WorldWideScience

Sample records for general electric standard reactor

  1. General Electric Reactor Protection System Unavailability, 1984-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. D. Gentillon; D. Rasmuson (USNRC); H. Hamzehee; M. B. Calley; S. A. Eide; T. Wierman (INEEL)

    1999-08-01

    An analysis was performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U.S. General Electric commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System and Licensee Event Reports. A risk-based analysis was performed on the data to estimate the observed unavailability of the RPS, based on a fault tree model of the system. Results were compared with existing unavailability estimates from Individual Plant Examinations and other reports.

  2. General Electric Reactor Protection System Unavailability, 1984--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Calley, Michael Brennan; Gentillon, Cynthia Ann; Wierman, Thomas Edward; Hamzehee, H.; Rasmuson, D.

    1999-08-01

    An analysis was performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U. S. General Electric commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System and Licensee Event Reports. A risk-based analysis was performed on the data to estimate the observed unavailability of the RPS, based on a fault tree model of the system. Results were compared with existing unavailability estimates from Individual Plant Examinations and other reports.

  3. Simulation of the preliminary General Electric SP-100 space reactor concept using the ATHENA computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, C. D.

    The capability to perform thermal-hydraulic analyses of a space reactor using the ATHENA computer code is demonstrated. The fast reactor, liquid-lithium coolant loops, and lithium-filled heat pipes of the preliminary General electric SP-100 design were modeled with ATHENA. Two demonstration transient calculations were performed simulating accident conditions. Calculated results are available for display using the Nuclear Plant Analyzer color graphics analysis tool in addition to traditional plots. ATHENA-calculated results appear reasonable, both for steady state full power conditions, and for the two transients. This analysis represents the first known transient thermal-hydraulic simulation using an integral space reactor system model incorporating heat pipes.

  4. 76 FR 70166 - Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... installation and maintenance of electric utilization equipment that prevent death and serious injuries among... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Electrical Standards for Construction and General Industry... collection requirements contained in the Electrical Standards for Construction (29 CFR part 1926, Subpart...

  5. REACTOR AND SHIELD PHYSICS. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.E.; Simpson, J.D.

    1962-01-01

    This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume describes the experimental and theoretical work accomplished in the areas of reactor and shield physics.

  6. 76 FR 31381 - Office Of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan; Section 8.1 on Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants,'' on a proposed Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan (SRP... Position (BTP) 8-8 on ``Onsite (Emergency Diesel Generators) and Offsite Power Sources Allowed Outage Time... COMMISSION Office Of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 4 to Standard Review Plan; Section 8.1 on Electric...

  7. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  8. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  9. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  10. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  11. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  12. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  13. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  14. Electrical system regulations of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic, E-mail: jrmello@ipen.br, E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), is a research reactor open pool type, designed and built by the U.S. firm Babcock and Wilcox, having, as coolant and moderator, deionized light water and beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. Until about 1988, the reactor safety systems received power from only one source of energy. As an example, it may be cited the control desk that was powered only by the vital electrical system 220V, which, in case the electricity fails, is powered by the generator group: no-break 220V. In the years 1989 and 1990, a reform of the electrical system upgrading to increase the reactor power and, also, to meet the technical standards of the ABNT (Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas) was carried out. This work has the objective of showing the relationship between the electric power system and the IEA-R1 reactor security. Also, it demonstrates that, should some electrical power interruption occur, during the reactor operation, this occurrence would not start an accident event. (author)

  15. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and full nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system (Bragg-Sitton, 2005). The current paper applies the same testing methodology to a direct drive gas cooled reactor system, demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. In each testing application, core power transients were controlled by a point kinetics model with reactivity feedback based on core average temperature; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. Although both system designs utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility.

  16. 78 FR 73898 - Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... available for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-1021, Revision 10, ``Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors.'' DATES: Submit comments by February 7, 2014. Comments received after...

  17. [CAS General Standards 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  18. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe (HP) cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system. Reactivity feedback calculations were then based on a bulk reactivity feedback coefficient and measured average core temperature. This paper presents preliminary results from similar dynamic testing of a direct drive gas cooled reactor system (DDG), demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. Although the HP and DDG designs both utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility. Planned system upgrades to allow implementation of higher fidelity dynamic testing are also discussed. Proposed DDG

  19. A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. THE SCHOOL PLANT GUIDE FOR PLANNING SCHOOL PLANTS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL, ELECTRIC, HEATING AND VENTILATING, AND PLUMBING STANDARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    A GUIDE COVERING ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS, ELECTRIC, HEATING AND VENTILATING, AND PLUMBING STANDARDS AS APPROVED BY THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION IN 1966. THE FOLLOWING MINIMUM STANDARD FOR NEW BUILDING, ALTERATIONS, AND ADDITIONS ARE OUTLINED--(1) SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, SUCH AS CEILING HEIGHTS, INTERIOR SANITARY FACILITIES, ROOMS…

  1. Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - Part 1: General requirements and tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    This International Standard deals with safety aspects of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products such as electrical, thermal and mechanical safety. This standard covers the following types of dry-type transformers, power supplies, including switch mode power supplies, and reactors, the windings of which may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated. It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

  2. General Relativity in Electrical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    In electrical engineering metamaterials have been developed that offer unprecedented control over electromagnetic fields. Here we show that general relativity lends the theoretical tools for designing devices made of such versatile materials. Given a desired device function, the theory describes the electromagnetic properties that turn this function into fact. We consider media that facilitate space-time transformations and include negative refraction. Our theory unifies the concepts operatin...

  3. Preliminary conceptual design for electrical and I and C system of a new research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, H. K.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-01-01

    The core type and the process system design will be varied according to the reactor's application and capacity. A New research reactor is being designed by KAERI since 2002 and the process systems are not fixed yet. But control and instrument systems are similar to each other even though the application and the size are not same. So the C and I system that encompasses reactor protection system, reactor control system, and computer system was designed conceptually according to the requirements based on new digital technology and HANARO's proven design. The plant electrical system consists of off-site system that delivers bulk electrical power to the reactor site and on-site system that distributes and controls electrical power at the facility. The electrical system includes building service system that consist of lighting, communication, fire detection, grounding, cathodic protection, etc. also. This report describes the design requirements of on-site and off-site electric power system that set up from the codes and standards and the conceptual design based on the design requirements.

  4. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  5. Compiled reports on the applicability of selected codes and standards to advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, E.L.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Markowski, F.J.; Mitts, T.M.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Vo, T.V.

    1994-08-01

    The following papers were prepared for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 NRC FIN L2207. This project, Applicability of Codes and Standards to Advance Reactors, reviewed selected mechanical and electrical codes and standards to determine their applicability to the construction, qualification, and testing of advanced reactors and to develop recommendations as to where it might be useful and practical to revise them to suit the (design certification) needs of the NRC.

  6. Electrical Safety Standards in focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A forum, the IEC/ACOS Workshop Ⅷ-IEC safety standards in support of regulatory requirements, was held on May 22nd-23rd 2006 in Beijing to cerate an environment for technical exchange between the regulators and the standard developers with its theme on the following regards :

  7. Acrylic acid and electric power cogeneration in an SOFC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baofeng; Wang, Jibo; Chu, Wenling; Yang, Weishen; Lin, Liwu

    2009-04-21

    A highly efficient catalyst, MoV(0.3)Te(0.17)Nb(0.12)O, used for acrylic acid (AA) production from propane, was used as an anodic catalyst in an SOFC reactor, from which AA and electric power were cogenerated at 400-450 degrees C.

  8. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system.

  9. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  10. Standard Master Matrix for Light-Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Standards, E706(0)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This master matrix standard describes a series of standard practices, guides, and methods for the prediction of neutron-induced changes in light-water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel (PV) and support structure steels throughout a pressure vessel's service life (Fig. 1). Some of these are existing ASTM standards, some are ASTM standards that have been modified, and some are proposed ASTM standards. General requirements of content and consistency are discussed in Section 6 . More detailed writers' and users' information, justification, and specific requirements for the nine practices, ten guides, and three methods are provided in Sections 3-5. Referenced documents are discussed in Section 2. The summary-type information that is provided in Sections 3 and 4 is essential for establishing proper understanding and communications between the writers and users of this set of matrix standards. It was extracted from the referenced documents, Section 2 and references (1-106) for use by individual writers and users. 1...

  11. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving

  12. Application of objective provision tree to development of standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo-Hoon; Suh, Namduk; Choi, Yongwon; Shin, Andong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A systematic methodology was developed for the standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design. The process is first to develop an objective provision tree of sodium-cooled fast reactor for the reactivity control safety function. The provision tree is generally developed by designer to confirm whether the design satisfies the defense-in-depth concept. Then applicability of the current standard review plan of nuclear design for light water reactor to sodium-cooled fast reactor was evaluated and complemented by the developed objective provision tree.

  13. Electric Vehicle based on standard industrial components

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ramos, José; Aghili Kathir, Foroohar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to presents the complete design of an electric vehicle by using standard industrial components as VRLA batteries, AC induction motors and standard frequency converters. In comparison with dedicated components, the use of standard components has the following advantages: higher reliability, low price, broad range of products and suppliers, and high availability and technological independence. Besides this, we show that these components allow to ...

  14. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kunz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  15. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2009-11-30

    Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  16. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Summary Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid. PMID:20300506

  17. 40 CFR 92.7 - General standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General standards. 92.7 Section 92.7... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.7 General standards. (a) Locomotives and locomotive engines may not be... locomotive engines subject to any of the standards imposed by this subpart shall, prior to sale,...

  18. A pilot level decision analysis of thermionic reactor development strategy for nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, M. M.; Judd, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The development policy for thermionic reactors to provide electric propulsion and power for space exploration was analyzed to develop a logical procedure for selecting development alternatives that reflect the technical feasibility, JPL/NASA project objectives, and the economic environment of the project. The partial evolution of a decision model from the underlying philosophy of decision analysis to a deterministic pilot phase is presented, and the general manner in which this decision model can be employed to examine propulsion development alternatives is illustrated.

  19. Multi-reactor power system configurations for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A modular, multi-reactor power system and vehicle configuration for piloted nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars is presented. Such a design could provide enhanced system and mission reliability, allowing a comfortable safety margin for early manned flights, and would allow a range of piloted and cargo missions to be performed with a single power system design. Early use of common power modules for cargo missions would also provide progressive flight experience and validation of standardized systems for use in later piloted applications. System and mission analysis are presented to compare single and multi-reactor configurations for piloted Mars missions. A conceptual design for the Hydra modular multi-reactor NEP vehicle is presented.

  20. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  1. Light weight space power reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.; Lazareth, O.; Perkins, K.; Schmidt, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) unit capable of propelling a manned vehicle to MARS will be required to have a value of {alpha} (kg/kWe) which is less than five. In order to meet this goal the reactor mass, and thus its contribution to the value of {alpha} will have to be minimized. In this paper a candidate for such a reactor is described. It consists of a gas cooled Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with specially chosen materials which allow it to operate at an exit temperature of approximately 2000 K. One of the unique features of a PBR is the direct cooling of particulate fuel by the working fluid. This feature allows for high power densities, highest possible gas exit temperatures, for a given fuel temperature and because of the thin particle bed a low pressure drop. The PBR's described in this paper will have a ceramic moderator (Be{sub 2}C), ZrC coated fuel particles and a carbon/carbon hot frit. All the reactors will be designed with sufficient fissile loading to operate at full power for seven years. The burn up possible with particulate fuel is approximately 30%--50%. These rector designs achieve a value of {alpha} less than unity in the power range of interest (5 MWe). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  2. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of... GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) standard...

