between diagnostic value of the different serological tests including quality control double study in Cairo and France and hematological finding as well as electron microscopic finding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan Mehbub
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Based on baryon charge conservation and a generalized Yang-Mills symmetry for Abelian (and non-Abelian groups, we discuss a new baryonic gauge field and its linear potential for two point-like baryon charges. The force between two point-like baryons is repulsive, extremely weak and independent of distance. However, for two extended baryonic systems, we have a dominant linear force α r. Thus, only in the later stage of the cosmic evolution, when two baryonic galaxies are separated by an extremely large distance, the new repulsive baryonic force can overcome the gravitational attractive force. Such a model provides a gauge-field-theoretic understanding of the late-time accelerated cosmic expansion. The baryonic force can be tested by measuring the accelerated Wu-Doppler frequency shifts of supernovae at different distances.
Diffusion of massive particles around an Abelian-Higgs string
Saha, Abhisek; Sanyal, Soma
2018-03-01
We study the diffusion of massive particles in the space time of an Abelian Higgs string. The particles in the early universe plasma execute Brownian motion. This motion of the particles is modeled as a two dimensional random walk in the plane of the Abelian Higgs string. The particles move randomly in the space time of the string according to their geodesic equations. We observe that for certain values of their energy and angular momentum, an overdensity of particles is observed close to the string. We find that the string parameters determine the distribution of the particles. We make an estimate of the density fluctuation generated around the string as a function of the deficit angle. Though the thickness of the string is small, the length is large and the overdensity close to the string may have cosmological consequences in the early universe.
Generalized Curvature-Matter Couplings in Modified Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Harko
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, we review a plethora of modified theories of gravity with generalized curvature-matter couplings. The explicit nonminimal couplings, for instance, between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature R and the Lagrangian density of matter, induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor, implying non-geodesic motion and, consequently, leads to the appearance of an extra force. Applied to the cosmological context, these curvature-matter couplings lead to interesting phenomenology, where one can obtain a unified description of the cosmological epochs. We also consider the possibility that the behavior of the galactic flat rotation curves can be explained in the framework of the curvature-matter coupling models, where the extra terms in the gravitational field equations modify the equations of motion of test particles and induce a supplementary gravitational interaction. In addition to this, these models are extremely useful for describing dark energy-dark matter interactions and for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration.
Wang, Senhao; Wang, Wei; Gu, Shangzhi; Zhang, Guoxin; Song, Ningning
2018-05-01
In this study, sulphur-modified reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was employed as substrate to investigate the growth mechanism of metal and metallic nanoparticles (NPs). It is observed that the monodispersed Au, SnO2, FeO(OH) and Co3S4 NPs in sub-nanometer (sub-nm) with narrow size distribution were successfully anchored on S-rGO, respectively. The results indicate that the S contained radicals, viz. the Cdbnd S and Csbnd Ssbnd C functional groups play an important role in determining the homogeneous distribution of NPs on S-rGO by providing active sites for the NPs anchoring and nucleation. In additional, as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized sub-nm sized Co3S4/S-rGO and SnO2/S-rGO composites show excellent Li storage performance. It could be stabilized at ca. 600 mAh/g after formation cycle with the coulombic efficiency of 98%. It is expected that the strategy of growing sub-nm sized metallic component onto graphene by applying sulphur functionalities could be utilized as a general method to prepare monodispersed graphene-based NPs with other metals, especially with transition metals in sub-nm sizes.
Noppel, M; Vehkamäki, H; Winkler, P M; Kulmala, M; Wagner, P E
2013-10-07
Based on the results of a previous paper [M. Noppel, H. Vehkamäki, P. M. Winkler, M. Kulmala, and P. E. Wagner, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134107 (2013)], we derive a thermodynamically consistent expression for reversible or minimal work needed to form a dielectric liquid nucleus of a new phase on a charged insoluble conducting sphere within a uniform macroscopic one- or multicomponent mother phase. The currently available model for ion-induced nucleation assumes complete spherical symmetry of the system, implying that the seed ion is immediately surrounded by the condensing liquid from all sides. We take a step further and treat more realistic geometries, where a cap-shaped liquid cluster forms on the surface of the seed particle. We derive the equilibrium conditions for such a cluster. The equalities of chemical potentials of each species between the nucleus and the vapor represent the conditions of chemical equilibrium. The generalized Young equation that relates contact angle with surface tensions, surface excess polarizations, and line tension, also containing the electrical contribution from triple line excess polarization, expresses the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium at three-phase contact line. The generalized Laplace equation gives the condition of mechanical equilibrium at vapor-liquid dividing surface: it relates generalized pressures in neighboring bulk phases at an interface with surface tension, excess surface polarization, and dielectric displacements in neighboring phases with two principal radii of surface curvature and curvatures of equipotential surfaces in neighboring phases at that point. We also re-express the generalized Laplace equation as a partial differential equation, which, along with electrostatic Laplace equations for bulk phases, determines the shape of a nucleus. We derive expressions that are suitable for calculations of the size and composition of a critical nucleus (generalized version of the classical Kelvin-Thomson equation).
Hirata, So; Doran, Alexander E; Knowles, Peter J; Ortiz, J V
2017-07-28
A thorough analytical and numerical characterization of the whole perturbation series of one-particle many-body Green's function (MBGF) theory is presented in a pedagogical manner. Three distinct but equivalent algebraic (first-quantized) recursive definitions of the perturbation series of the Green's function are derived, which can be combined with the well-known recursion for the self-energy. Six general-order algorithms of MBGF are developed, each implementing one of the three recursions, the ΔMPn method (where n is the perturbation order) [S. Hirata et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 1595 (2015)], the automatic generation and interpretation of diagrams, or the numerical differentiation of the exact Green's function with a perturbation-scaled Hamiltonian. They all display the identical, nondivergent perturbation series except ΔMPn, which agrees with MBGF in the diagonal and frequency-independent approximations at 1≤n≤3 but converges at the full-configuration-interaction (FCI) limit at n=∞ (unless it diverges). Numerical data of the perturbation series are presented for Koopmans and non-Koopmans states to quantify the rate of convergence towards the FCI limit and the impact of the diagonal, frequency-independent, or ΔMPn approximation. The diagrammatic linkedness and thus size-consistency of the one-particle Green's function and self-energy are demonstrated at any perturbation order on the basis of the algebraic recursions in an entirely time-independent (frequency-domain) framework. The trimming of external lines in a one-particle Green's function to expose a self-energy diagram and the removal of reducible diagrams are also justified mathematically using the factorization theorem of Frantz and Mills. Equivalence of ΔMPn and MBGF in the diagonal and frequency-independent approximations at 1≤n≤3 is algebraically proven, also ascribing the differences at n = 4 to the so-called semi-reducible and linked-disconnected diagrams.
Tomaschitz, R
1989-01-01
We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are bounded and recurrent in both directions of the time evolution a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schrodinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö.D.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the first observation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) on Tore Supra plasmas. Using the Doppler backscattering system, the oscillations of the plasma flow velocity, localized between r/a = 0.85 and r/a = 0.95, and with a frequency, typically around 10 kHz, have been observed at the plasma edge in numerous discharges. When the additional heating power is varied, the frequency is found to scale with C s /R. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is employed to access the temporal evolution of the perpendicular velocity of density fluctuations. The method is presented in some detail, and is validated and compared against standard methods, such as the conventional fast Fourier transform method, using a synthetic signal. It stands out as a powerful data analysis method to follow the Doppler frequency with a high temporal resolution, which is important in order to extract the dynamics of GAMs. (paper)
Cubic and quartic integrals for geodesic flow on 2-torus via a system of the hydrodynamic type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialy, Misha; Mironov, Andrey E
2011-01-01
In this paper, we deal with the classical question of the existence of polynomials in momenta integrals for geodesic flows on the 2-torus. For the quasilinear system on the coefficients of the polynomial integral, we investigate the region (so-called elliptic region) where two of the eigenvalues are complex conjugate. We show that for quartic integrals the other two eigenvalues are real and necessarily genuinely nonlinear. This observation, together with the property of the system to be rich (semi-Hamiltonian), enables us to classify elliptic regions completely. We prove that on these regions the integral is always reducible. The case of complex-conjugate eigenvalues for the system corresponding to the integral of degree 3 is done similarly. These results show that if new integrable examples exist, they can be found only within the region of hyperbolicity of the quasilinear system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomaschitz, R.
1989-01-01
We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are recurrent in both directions of the time evolution t → +∞, t → -∞ a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schroedinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Liang; Tu Yu-Song; Xu Shun; Zhou Xin
2017-01-01
The square-well (SW) potential is one of the simplest pair potential models and its phase behavior has been clearly revealed, therefore it has become a benchmark for checking new theories or numerical methods. We introduce the generalized canonical ensemble (GCE) into the isobaric replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) algorithm to form a novel isobaric GCE-REMC method, and apply it to the study of vapor–liquid transition of SW particles. It is validated that this method can reproduce the vapor–liquid diagram of SW particles by comparing the estimated vapor–liquid binodals and the critical point with those from the literature. The notable advantage of this method is that the unstable vapor–liquid coexisting states, which cannot be detected using conventional sampling techniques, are accessed with a high sampling efficiency. Besides, the isobaric GCE-REMC method can visit all the possible states, including stable, metastable or unstable states during the phase transition over a wide pressure range, providing an effective pathway to understand complex phase transitions during the nucleation or crystallization process in physical or biological systems. (paper)
Elementary particles and particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.