  3. Pellet bed reactor concept for nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Morley, Nicholas J.; Juhasz, Albert

    1993-01-01

    For Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications, gas cooled nuclear reactors with dynamic energy conversion systems offer high specific power and low total mass. This paper describes the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) concept for potential NEP missions to Mars. The helium cooled, 75-80 MWt PeBR, consists of a single annular fuel region filled with a randomly packed bed of spherical fuel pellets, is designed for multiple starts, and offers unique safety and operation features. Each fuel pellet, about 8-10 mm in diameter, is composed of hundreds of TRISO type fuel microspheres embedded in a graphite matrix for a full retention of fission products. To eliminate the likelihood of a single-point failure, the annular core of the PeBR is divided into three 120° sectors. Each sector is self contained and separate and capable of operating and being cooled on its own and in cooperation with either one or two other sectors. Each sector is coupled to a separate, 5 MWe Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion unit and is subcritical for safe handling and launching. In the event of a failure of the cooling system of a core sector, the reactor power level may be reduced, allowing adjacent sectors to convect the heat away using their own cooling system, thus maintaining reactor operation. Also, due to the absence of an internal core structure in the PeBR core, fueling of the reactor can easily be performed either at the launch facility or in orbit, and refueling can be accomplished in orbit as needed to extend the power system lifetime

  4. 5 CFR 2635.202 - General standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts From Outside Sources § 2635.202 General standards. (a) General prohibitions. Except as provided in this subpart, an employee shall not, directly or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.823 - Standards: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: General. 63.823 Section 63.823 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the Printing and...

  6. The neutron standard fields at the BR1 reactor at SCK.CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemans, J.; Malambu, E.; Borms, L. [SCKCEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    The BR1 research reactor at SCK-CEN is characterized by a wide variety of irradiation possibilities, a large reactor core, and strong flexibility in its operation. A full MCNP model of BR1 has been recently developed in order to complement the results that can be obtained from activation dosimetry. After a general presentation of the reactor, this paper pays particular attention to its standard {sup 235}U(n,f) fast neutron field MARK III. This irradiation field is a useful tool for integral measurements and for detector calibrations. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly referred to the pure {sup 235}U(n,f) fast neutron spectrum. (authors)

  7. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience.

  8. A proposed standard on medical isotope production in fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenter, R. E. [Smart Bullets Inc., 2521 SW Luradel Street, Portland, OR 97219 (United States); Brown, G. J. [Ozarks Medical Center, Cancer Treatment Center, Shaw Medical Building, 1111 Kentucky Avenue, West Plains, MO 65775 (United States); Holden, C. S. [Thorenco LLC, 369 Pine Street, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Authors Robert E. Sehenter, Garry Brown and Charles S. Holden argue that a Standard for 'Medical Isotope Production' is needed. Medical isotopes are becoming major components of application for the diagnosis and treatment of all the major diseases including all forms of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's, among others. Current nuclear data to perform calculations is incomplete, dated or imprecise or otherwise flawed for many isotopes that could have significant applications in medicine. Improved data files will assist computational analyses to design means and methods for improved isotope production techniques in the fission reactor systems. Initial focus of the Standard is expected to be on neutron cross section and branching data for both fast and thermal reactor systems. Evaluated and reviewed tables giving thermal capture cross sections and resonance integrals for the major target and product medical isotopes would be the expected 'first start' for the 'Standard Working Group'. (authors)

  9. 5 CFR 2635.302 - General standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts Between Employees § 2635.302 General standards. (a) Gifts to superiors. Except as provided in this subpart, an employee may not: (1) Directly or...

  10. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P., E-mail: GusevYP@mpei.ru; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun [National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed.

  11. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  12. Standardized Curriculum for General Industrial Maintenance Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: general industrial maintenance trades I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation and leadership activities; (2) safety; (3) blueprint reading; (4) oxyacetylene cutting; (5) preventative maintenance; (6)…

  13. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  14. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  15. Electrical safety of conducted electrical weapons relative to requirements of relevant electrical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark

    2013-01-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEW) deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. TASER X26, X26P, and X2 are among CEW models most frequently deployed by law enforcement agencies. The X2 CEW uses two cartridge bays while the X26 and X26P CEWs have only one. The TASER X26P CEW electronic output circuit design is equivalent to that of any one of the two TASER X2 outputs. The goal of this paper was to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER X26, X26P, and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of several international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of two TASER X26 and two TASER X2 CEWs were measured and confirmed against manufacturer and other published specifications. The TASER X26, X26P, and X2 CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2 and IEC 60601-1. Prior reports on similar topics were reviewed as well. Our measurements and analyses confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER X26, X26P and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant requirements of the above standards.

  16. General Military Training: Standardization and Reduction Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 This product is part of the RAND Corporation technical report series. Reports may include...and suicide pre- Table 4.1 Service Estimates of the Cost of Preparing Computer-Based General Military Training Product Cost ($) Ten one-hour training...allow members to telecommute to complete training, and then it is left up to the unit commander to decide whether to allow telecommuting . ANG officials

  17. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomey, J.; Akbari, H.; Blumstein, C.; Brown, M.; Brown, R.; Calwell, C.; Carter, S.; Cavanagh, R.; Chang, A.; Claridge, D.; Craig, P.; Diamond, R.; Eto, J.H.; Fulkerson, W.; Gadgil, A.; Geller, H.; Goldemberg, J.; Goldman, C.; Goldstein, D.B.; Greenberg, S.; Hafemeister, D.; Harris, J.; Harvey, H.; Heitz, E.; Hirst, E.; Hummel, H.; Kammen, D.; Kelly, H.; Laitner, S.; Levine, M.; Lovins, A.; Masters, G.; McMahon, J.E.; Meier, A.; Messenger, M.; Millhone, J.; Mills, E.; Nadel, S.; Nordman, B.; Price, L.; Romm, J.; Ross, M.; Rufo, M.; Sathaye, J.; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, S.H.; Sweeney, J.L.; Verdict, M.; Vorsatz, D.; Wang, D.; Weinberg, C.; Wilk, R.; Wilson, J.; Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided

  18. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomey, J.; Akbari, H.; Blumstein, C.; Brown, M.; Brown, R.; Calwell, C.; Carter, S.; Cavanagh, R.; Chang, A.; Claridge, D.; Craig, P.; Diamond, R.; Eto, J.H.; Fulkerson, W.; Gadgil, A.; Geller, H.; Goldemberg, J.; Goldman, C.; Goldstein, D.B.; Greenberg, S.; Hafemeister, D.; Harris, J.; Harvey, H.; Heitz, E.; Hirst, E.; Hummel, H.; Kammen, D.; Kelly, H.; Laitner, S.; Levine, M.; Lovins, A.; Masters, G.; McMahon, J.E.; Meier, A.; Messenger, M.; Millhone, J.; Mills, E.; Nadel, S.; Nordman, B.; Price, L.; Romm, J.; Ross, M.; Rufo, M.; Sathaye, J.; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, S.H.; Sweeney, J.L.; Verdict, M.; Vorsatz, D.; Wang, D.; Weinberg, C.; Wilk, R.; Wilson, J.; Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of

  19. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical wiring... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  20. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afida Ayob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types of charging stations and standards used for charging electric vehicles have been outlined and the impact of electric vehicle charging on utility distribution system is also discussed.

  2. Safety standards of electrical equipment in surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Il' in, Yu.N.; Neyaskin, D.V.

    1985-03-01

    Modified safety regulations developed by the VostNII Institute are discussed. The safety regulations for electrical equipment used in surface coal mines are modifications of general safety regulations in coal surface mining. The modified regulations cover: improved protection from short circuits and grounds in electrical systems with voltage higher than 1000 V, protection systems for heavy-duty electric motors and motors with thyristor control, operation of power shovels on benches with contact systems (hazards of damage to electric cables caused by moving mining equipment), operation of electrical equipment and contact systems on benches at which trucks are used for mine haulage (hazards of damage to electric cables by moving trucks).

  3. Proposed Advanced Reactor Adaptation of the Standard Review Plan NUREG-0800 Chapter 4 (Reactor) for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors and Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moe, Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report proposes adaptation of the previous regulatory gap analysis in Chapter 4 (Reactor) of NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR [Light Water Reactor] Edition. The proposed adaptation would result in a Chapter 4 review plan applicable to certain advanced reactors. This report addresses two technologies: the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (mHTGR). SRP Chapter 4, which addresses reactor components, was selected for adaptation because of the possible significant differences in advanced non-light water reactor (non-LWR) technologies compared with the current LWR-based description in Chapter 4. SFR and mHTGR technologies were chosen for this gap analysis because of their diverse designs and the availability of significant historical design detail.

  4. LASIP-III, a generalized processor for standard interface files. [For creating binary files from BCD input data and printing binary file data in BCD format (devised for fast reactor physics codes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosler, G.E.; O' Dell, R.D.; Resnik, W.M.

    1976-03-01

    The LASIP-III code was developed for processing Version III standard interface data files which have been specified by the Committee on Computer Code Coordination. This processor performs two distinct tasks, namely, transforming free-field format, BCD data into well-defined binary files and providing for printing and punching data in the binary files. While LASIP-III is exported as a complete free-standing code package, techniques are described for easily separating the processor into two modules, viz., one for creating the binary files and one for printing the files. The two modules can be separated into free-standing codes or they can be incorporated into other codes. Also, the LASIP-III code can be easily expanded for processing additional files, and procedures are described for such an expansion. 2 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Davis; S. Herring; P. MacDonald; K. McCarthy; V. Shah; K. Weaver (INEEL); J. Buongiorno; R. Ballinger; K. Doyoung; M. Driscoll; P. Hejzler; M. Kazimi; N. Todreas (MIT)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. The choice of lead-bismuth for the reactor coolant is an actinide burning fast reactor offers enhanced safety and reliability. The advantages of lead-bismuth over sodium as a coolant are related to the following material characteristics: chemical inertness with air and water; higher atomic number; lower vapor pressure at operating temperatures; and higher boiling temperature. Given the status of the field, it was agreed that the focus of this investigation in the first two years will be on the assessment of approaches to optimize core and plant arrangements in order to provide maximum safety and economic potential in this type of reactor.

  6. Innovative microbial fuel cell for electricity production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was developed by immersing an anode electrode and a cathode chamber in an anaerobic reactor. Domestic wastewater was used as the medium and the inoculum in the experiments. The SMFC could successfully generate a stable voltage of 0.428 ± 0.003 V with a fixed...

  7. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  8. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  9. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program; Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Application Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comassar, S.

    1962-04-30

    This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This portion describes the studies of advanced applications of nuclear reactors that were performed, including various types of aircraft, missiles, space vehicles, ships, and portable power plants.

  10. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program; Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Application Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comassar, S.

    1962-04-30

    This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This portion describes the studies of advanced applications of nuclear reactors that were performed, including various types of aircraft, missiles, space vehicles, ships, and portable power plants.

  11. Selection of power plant elements for future reactor space electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Bennett, G.A.; Copper, K.

    1979-09-01

    Various types of reactor designs, electric power conversion equipment, and reject-heat systems to be used in nuclear reactor power plants for future space missions were studied. The designs included gas-cooled, liquid-cooled, and heat-pipe reactors. For the power converters, passive types such as thermoelectric and thermionic converters and dynamic types such as Brayton, potassium Rankine, and Stirling cycles were considered. For the radiators, heat pipes for transfer and radiating surface, pumped fluid for heat transfer with fins as the radiating surface, and pumped fluid for heat transfer with heat pipes as the radiating surface were considered. After careful consideration of weights, sizes, reliabilities, safety, and development cost and time, a heat-pipe reactor design, thermoelectric converters, and a heat-pipe radiator for an experimental program were selected.

  12. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  13. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  14. 40 CFR 63.683 - Standards: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written notification, this notification must include a site plan, process diagram, or other appropriate... determines that the process vent stream flow rate is less than 0.005 cubic meters per minute (m3/min) at standard conditions (as defined in 40 CFR 63.2). The process vent stream flow rate shall be determined in...

  15. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b)...

  16. Reliability and safety of the electrical power supply complex of the Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, F.D.

    1960-09-15

    Safety has been and must continue to be the inviolable modulus by which the operation of a nuclear reactor must be judged. A malfunction in any reactor may well result in a release of fission products which may dissipate over a wide geographical area. Such dissipation may place the health, happiness and even the lives of the people in the region in serious jeopardy. As a result, the property damage and liability cost may reach astronomical values in the order of magnitude of billions of dollars. Reliability of the electrical network is an indispensable factor in attaining a high order of safety assurance. Progress in the peaceful use of atomic energy may take the form of electrical power generation using the nuclear reactor as a source of thermal energy. In view of these factors it seems appropriate and profitable that a critical engineering study be made of the safety and reliability of the Hanford reactors without regard to cost economics. This individual and independent technical engineering analysis was made without regard to Hanford traditional engineering and administration assignments. The main objective has been to focus attention on areas which seem to merit further detailed study on conditions which seem to need adjustment but most of all on those changes which will improve reactor safety. This report is the result of such a study.

  17. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  18. Radiation-induced electrical degradation experiments in the Japan materials testing reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Shikama, Tatsuo; Narui, Minoru; Sagawa, Tsutomu; Scarborough, Kent

    1996-02-01

    An experiment to measure radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) in a sapphire sample and in three MgO-insulated cables was conducted at the JMTR light water reactor. The materials were irradiated at about 260°C to a fluence of 3 × 1024 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) with an applied DC electric field between 100 kV/m and 500 kV/m. Even though the results for the sapphire sample are somewhat ambiguous because of an unexplained offset current of about 0.6 μA substantial degradation was not observed in the sapphire: instead, radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) seemed to decrease slightly during the experiment. Substantial increase in leakage current, that increased with applied electric field, occurred in the MgO-insulated cables. This increased conductivity disappeared when the reactor was shut down and sample temperature returned to ambient. However, the physical degradation apparently remained in the material while the reactor was off because restarting the irradiation brought the conductivity back to its previous, degraded, reactor-on value. This effect is different from the RIED effect reported by Hodgson but is similar to previous results reported by Shikama et al. Considerable data were taken to determine the sample temperature and leakage currents during the irradiation.

  19. General Electric : Immelt surve all / Jena McGregor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McGregor, Jena

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtte General Electric juht Jeffrey R. Immelt võitleb selle nimel, et taastada usaldus firma vastu, kuna laenukriis ja kehvad aktsiahinnad on tekitanud olukorra, kus investorid avaldavad suurt survet ettevõtte juhile. Lisa: GE kindralid

  20. General Electric tõrjus Microsofti liidrikohalt / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2001-01-01

    General Electric võttis Microsofti ees liidrikoha maailma suurima turuväärtusega ettevõtte edetabelis FT500. Tabelid: Maailma suurima turukapitalisatsiooniga ettevõtete TOP25, Skandinaavia firmade turuväärtuse TOP10

  1. General Electric tõrjus Microsofti liidrikohalt / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2001-01-01

    General Electric võttis Microsofti ees liidrikoha maailma suurima turuväärtusega ettevõtte edetabelis FT500. Tabelid: Maailma suurima turukapitalisatsiooniga ettevõtete TOP25, Skandinaavia firmade turuväärtuse TOP10

  2. General Electric : Immelt surve all / Jena McGregor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McGregor, Jena

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtte General Electric juht Jeffrey R. Immelt võitleb selle nimel, et taastada usaldus firma vastu, kuna laenukriis ja kehvad aktsiahinnad on tekitanud olukorra, kus investorid avaldavad suurt survet ettevõtte juhile. Lisa: GE kindralid

  3. General Electric presents $325,000 to College of Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    The General Electric Company has presented a $300,000 check to Virginia Tech's College of Engineering to create three endowed fellowships in memory of its three slain engineering professors killed on April 16.

  4. General Electric presents $325,000 to College of Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    The General Electric Company has presented a $300,000 check to Virginia Tech's College of Engineering to create three endowed fellowships in memory of its three slain engineering professors killed on April 16.

  5. Harmonization of semantic data models of electric data standards

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Ortega de Mues, Mariano; Espinoza, Angelina; Rodríguez Álvarez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    According to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) a common semantics model is necessary for achieving interoperability in the Smart Grid vision. In this paper, we present an outline of two influential International Electrotech-nical Commission Standards (CIM and IEC 61850) for building a common semantic model in a Smart Grid vision. In addition, we revise two representative approaches suggested by EPRI for harmonizing these standards in a common semantic model. The pros and cons betwe...

  6. Electrical quantum standards and their role in the SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-12-01

    realizations of voltage, resistance and current to test their consistency. Active research into this 'metrological triangle' is underway and, at present, there is no evidence to indicate a discrepancy at any level. However, work is continuing on current sources which utilize a countable flow of electrons (the electric current produced is proportional to ef, f being the operating frequency of the device), but the work has some way to go before the question of consistency can be resolved at levels approaching 1 part in 109. In this special feature, Scherer and Camarota review the state-of-the-art of metrological triangle experiments and Devoille et al report on the status of the metrological triangle experiment at the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE), France. The availability of precise representations of the volt and the ohm based on quantum mechanics has enabled the watt balance, an apparatus which relates electrical and mechanical power, to link the kilogram to the Planck constant. This has paved the way for the proposed redefinition of the kilogram, the last artefact standard in the SI, in terms of a fixed value of the Planck constant. In the past few years a number of papers, e.g. [2, 3], have been published describing the working principles of the watt balance and the characteristics of the existing implementations of the experiment. The measurements of the principal quantities—mass, velocity, gravitational acceleration, resistance and voltage—are reasonably well documented but the ultimate precision of the apparatus depends on a number of techniques that are required to eliminate second-order effects. In this special feature, Robinson provides details of these general alignment techniques with special reference to the NPL Mark II watt balance. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the authors for supporting the special feature with their excellent contributions; the guardians of the quality of a scientific paper, the referees, for their valuable

  7. Trade Electricity. Signal Wiring--Level 1. Standardized Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of nine modules on signal wiring, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The modules cover the following subjects: bells, double contact pushbuttons, annunciator circuits, open circuit burglar alarms, closed circuit burglar alarms, fire alarms,…

  8. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  9. Trade Electricity. Motors & Controls--Level 3. Standardized Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of seven modules on motors and controls, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The seven modules cover the following subjects: energy conservation wiring, direct current (DC) motor repair and rewinding, DC motor controls, alternating current (AC)…

  10. The uses and implications of standards in general practice consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Maria Laura; Reventlow, Susanne; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2017-01-01

    was observed among general practitioners who strictly adhered to the procedural standards on the interactional aspects of care. Thus, when allowed to function as an overall frame for consultations, those standards supported adherence to general recommendations regarding which elements to be included in chronic...... standards for the ‘softer’ aspects of care. This article explores the consequences of both kinds of quality standards for chronic care consultations. The article presents findings from an explorative qualitative field study in Danish general practice where a standardized technology for quality development...... disease consultations. However, at the same time, adherence to those standards was observed to narrow the focus of doctor–patient dialogues and to divert general practitioners’ attention from patients’ personal concerns. Similar consequences of quality standards have previously been framed...

  11. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC

  12. Standard technical specifications for Westinghouse pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, P.C.

    1979-07-01

    This Standard Technical Specification (STS) has been structured for the broadest possible use on Westinghouse plants currently being reviewed for an Operating License. Accordingly, the document contains specifications applicable to plants with (1) either 3 or 4 loops and (2) with and without loop stop valves. In addition, four separate and discrete containment specification sections are provided for each of the following containment types: Atmospheric, Ice Condenser, Sub-Atmospheric, and Dual. Optional specifications are provided for those features and systems which may be included in individual plant designs but are not generic in their scope of application. Alternate specifications are provided in a limited number of cases to cover situations where alternate specification requirements are necessary on a generic basis because of design differences. This revision of the STS does not typically include requirements which may be added or revised as a result of the NRC staff's further review of the Three Mile Island incident.

  13. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

  14. Space Molten Salt Reactor Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, M.; Flanders, J.; McMurray, N.; Denning, R.; Sun, X.; Windl, W.; Blue, T.

    Students at The Ohio State University working under the NASA Steckler Grant sought to investigate how molten salt reactors with fissile material dissolved in a liquid fuel medium can be applied to space applications. Molten salt reactors of this kind, built for non-space applications, have demonstrated high power densities, high temperature operation without pressurization, high fuel burn up and other characteristics that are ideal for space fission systems. However, little research has been published on the application of molten salt reactor technology to space fission systems. This paper presents a conceptual design of the Space Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR), which utilizes molten salt reactor technology for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power at the 100 kWe to 15 MWe level. Central to the SMSR design is a liquid mixture of LiF, BeF2 and highly enriched U235F4 that acts as both fuel and core coolant. In brief, some of the positive characteristics of the SMSR are compact size, simplified core design, high fuel burn up percentages, proliferation resistant features, passive safety mechanisms, a considerable body of previous research, and the possibility for flexible mission architecture.

  15. 47 CFR 51.503 - General pricing standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... commission— (1) Pursuant to the forward-looking economic cost-based pricing methodology set forth in §§ 51... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General pricing standard. 51.503 Section 51.503... Pricing of Elements § 51.503 General pricing standard. (a) An incumbent LEC shall offer elements to...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  17. Standard Guide for In-Service Annealing of Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the general procedures to be considered for conducting an in-service thermal anneal of a light-water moderated nuclear reactor vessel and demonstrating the effectiveness of the procedure. The purpose of this in-service annealing (heat treatment) is to improve the mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, of the reactor vessel materials previously degraded by neutron embrittlement. The improvement in mechanical properties generally is assessed using Charpy V-notch impact test results, or alternatively, fracture toughness test results or inferred toughness property changes from tensile, hardness, indentation, or other miniature specimen testing (1). 1.2 This guide is designed to accommodate the variable response of reactor-vessel materials in post-irradiation annealing at various temperatures and different time periods. Certain inherent limiting factors must be considered in developing an annealing procedure. These factors include system-design limitations; physical constrain...

  18. Implementation of Electrical Simulation Model for IEC Standard Type-3A Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Chandrasekaran; Casadei, Domenico; Tani, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    turbine with partial scale power converter WEG including a two mass mechanical model. The generic models for fixed and variable speed WEGs models are suitable for fundamental frequency positive sequence response simulations during short events in the power system such as voltage dips. The wind power......This paper describes the implementation of electrical simulation model for IEC 61400-27-1 standard Type-3A generator. A general overview of the different wind electric generators(WEG) types are given and the main focused on Type-3A WEG standard models, namely a model for a variable speed wind...

  19. Generalized sensitivity evaluation of electrical power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grewal, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis is a logical extension of and addition to previous work on network sensitivities as applied to power-system analysis and planning. The continuing tendency of supplementing the existing extra-high voltage a.c. transmission systems with high-voltage d.c. (HVDC) lines was taken into consideration, and various relevant component models were investigated using a new hybrid network formulation based on the methodology developed by Bandler and El-Kady. The load buses, frequently modeled as PQ buses at which both the real and reactive injected powers are known, and the generator buses characterized by a constant voltage magnitude and constant real injected power, have been dealt with by exploiting a special complex conjugate notation. In addition, the current, voltage and/or power relationships associated with the transmission network branches were investigated. A hybrid formulation for generalized power system component models were developed. This novel formulation not only encompasses the work established on the basis of one-port theory, but it is also capable of manipulating multiport, nonreciprocal, a.c. as well as integrated a.c.-d.c. bulk transmission networks.

  20. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor components. 110.26 Section 110.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.26 General license for the export of nuclear...

  1. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  2. Generalized and Stability Rational Functions for Dynamic Systems of Reactor Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Aboanber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The base of reactor kinetics dynamic systems is a set of coupled stiff ordinary differential equations known as the point reactor kinetics equations. These equations which express the time dependence of the neutron density and the decay of the delayed neutron precursors within a reactor are first order nonlinear and essentially describe the change in neutron density within the reactor due to a change in reactivity. Outstanding the particular structure of the point kinetic matrix, a semianalytical inversion is performed and generalized for each elementary step resulting eventually in substantial time saving. Also, the factorization techniques based on using temporarily the complex plane with the analytical inversion is applied. The theory is of general validity and involves no approximations. In addition, the stability of rational function approximations is discussed and applied to the solution of the point kinetics equations of nuclear reactor with different types of reactivity. From the results of various benchmark tests with different types of reactivity insertions, the developed generalized Padé approximation (GPA method shows high accuracy, high efficiency, and stable character of the solution.