1986-01-01
This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de
General Relativity Exactly Described by Use of Newton's Laws within a Curved Geometry
Savickas, David
2014-03-01
The connection between general relativity and Newtonian mechanics is shown to be much closer than generally recognized. When Newton's second law is written in a curved geometry by using the physical components of a vector as defined in tensor calculus, and by replacing distance within the momentum's velocity by the vector metric ds in a curved geometry, the second law can then be easily shown to be exactly identical to the geodesic equation of motion occurring in general relativity. By using a time whose vector direction is constant, as similarly occurs in Newtonian mechanics, this equation can be separated into two equations one of which is a curved three-dimensional equation of motion and the other is an equation for energy. For the gravitational field of an isolated particle, they yield the Schwarzschild equations. They can be used to describe gravitation for any array of masses for which the Newtonian gravitational potential is known, and is applied here to describe motion in the gravitational field of a thin mass-rod.
The power of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifton, Timothy; Barrow, John D.
2005-01-01
We study the cosmological and weak-field properties of theories of gravity derived by extending general relativity by means of a Lagrangian proportional to R 1+δ . This scale-free extension reduces to general relativity when δ→0. In order to constrain generalizations of general relativity of this power class, we analyze the behavior of the perfect-fluid Friedmann universes and isolate the physically relevant models of zero curvature. A stable matter-dominated period of evolution requires δ>0 or δ -19 assuming that Mercury follows a timelike geodesic. The combination of these observational constraints leads to the overall bound 0≤δ -19 on theories of this type
Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity
Cubillos, D. J.
2017-07-01
General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.
Motion of particles on a four-dimensional asymptotically AdS black hole with scalar hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, P.A.; Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2015-10-15
Motivated by black hole solutions with matter fields outside their horizon, we study the effect of these matter fields on the motion of massless and massive particles. We consider as background a four-dimensional asymptotically AdS black hole with scalar hair. The geodesics are studied numerically and we discuss the differences in the motion of particles between the four-dimensional asymptotically AdS black holes with scalar hair and their no-hair limit, that is, Schwarzschild AdS black holes. Mainly, we found that there are bounded orbits like planetary orbits in this background. However, the periods associated to circular orbits are modified by the presence of the scalar hair. Besides, we found that some classical tests such as perihelion precession, deflection of light, and gravitational time delay have the standard value of general relativity plus a correction term coming from the cosmological constant and the scalar hair. Finally, we found a specific value of the parameter associated to the scalar hair, in order to explain the discrepancy between the theory and the observations, for the perihelion precession of Mercury and light deflection. (orig.)
Equations of motion derived from a generalization of Einstein's equation for the gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mociutchi, C.
1980-01-01
The extended Einstein's equation, combined with a vectorial theory of maxwellian type of the gravitational field, leads to: a) the equation of motion; b) the equation of the trajectory for the static case of spherical symmetry, the test particle having a rest mass other than zero, and c) the propagation of light on null geodesics. All the basic tests of the theory given by Einstein's extended equation. Thus, the new theory of gravitation suggested by us is competitive. (author)
The effects of sloshing energetic particles on ballooning modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stotler, D.P.; Berk, H.L.
1986-10-01
Distributions that give rise to energetic trapped particle pressures peaked in the ''good curvature'' region of a tokamak (sloshing distributions) are examined in an attempt to find stable regimes for both the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and precessional modes. It is the precessional drift destabilization of ballooning modes that inhibits bridging the unstable gap to second stability by the use of deeply-trapped energetic particles unless the hot particles have an extremely large energy (∼0.35 MeV for a tokamak like PDX). Unfortunately, our calculations indicate that the sloshing particles do not have a significant stabilizing effect. An analytic treatment shows that complete stability can be found only if the sign of the energetic particle magnetic drift-frequency can be reversed from its value in vacuum bad curvature without hot species diamagnetism. This is difficult to do in a tokamak because of the destabilizing contribution of the geodesic curvature to the drift frequency. Furthermore, for each of the two sloshing distributions employed (one contains only trapped particles; the other includes trapped and passing particles), a new ''continuum instability'' (where asymptotically along the field line the mode is a propagating plane wave) is found to be driven by geodesic curvature. These results indicate that energetic sloshing particles are not able to bridge the unstable gap to second stability
Simpson, J. J.; Taflove, A.
2005-12-01
We report a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational solution of Maxwell's equations [1] that models the possibility of detecting and characterizing ionospheric disturbances above seismic regions. Specifically, we study anomalies in Schumann resonance spectra in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range below 30 Hz as observed in Japan caused by a hypothetical cylindrical ionospheric disturbance above Taiwan. We consider excitation of the global Earth-ionosphere waveguide by lightning in three major thunderstorm regions of the world: Southeast Asia, South America (Amazon region), and Africa. Furthermore, we investigate varying geometries and characteristics of the ionospheric disturbance above Taiwan. The FDTD technique used in this study enables a direct, full-vector, three-dimensional (3-D) time-domain Maxwell's equations calculation of round-the-world ELF propagation accounting for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. Our entire-Earth model grids the annular lithosphere-atmosphere volume within 100 km of sea level, and contains over 6,500,000 grid-points (63 km laterally between adjacent grid points, 5 km radial resolution). We use our recently developed spherical geodesic gridding technique having a spatial discretization best described as resembling the surface of a soccer ball [2]. The grid is comprised entirely of hexagonal cells except for a small fixed number of pentagonal cells needed for completion. Grid-cell areas and locations are optimized to yield a smoothly varying area difference between adjacent cells, thereby maximizing numerical convergence. We compare our calculated results with measured data prior to the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan as reported by Hayakawa et. al. [3]. Acknowledgement This work was suggested by Dr. Masashi Hayakawa, University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo. References [1] A
Calculating observables in inhomogeneous cosmologies. Part I: general framework
Hellaby, Charles; Walters, Anthony
2018-02-01
We lay out a general framework for calculating the variation of a set of cosmological observables, down the past null cone of an arbitrarily placed observer, in a given arbitrary inhomogeneous metric. The observables include redshift, proper motions, area distance and redshift-space density. Of particular interest are observables that are zero in the spherically symmetric case, such as proper motions. The algorithm is based on the null geodesic equation and the geodesic deviation equation, and it is tailored to creating a practical numerical implementation. The algorithm provides a method for tracking which light rays connect moving objects to the observer at successive times. Our algorithm is applied to the particular case of the Szekeres metric. A numerical implementation has been created and some results will be presented in a subsequent paper. Future work will explore the range of possibilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermanns, S; Bonitz, M; Balzer, K
2013-01-01
The nonequilibrium description of quantum systems requires, for more than two or three particles, the use of a reduced description to be numerically tractable. Two possible approaches are based on either reduced density matrices or nonequilibrium Green functions (NEGF). Both concepts are formulated in terms of hierarchies of coupled equations—the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for the reduced density operators and the Martin-Schwinger-hierarchy (MS) for the Green functions, respectively. In both cases, similar approximations are introduced to decouple the hierarchy, yet still many questions regarding the correspondence of both approaches remain open. Here we analyze this correspondence by studying the generalized Kadanoff–Baym ansatz (GKBA) that reduces the NEGF to a single-time theory. Starting from the BBGKY-hierarchy we present the approximations that are necessary to recover the GKBA result both, with Hartree-Fock propagators (HF-GKBA) and propagators in second Born approximation. To test the quality of the HF-GKBA, we study the dynamics of a 4-electron Hubbard nanocluster starting from a strong nonequilibrium initial state and compare to exact results and the Wang-Cassing approximation to the BBGKY hierarchy presented recently by Akbari et al. [1].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.
A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation
Maas, Jan
2015-11-01
© EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.
... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellman, Hal
1970-01-01
This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.
Online Particle Physics Information - Education Sites
SLAC Online Particle Physics Information Particle Data Group Particle Physics Education Sites General Sites Background Knowledge Physics Lessons & Activities Astronomy Lessons & Activities Ask -A-Scientist Experiments, Demos and Fun Physics History & Diversity Art in Physics General Sites
Motion of a spinning test particle in Vaidya's radiating metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmeli, M.; Charach, C.; Kaye, M.
1977-01-01
The motion of a spinning test particle in Vaidya's gravitational field is considered in the framework of Papapetrou's equations of motion. Use is made of the supplementary condition S/sup μ//sup u/ = 0, where u is the retarded Schwarzschild time coordinate. We derive the equations for the dynamical variables, and consider the conservation laws, that follow from the equations of motion. Particular cases of motion are also discussed and additional first integrals corresponding to these cases are found. Some of the new extra integrals are related to the Casimir operators of the Poincare group. It is found that under special conditions on the spin tensor components the particle follows a geodesic. Motion of the spinning test particle in the Schwarzschild field is considered as one of the particular cases
General relativity: An erfc metric
Plamondon, Réjean
2018-06-01
This paper proposes an erfc potential to incorporate in a symmetric metric. One key feature of this model is that it relies on the existence of an intrinsic physical constant σ, a star-specific proper length that scales all its surroundings. Based thereon, the new metric is used to study the space-time geometry of a static symmetric massive object, as seen from its interior. The analytical solutions to the Einstein equation are presented, highlighting the absence of singularities and discontinuities in such a model. The geodesics are derived in their second- and first-order differential formats. Recalling the slight impact of the new model on the classical general relativity tests in the solar system, a number of facts and open problems are briefly revisited on the basis of a heuristic definition of σ. A special attention is given to gravitational collapses and non-singular black holes.
The generalized good cut equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamo, T M; Newman, E T
2010-01-01
The properties of null geodesic congruences (NGCs) in Lorentzian manifolds are a topic of considerable importance. More specifically NGCs with the special property of being shear-free or asymptotically shear-free (as either infinity or a horizon is approached) have received a great deal of recent attention for a variety of reasons. Such congruences are most easily studied via solutions to what has been referred to as the 'good cut equation' or the 'generalization good cut equation'. It is the purpose of this paper to study these equations and show their relationship to each other. In particular we show how they all have a four-complex-dimensional manifold (known as H-space, or in a special case as complex Minkowski space) as a solution space.