  3. General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosko, Andrey

    This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

  4. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  5. Radiation-induced electrical degradation experiments in the Japan materials testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnum, E.; Scharborough, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shikama, Tatsuo [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the extent of degradation during neutron irradiation of electrical and optical properties of candidate dielectric materials. The goals are to identify promising dielectrics for ITER and other fusion machines for diagnostic applications and establish the basis for optimization of candidate materials. An experiment to measure radiation-induced electrical degradation (REID) in sapphire and MgO-insulated cables was conducted at the JMTR light water reactor. The materials were irradiated at about 260 {degree}C to a fluence of 3{times}10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) with an applied DC electric field between 100 kV/m and 500 kV/m.

  6. Use of small reactors as an alternative to supply electricity to Baja California Sur; Uso de reactores pequenos como alternativa de suministro de electricidad para Baja California Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Portes, E.; Ramirez, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rio Rodano No. 14, 06500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The state of Baja California Sur (Mexico) does not form part of the national interconnected electrical system of the country, reason why is local its electrical power supply; one of the alternatives to cover future demands is the use of gas-based combined cycles, which presents the additional problem of including a high price for gas transportation in its costs. In order to reduce total costs, including investment, fuels and operation and maintenance in the operation of the Baja California Sur state electricity system in the coming years, mainly due to the estimated natural gas cost order of $11.50 dollars per million BTU, a proposal is presented to reduce the costs of the electrical system by replacing the necessary combined cycles with the new Small Modular Reactor type nuclear reactors, this alternative is economically competitive. (Author)

  7. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  8. 45 CFR 164.306 - Security standards: General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entity. (ii) The covered entity's technical infrastructure, hardware, and software security capabilities... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security standards: General rules. 164.306 Section 164.306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS...

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Industrial Maintenance General Maintenance Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards for the industrial maintenance general maintenance cluster are intended to be a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. An introduction provides the Illinois perspective; Illinois Occupational…

  10. Electricity price forecasting using generalized regression neural network based on principal components analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东晓; 刘达; 邢棉

    2008-01-01

    A combined model based on principal components analysis (PCA) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was adopted to forecast electricity price in day-ahead electricity market. PCA was applied to mine the main influence on day-ahead price, avoiding the strong correlation between the input factors that might influence electricity price, such as the load of the forecasting hour, other history loads and prices, weather and temperature; then GRNN was employed to forecast electricity price according to the main information extracted by PCA. To prove the efficiency of the combined model, a case from PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland) day-ahead electricity market was evaluated. Compared to back-propagation (BP) neural network and standard GRNN, the combined method reduces the mean absolute percentage error about 3%.

  11. 78 FR 72552 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain General Electric Company model GEnx... consumed more cyclic life than they would have in revenue flight cycles. These parts were then installed into engines and introduced into revenue service without adjustment to remaining cyclic life. This...

  12. Propagation of negative electrical discharges through 2-dimensional packed bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma-based pollutant remediation and value-added gas production have recently gained increased attention as possible alternatives to the currently-deployed chemical reactor systems. Electrical discharges in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are of interest, due to their ability to synergistically combine catalytic and plasma chemical processes. In principle, these systems could be tuned to produce specific products, based on their application by combinations of power formats, materials, geometries and working gases. Negative voltage, atmospheric-pressure plasma discharges sustained in humid air in a PBR-like geometry were experimentally characterized using ICCD imaging and simulated in 2-dimensions (2D) to provide insights into possible routes to this tunability. Surface ionization waves (SIWs) and positive restrikes through the lattice of dielectric rods were shown to be the principal means of producing reactive species. The number and intensity of SIWs and restrikes are sensitive functions of the alignment of the lattice of dielectric beads (or rods in 2D) with respect to the applied electric field. Decreased spacing between the dielectric elements leads to an increased electric field enhancement in the gas, and therefore locally higher plasma densities, but does not necessarily impact the types of discharges that occur through the lattice.

  13. 48 CFR 909.104-1 - General standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General standards. 909.104-1 Section 909.104-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Responsible Prospective Contractors 909.104-1 General...

  14. Electric Power quality Analysis in research reactor: Impacts on nuclear safety assessment and electrical distribution reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, Said; Chennai, Salim; Souli, Aissa [Nuclear Research Centre of Birine, Ain Oussera, Djelfa Province (Algeria)

    2015-07-01

    The increased requirements on supervision, control, and performance in modern power systems make power quality monitoring a common practise for utilities. Large databases are created and automatic processing of the data is required for fast and effective use of the available information. Aim of the work presented in this paper is the development of tools for analysis of monitoring power quality data and in particular measurements of voltage and currents in various level of electrical power distribution. The study is extended to evaluate the reliability of the electrical system in nuclear plant. Power Quality is a measure of how well a system supports reliable operation of its loads. A power disturbance or event can involve voltage, current, or frequency. Power disturbances can originate in consumer power systems, consumer loads, or the utility. The effect of power quality problems is the loss power supply leading to severe damage to equipments. So, we try to track and improve system reliability. The assessment can be focused on the study of impact of short circuits on the system, harmonics distortion, power factor improvement and effects of transient disturbances on the Electrical System during motor starting and power system fault conditions. We focus also on the review of the Electrical System design against the Nuclear Directorate Safety Assessment principles, including those extended during the last Fukushima nuclear accident. The simplified configuration of the required system can be extended from this simple scheme. To achieve these studies, we have used a demo ETAP power station software for several simulations. (authors)

  15. 国家标准GB9706.1-2007医用电气设备安全通用要求所需试验及仪器分析%Analysis of The Needed Test-instrument in Medical Electrical Equipment General Requirements for Safety GB9706.1-2007 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏景锋

    2013-01-01

    研究了G B9706.1-2007医用电气安全通用要求标准。针对其标准条款按顺序归纳出具体型式试验项目,并对其中需要通过仪器进行测量的试验给出具体仪器名称和主要技术参数。解决了将抽象的标准条款与具体检测试验及所用仪器设备相互结合转化的实际问题。为研究学习GB9706.1标准提供了一个新的角度。%Analysis of the medical electrical equipment general requirements for safety GB9706.1-2007 standard. Generalization of test items according to the requirements of content. According to the experiment concludes instrument and the instrument main parameters. To solve the mutual transformation between the standard terms and speciifc tests and the instruments. Provides a new perspective for the study of GB9706.1 standard.

  16. Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}) - advanced small modular reactor for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, T.; Schleicher, R.; Choi, H.; Rawls, J., E-mail: timothy.bertch@ga.com [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide cost effective nuclear energy in other than large reactor, large grid applications, fission technology needs to make further advances. 'Convert and burn' fast reactors offer long life cores, improved fuel utilization, reduced waste and other benefits while achieving cost effective energy production in a smaller reactor. General Atomics' Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}), a helium-cooled compact fast reactor that augments its fissile fuel load with either depleted uranium (DU) or used nuclear fuel (UNF). The convert and burn in-situ provides 250 MWe with a 30 year core life. High temperature provides a simple, high efficiency direct cycle gas turbine which along with modular construction, fewer systems, road shipment and minimum on site construction support cost effectiveness. Additional advantages in fuel cycle, non-proliferation and siting flexibility and its ability to meet all safety requirements make for an attractive power source, especially in remote and small grid regions. (author)

  17. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... rule regarding the energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on... energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error, an incorrect...

  18. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING OF SOILS AT C-REACTOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, R; Michael Morgenstern, M; Joseph Amari, J; Annamarie MacMurray, A; Mark Farrar, M; Terry Killeen, T

    2007-09-10

    Chlorinated solvent contamination of soils and groundwater is an endemic problem at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and originated as by-products from the nuclear materials manufacturing process. Five nuclear reactors at the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the nation's defense program throughout the cold war era. An important step in the process was thorough degreasing of the fuel and target assemblies prior to irradiation. Discharges from this degreasing process resulted in significant groundwater contamination that would continue well into the future unless a soil remediation action was performed. The largest reactor contamination plume originated from C-Reactor and an interim action was selected in 2004 to remove the residual trichloroethylene (TCE) source material by electrical resistance heating (ERH) technology. This would be followed by monitoring to determine the rate of decrease in concentration in the contaminant plume. Because of the existence of numerous chlorinated solvent sources around SRS, it was elected to generate in-house expertise in the design and operation of ERH, together with the construction of a portable ERH/SVE system that could be deployed at multiple locations around the site. This paper describes the waste unit characteristics, the ERH system design and operation, together with extensive data accumulated from the first deployment adjacent to the C-Reactor building. The installation heated the vadose zone down to 62 feet bgs over a 60 day period during the summer of 2006 and raised soil temperatures to over 200 F. A total of 730 lbs of trichloroethylene (TCE) were removed over this period, and subsequent sampling indicated a removal efficiency of 99.4%.

  19. A general theory of phase noise in electrical oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Hajimiri, Ali; Lee, Thomas H.

    1998-01-01

    A general model is introduced which is capable of making accurate, quantitative predictions about the phase noise of different types of electrical oscillators by acknowledging the true periodically time-varying nature of all oscillators. This new approach also elucidates several previously unknown design criteria for reducing close-in phase noise by identifying the mechanisms by which intrinsic device noise and external noise sources contribute to the total phase noise. In particular, it expl...

  20. Constraints on generalized non-standard $tbW$ couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Hioki, Zenro; Uejima, Akira

    2016-01-01

    General non-standard $tbW$ couplings are studied as model independently as possible based on the effective Lagrangian consisting of the dimension-6 operators, which is an extension of the standard-model Lagrangian. The $tbW$-interaction Lagrangian in this framework includes four kinds of couplings, which could be complex. Constraints on those non-standard $tbW$ couplings are obtained by comparing the experimental data related to the $t\\to b W$ process with the corresponding theoretical formulas derived from the effective Lagrangian. The constraints on some sets of the non-standard couplings are shown not to be so strong because those couplings balance out each other as we treat all the non-standard couplings as complex numbers at the same time.

  1. Appendix to HDC 2118 design criteria 100-X reactor water plant, general description - section II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-03-29

    The factors responsible for the advances of 100-X compared with the older areas are: Simplification of the process, such as elimination of separate process water clearwells, by having the filtered water reservoirs perform that function. Combination of separate buildings into one building, such as combining filter pump house and process pump house. Use of electric standby. Use of higher capacity pumps and filter basins, and so fewer number of units. Centralization of control and operation. More compact arrangement of plant components. Use of waste heat for space heating, recovered from reactor effluent, backed up by steam plant.

  2. Neutron electric dipole moment in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Inui, T; Sakai, N; Sasaki, T; Inui, T; Mumura, Y; Sakai, N; Sasaki, T

    1995-01-01

    Neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) due to single quark EDM and to the transition EDM is calculated in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Assuming that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the grand unification scale is the only source of CP violation, complex phases are induced in parameters of soft supersymmetry breaking at low energies. Chargino one-loop diagram is found to give the dominant contribution of the order of 10^{-27}\\sim 10^{-29}\\:e\\cdotcm for quark EDM, assuming the light chargino mass and the universal scalar mass to be 50 GeV and 100 GeV, respectively. Therefore the neutron EDM in this class of model is difficult to measure experimentally. Gluino one-loop diagram also contributes due to the flavor changing gluino coupling. The transition EDM is found to give dominant contributions for certain parameter regions.

  3. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  4. Cluster analysis of knowledge sources in standardized electrical engineering subfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a cluster analysis of innovation of knowledge sources based on the standards in the field of Electrical Engineering. Both local (SRPS and global (ISO knowledge sources have been analysed with the aim of innovating a Knowledge Base (KB. The results presented indicate a means/possibility of grouping the subfields within a cluster. They also point to a trend or intensity of knowledge source innovation for the purpose of innovating the KB that accompanies innovations. The study provides the possibility of predicting necessary financial resources in the forthcoming period by means of original mathematical relations. Furthermore, the cluster analysis facilitates the comparison of the innovation intensity in this and other (subfields. Future work relates to the monitoring of the knowledge source innovation by means of KB engineering and improvement of the methodology of prediction using neural networks.

  5. General linear matrix model, Minkowski spacetime and the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Belyea, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Hermitian matrix model with general linear symmetry is argued to decouple into a finite unitary matrix model that contains metastable multidimensional lattice configurations and a fermion determinant. The simplest metastable state is a Hermitian Weyl kinetic operator of either handedness on a 3+1 D lattice with general nonlocal interactions. The Hermiticity produces 16 effective Weyl fermions by species doubling, 8 left- and 8 right-handed. These are identified with a Standard Model generation. Only local non-anomalous gauge fields within the soup of general fluctuations can survive at long distances, and the degrees of freedom for gauge fields of an $SU(8)_L X SU(8)_R$ GUT are present. Standard Model gauge symmetries associate with particular species symmetries, for example change of QCD color associates with permutation of doubling status amongst space directions. Vierbein gravity is probably also generated. While fundamental Higgs fields are not possible, low fermion current masses can arise from chira...

  6. Tensile and electrical properties of copper alloys irradiated in a fission reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, A.S. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Postirradiation electrical sensitivity and tensile measurements have been completed on pure copper and copper alloy sheet tensile specimens irradiated in the SM-2 reactor to doses of {approx}0.5 to 5 dpa and temperatures between {approx}80 and 400{degrees}C. Considerable radiation hardening and accompanying embrittlement was observed in all of the specimens at irradiation temperature below 200{degrees}C. The radiation-induced electrical conductivity degradation consisted of two main components: solid transmutation effects and radiation damage (defect cluster and particle dissolution) effects. The radiation damage component was nearly constant for the doses in this study, with a value of {approx}1.2n{Omega}m for pure copper and {approx}1.6n{Omega}m for dispersion strengthened copper irradiated at {approx}100{degrees}C. The solid transmutation component was proportional to the thermal neutron flux, and became larger than the radiation damage component for fluences larger than {approx}5 10{sup 24} n.m{sup 2}. The radiation hardening and electrical conductivity degradation decreased with increasing irradiation temperature, and became negligible for temperatures above {approx}300{degrees}C.

  7. Electric field gradient, generalized Sternheimer shieldings and electric field gradient polarizabilities by multiconfigurational SCF response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Ruud, Kenneth; Helgaker, Trygve; Jaszuński, Michał

    1998-08-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) at the nuclei, the generalized Sternheimer shielding constants and the EFG electric dipole polarizabilities are computed for eight small molecules employing multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions and the corresponding linear and quadratic response functions. The molecules studied are H2, N2, CO, HF, C2H2, HCl, HCN, and HNC, all of which are linear. For the hydrogen molecule, full configuration-interaction results for the properties are also reported. The dependence of the computed quantities on the basis set and the electron-correlation treatment is analyzed.

  8. A design study of reactor core optimization for direct nuclear heat-to-electricity conversion in a space power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Takeoka, Satoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kugo, Teruhiko

    1998-01-01

    To propose a new design concept of a nuclear reactor used in the space, research has been conducted on the conceptual design of a new nuclear reactor on the basis of the following three main concepts: (1) Thermionic generation by thermionic fuel elements (TFE), (2) reactivity control by rotary reflector, and (3) reactor cooling by liquid metal. The outcomes of the research are: (1) A calculation algorithm was derived for obtaining convergent conditions by repeating nuclear characteristic calculation and thermal flow characteristic calculation for the space nuclear reactor. (2) Use of this algorithm and the parametric study established that a space nuclear reactor using 97% enriched uranium nitride as the fuel and lithium as the coolant and having a core with a radius of about 25 cm, a height of about 50 cm and a generation efficiency of about 7% can probably be operated continuously for at least more than ten years at 100 kW only by reactivity control by rotary reflector. (3) A new CAD/CAE system was developed to assist design work to optimize the core characteristics of the space nuclear reactor comprehensively. It is composed of the integrated design support system VINDS using virtual reality and the distributed system WINDS to collaboratively support design work using Internet. (N.H.)

  9. Multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion with gaseous and vapor core reactors with MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a fissioning plasma core reactor (FPCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster. The FPCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Candidate working fluids include K, Li, Na, KF, LiF, NaF, etc. The system features core outlet temperatures of 3000 to 4000 K at pressures of about 1 to 10 MPa, MHD temperatures of 2000 to 3000 K, and radiator temperatures of 1200 to 2000 K. This combination of parameters offers the potential for low total system specific mass in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 kg/kWe. The MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (Isp=1500 to 10,000 s). .

  10. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRIC HEATING OF REACTORS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISHES AND PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovajniansky L.L.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The drawbacks of the traditional design of the heaters, which make known imperfections in manufacturing processes, realized with the use of electric heating. This determines the need for a radically new design of the heating devices. Created by high-temperature ceramics, characterized by abnormally high thermal stability and clarified the parameters that allow a certain degree change its thermal conductivity. On this basis the contact type ceramic heaters that provide thermal flow direction using different materials in the body of the heater - of high thermal conductivity, the surface facing the heat transfer and low which differs opposite sides of the heater are designed to eliminate the dissipation of heat into the surrounding space. This made it possible to equip the modern production paint industry energy efficient heating equipment with explosion and fire heating system reactors.

  12. CArbon-free Electricity by SEWGS. Advanced materials, reactor-, and process design CAESAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In this presentation attention is paid to the activities within the CAESAR project. CAESAR is the acronym for 'CArbon-free Electricity by SEWGS: Advanced materials, Reactor-, and process design'. SEWGS stands for 'Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift'. The CAESAR project builds on CACHET SEWGS. CACHET is the acronym of the project with the overall goal to develop innovative technologies which will substantially reduce the cost of CO2 capture whilst simultaneously producing H2 from natural gas fuel. The first 12 month of CAESAR focused on sorbent development and process feasibility for NGCC (Natural Gas Combined Cycle) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle). Improved sorbent capacity and improved mechanical strength are demonstrated. Proper integration of the SEWGS process in NGCC will improve power generation efficiencies.

  13. 49 CFR 571.105 - Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... signal or signals. Electric vehicle or EV means a motor vehicle that is powered by an electric motor... or control signals in an antilock brake system, or a total functional electrical failure in a... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric...

  14. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  15. Large-scale surface dielectric barrier discharge type reactor : effect of the electric wind on the conversion effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolibois, J. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique; Poitiers Univ., Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Inst. Pprime; Zouzou, N.; Moreau, E. [Poitiers Univ., Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Inst. Pprime; Tatibouet, J.M. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique

    2010-07-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) techniques offer an innovative approach for air pollution reduction. Most studies in NTP techniques use volumetric discharge reactors with small dimensions and low flow rates at laboratory scale. The objective of this study was to develop an air pollution control plasma reactor at industrial scale with surface discharge. Propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) was oxidized at high flow rates in a large-scale plasma reactor based on surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Three different configurations of surface discharges were tested with 15 ppm of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} in air at ambient temperature for a flow rate of 50 m{sup 3} per hour. The properties of these different surface discharges were analyzed using chemical measurements and 3 component particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. PIV measurements were used characterize the effect of the electric wind on the polluted gas airflow inside the reactor and to explain the differences of effectiveness of the three tested plasma generators. For the three plasma generators, a propene oxidation of up to 45 percent was obtained at one J per liter. The electric wind produced by the surface discharge resulted in the formation of vortices inside the plasma reactor. This electric wind can increase gas mixing inside the plasma reactor and therefore plays a key role in conversion efficiency. It was concluded that the electric wind produced by surface discharges enables the use of this type of discharge for VOC elimination at high flow rate, with the same effectiveness of volumetric discharges. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  17. [Introduction of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming

    2013-07-01

    The article introduces the requirements of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment (YY 0505-2012), hope it can be useful for the manufacturers of medical electrical equipment.

  18. Standard guide for general design considerations for hot cell equipment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this guide is to provide general design and operating considerations for the safe and dependable operation of remotely operated hot cell equipment. Hot cell equipment is hardware used to handle, process, or analyze nuclear or radioactive material in a shielded room. The equipment is placed behind radiation shield walls and cannot be directly accessed by the operators or by maintenance personnel because of the radiation exposure hazards. Therefore, the equipment is operated remotely, either with or without the aid of viewing. 1.1.2 This guide may apply to equipment in other radioactive remotely operated facilities such as suited entry repair areas, canyons or caves, but does not apply to equipment used in commercial power reactors. 1.1.3 This guide does not apply to equipment used in gloveboxes. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide is intended for persons who are tasked with the planning, design, procurement, fabrication, installation, or testing of equipment used in rem...

  19. Development of a general learning algorithm with applications in nuclear reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittain, C.R.; Otaduy, P.J.; Perez, R.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objective of this study was development of a generalized learning algorithm that can learn to predict a particular feature of a process by observation of a set of representative input examples. The algorithm uses pattern matching and statistical analysis techniques to find a functional relationship between descriptive attributes of the input examples and the feature to be predicted. The algorithm was tested by applying it to a set of examples consisting of performance descriptions for 277 fuel cycles of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The program learned to predict the critical rod position for the HFIR from core configuration data prior to reactor startup. The functional relationship bases its predictions on initial core reactivity, the number of certain targets placed in the center of the reactor, and the total exposure of the control plates. Twelve characteristic fuel cycle clusters were identified. Nine fuel cycles were diagnosed as having noisy data, and one could not be predicted by the functional relationship. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The development and application of k -standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghem, L. [Departement d' Analyse par Activation Neutronique, CRNB, BP 180, Ain Oussera 17200, W Djelfa (Algeria)]. E-mail: lylia_25@hotmail.com; Ramdhane, M. [Departement de physique, Universite Mentouri de Constantine (Algeria); Khaled, S. [Departement d' Analyse par Activation Neutronique, CRNB, BP 180, Ain Oussera 17200, W Djelfa (Algeria); Akhal, T. [Departement d' Analyse par Activation Neutronique, CRNB, BP 180, Ain Oussera 17200, W Djelfa (Algeria)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k -NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of {gamma}-spectrometer used in k -NAA (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as {alpha} and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k -NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k -NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k -NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  1. Electrical conductivity as a state indicator for the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A; Latrille, E; Ribes, J; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the applicability of electrical conductivity sensors for on-line monitoring the start-up period of an anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The evolution of bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate was analysed. Strong linear relationships between electrical conductivity and both bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate were observed. On-line estimations of the studied parameters were carried out in a new start-up period by applying simple linear regression models, which resulted in a good concordance between both observed and predicted values. Electrical conductivity sensors were therefore identified as an interesting method for monitoring the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors due to its reliability, robustness, easy operation, low cost, and minimum maintenance compared with the currently used sensors.

  2. Standard general relativity from Chern-Simons gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, F. [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad, Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Minning, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Perez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein, Institut. Am Muehlenberg1, D-14476 Golm bei Potsdam (Germany); Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad, Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Salgado, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl

    2009-07-13

    Chern-Simons models for gravity are interesting because they provide a truly gauge-invariant action principle in the fiber-bundle sense. So far, their main drawback has largely been its perceived remoteness from standard General Relativity, based on the presence of higher powers of the curvature in the Lagrangian (except, remarkably, for three-dimensional spacetime). Here we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard General Relativity in five-dimensional spacetime may indeed emerge at a special critical point in the space of couplings, where additional degrees of freedom and corresponding 'anomalous' Gauss-Bonnet constraints drop out from the Chern-Simons action. To achieve this goal, both the Lie algebra g and the symmetric g-invariant tensor that define the Chern-Simons Lagrangian are constructed by means of the Lie algebra S-expansion method with a suitable finite Abelian semigroup S. The results are generalized to arbitrary odd dimensions, and the possible extension to the case of eleven-dimensional supergravity is briefly discussed.

  3. A generalized exponential time series regression model for electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar; Proietti, Tomasso

    We consider the issue of modeling and forecasting daily electricity spot prices on the Nord Pool Elspot power market. We propose a method that can handle seasonal and non-seasonal persistence by modelling the price series as a generalized exponential process. As the presence of spikes can distort...... the estimation of the dynamic structure of the series we consider an iterative estimation strategy which, conditional on a set of parameter estimates, clears the spikes using a data cleaning algorithm, and reestimates the parameters using the cleaned data so as to robustify the estimates. Conditional...... on the estimated model, the best linear predictor is constructed. Our modeling approach provides good fit within sample and outperforms competing benchmark predictors in terms of forecasting accuracy. We also find that building separate models for each hour of the day and averaging the forecasts is a better...