Donmez, Orhan
We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.
Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Van den Bergh, F
2006-01-01
Full Text Available . These theoretical studies concentrate mainly on simplified PSO systems. This paper overviews current theoretical studies, and extend these studies to investigate particle trajectories for general swarms to include the influence of the inertia term. The paper also...
Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah
2015-01-01
In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…
Israel, R.; Rosner, D. E.
1983-01-01
The aerodynamic capture efficiency of small but nondiffusing particles suspended in a high-speed stream flowing past a target is known to be influenced by parameters governing small particle inertia, departures from the Stokes drag law, and carrier fluid compressibility. By defining an effective Stokes number in terms of the actual (prevailing) particle stopping distance, local fluid viscosity, and inviscid fluid velocity gradient at the target nose, it is shown that these effects are well correlated in terms of a 'standard' (cylindrical collector, Stokes drag, incompressible flow, sq rt Re much greater than 1) capture efficiency curve. Thus, a correlation follows that simplifies aerosol capture calculations in the parameter range already included in previous numerical solutions, allows rational engineering predictions of deposition in situations not previously specifically calculated, and should facilitate the presentation of performance data for gas cleaning equipment and aerosol instruments.
Geodesic and hydrogeophysic long term observations in the Durzon karstic aquifer (Larzac, France)
Le Moigne, Nicolas; Bayer, Roger; Boudin, Frederick; Champollion, Cedric; Chery, Jean; Collard, Philippe; Daignières, Marc; Deville, Sabrina; Doerflinger, Erik; Vernant, Philippe
2010-05-01
Karsts are generally characterized by high heterogeneity at all scales for both the water storage properties and the mode of water transport. The Durzon karst system is located in south of France and is characterized by a unsaturated zone of 100-150 m width. The water input is exclusively rainfall and draining occurs at the Durzon perennial spring in a karstic valley. The Durzon aquifer has been monitored by our group by different geophysical methods (gravimetry, tiltmetry, more details below) for several years. The present-day stage of the project is to setup long term observations to assess hydrological properties of the karst in a small area of 500m*500m with numerous caves (up to 100 m deep and more than 2 km of development). The observations are of four major types: - Continuous high frequency and high accuracy gravimetry: Gravimetric observations can be directly linked to the variations of water masses in the unsaturated zone. The iGrav™ Superconducting Gravity Meter from GWR (San Diego, USA) will be used to record continuous gravity variations and track water mass variations at a few millimeters level. The iGrav™ is a new SG model from GWR that has been simplified for portable and field operation, but retains the stability and precision of previous SGs. With a drift rate of less than 0.5 microGal/month and a virtually constant scale factory, the iGrav™ will provide a much higher stability and precision than can be achieved with mechanical spring-type gravity meters. - Water flux measurements (atmospheric and in-situ): A flux tower provides evapo-transpiration measurements (output) allowing complete budget calculation with the help of gravity (storage variations) and rainfall (input). An original measurement corresponds to the measure of the in-situ flow inside karstic caves (stalactites and underground river). - Tiltmetry: In situ (in caves) measurements are completed by long base silica tiltmeters. Tiltmeters are sensible to water storage in fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strugalski, Z.; Pavlak, T.; Pluta, J.
1982-01-01
There exist pion-xenon nucleus collision events in which intensive emission of fast protons, of kinetic energy of about 20-400 MeV, is observed only without particle production. Energy, momentum and angular distributions of the emitted protons are presented and analysed in classes of events with various proton emission intensity. It is concluded that: a)the nucleon emission proceeds independently of the particle production process; b)the observed intensive emission of the ''fast'' protons cannot be treated as a result of a simple knocking-out of the nucleons from the target by the incident hadron
PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein's equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 10$^{-7}$ of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn't depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M.Robitaille, according to which the 2.7K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein's theory.
PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borissova L.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein’s equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25 km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 1E-7 of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn’t depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M. Robitaille, according to which the 2.7 K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7 K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein’s theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medeiros Ritter, Oswaldo de
1991-10-01
We discuss the Lie method and apply it to differential equations obtaining their symmetries. We also discuss methods of how to obtain first integrals from these symmetries. We apply these methods to some interesting physical problems, all of them involving charged particles in electromagnetic fields. (author). 77 refs.
New insights in particle dynamics from group cohomology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldaya, V; Jaramillo, J L; Guerrero, J
2002-01-01
The dynamics of a particle moving in background electromagnetic and gravitational fields is revisited from a Lie group cohomological perspective. Physical constants characterizing the particle appear as central extension parameters of a group which is obtained from a centrally extended kinematical group (Poincare or Galilei) by making some subgroup local. The corresponding dynamics is generated by a vector field inside the kernel of a pre-symplectic form which is derived from the canonical left-invariant 1-form on the extended group. A non-relativistic limit is derived from the geodesic motion via an Inoenue-Wigner contraction. A deeper analysis of the cohomological structure reveals the possibility of a new force associated with a non-trivial mixing of gravity and electromagnetism leading to, in principle, testable predictions. (letter to the editor)
BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity
Louko, Jorma
2011-04-01
Joel Franklin's textbook `Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity' comprises two partially overlapping, partially complementary introductory paths into general relativity at advanced undergraduate level. Path I starts with the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of Newtonian point particle motion, emphasising the action principle and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The concepts are then adapted to point particle motion in Minkowski space, introducing Lorentz transformations as symmetries of the action. There follows a focused development of tensor calculus, parallel transport and curvature, using examples from Newtonian mechanics and special relativity, culminating in the field equations of general relativity. The Schwarzschild solution is analysed, including a detailed discussion of the tidal forces on a radially infalling observer. Basics of gravitational radiation are examined, highlighting the similarities to and differences from electromagnetic radiation. The final topics in Path I are equatorial geodesics in Kerr and the motion of a relativistic string in Minkowski space. Path II starts by introducing scalar field theory on Minkowski space as a limit of point masses connected by springs, emphasising the action principle, conservation laws and the energy-momentum tensor. The action principle for electromagnetism is introduced, and the coupling of electromagnetism to a complex scalar field is developed in a detailed and pedagogical fashion. A free symmetric second-rank tensor field on Minkowski space is introduced, and the action principle of general relativity is recovered from coupling the second-rank tensor to its own energy-momentum tensor. Path II then merges with Path I and, supplanted with judicious early selections from Path I, can proceed to the Schwarzschild solution. The choice of material in each path is logical and focused. A notable example in Path I is that Lorentz transformations in Minkowki space are introduced
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kates, R.E.
1979-01-01
This thesis shows that a small body with possibly strong internal gravity moves through an empty region of a curved, and not necessarily asymptotically flat, external spacetime on an approximate geodesic. By approximate geodesic, the following is meant: Suppose the ratio epsilon = m/L 1 - where m is the body's mass and L is a curvature reference length of the external field - is a small parameter. Then the body's worldline deviates from a geodesic only by distances of at most THETA(epsilon) L over times of order L. The worldline is calculated directly from the Einstein field equation using a singular perturbation technique that has been generalized from the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The need for singular perturbation techniques has long been appreciated in fluid mechanics, where they are now standard procedure in problems in which the straightforward expansion in powers of a small parameter fails to give a correct qualitative picture. In part I of this thesis, singular perturbations on manifolds are formulated in a coordinate-free way suitable for treating problems in general relativity and other field theories. Most importantly for this thesis, the coordinate-free formulation of singular perturbations given in part I is essential for treatment of the problem of motion in part II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parekh, V [The Johns Hopkins University, Computer Science. Baltimore, MD (United States); Jacobs, MA [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dept of Radiology and Oncology. Baltimore, MD (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Multiparametric radiological imaging is used for diagnosis in patients. Potentially extracting useful features specific to a patient’s pathology would be crucial step towards personalized medicine and assessing treatment options. In order to automatically extract features directly from multiparametric radiological imaging datasets, we developed an advanced unsupervised machine learning algorithm called the multidimensional imaging radiomics-geodesics(MIRaGe). Methods: Seventy-six breast tumor patients underwent 3T MRI breast imaging were used for this study. We tested the MIRaGe algorithm to extract features for classification of breast tumors into benign or malignant. The MRI parameters used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI). The MIRaGe algorithm extracted the radiomics-geodesics features (RGFs) from multiparametric MRI datasets. This enable our method to learn the intrinsic manifold representations corresponding to the patients. To determine the informative RGF, a modified Isomap algorithm(t-Isomap) was created for a radiomics-geodesics feature space(tRGFS) to avoid overfitting. Final classification was performed using SVM. The predictive power of the RGFs was tested and validated using k-fold cross validation. Results: The RGFs extracted by the MIRaGe algorithm successfully classified malignant lesions from benign lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91%. The top 50 RGFs identified as the most predictive by the t-Isomap procedure were consistent with the radiological parameters known to be associated with breast cancer diagnosis and were categorized as kinetic curve characterizing RGFs, wash-in rate characterizing RGFs, wash-out rate characterizing RGFs and morphology characterizing RGFs. Conclusion: In this paper, we developed a novel feature extraction algorithm for multiparametric radiological imaging. The results demonstrated the power of the MIRa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parekh, V; Jacobs, MA
2016-01-01
Purpose: Multiparametric radiological imaging is used for diagnosis in patients. Potentially extracting useful features specific to a patient’s pathology would be crucial step towards personalized medicine and assessing treatment options. In order to automatically extract features directly from multiparametric radiological imaging datasets, we developed an advanced unsupervised machine learning algorithm called the multidimensional imaging radiomics-geodesics(MIRaGe). Methods: Seventy-six breast tumor patients underwent 3T MRI breast imaging were used for this study. We tested the MIRaGe algorithm to extract features for classification of breast tumors into benign or malignant. The MRI parameters used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI). The MIRaGe algorithm extracted the radiomics-geodesics features (RGFs) from multiparametric MRI datasets. This enable our method to learn the intrinsic manifold representations corresponding to the patients. To determine the informative RGF, a modified Isomap algorithm(t-Isomap) was created for a radiomics-geodesics feature space(tRGFS) to avoid overfitting. Final classification was performed using SVM. The predictive power of the RGFs was tested and validated using k-fold cross validation. Results: The RGFs extracted by the MIRaGe algorithm successfully classified malignant lesions from benign lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91%. The top 50 RGFs identified as the most predictive by the t-Isomap procedure were consistent with the radiological parameters known to be associated with breast cancer diagnosis and were categorized as kinetic curve characterizing RGFs, wash-in rate characterizing RGFs, wash-out rate characterizing RGFs and morphology characterizing RGFs. Conclusion: In this paper, we developed a novel feature extraction algorithm for multiparametric radiological imaging. The results demonstrated the power of the MIRa
High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes
Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.