  4. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography for the Packed Bed Reactor ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashdeh, Qussai; Motil, Brian; Wang, Aining; Liang-Shih, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Fixed packed bed reactors are compact, require minimum power and maintenance to operate, and are highly reliable. These features make this technology a highly desirable unit operation for long duration life support systems in space. NASA is developing an ISS experiment to address this technology with particular focus on water reclamation and air revitalization. Earlier research and development efforts funded by NASA have resulted in two hydrodynamic models which require validation with appropriate instrumentation in an extended microgravity environment. To validate these models, the instantaneous distribution of the gas and liquid phases must be measured.Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) is a non-invasive imaging technology recently developed for multi-phase flow applications. It is based on distributing flexible capacitance plates on the peripheral of a flow column and collecting real-time measurements of inter-electrode capacitances. Capacitance measurements here are directly related to dielectric constant distribution, a physical property that is also related to material distribution in the imaging domain. Reconstruction algorithms are employed to map volume images of dielectric distribution in the imaging domain, which is in turn related to phase distribution. ECVT is suitable for imaging interacting materials of different dielectric constants, typical in multi-phase flow systems. ECVT is being used extensively for measuring flow variables in various gas-liquid and gas-solid flow systems. Recent application of ECVT include flows in risers and exit regions of circulating fluidized beds, gas-liquid and gas-solid bubble columns, trickle beds, and slurry bubble columns. ECVT is also used to validate flow models and CFD simulations. The technology is uniquely qualified for imaging phase concentrations in packed bed reactors for the ISS flight experiments as it exhibits favorable features of compact size, low profile sensors, high imaging speed, and

  5. 76 FR 66057 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Regional Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Reliability Standard PRC-002-NPCC- 01, and NPCC's guidance establishes maintenance and testing expectations... Energy Regulatory Commission 61,043] North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Regional Reliability Standard Issued October 20, 2011. Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman...

  6. Current Situation and Development Trend of Standards of Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiangfeng; Wen Baozhong

    2012-01-01

    Traction battery is one of the most significant systems in electric vehicles.Its general performance,cycle characteristics and safety performance have crucial influence on the economical efficiency,dynamic property and safety of the vehicle.Therefore traction battery has always been the key area in researches of electric vehicles and its standardization. 1.Main performance indicators of traction batteries As the energy storage device of electric vehicles,the performance of traction battery is very important for the complete vehicle.Requirements of traction battery for electric vehicles should have the following characteristics as high power,high energy,high energy density/specific energy,high power density/specific power,low cost,long life length,abuse resistance,high reliability,good temperature property,short charging time,nice interchangeability etc.Traction batteries used at present are mainly lead-acid cells,nickel-hydride cells and lithium-ion cells.Although none of them can meet all requirements,lithium battery is widely regarded the most promising one with optimal comprehensive performance in recent time.

  7. The General Configuration of CEV1 Electric Vehicle's Electrical System and the Design of Its Control Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general configuration of CEV1 electric vehicle's electrical system and the design scheme of its control sequence are presented, which are modularized by using VMU as master control unit, PMU as power management unit, BMU as battery management unit. It is a rather advanced and practical general design scheme of electric vehicle, because the division of its module function is definite, which is advantage for research, manufacture and maintenance.

  8. Upgrading the electrical system of the IEA-R1 reactor to avoid triggering event of accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic, E-mail: jrmello@ipen.br, E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IEA-R1 research reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) is a research reactor open pool type, built and designed by the American firm 'Babcox and Wilcox', having as coolant and moderator demineralized light water and Beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. The power supply system is designed to meet the electricity demand required by the loads of the reactor (Security systems and systems not related to security) in different situations the plant can meet, such as during startup, normal operation at power, shutdown, maintenance, exchange of fuel elements and accident situations. Studies have been done on possible accident initiating events and deterministic techniques were applied to assess the consequences of such incidents. Thus, the methods used to identify and select the accident initiating events, the methods of analysis of accidents, including sequence of events, transient analysis and radiological consequences, have been described. Finally, acceptance criteria of radiological doses are described. Only a brief summary of the item concerning loss of electrical power will be presented. The loss of normal electrical power at the IEA-R1 reactor is very common. In the case of Electric External Power Loss, at the IEA-R1 reactor building, there may be different sequences of events, as described below. When the supply of external energy in the IEA-R1 facility fails, the Electrical Distribution Vital System, consisting of 4 (four) generators type 'UPS', starts operation, immediately and it will continue supplying power to the reactor control table, core cooling system and other security systems. To contribute to security, in the electric power failure, starts to operate the Emergency Cooling System (SRE). SRE has the function of removing residual heat from the core to prevent the melting of fuel elements in the event of loss of refrigerant to the core. Adding to the generators with batteries group system, new auxiliary

  9. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric...

  10. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150...

  11. Standard Practice for Analysis and Interpretation of Light-Water Reactor Surveillance Results, E706(IA)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the methodology, summarized in Annex A1, to be used in the analysis and interpretation of neutron exposure data obtained from LWR pressure vessel surveillance programs; and, based on the results of that analysis, establishes a formalism to be used to evaluate present and future condition of the pressure vessel and its support structures (1-70). 1.2 This practice relies on, and ties together, the application of several supporting ASTM standard practices, guides, and methods (see Master Matrix E 706) (1, 5, 13, 48, 49). In order to make this practice at least partially self-contained, a moderate amount of discussion is provided in areas relating to ASTM and other documents. Support subject areas that are discussed include reactor physics calculations, dosimeter selection and analysis, and exposure units. Note 1—(Figure 1 is deleted in the latest update. The user is refered to Master Matrix E 706 for the latest figure of the standards interconnectivity). 1.3 This practice is restri...

  12. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy and... motors that, due to a drafting error, are not consistent with statutory requirements. DATES:...

  13. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  14. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SGEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from the SGEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  15. The rehabilitation/upgrading of Philippine Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renato, T. Banaga [Philippines Nuclear Research Inst., Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) is the only research reactor in the Philippines. It was acquired through the Bilateral Agreement with the United States of America. The General Electric (G.E.) supplied PRR-1 first become operational in 1963 and used MTR plate type fuel. The original one-megawatt G.E. reactor was shutdown and converted into a 3 MW TRIGA PULSING REACTOR in 1984. The conversion includes the upgrading of the cooling system, replacement of new reactor coolant pumps, heat exchanger, cooling tower, replacement of new nuclear instrumentation and standard TRIGA console, TRIGA fuel supplied by General Atomic (G.A.). Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) provided the old reactor, did the detailed design of the new cooling system, provided the new non-nuclear instrumentation and electrical power supply system and performed all construction, installation and modification work on site. The TRIGA conversion fuel is contained in a shrouded 4-rod cluster which fit into the original grid plate. The new fuel is a E{sub 1}-U-Z{sub 1}-H{sub 1.6} TRIGA fuel, has a 20% wt Uranium loading with 19.7% U-235 enrichment and about 0.5 wt % Erbium. The Start-up, calibration and Demonstration of Pulsing and Full Power Operation were completed during a three week start-up phase which were performed last March 1968. A few days after, a leak in the pool liner was discovered. The reactor was shutdown again for repair and up to present the reactor is still in the process of rehabilitation. This paper will describe the rehabilitation/upgrading done on the PRR-1 since 1988 up to present. (author)

  16. Electrochemical Recovery of Gold from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment Using Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, T.; Ali, U. F. M.; Ridwan, F. M.; Ibrahim, N.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of electrochemical process recovery involving low reactant concentrations of metal requires electrodes with high mass transport rates and specific surface areas. This is essential to increase cross-sectional current densities whilst optimizing the capital and operating costs. Experimental results demonstrated that Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE) is suitable for the recovery of low concentrations of gold from aqueous chloride solution containing {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- of less than 0.5 mol m-3(mass transport controlled at an applied potential of +0.20 V (SCE), specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) of ca. 800-1300 kWh h (tonne Au)-1 for cell voltages (U) of 2.0-3.0 V, and fractional current efficiencies of ca. 0.95. However, atomic absorption and UV spectrophotometry established that as the ([{{AuCl}}4-+[{{AuCl}}2-]) concentration decayed, the [{{AuCl}}4-]:[{{AuCl}}2-] molar ratio changed. A multi-step mechanism for reduction of {{AuCl}}4- ions explained this behavior in terms of changing overpotentials for {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- reduction as total dissolved gold concentration decreased. In addition, SEM images confirmed that adherent and coherent Au deposits were achieved with CPBE for Au deposition under mass transport control at 0.20 V (SCE).

  17. 49 CFR 571.305 - Standard No. 305; Electric-powered vehicles: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propulsion power . S2.Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries during a crash... crash. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries during and after a... limitation of electrolyte spillage, retention of propulsion batteries during a crash, and electrical...

  18. An numerical analysis of high-temperature helium reactor power plant for co-production of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, M.; Podsadna, J.; Jaszczur, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the feasibility of using a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor (HTR) for electricity generation and hydrogen production are analysed. The HTR is combined with a steam and a gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for medium temperature hydrogen production. Industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high temperature electrolysis. Presented cycle shows a very promising route for continuous, efficient, large-scale and environmentally benign hydrogen production without CO2 emissions. The results show that the integration of a high temperature helium reactor, with a combined cycle for electric power generation and hydrogen production, may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  19. Simultaneous Development of Sci-Tech Innovation and Technical Standards for Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zijian

    2012-01-01

    Chinese standards system of electric vehicles was initiated in 1998.Along with the large-scale science and technology innovation and R&D in 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan period,this standards system has experienced the development process from the adoption of the international standards and advanced foreign standards to the independent research,development and revision of standards.Nowadays around 50 standards concerning electric vehicles have been developed,and the system is almost complete with the same progressing pace as the international ones.

  20. Analytical evaluation on loss of off-side electric power simulation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Takada, Eiji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    A rise-to-power test of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) started on September 28 in 1999 for establishing and upgrading the technological basis for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). A loss of off-site electric power test of the HTTR from the normal operation under 15 and 30 MW thermal power will be carried out in the rise-to-power test. Analytical evaluations on transient behaviors of the reactor and plant during the loss of off-site electric power were conducted. These estimations are proposed as benchmark problems for the IAEA coordinated research program on 'Evaluation of HTGR Performance'. This report describes an event scenario of transient during the loss of off-site electric power, the outline of major components and system, detailed thermal and nuclear data set for these problems and pre-estimation results of the benchmark problems by an analytical code 'ACCORD' for incore and plant dynamics of the HTGR. (author)

  1. Strategies of General.Electric company's Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2016-01-01

    As the biggest multinational corporate providing technology and services, the success of General Electric (GE) is always used for reference by other companies. This report is to evaluate the suitability of GE's strategic position from 2001 to early 2014. After a brief company overview, the report first points out current strategies which GE applies and analyses GE's activities with strategy concepts such as Porter's generic strategy and' Ansoff matrix. Strategic position analysis consists pf environmental analysis, capability analysis and stakeholders' expectations and purposes. GE's environmental analysis is drawn from macro-environment with PEST analysis and micro-environment with Porter's five forces analysis, and opportunities and threats are evaluated based on that. After that, the report introduces resources deployed by GE and therefore outlines the strengths and weakness of GE's strategy. Following GE's capability analysis, the stakeholders' power distribution and purposes part describes corporate governance, stakeholders' expectation and CSR to illustrate how GE's strategies are affected by stakeholder's exnectations.

  2. A generalization information management system applied to electrical distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, K.I.; Neumann, S.A.; Nielsen, T.D.; Bower, P.K. (Empros Systems International (US)); Hughes, B.A.

    1990-07-01

    This article presents a system solution approach that meets the requirements being imposed by industry trends and the electric utility customer. Specifically, the solution addresses electric distribution management systems. Electrical distribution management is a particularly well suited area of application because it involves a high diversity of tasks, which are currently supported by a proliferation of automated islands. Islands of automation which currently exist include (among others) distribution operations, load management, automated mapping, facility management, work order processing, and planning.