2014-07-01
It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.
Particle theory, cosmology, and relativity. Progress report, July 1, 1981-June 30, 1982
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaisser, T.K.; Steigman, G.; Halprin, A.
1982-01-01
Research in high energy physics, astrophysics, and related topics are covered. Research in particle physics and cosmic rays focusses on implications of cosmic rays for particle physics above 10 TeV. The work on the early evolution of the universe contributes directly to answers to some of the fundamental questions in particle physics and cosmology. The study of electroweak interactions centers in large part on low energy tests of high energy physics, and a brief analysis of the statistical distribution of quarks among the spheres in the Fairbank quark-search experiment. The potential role of bag-like models in theories of composite leptons has been addressed. In projective relativity aspects of particle theory, a quantization scheme for geodesics in deSitter space was devised
Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.
2007-12-01
Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutschera, W.
1984-01-01
The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H; Yan, L; Huang, K; Kong, F; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)
2016-06-15
Purpose: The shape of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image represents the heterogeneity of tumor growth in various directions, and thus could be associated with tumor malignancy. We have proposed a median geodesic distance (MGD) to represent the local complexity of the shape and use a normalized MGD (NMGD) to quantify the shape, and found a potential correlation of NMGD to survival in a 20-patient pilot study. This study was to verify the finding in a larger patient cohort. Methods: Geodesic distance of two vertices on a surface is defined as the shortest path on the surface connecting the two vertices. The MGD was calculated for each vertex on the surface to display the local complexity of the shape. The NMGD was determined as: NMGD = 100*standard deviation(MGDs)/mean(MGDs). We applied the NMGD to 40 NSCLC patients who were enrolled in prospective PET image protocols and received radiotherapy. Each patient had a pre-treatment PET scan with the resolution of 4mm*4mm*5mm. Tumors were contoured by a professional radiation oncologist and triangulation meshes were built up based on the contours. Results: The mean and standard deviation of NMGD was 6.4±3.0. The OS was 33.1±16.9 months for low NMGD group, and 15.4±15.6 months for the high NMGD group. The low NMGD group had significant better OS than the high NMGD group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: NMGD could be used as a shape biomarker to predict survival and the MGD could be combined with image texture in future to increase prediction accuracy. This study was supported by Award Number 1R01CA166948 from the NIH and National Cancer Institute.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominique Brun-Battistini
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Richard C. Tolman analyzed the relation between a temperature gradient and a gravitational field in an equilibrium situation. In 2012, Tolman’s law was generalized to a non-equilibrium situation for a simple dilute relativistic fluid. The result in that scenario, obtained by introducing the gravitational force through the molecular acceleration, couples the heat flux with the metric coefficients and the gradients of the state variables. In the present paper it is shown, by explicitly describing the single particle orbits as geodesics in Boltzmann’s equation, that a gravitational field drives a heat flux in this type of system. The calculation is devoted solely to the gravitational field contribution to this heat flux in which a Newtonian limit to the Schwarzschild metric is assumed. The corresponding transport coefficient, which is obtained within a relaxation approximation, corresponds to the dilute fluid in a weak gravitational field. The effect is negligible in the non-relativistic regime, as evidenced by the direct evaluation of the corresponding limit.
PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berk, Herbert L.
2014-05-23
The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.
Steering particles by breaking symmetries
Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René
2018-06-01
We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charpak, G.
2000-01-01
In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chinowsky, W.
1989-01-01
Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)
Antisymmetric tensor generalizations of affine vector fields.
Houri, Tsuyoshi; Morisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomoda, Kentaro
2016-02-01
Tensor generalizations of affine vector fields called symmetric and antisymmetric affine tensor fields are discussed as symmetry of spacetimes. We review the properties of the symmetric ones, which have been studied in earlier works, and investigate the properties of the antisymmetric ones, which are the main theme in this paper. It is shown that antisymmetric affine tensor fields are closely related to one-lower-rank antisymmetric tensor fields which are parallelly transported along geodesics. It is also shown that the number of linear independent rank- p antisymmetric affine tensor fields in n -dimensions is bounded by ( n + 1)!/ p !( n - p )!. We also derive the integrability conditions for antisymmetric affine tensor fields. Using the integrability conditions, we discuss the existence of antisymmetric affine tensor fields on various spacetimes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.
2017-08-29
A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.
Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Diner, David J.
2018-01-01
We demonstrate the computational advantage gained by introducing non-exponential transmission laws into radiative transfer theory for two specific situations. One is the problem of spatial integration over a large domain where the scattering particles cluster randomly in a medium uniformly filled with an absorbing gas, and only a probabilistic description of the variability is available. The increasingly important application here is passive atmospheric profiling using oxygen absorption in the visible/near-IR spectrum. The other scenario is spectral integration over a region where the absorption cross-section of a spatially uniform gas varies rapidly and widely and, moreover, there are scattering particles embedded in the gas that are distributed uniformly, or not. This comes up in many applications, O2 A-band profiling being just one instance. We bring a common framework to solve these problems both efficiently and accurately that is grounded in the recently developed theory of Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT). In GRT, the classic exponential law of transmission is replaced by one with a slower power-law decay that accounts for the unresolved spectral or spatial variability. Analytical results are derived in the single-scattering limit that applies to optically thin aerosol layers. In spectral integration, a modest gain in accuracy is obtained. As for spatial integration of near-monochromatic radiance, we find that, although both continuum and in-band radiances are affected by moderate levels of sub-pixel variability, only extreme variability will affect in-band/continuum ratios.
Cosmology and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1982-01-01
A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the Universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters. (Auth.)
Kinetic energy and angular momentum of free particles in the gyratonic pp-waves space-times
Maluf, J. W.; da Rocha-Neto, J. F.; Ulhoa, S. C.; Carneiro, F. L.
2018-06-01
Gyratonic pp-waves are exact solutions of Einstein’s equations that represent non-linear gravitational waves endowed with angular momentum. We consider gyratonic pp-waves that travel in the z direction and whose time dependence on the variable is given by Gaussians, so that the waves represent short bursts of gravitational radiation propagating in the z direction. We evaluate numerically the geodesics and velocities of free particles in the space-time of these waves, and find that after the passage of the waves both the kinetic energy and the angular momentum per unit mass of the particles are changed. Therefore there is a transfer of energy and angular momentum between the gravitational field and the free particles, so that the final values of the energy and angular momentum of the free particles may be smaller or larger in magnitude than the initial values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocha, Jorge V.; Cardoso, Vitor
2011-01-01
We analyze the gravitational perturbations induced by particles falling into a three dimensional, asymptotically AdS black hole geometry. More specifically, we solve the linearized perturbation equations obtained from the geodesic motion of a ringlike distribution of test particles in the BTZ background. This setup ensures that the U(1) symmetry of the background is preserved. The nonasymptotic flatness of the background raises difficulties in attributing the significance of energy and angular momentum to the conserved quantities of the test particles. This issue is well known but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been addressed in the literature. We confirm that the naive expressions for energy and angular momentum are the correct definitions. Finally, we put an asymptotically AdS version of the weak cosmic censorship to a test: by attempting to overspin the BTZ black hole with test particles it is found that the black hole cannot be spun-up past its extremal limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2010-05-15
Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F{<=}f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi
2010-01-01
Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F≤f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less completion time
Particles in water properties and processes
Gregory, John
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION Particles in the Aquatic Environment Colloidal Aspects PARTICLE SIZE AND RELATED PROPERTIES Particle Size and Shape Particle Size Distributions Particle Transport Light Scattering and Turbidity Measurement of Particle Size SURFACE CHARGE Origin of Surface Charge The Electrical Double Layer Electrokinetic Phenomena COLLOID INTERACTIONS AND COLLOID STABILITY Colloid Interactions - General Concepts van der Waals Interaction Electrical Double Layer Interaction Combined Interaction - DLVO Theory Non-DLVO Interactions AGGREGATION KINETICS Collision Frequency - Smoluchow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raju, M.R.
1993-09-01
Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raju, M.R.
1993-01-01
Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, Anwar
2014-01-01
Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.
Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.
Theoretical general relativity: 1979
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergmann, O.
1979-01-01
The metric and field equations of Einstein's general relativity theory are written down. Solutions to the equations are discussed. Connection is made between relativity theory and elementary particle theory. Possibilities for a unified field theory are considered
General experiments concerning particle-matter interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dauvergne, D.
2006-07-01
The author gathers in this document several papers he has already published in order to shed light on different aspects concerning ion-crystal interactions. This document is divided into 3 chapters. In the first chapter the author presents results obtained from experiments dedicated to charge exchanges and energy released by heavy ions in channeling conditions. Different processes involved in ion-electron interactions are considered: The tri-electronic recombination, the electron capture through nuclear excitation (NEEC), resonant transfer and excitation (RTE), resonant transfer and double excitation (RTDE) and electron impact ionization (EII). The second chapter deals with the measurement of nuclear fission times through crystal blocking experiments. The crystal blocking technique allows the measurement in a model-independent way of the recoil distance covered by the excited nucleus during the whole fission process (starting from the initial collision and ending at the scission point). The last chapter is dedicated to the photon impact ionization through the conversion of a high-energy photon into an electron-positron pair
Generalized spin Sutherland systems revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Fehér
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We present generalizations of the spin Sutherland systems obtained earlier by Blom and Langmann and by Polychronakos in two different ways: from SU(n Yang–Mills theory on the cylinder and by constraining geodesic motion on the N-fold direct product of SU(n with itself, for any N>1. Our systems are in correspondence with the Dynkin diagram automorphisms of arbitrary connected and simply connected compact simple Lie groups. We give a finite-dimensional as well as an infinite-dimensional derivation and shed light on the mechanism whereby they lead to the same classical integrable systems. The infinite-dimensional approach, based on twisted current algebras (alias Yang–Mills with twisted boundary conditions, was inspired by the derivation of the spinless Sutherland model due to Gorsky and Nekrasov. The finite-dimensional method relies on Hamiltonian reduction under twisted conjugations of N-fold direct product groups, linking the quantum mechanics of the reduced systems to representation theory similarly as was explored previously in the N=1 case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ress, R.I.
1976-01-01
Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut
Solovev, V
The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeldovich, Ya. B.
1984-01-01
A general review is given on the historical development and on the present status of main physical ideas and theories. The concepts of particles, fields and interactions are discussed in detail including most recent developments. The present basic theories of physics: general relativity, gauge theory of electroweak interaction and quantum chromodynamics, their new results and their possible unification are analyzed. The author emphasizes the importance of knowledge as an inherent need of mankind. (D.Gy)
The centripetal force law and the equation of motion for a particle on a curved hypersurface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, L.D.; Lian, D.K.; Liu, Q.H.
2016-01-01
It is pointed out that the current form of the extrinsic equation of motion for a particle constrained to remain on a hypersurface is in fact a half-finished version; for it is established without regard to the fact that the particle can never depart from the geodesics on the surface. Once this fact is taken into consideration, the equation takes the same form as that for the centripetal force law, provided that the symbols are re-interpreted so that the law is applicable for higher dimensions. The controversial issue of constructing operator forms of these equations is addressed, and our studies show the quantization of constrained system based on the extrinsic equation of motion is preferable. (orig.)
Loll, Anna-Cathrin
2009-01-01
"Rolf-Dieter Heuer is the new director general of the world's largest particle physics research center. Though the German physicist never expected to gain this influential position in Switzerland, it seems a natural step in his career trajectory" (1.5 pages)
Particle-two particle interaction in configuration space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmichev, V.E.
1982-07-01
The problem if three indentical particles with zero-range two-particle interaction is considered. An explicit expression for the effective potential between one particle and the remaining two-particle system is obtained in the coordinate representation. It is shown that for arbitrary energies, at small and, for zero energy, at large distances rho between the one particle and centre of mass of the other two particles the diagonal matrix element of the effective potential is attractive and proportional to 1/rho 2 . This property of the effective potenial explains both the Thomas singularity and the Efimov effect. In the case of zero total energy of the system the general form of the solution of the three-particle integral equation is found in configuration space. (orig.)
General relativity and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, A.B.
1993-01-01
It is shown that from the first principles of General Relativity it follows that there exists a new type of interactions which are tightly connected with the gravitational interactions. New particles representing a new form of interactions do not interact electromagnetically, strongly and weakly with the known elementary particles. Physics of the new particles is defined by the Planck scales. (author.). 9 refs
Einstein and the history of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, D.; Stachel, J.
1989-01-01
This book is a collection of essays by the authors and other people that deal with scientific opinions that led Einstein and his contemporaries to their views of general relativity. Some of the essays explore Einstein's passage from the special theory through a sequence of gravitational theories to the discovery of the field equations of the grand theory in November 1915. Two other essays discuss Einstein's public and private exchanges with Max Abraham and Tullio Levi-Civita in 1913 and 1914. A sympathetic picture of H.A. Lorentz's reaction to the general theory of relativity is included, and a careful and insightful essay on the early understanding of the Schwarzschild-Droste solution to the field equations of general relativity is presented. One paper presents a discussion on the state of the enterprise of general relativity between 1925 and 1928, and a short essay details the history of steps toward quantum gravitational through canonical quantization. A discussion of the history of derivations of the geodesic equation of motion from the field equation and conservation laws of the general theory is presented. The early history of geometrical unified field theories is included
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Touze, T.
2011-01-01
The compact linear collider (CLIC) is the particle accelerator project proposed by the european organization for nuclear research (CERN) for high energy physics after the large hadron collider (LHC). Because of the nano-metric scale of the CLIC leptons beams, the emittance growth budget is very tight. It induces alignment tolerances on the positions of the CLIC components that have never been achieved before. The last step of the CLIC alignment will be done according to the beam itself. It falls within the competence of the physicists. However, in order to implement the beam-based feedback, a challenging pre-alignment is required: 10 μm at 3σ along a 200 m sliding window. For such a precision, the proposed solution must be compatible with a feedback between the measurement and repositioning systems. The CLIC pre-alignment will have to be active. This thesis does not demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC active pre-alignment but shows the way to the last developments that have to be done for that purpose. A method is proposed. Based on the management of the Helmert transformations between Euclidean coordinate systems, from the geodetic networks to the metrological measurements, this method is likely to solve the CLIC pre-alignment problem. Large scale facilities have been built and Monte-Carlo simulations have been made in order to validate the mathematical modeling of the measurement systems and of the alignment references. When this is done, it will be possible to extrapolate the modeling to the entire CLIC length. It will be the last step towards the demonstration of the CLIC pre-alignment feasibility. (author)
Health Benefits of Particle Filtration
Fisk, William J.
2013-01-01
The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and as...
Hilke, Hans Jürgen
1992-01-01
We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.
Particle therapy for noncancer diseases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2012-04-15
Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, D.S.
1987-01-01
The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries
Complex Monge–Ampère equations and geodesics in the space of Kähler metrics
2012-01-01
The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide an introduction to the theory of complex Monge–Ampère operators (definition, regularity issues, geometric properties of solutions, approximation) on compact Kähler manifolds (with or without boundary). These operators are of central use in several fundamental problems of complex differential geometry (Kähler–Einstein equation, uniqueness of constant scalar curvature metrics), complex analysis and dynamics. The topics covered include, the Dirichlet problem (after Bedford–Taylor), Monge–Ampère foliations and laminated currents, polynomial hulls and Perron envelopes with no analytic structure, a self-contained presentation of Krylov regularity results, a modernized proof of the Calabi–Yau theorem (after Yau and Kolodziej), an introduction to infinite dimensional riemannian geometry, geometric structures on spaces of Kähler metrics (after Mabuchi, Semmes and Donaldson), generalizations of the regularity theory of Caffarelli–Kohn–Nirenberg–Spruc...
Modeling of virtual particles of the Big Bang
Corral-Bustamante, L. R.; Rodriguez-Corral, A. R.; Amador-Parra, T.; Martinez-Loera, E.; Irigoyen-Chavez, G.
2012-01-01
In this work, a mathematical model in four dimensions proposed to predict the behavior of the transport phenomena of mass (energy) in the space-time continuum through a metric tensor in the Planck scale is presented. The Ricci tensor was determined with the aim of measuring the turbulent flow of a mass with a large gravitational field similar to that which is believed to have existed in the Big Bang. Computing the curvature of space-time through tensor analysis, we predict a vacuum solution of the Einstein field equations through numerical integration with approximate solutions. A quantum vacuum is filled with virtual particles of enormous superficial gravity of black holes and wormholes as predicted by other authors. By generating the geodesic equations, we obtain the relativistic equation, which is the carrier of information pertaining to the behavior of the entropy of matter. The results of the measurements of the evolution of the mass during its collapse and evaporation allow us to argue the evidence of virtual particles including all the values (and beyond) of the experimental search by other authors for gauges and Higgs bosons. We conclude that the matter behaves as virtual particles, which appear and disappear in Planck time at speeds greater than that of light, representing those that probably existed during the Big Bang.
Elliptic solutions of generalized Brans-Dicke gravity with a non-universal coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alimi, J.M.; Reverdy, V. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Golubtsova, A.A. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-10-15
We study a model of the generalized Brans-Dicke gravity presented in both the Jordan and in the Einstein frames, which are conformally related. We show that the scalar field equations in the Einstein frame are reduced to the geodesics equations on the target space of the nonlinear sigma model. The analytical solutions in elliptical functions are obtained when the conformal couplings are given by reciprocal exponential functions. The behavior of the scale factor in the Jordan frame is studied using numerical computations. For certain parameters the solutions can describe an accelerated expansion. We also derive an analytical approximation in exponential functions. (orig.)