  3. Electric and Weak Electric Dipole Form Factors for Heavy Fermions in a General Two Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Dumm, D; Gomez-Dumm, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The electric and weak electric dipole form factors for heavy fermions are calculated in the context of the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). We find that the large top mass can produce a significant enhancement of the electric dipole form factor in the case of the b and c quarks. This effect can be used to distinguish between different 2HDM scenarios.

  4. The role of standardization for innovation in the electric car inudstry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frank Steven Dahl

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for innovation among selected actors in the electric car industry. The case indicates that both formal standards and radical innovations have been developed, and that standards in themself do not exclude the existence or development of innovations......; in fact standards may contribute positively to innovation. The essential standards developed so far have mainly brought compatibility among components and innovations in the industry, which made it possible to electrical car manufacturers to align innovation activities and adapt new technology effectively...

  5. The influence of biofilm formation on electricity production from tempe wastewater using tubular membraneless microbial fuel cell reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Nathania Dwi Karina; Arbianti, Rita; Utami, Tania Surya

    2017-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology can be potentially developed as an alternative energy source since it can convert various substrates from renewable sources into electricity using bacteria as biocatalyst. Tempe wastewater as MFC substrate gives advantages in tempe wastewater treatment and reducing the purchasing cost of bacteria. Currently, the applications of MFCs are still limited due to the relatively low electricity production, so many studies have been conducted to improve the electricity production by MFC. This study focused on investigating the influence of biofilm formation time and the use of macromolecule as additional substrate towards electricity production from MFC system with tubular membranless reactor and tempe wastewater as substrate. This study suggested that biofilm formation on anode could improve the electricity production up to 10-folds while the use of glucose as substrate addition reduce the electricity production up to 60%. The biggest electricity output was obtained from the experiment of biofilm formation for 14 days with EPS content in biofilm 0,13 mg/cm2 where the maximum voltage and power density produced was respectively 34,81 mV and 0,26 mW/m2.

  6. Calculation of the electric field gradients, generalized Sternheimer shielding constants, and electric-field-gradient polarizabilities for ten small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David M.; Cybulski, sławomir M.

    1994-05-01

    Electric field gradients, generalized Sternheimer shielding constants, and electric-field-gradient polarizabilities are calculated for H2, N2, F2, HF, HCl, CO, HCN, HNC, H2O, and NH3. The calculations are performed at both the Hartree-Fock and second order Møller-Plesset levels of approximation using large basis sets. For most of these molecules this is the first time that the shielding constants and electric field gradient polarizabilities have been determined. Electron correlation is generally found to be a significant factor.

  7. Electrically Driven General Systems for UAV’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    systems are discussed in this paper. First the Barracuda M-05 UAV Demonstrator and second the 270 VDC More Electric Aircraft project launched by the...German Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB). 3.1 Barracuda M-05 The Barracuda M-05 is a company founded unmanned...test flight. Figure 4 showed a picture of the first flight. Figure 4: Barracuda M-05 First Flight With respect to electrically driven

  8. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  9. 75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... issuing this final rule to facilitate the development and introduction of fuel cell vehicles, a type of... so by revising the agency's standard regulating electrolyte spillage and electrical shock...

  10. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7g-N/L during 30days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80g-N/m2/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5W/m2 was generated at 2.85A/m2. Both current driven NH4+ migration...

  11. Improvement of Efficiency and Electrical Energy Consumption of AB74 Degradation Process using A Novel Cylindrical Batch Photochemical Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Olya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of electric energy consumption in degradation of Indigo Carmine based on a new cylindrical batch suspension photocatalytic reactor designing concerning the main engineering parameters such as mixing, reaction kinetic, mass transfer, catalyst illumination, and inherent potential of contaminant was done. The most degradation efficiency was observed within in air flow rate 1.2L.min-1, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.0294mol.L-1, pH between 2-3, initial dye concentration 10mg.L-1, and initial TiO2 dose 2g.L-1. Applying optimum condition eventuated 76.09% TOC reduction after 60 min reaction time. The results show that designed reactor is extremely affective in reduction of operational cost.

  12. Continuous preparation of carbon-nanotube-supported platinum catalysts in a flow reactor directly heated by electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Schlange

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present for the first time a continuous process for the production of highly active Pt catalysts supported by carbon nanotubes by use of an electrically heated tubular reactor. The synthesized catalysts show a high degree of dispersion and narrow distributions of cluster sizes. In comparison to catalysts synthesized by the conventional oil-bath method a significantly higher electrocatalytic activity was reached, which can be attributed to the higher metal loading and smaller and more uniformly distributed Pt particles on the carbon support. Our approach introduces a simple, time-saving and cost-efficient method for fuel cell catalyst preparation in a flow reactor which could be used at a large scale.

  13. FeCrO Nanoparticles as Anode Catalyst for Ethane Proton Conducting Fuel Cell Reactors to Coproduce Ethylene and Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hui Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene and electrical power are cogenerated in fuel cell reactors with FeCr2O4 nanoparticles as anode catalyst, La0.7Sr0.3FeO3- (LSF as cathode material, and BaCe0.7Zr0.1Y0.2O3- (BCZY perovskite oxide as proton-conducting ceramic electrolyte. FeCr2O4, BCZY and LSF are synthesized by a sol-gel combustion method. The power density increases from 70 to 240 mW cm−2, and the ethylene yield increases from about 14.1% to 39.7% when the operating temperature of the proton-conducting fuel cell reactor increases from 650∘C to 750∘C. The FeCr2O4 anode catalyst exhibits better catalytic performance than nanosized Cr2O3 anode catalyst.

  14. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  15. The Chlorella killed by pulsed electrical discharge in liquid with two different reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z. Y.; Sun, B.; Yan, Z. Y.; Zhu, X. M.; Liu, H.; Song, Y. J.; Sato, M.

    2013-03-01

    The application of pulsed high-voltage discharge in liquid has attracted wide attention as an effective water treatment. In this paper, two different liquid high-voltage discharge systems were constructed with plate-hole-plate and needle-plate electrode structures, and the inactivation behaviors of Chlorella were studied in the two reactors. The results show that the killing rates of algae in both reactors all increased significantly with increasing discharge voltage and the killing rates were intensely related to discharge power, instantaneous power and single pulse input energy. Furthermore, the inactivation effect in needle-plate reactor was superior to that in plate-hole-plate reactor under the same experimental conditions.

  16. Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Isaac; Anghaie, Samim; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at 4000 K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to 2200 K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials. The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed.

  17. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

    2005-02-13

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

  18. 42 CFR 493.1239 - Standard: General laboratory systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: General laboratory systems quality... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1239 Standard: General laboratory...

  19. Modified electrical transport probe design for standard magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Badih A; Wei, Peng; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Heiman, Don

    2012-01-01

    Making electrical transport measurements on a material is often a time consuming process that involves testing a large number of samples. It is thus inconvenient to wire up and rewire samples on to a sample probe. We therefore present a method of modifying Quantum Design's MPMS SQUID magnetometer transport probe that simplifies the process of sample mounting. One of the difficulties to overcome is the small diameter of the sample space. A small socket is designed and mounted on the probe so that various samples mounted on individual headers can be readily exchanged in the socket. We also present some test results on the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se using the modified probe.

  20. Nuclear safety considerations in the conceptual design of a fast reactor for space electric power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T.-M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some nuclear safety aspects of a 3.2 mWt heat pipe cooled fast reactor with out-of-core thermionic converters are discussed. Safety related characteristics of the design including a thin layer of B4C surrounding the core, the use of heat pipes and BeO reflector assembly, the elimination of fuel element bowing, etc., are highlighted. Potential supercriticality hazards and countermeasures are considered. Impacts of some safety guidelines of space transportation system are also briefly discussed, since the currently developing space shuttle would be used as the primary launch vehicle for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft.

  1. Generalization of the Analytical Exponential Model for Homogeneous Reactor Kinetics Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Nahla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical form for two energy groups of three-dimensional homogeneous reactor kinetics equations and average one group of the precursor concentration of delayed neutrons is presented. This mathematical form is called “two energy groups of the point kinetics equations.” We rewrite two energy groups of the point kinetics equations in the matrix form. Generalization of the analytical exponential model (GAEM is developed for solving two energy groups of the point kinetics equations. The GAEM is based on the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix. The eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix are calculated numerically using visual FORTRAN code, based on Laguerre’s method, to calculate the roots of an algebraic equation with real coefficients. The eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix are calculated analytically. The results of the GAEM are compared with the traditional methods. These comparisons substantiate the accuracy of the results of the GAEM. In addition, the GAEM is faster than the traditional methods.

  2. Review of Byzantine General Problems in the Reactor Protection System of Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eungse; Kim, Yungoo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This kind of complex error scenario is known as a Byzantine General Problem and the error is called a Byzantine Error (BE). The BE is now considered as one of the plausible common-cause failure in the nuclear power plant's (NPP) computer systems. The Reactor Protection System (RPS) in the Korean NPP consists of multiple redundant digital computer systems to increase system availability and redundancy. This system architecture is inherited form the well proved analog system's architecture. Failure modes and effects on the RPS system functions are reviewed when a BE assumed in the system's decision making logic path. For this review, one channel and two channels of BE problems in the RPS trip function are considered. If a BE occurs in any one channel of the RPS, the systems trip function has no harm affects from the BE. If two BEs occur in any channels of the RPS, the systems trip function may or may not work properly. This BE review method can be applied to other decision-making parts of the protection system in NPP.

  3. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  4. 78 FR 47235 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Electric Company (GE) model GEnx-2B67 and GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by the... in Boeing 747-8 flight tests had consumed more cyclic life than they would have in revenue flight cycles. These parts were then installed into engines and introduced into revenue service...

  5. Pin-wise Reactor Analysis Based on the Generalized Equivalence Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan Yeal; Heo, Woong; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a pin-wise reactor analysis is performed based on the generalized equivalence theory. From the conventional fuel assembly lattice calculations, pin-wise 2-group cross sections and pin DFs are generated. Based on the numerical results on a small PWR benchmark, it is observed that the pin-wise core analysis provide quite accurate prediction on the effective multiplication factor and the peak pin power error is bounded by about 3% in peripheral fuel assemblies facing the baffle-reflector. Also, it was found that relatively large pin power errors occur along the interface between clearly different fuel assemblies. It is expected that the GET-based pin-by-pin core calculation can be further developed as an advanced method for reactor analysis via improving the group constants and discontinuity factors. Recently, high-fidelity multi-dimensional analysis tools are gaining more attention because of their accurate prediction of local parameters for core design and safety assessment. In terms of accuracy, direct whole-core transport is quite promising. However, it is clear that it is still very costly in terms of the computing time and memory requirements. Another possible solution is the pin-by-pin core analysis in which only small fuel pins are homogenized and the 3-D core analysis is still performed using a low-order operator such as the diffusion theory. In this paper, a pin-by-pin core analysis is performed using the hybrid CMFD (HCMFD) method. Hybrid CMFD is a new global-local iteration method that has been developed for efficient parallel calculation of pinby-pin heterogeneous core analysis. For the HCMFD method, the one-node CMFD scheme is combined with a local two-node CMFD method in a non-linear way. Since the SPH method is iterative and SPH factors are not direction dependent, it is clear that SPH method takes more computing cost and cannot take into account the different heterogeneity and transport effects at each pin interface. Unlike the SPH

  6. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Mai, Trieu; Logan, Jeffrey; Steinberg, Daniel; McCall, James; Richards, James; Sigrin, Benjamin; Porro, Gian

    2016-12-06

    This is the webinar presentation deck used to present the 2016 Standard Scenarios work. It discusses the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) detailed cost and performance projections for electricity-generating technologies and the standard scenarios of the power sector modeling using ATB inputs.