General post-Minkowskian expansion of time transfer functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teyssandier, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le
2008-01-01
Modeling most of the tests of general relativity requires us to know the function relating light travel time to the coordinate time of reception and to the spatial coordinates of the emitter and the receiver. We call such a function the reception time transfer function. Of course, an emission time transfer function may as well be considered. We present here a recursive procedure enabling us to expand each time transfer function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant G (general post-Minkowskian expansion). Our method is self-sufficient in the sense that neither the integration of null geodesic equations nor the determination of Synge's world function is necessary. To illustrate the method, the time transfer function of a three-parameter family of static, spherically symmetric metrics is derived within the post-linear approximation
General post-Minkowskian expansion of time transfer functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teyssandier, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le [Departement Systemes de Reference Temps et Espace, CNRS/UMR 8630, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)
2008-07-21
Modeling most of the tests of general relativity requires us to know the function relating light travel time to the coordinate time of reception and to the spatial coordinates of the emitter and the receiver. We call such a function the reception time transfer function. Of course, an emission time transfer function may as well be considered. We present here a recursive procedure enabling us to expand each time transfer function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant G (general post-Minkowskian expansion). Our method is self-sufficient in the sense that neither the integration of null geodesic equations nor the determination of Synge's world function is necessary. To illustrate the method, the time transfer function of a three-parameter family of static, spherically symmetric metrics is derived within the post-linear approximation.
Doppler frequency in interplanetary radar and general relativity
Mcvittie, G. C.
1972-01-01
The change of frequency of an interplanetary radar signal sent from the earth to another planet or to a space probe is worked out according to general relativity. The Schwarzschild spacetime is employed and its null geodesics control the motion of the signals. Exact Doppler frequency formulas are derived for one-way and two-way radar in terms of an arbitrary Schwarzschild radial coordinate. A reduction to the special relativity case is used to interpret the formulas in terms of the relative radial velocity of emitter and target. The general relativity corrections are worked out approximately for each of three possible Schwarzschild radial coordinates, and a numerical example is given. The amount of the correction is different according as one or the other of the Schwarzschild coordinates is identified with the radius vector deduced from classical celestial mechanics. The identification problem is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berley, D.; Bulos, F.; Cheng, D.
1988-01-01
The new particles that could be produced at PEP are discussed in terms of their specific signatures and production rates. We find that a small number of general signatures characterize these particles. Backgrounds associated with the general signatures are considered and necessary rejection rates are calculated. We describe several typical detectors and tabulate the requirements they place on the PEP machine and the experimental areas. 10 figs., 2 tabs
Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)
2016-01-01
Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...
Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva
1991-01-01
Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samios, N.P.
1993-01-01
I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc
Generalized quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, C.
1992-01-01
In the paper, a non-anyonic generalization of quantum statistics is presented, in which Fermi-Dirac statistics (FDS) and Bose-Einstein statistics (BES) appear as two special cases. The new quantum statistics, which is characterized by the dimension of its single particle Fock space, contains three consistent parts, namely the generalized bilinear quantization, the generalized quantum mechanical description and the corresponding statistical mechanics
Martin, Brian R
2017-01-01
An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.
Four-particle scattering with three-particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1979-01-01
The four-particle scattering formalism proposed independently by Alessandrini, by Mitra et al., by Rosenberg, and by Takahashi and Mishima is extended to include a possible three-particle interaction. The kernel of the new equations we get contain both two- and three-body connected parts and gets four-body connected after one iteration. On the other hand, the kernel of the original equations in the absence of three-particle interactions does not have a two-body connected part. We also write scattering equations for the transition operators connecting the two-body fragmentation channels. They are generalization of the Sloan equations in the presence of three-particle interactions. We indicate how to include approximately the effect of a weak three-particle interaction in a practical four-particle scattering calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papiez, L.; Battista, J.J.
1994-01-01
The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined fluence in terms of the number of the radiation particles crossing a small sampling sphere. A second definition has been proposed in which the length of track segments contained within any sampling volume are used to calculate the incident fluence. This approach is often used in Monte Carlo simulations of individual particle tracks, allowing the fluence to be scored in small volumes of any shape. In this paper we stress that the second definition generalizes the classical (ICRU) concept of fluence. We also identify the assumptions inherent in the two definitions of fluence and prove their equivalence for the case of straight-line particle trajectories. (author)
Generalized Rosenbluth potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, M.H.A.
1977-05-01
It is shown that the coefficients of friction and diffusion of the Balescu-Lenard equation can be derived from two ''generalized Rosenbluth potentials'', which reduce to the standard Rosenbluth potentials if wave effects are neglected. The potentials are evaluated explicitly in the case of Maxwellian field particles. The dominant contribution of wave effects to the potentials is due to the interaction of electron field particles with ion sound waves
The Generalized Quantum Statistics
Hwang, WonYoung; Ji, Jeong-Young; Hong, Jongbae
1999-01-01
The concept of wavefunction reduction should be introduced to standard quantum mechanics in any physical processes where effective reduction of wavefunction occurs, as well as in the measurement processes. When the overlap is negligible, each particle obey Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics even if the particles are in principle described by totally symmetrized wavefunction [P.R.Holland, The Quantum Theory of Motion, Cambridge Unversity Press, 1993, p293]. We generalize the conjecture. That is, par...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.
1984-01-01
Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, David J.
1987-01-01
The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.
1986-02-01
After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, David J.
1987-10-15
The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.
2005-01-01
While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)
Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca
2004-01-01
We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy
General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST
Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki
2017-02-01
We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.
Influence of an energetic-particle component on ballooning modes in an optimized stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuehrenberg, J.; Zheng, L.J.
1993-01-01
Besides quasi-helically symmetric configurations, which have particle drift properties analogous to tokamaks, a second interesting route for stellarator investigations is the choice of the optimized stellarator configuration, which has been adopted for the W7-X stellarator project. Of the many remarkably good properties of the optimized stellarator, two are mentioned here: One is the low geodesic curvature, which leads to a small Pfirsch-Schlueter current and fosters the MHD stability together with a vacuum field magnetic well; the other is that trapped energetic particles are well confined being reflected around the triangular cross section with maximum J - the second invariant. Maximum J configuration could be favorable for the stabilization of the low-frequency thermal-trapped-particle modes. On the other hand, for the energetic particles this means drift-reversal prevailing, and therefore the kinetic energy of the trapped energetic particles is destabilizing. Furthermore, when trapped energetic particles are drift-reversed, two β limits emerge: One is due to the ballooning modes, which relates to the Van Dam-Lee-Nelson limit for EBT; the other is due to the interchange modes. Nevertheless, these two theories predict that - when the core plasma β is high enough - stability may resume. The purpose of this work is to determine whether one of these two limits - the Van Dam-Lee-Nelson limit for ballooning modes - harms the optimized stellarator or not. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig
Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan
2017-01-01
This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.
1989-01-01
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures
On the generalization of the Kaluza-Klein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosu, Ion
2003-01-01
The goal of this paper is to present the Kaluza-Klein theory. In the first part we will discuss the theory elaborated by Kaluza and Klein, in a Riemann space with five dimensions, which unifies the gravitation with electromagnetism. The second part debates the generalization of this theory in a space with 4+n dimensions. This is a mathematical product between the Riemann 4-dimension variety and the G/H n-dimensional homogenous space. In the last part we will propose a theory Kaluza-Klein like in the fiber bundle space with 4+n dimensions. Every part is structured as follows: the metric tensor G will be identified for the gravitation and the potentials Yang-Mills; then the equations of geodesics and the equations of the field will be deduced. (author)
Working covariance model selection for generalized estimating equations.
Carey, Vincent J; Wang, You-Gan
2011-11-20
We investigate methods for data-based selection of working covariance models in the analysis of correlated data with generalized estimating equations. We study two selection criteria: Gaussian pseudolikelihood and a geodesic distance based on discrepancy between model-sensitive and model-robust regression parameter covariance estimators. The Gaussian pseudolikelihood is found in simulation to be reasonably sensitive for several response distributions and noncanonical mean-variance relations for longitudinal data. Application is also made to a clinical dataset. Assessment of adequacy of both correlation and variance models for longitudinal data should be routine in applications, and we describe open-source software supporting this practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis
2013-10-01
Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Distribution of energy levels of quantum free particle on the Liouville surface and trace formulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleher, P.M.; Kosygin, D.V.; Sinai, Y.G.
1995-01-01
We consider the Weyl asymptotic formula [{E n ≤R 2 }=Area Q.R 2 /(4π)+n(R), for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a two-dimensional torus Q with a Liouville metric which is in a sense the most general case of an integrable metric. We prove that if the surface Q is non-degenerate then the remainder term n(R) has the form n(R)=R 1/2 θ(R), where θ(R) is an almost periodic function of the Besicovitch class B 1 , and the Fourier amplitudes and the Fourier frequencies of θ(R) can be expressed via lengths of closed geodesics on Q and other simple geometric characteristics of these geodesics. We prove then that if the surface Q is generic then the limit distribution of θ(R) has a density p(t), which is an entire function of t possessing an asymptotics on a real line, logp(t)∝-C ± t 4 as t→±∞. An explicit expression for the Fourier transform of p(t) via Fourier amplitudes of θ(R) is also given. We obtain the analogue of the Guillemin-Duistermaat trace formula for the Liouville surfaces and discuss its accuracy. (orig.)
Classical relativistic constituent particles and composite-particle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, M.J.
1984-01-01
A nonlocal Lagrangian formalism is developed to describe a classical many-particle system. The nonstandard Lagrangian is a function of a single parameter s which is not, in general, associated with the physical clock. The particles are constrained to be constituents of composite systems, which in turn can decompose into asymptotic composite states representing free observable particles. To demonstrate this, explicit models of composite-composite particle scattering are constructed. Space-time conservation laws are not imposed separately on the system, but follow upon requiring the constituents to ''pair up'' into free composites at s = +infinity,-infinity. One model is characterized by the appearance of an ''external'' zero-mass composite particle which participates in the scattering process without affecting the space-time conservation laws of the two-composite system. Initial conditions on the two incoming composite particles and the zero-mass participant determine the scattering angle and the final states of the two outgoing composite particles. Although the formalism is classical, the model displays some features usually associated with quantum field theory, such as particle scattering by means of constituent exchange, creation and annihilation of particles, and restriction of values of angular momentum
Geodesic behaviour around cosmological milestones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Jambrina, L; Lazkoz, R
2007-01-01
In this paper we provide a thorough classification of Friedman-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models in terms of the strong or weak character of their singularities according to the usual definitions. The classification refers to a generalised Puiseux power expansion of the scale factor of the model around a singular event
Geodesic behaviour around cosmological milestones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Jambrina, L [Matematica Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Navales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Arco de la Victoria s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lazkoz, R [Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2007-05-15
In this paper we provide a thorough classification of Friedman-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models in terms of the strong or weak character of their singularities according to the usual definitions. The classification refers to a generalised Puiseux power expansion of the scale factor of the model around a singular event.
Geodesic continued fractions and LLL
Beukers, F
2014-01-01
We discuss a proposal for a continued fraction-like algorithm to determine simultaneous rational approximations to dd real numbers α1,…,αdα1,…,αd. It combines an algorithm of Hermite and Lagarias with ideas from LLL-reduction. We dynamically LLL-reduce a quadratic form with parameter tt as t↓0t↓0.
Multi-terminal pipe routing by Steiner minimal tree and particle swarm optimisation
Liu, Qiang; Wang, Chengen
2012-08-01
Computer-aided design of pipe routing is of fundamental importance for complex equipments' developments. In this article, non-rectilinear branch pipe routing with multiple terminals that can be formulated as a Euclidean Steiner Minimal Tree with Obstacles (ESMTO) problem is studied in the context of an aeroengine-integrated design engineering. Unlike the traditional methods that connect pipe terminals sequentially, this article presents a new branch pipe routing algorithm based on the Steiner tree theory. The article begins with a new algorithm for solving the ESMTO problem by using particle swarm optimisation (PSO), and then extends the method to the surface cases by using geodesics to meet the requirements of routing non-rectilinear pipes on the surfaces of aeroengines. Subsequently, the adaptive region strategy and the basic visibility graph method are adopted to increase the computation efficiency. Numeral computations show that the proposed routing algorithm can find satisfactory routing layouts while running in polynomial time.
Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.
1989-01-01
It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khare, A.
1980-07-01
Current state of art in the discovery of new elementary particles is reviewed. At present, quarks and mesons are accepted as the basic constituents of matter. The charmonium model (canti-c system), and the 'open charm' are discussed. Explanations are offered for the recent discovery of the heavy lepton tau. Quark states such as the beauty and taste are also dealt with at length. The properties of the tanti-t bound system are speculated. It is concluded that the understanding of canti-c and banti-b families is facilitated by the assumption of the quarkonium model. Implications at the astrophysical level are indicated.
Collinson, Chris
1995-01-01
* Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u
Selective encapsulation by Janus particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)
2015-06-28
We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.
Fractals control in particle's velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan
2009-01-01
Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.
The discovery of subatomic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1984-01-01
This book developed from a course for students with no prior training in mathematics of physics to learn about the achievements of 20th century physics and classical physics. It covers the discovery of fundamental particles of ordinary atoms: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. The general outline is historical and it is for readers unfamiliar with classical physics who wish to understand the ideas and experiments that make up the history of 20th century physics. Contents include: A world of particles, the discovery of the electron, the atomic scale, the nucleus, more particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zink, S.
1987-01-01
The Radiation Research Program (RRP) supports a variety of research through grants and contracts. During the last few years, considerable effort has been devoted to treatment planning evaluation in particle, photon and electron radiotherapy. In 1981, RRP issued a request for proposals (RFP) for the evaluation of treatment planning with particle beam radiotherapy - to include protons, heavy ions and neutrons. Contracts were subsequently awarded to four institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), University of Texas and M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH), the heavy ion project at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and University of Pennsylvania (UPa). These contracts reached completion December 31, 1986. The work for the contracts was carried out at the individual institutions and guided through a Working Group made up of the Project Officer and Principal Investigators and primary physicians and physicists at each of the participating institutions. This report summarizes the findings of the Working Group and makes recommendations for further research
Fermilab | Particle Physics Division
Diversity Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Science Science Particle Physics Neutrinos Scientific Computing Research & Development Key Discoveries Benefits of Particle Physics Particle Superconducting Test Accelerator LHC and Future Accelerators Accelerators for Science and Society Particle Physics
Jiang, Shu-Han; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Su, Hong-Yi; Pati, Arun Kumar; Chen, Jing-Ling
2018-01-01
Here, we present the most general framework for n -particle Hardy's paradoxes, which include Hardy's original one and Cereceda's extension as special cases. Remarkably, for any n ≥3 , we demonstrate that there always exist generalized paradoxes (with the success probability as high as 1 /2n -1) that are stronger than the previous ones in showing the conflict of quantum mechanics with local realism. An experimental proposal to observe the stronger paradox is also presented for the case of three qubits. Furthermore, from these paradoxes we can construct the most general Hardy's inequalities, which enable us to detect Bell's nonlocality for more quantum states.
Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp
2017-03-11
The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.
Particle deposition in ventilation ducts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2002-09-01
Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the
Antonella Del Rosso
2014-01-01
These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator. An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...
Counting statistics of many-particle quantum walks
Mayer, Klaus; Tichy, Malte C.; Mintert, Florian; Konrad, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas
2011-06-01
We study quantum walks of many noninteracting particles on a beam splitter array as a paradigmatic testing ground for the competition of single- and many-particle interference in a multimode system. We derive a general expression for multimode particle-number correlation functions, valid for bosons and fermions, and infer pronounced signatures of many-particle interferences in the counting statistics.
Counting statistics of many-particle quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, Klaus; Tichy, Malte C.; Buchleitner, Andreas; Mintert, Florian; Konrad, Thomas
2011-01-01
We study quantum walks of many noninteracting particles on a beam splitter array as a paradigmatic testing ground for the competition of single- and many-particle interference in a multimode system. We derive a general expression for multimode particle-number correlation functions, valid for bosons and fermions, and infer pronounced signatures of many-particle interferences in the counting statistics.
Duality and 'particle' democracy
Castellani, Elena
2017-08-01
Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.
Configuration of particle drain for the high energy charged particles in the magnetic dipole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amirkhanov, I.V.; Zhidkov, E.P.; Ignatov, V.V.; Il'ina, A.N.; Il'in, V.D.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Yushkov, B.Yu.
1987-01-01
The boundary of particle leakage from the magnetic dipole trap depending on the value of adiabatic parameter is investigated. By trajectory computation a generalized analytical expression is determined for the shape of particle drain by x ≤ 1. It is shown that generally accepted adiabatic loss cone is a particular case of x → 0
Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bret, A.
2015-01-01
The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed
Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments
Bret, A.
2015-07-01
The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.
Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2015-07-15
The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.
Particle physics and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, A.
1985-01-01
These notes are intended to help readers not familiar with particle physics in entering the domain of gauge field theory applied to the so-called standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The introduction is considerably enlarged in order to give non specialists a general overview of present days ''elementary'' particle physics. The Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model is then treated, with the details which its unquestioned successes deserve, most probably for a long time. Finally SU(5) is presented as a prototype of these developments of particle physics which aim at a unification of all forces. Although its intrinsic theoretical difficulties and the non-observation of a sizable proton decay rate do not qualify this model as a realistic one, it has many of the properties expected from a ''good'' unified theory. In particular, it allows one to study interesting connections between particle physics and cosmology. 35 refs.
Radiation in Particle Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, R.; Graziani, F.; Glosli, J.; Surh, M.
2010-01-01
Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, David A.; Zhang Fan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen Yanbei; Kaplan, Jeffrey D.; Matthews, Keith D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Owen, Robert; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Brink, Jeandrew; Thorne, Kip S.
2011-01-01
When one splits spacetime into space plus time, the Weyl curvature tensor (vacuum Riemann tensor) gets split into two spatial, symmetric, and trace-free tensors: (i) the Weyl tensor's so-called electric part or tidal field E jk , which raises tides on the Earth's oceans and drives geodesic deviation (the relative acceleration of two freely falling test particles separated by a spatial vector ξ k is Δa j =-E jk ξ k ), and (ii) the Weyl tensor's so-called magnetic part or (as we call it) frame-drag field B jk , which drives differential frame dragging (the precessional angular velocity of a gyroscope at the tip of ξ k , as measured using a local inertial frame at the tail of ξ k , is ΔΩ j =B jk ξ k ). Being symmetric and trace-free, E jk and B jk each have three orthogonal eigenvector fields which can be depicted by their integral curves. We call the integral curves of E jk 's eigenvectors tidal tendex lines or simply tendex lines, we call each tendex line's eigenvalue its tendicity, and we give the name tendex to a collection of tendex lines with large tendicity. The analogous quantities for B jk are frame-drag vortex lines or simply vortex lines, their vorticities, and their vortexes. These concepts are powerful tools for visualizing spacetime curvature. We build up physical intuition into them by applying them to a variety of weak-gravity phenomena: a spinning, gravitating point particle, two such particles side-by-side, a plane gravitational wave, a point particle with a dynamical current-quadrupole moment or dynamical mass-quadrupole moment, and a slow-motion binary system made of nonspinning point particles. We show that a rotating current quadrupole has four rotating vortexes that sweep outward and backward like water streams from a rotating sprinkler. As they sweep, the vortexes acquire accompanying tendexes and thereby become outgoing current-quadrupole gravitational waves. We show similarly that a rotating mass quadrupole has four rotating, outward
Particle structure of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredenhagen, K.
1985-11-01
The implications of the principles of quantum field theory for the particle structure of gauge theories are discussed. The general structure which emerges is compared with that of the Z 2 Higgs model on a lattice. The discussion leads to several confinement criteria for gauge theories with matter fields. (orig.)
Gauge theory and elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwirn, H.
1982-01-01
The present orientation of particle physics, founded on local gauge invariance theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking is described in a simple formalism. The application of these ideas to the latest theories describing electromagnetic and weak interactions (Glashow, Weinberg, Salam models) and strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics, is presented so as to give a general picture of the mechanisms subtending these theories [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Posada, Olga M., E-mail: O.M.PosadaEstefan@leeds.ac.uk [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Gilmour, Denise [Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Tate, Rothwelle J., E-mail: r.j.tate@strath.ac.uk [Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Grant, M. Helen [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom)
2014-11-15
Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell
Negative numbers and antimatter particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsan, Ung Chan
2012-01-01
Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter
Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics
Photos and videos Latest news For the media Particle Physics Neutrinos Fermilab and the LHC Dark matter initiatives Research and development Key discoveries Benefits of particle physics Particle Accelerators society Particle Physics 101 Science of matter, energy, space and time How particle physics discovery
Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I
Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.
Health effects of exhaust particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.
2013-11-01
This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area
A biodetection method using magnetic particles and micro traps
Li, Fuquan; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen
2012-01-01
The general working principle of magnetoresistive sensors for biological applications is to specifically attach bioanalytesto magnetic particles and then detect the particles that are immobilized on the sensor surface. The immobilization
Particle physics and cosmology, Task C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.S.
1993-05-01
The research has spanned many topics at the boundary of particle physics and cosmology. The major focus has been in the general areas of inflationary cosmology, cosmological phase transitions, astrophysical constraints to particle physics theories, and dark matter/structure formation as it relates to particle physics. Some attention is given to axion physics. Narrative summaries of the research of the individual group members are given, followed by a list of publications
Quantum statistics of many-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraeft, W.D.; Ebeling, W.; Kremp, D.; Ropke, G.
1986-01-01
This paper presents the elements of quantum statistics and discusses the quantum mechanics of many-particle systems. The method of second quantization is discussed and the Bogolyubov hierarchy is examined. The general properties of the correlation function and one-particle Green's function are examined. The paper presents dynamical and thermodynamical information contained in the spectral function. An equation of motion is given for the one-particle Green's function. T-matrix and thermodynamic properties in binary collision approximation are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sladkowski, J.
1991-01-01
Various attempts to formulate the fundamental physical interactions in the framework of unified geometric theories have recently gained considerable success (Kaluza, 1921; Klein, 1926; Trautmann, 1970; Cho, 1975). Symmetries of the spacetime and so-called internal spaces seem to play a key role in investigating both the fundamental interactions and the abundance of elementary particles. The author presents a category-theoretic description of a generalization of the G-theory concept and its application to geometric compactification and dimensional reduction. The main reasons for using categories and functors as tools are the clearness and the level of generalization one can obtain
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...
Quasi-particles at finite chemical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardim, F. G.; Steffens, F. M.
2010-01-01
We present in this work the thermodynamic consistent quasi-particle model at finite chemical potential, to describe the Quark Gluon Plasma composed of two light quarks and gluons. The quasi-particle general solution will be discussed, and comparison with perturbative QCD and lattice data will be shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkachev, Igor
1993-01-01
When the common ground between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology started to become a developing area, the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences had the foresight in 1981 to institute the Baksan Schools on Particles and Cosmology. This now traditional event, held biannually in the Baksan Valley, has gone on to attract international participation. The site is close to the INR Baksan Neutrino Observatory with its underground and surface installations, including the SAGE gallium solar neutrino detector, the Underground Scintillation Telescope, and the 'Carpet' extensive air shower array. Participation is mainly from experimentalists working in non accelerator particle physics and particle astrophysics. The most recent School, held from April 21 to 28, began with an opening address by INR Director V. A. Matveev. J.Frieman reviewed standard big bang cosmology, emphasizing how the recent COBE results and the observations of large scale galaxy clustering fit into a standard cosmology framework. For inflationary cosmology, he showed how different models may be tested through their predictions for large-scale galactic structure and for cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A.Stebbins presented details of the large scale distribution of galaxies which, combined with velocity information and microwave background anisotropy data, provide strong constraints on theories of the origin of primordial inhomogeneities. Inflation requires, and theories of the large scale structure strongly favour the critical value for the cosmic mass density, while, as D.Seckel explained in his lecture on nucleosynthesis and abundances of the light elements, the baryon contribution to this density has to be tens of times smaller. A general review on the observational evidence for dark matter, dark matter particle candidates and the strategy of dark matter searches was given by I. Tkachev, who stressed the gravitational microlensing MACHO
The spinning particle with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, A.
1988-01-01
We construct and analyse an action for the spinning particle which contains an extrinsic curvature term. A possible generalization of this construction to the case of the spinning string is also discussed. (orig.)
Particle creation in inhomogeneous spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, J.A.
1989-01-01
We study the creation of particles by inhomogeneous perturbations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. For massless scalar fields, the pair-creation probability can be expressed in terms of geometric quantities (curvature invariants). The results suggest that inhomogeneities on scales up to the particle horizon will be damped out near the Planck time. Perturbations on scales larger than the horizon are explicitly shown to yield no created pairs. The results generalize to inhomogeneous spacetimes several earlier studies of pair creation in homogeneous anisotropic cosmologies
Requirements and specifications for a particle database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
One of the tasks of WPEC Subgroup 38 (SG38) is to design a database structure for storing the particle information needed for nuclear reaction databases and transport codes. Since the same particle may appear many times in a reaction database (produced by many different reactions on different targets), one of the long-term goals for SG38 is to move towards a central database of particle information to reduce redundancy and ensure consistency among evaluations. The database structure must be general enough to describe all relevant particles and their properties, including mass, charge, spin and parity, half-life, decay properties, and so on. Furthermore, it must be broad enough to handle not only excited nuclear states but also excited atomic states that can de-excite through atomic relaxation. Databases built with this hierarchy will serve as central repositories for particle information that can be linked to from codes and other databases. It is hoped that the final product is general enough for use in other projects besides SG38. While this is called a 'particle database', the definition of a particle (as described in Section 2) is very broad. The database must describe nucleons, nuclei, excited nuclear states (and possibly atomic states) in addition to fundamental particles like photons, electrons, muons, etc. Under this definition the list of possible particles becomes quite large. To help organize them the database will need a way of grouping related particles (e.g., all the isotopes of an element, or all the excited levels of an isotope) together into particle 'groups'. The database will also need a way to classify particles that belong to the same 'family' (such as 'leptons', 'baryons', etc.). Each family of particles may have special requirements as to what properties are required. One important function of the particle database will be to provide an easy way for codes and external databases to look up any particle stored inside. In order to make access as
Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio
2014-01-01
Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.
New particles and two-photon physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrempp, F.
1985-01-01
In a first part, I review the general theoretical arguments leading to new physics and new particles beyond the Standard Model, either in terms of supersymmetry or compositeness. Speculations about new particles expected within these schemes are then discussed in the light of recent anomalous events from the panti p collider and from PETRA. In a second part, I specifically try to evaluate the potential of γγ and epsilonγ collisions at PETRA/PEP and LEP energies with respect to new particle searches. Some interesting possibilities, including searches for spinless composite bosons, non-standard enhanced Higgs particles, scalar electrons (e) and γγ ->'nothing' emerge. (orig.)
Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, J.R.
1981-01-01
The clinical radiotherapy trial has accured 243 patients irradiated with particles and 13 patients irradiated as controls in randomized studies. Of the 243 particle patients, 194 have been treated with helium ions, either solely or in combination with photon irradiation, and 49 have received all or part of their irradiation with one of the heavier particles, either carbon, neon, or argon ions. The project thus can be divided into two general phases: (1) evaluation of improved dose distribution without significant biologic advantage by use of helium ion irradiation; and (2) evaluation of improved dose distribution and enhanced biologic effect by irradiation with heavy charged particles such as carbon, neon, and argon ions
Particle physics experiments, 1991
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, B.A.
1992-01-01
Data taking for this experiment was completed in December 1983. The samples include approximately 19,000 (ν) and 11,000 (ν-bar) charged current events. These constitute the largest data set of interactions on free protons. Work published to date includes studies of inclusive structure functions and final state properties, exclusive final states, neutral current cross sections and production of strange and charmed particles. During the past year results have been published on the production of f 2 (1270) and ν 0 (770) mesons in ρp and ρ-barp charged current interactions. In the case of the f 2 this represents the first observation of such production. It is found that the multiplicities are 0.047±0.017 in ρp and 0.17±0.018 in ρ-barp. The f 2 mesons are mostly produced at large hadronic invariant mass W and in the forward hemisphere. The production of ν 0 mesons can be observed with high statistics in both ρp and ρ-barp interactions and the differential cross section studied. The observations are compared with LUND Monte Carlo predictions, which are generally found to be too high. However qualitative features of the data are reproduced. Work continues on a precise determination of the neutral current/charged current ratio, on the study of charged and neutral current structure functions and on the production of strange particles. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salmon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de Caen, 14 (France)
1961-07-01
The author examines the problem of the return to equilibrium of a particle in a plasma and completely explains Fokker-Planck equation. After that, he studies the possibility of interpreting the return of the test particle to Maxwellian distribution, using the development - which is obtained. He discusses the validity limits of the Rosenbluth, MacDonald and Judd approximation. (author) [French] Examinant le probleme du retour a l'equilibre d'une particule test au sein d'un plasma en equilibre, l'auteur cherche a expliciter completement l'expression de l'operateur de Fokker-Planck. Il etudie ensuite les conditions de coherence, c'est-a-dire la possibilite pour le developpement obtenu de traduire le retour de la particule test a l'etat maxwellien et discute des limites de validite de la formule de 'Rosenbluth, Mac Donald et Judd'. (auteur)