  7. 78 FR 38851 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... coordinator on an annual basis. Facilities Design, Connections, and Maintenance Reliability Standards 41. FAC... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL PARAMETERS ON TESTING METHODS OF ELECTRIC DETONATORS ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Dobrilović

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented results of testing electric detonators according to New European Standards. In order to establish real, marginal values, testing have been performed on suggested devices with extreme parameters applied. Consequently, sensitivity on impact of bridge wire, primary and secondary explosive charge, thermal stability, resistance to water and resistance to hydrostatic pressure of electrical detonators have been measured with wider range that proscribed by the standard. The results obtained by the research were used to evaluate reality of proposed values in New European Standards.

  9. Evaluation method for in situ electric field in standardized human brain for different transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Masahiro; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2017-03-01

    This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models. Until now, no method has been developed that appropriately evaluates the coil performance for a group of subjects. In this study, we first compare the magnetic field and the magnetic vector potential distributions to determine if they can be used as predictors of the TMS focality derived from the electric field distribution. Next, the hotspots of the electric field on the brain surface of ten subjects using six coils are compared. Further, decisive physical factors affecting the focality of the induced electric field by different coils are discussed by registering the computed electric field in a standard brain space for the first time, so as to evaluate coil characteristics for a large population of subjects. The computational results suggest that the induced electric field in the target area cannot be generalized without considering the morphological variability of the human brain. Moreover, there was no remarkable difference between the various coils, although focality could be improved to a certain extent by modifying the coil design (e.g., coil radius). Finally, the focality estimated by the electric field was more correlated with the magnetic vector potential than the magnetic field in a homogeneous sphere.

  10. Evaluation method for in situ electric field in standardized human brain for different transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Masahiro; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2017-03-21

    This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models. Until now, no method has been developed that appropriately evaluates the coil performance for a group of subjects. In this study, we first compare the magnetic field and the magnetic vector potential distributions to determine if they can be used as predictors of the TMS focality derived from the electric field distribution. Next, the hotspots of the electric field on the brain surface of ten subjects using six coils are compared. Further, decisive physical factors affecting the focality of the induced electric field by different coils are discussed by registering the computed electric field in a standard brain space for the first time, so as to evaluate coil characteristics for a large population of subjects. The computational results suggest that the induced electric field in the target area cannot be generalized without considering the morphological variability of the human brain. Moreover, there was no remarkable difference between the various coils, although focality could be improved to a certain extent by modifying the coil design (e.g., coil radius). Finally, the focality estimated by the electric field was more correlated with the magnetic vector potential than the magnetic field in a homogeneous sphere.

  11. Design of an Actinide-Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low-Cost Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Davis, Cliff Bybee; MIT folks

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) University Research Consortium (URC) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, material compatibility, plant engineering, and coolant activation. In the area of core neutronic design, the reactivity vs. burnup and discharge isotopics of both non-fertile and fertile fuels were evaluated. An innovative core for pure actinide burning that uses streaming, fertile-free fuel assemblies was studied in depth. This particular core exhibits excellent reactivity performance upon coolant voiding, even for voids that occur in the core center, and has a transuranic (TRU) destruction rate that is comparable to the proposed accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) facility. These studies suggest that a core can be designed to achieve a long life while maintaining safety and minimizing waste. In the area of material compatibility studies, an experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted dissolution and precipitation (corrosion) of potential fuel cladding and structural materials has been designed and built at the INEEL. The INEEL forced-convection corrosion cell consists of a small heated vessel with a shroud and gas flow system. The corrosion cell is being used to test steel that is commercially available in the United States to temperatures above 650°C. Progress in plant engineering was made for two reactor concepts, one utilizing an indirect cycle with heat exchangers and the other utilizing a direct-contact steam cycle. The evaluation of the

  12. Electric vehicles pick up speed as oil prices climb. [General Motors planning EVs in 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    General Motors recently announced that in 1985, its Chevrolet division will begin manufacturing either two-passenger electric automobiles, or small electric vans, or both. Key features of the electric-vehicles will be a separately excited DC motor, regenerative braking, electronic controls, and coil-type suspension. Newly developed zinc-nickel batteries promise higher speeds (up to about 55 mph) and a longer cruising range (about 100 mi before needing a recharge and 30,000 mi before needing replacement). General Motors' commitment to the electric-vehicle market signals the beginning of a radical departure from a traditional petroleum-based economy. (1 diagram, 1 drawing, 2 photos)

  13. Fluidized-bed reactor model with generalized particle balances. Part 1. Formulation and solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overturf, B.W.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-09-01

    In this first part, a particle balance model is developed for a fluidized-bed gas-solid reactor which accommodates particle distributions dependent on both size and density, as well as populations consisting of multiple solids.

  14. Electrically Heated Testing of the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) Experiment Using a Depleted Uranium Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sanzi, James

    2017-01-01

    The Kilopower project aims to develop and demonstrate scalable fission-based power technology for systems capable of delivering 110 kW of electric power with a specific power ranging from 2.5 - 6.5 Wkg. This technology could enable high power science missions or could be used to provide surface power for manned missions to the Moon or Mars. NASA has partnered with the Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration, Los Alamos National Labs, and Y-12 National Security Complex to develop and test a prototypic reactor and power system using existing facilities and infrastructure. This technology demonstration, referred to as the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY), will undergo nuclear ground testing in the summer of 2017 at the Nevada Test Site. The 1 kWe variation of the Kilopower system was chosen for the KRUSTY demonstration. The concept for the 1 kWe flight system consist of a 4 kWt highly enriched Uranium-Molybdenum reactor operating at 800 degrees Celsius coupled to sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes deliver heat to the hot ends of eight 125 W Stirling convertors producing a net electrical output of 1 kW. Waste heat is rejected using titanium-water heat pipes coupled to carbon composite radiator panels. The KRUSTY test, based on this design, uses a prototypic highly enriched uranium-molybdenum core coupled to prototypic sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes transfer heat to two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E2s) and six thermal simulators, which simulate the thermal draw of full scale power conversion units. Thermal simulators and Stirling engines are gas cooled. The most recent project milestone was the completion of non-nuclear system level testing using an electrically heated depleted uranium (non-fissioning) reactor core simulator. System level testing at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) has validated performance predictions and has demonstrated system level operation and control in a test configuration that replicates the one

  15. An Evaluation of a General Venting Strategy in CANDU 6 Reactor Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Soo Yong; Song, Yong Man; Jin, Young Ho

    2006-03-15

    If the reactor building sprays or local air coolers are not available, depressurization by reactor building venting is considered as a useful mitigation strategy for a severe accident management of the Wolsong plants. As the CFVS is not established in the Wolsong Units, the reactor building isolation system can be a substitute for reactor building venting. The D{sub 2}O Vapour recovery system which has a 30' diameter penetration is expected to meet the NRC requirements. To investigate the effectiveness of the Reactor Building Venting Strategy, three kinds of accidents are analyzed: a SBO, a SLOCA and a Large LOCA. The reactor building pressure behavior was analyzed with ISAAC 2.0.2 for four different cases: without venting, 55psig/50psig, 50psig/40psig and 50psig/30psig valve open/close pressures. It was found that applying venting for a SBO reduces the mass fraction of the CsI released to the environment by 67.8% (valve open/close pressure of 55psig/50psig), by 64.4% (valve open/close pressure of 50psig/40psig) and by 63.5% (valve open/close pressure of 50psig/30psig). For a SLOCA, venting strategy reduces the mass fraction of the CsI by 58.3% (valve open/close pressure of 55psig/50psig), by 55.0% (valve open/close pressure 50psig/40psig) and by 48.3% (valve open/close pressure 50psig/30psig). For a LLOCA, reactor building venting reduces the mass fraction of the CsI released to the environment by less than 10% when compared to that without reactor building venting. When the reactor building spray or local air coolers can not be operated, a depressurization strategy by using the D{sub 2}O Vapour Recovery System could prevent a reactor building failure and reduce the amount of CsI released to the environment. The present study shows that the operation of valves at a pressure of 55psig/50psig is safe and effective. Based on the current study, the strategy of reactor building venting is involved SAMG-5.

  16. Optimal DO Setpoint Decision and Electric Cost Saving in Aerobic Reactor Using Respirometer and Air Blower Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Su; Yoo, Changkyoo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minhan [Pangaea21 Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrack [UnUsoft Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Main objects for wastewater treatment operation are to maintain effluent water quality and minimize operation cost. However, the optimal operation is difficult because of the change of influent flow rate and concentrations, the nonlinear dynamics of microbiology growth rate and other environmental factors. Therefore, many wastewater treatment plants are operated for much more redundant oxygen or chemical dosing than the necessary. In this study, the optimal control scheme for dissolved oxygen (DO) is suggested to prevent over-aeration and the reduction of the electric cost in plant operation while maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for the metabolism of microorganisms in oxic reactor. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is real-time measured for the identification of influent characterization and the identification of microorganisms' oxygen requirement in oxic reactor. Optimal DO set-point needed for the micro-organism is suggested based on real-time measurement of oxygen uptake of micro-organism and the control of air blower. Therefore, both stable effluent quality and minimization of electric cost are satisfied with a suggested optimal set-point decision system by providing the necessary oxygen supply requirement to the micro-organisms coping with the variations of influent loading.

  17. General electrokinetic model for concentrated suspensions in aqueous electrolyte solutions: Electrophoretic mobility and electrical conductivity in static electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Roa, Rafael; Arroyo, Francisco J; Delgado, Ángel V

    2015-10-01

    In recent years different electrokinetic cell models for concentrated colloidal suspensions in aqueous electrolyte solutions have been developed. They share some of its premises with the standard electrokinetic model for dilute colloidal suspensions, in particular, neglecting both the specific role of the so-called added counterions (i.e., those released by the particles to the solution as they get charged), and the realistic chemistry of the aqueous solution on such electrokinetic phenomena as electrophoresis and electrical conductivity. These assumptions, while having been accepted for dilute conditions (volume fractions of solids well below 1%, say), are now questioned when dealing with concentrated suspensions. In this work, we present a general electrokinetic cell model for such kind of systems, including the mentioned effects, and we also carry out a comparative study with the standard treatment (the standard solution only contains the ions that one purposely adds, without ionic contributions from particle charging or water chemistry). We also consider an intermediate model that neglects the realistic aqueous chemistry of the solution but accounts for the correct contribution of the added counterions. The results show the limits of applicability of the classical assumptions and allow one to better understand the relative role of the added counterions and ions stemming from the electrolyte in a realistic aqueous solution, on electrokinetic properties. For example, at low salt concentrations the realistic effects of the aqueous solution are the dominant ones, while as salt concentration is increased, it is this that progressively takes the control of the electrokinetic response for low to moderate volume fractions. As expected, if the solids concentration is high enough the added counterions will play the dominant role (more important the higher the particle surface charge), no matter the salt concentration if it is not too high. We hope this work can help in

  18. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of satisfying these guidelines, users... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct...

  19. General Survey for Lightning Protection Standards Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The introduction of IEC/TC81 Thunderstorms are natural weather phenomena and there are no devices or methods capable of preventing lightning discharges. Lightning flashes striking structures or services entering the structures, or striking earth nearby are hazardous to people, to the structures themselves, their contents and installations, as well as to services.Hence lightning protection is very important for national economic development. The international trade in lightning protection measures integrat ed in plants or buildings is of increasing importance:more than 500 million USD, world wide are estimated today; consequent loss, where protection measures are not provided, is some order of magnitude higher.The number of countries where lightning protection is required either by law or by insurance companies is growing. Some countries have conflicting national rules and many developing countries do not have the relevant international standards, making the need for such standards all the more urgent.

  20. A Method For Determination And Standardization Of Performance Parameters For Aircrafts With Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakielaszek Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the technique for flight tests carried out for a plane powered by an electric drive and the method for standardization of performance parameters applicable to evaluation of test results. Due to the relatively new type of drive, which is an electric motor, the literature references provide no descriptions of such issues. Therefore the solutions presented in the paper are the own contribution of the research team from Air Force Institute of Technology (ITWL.

  1. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  2. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  3. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  4. A Generalized Model for Transport of Contaminants in Soil by Electric Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Baek, Kitae; Alshawabkeh, Iyad D.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized model applicable to soils contaminated with multiple species under enhanced boundary conditions during treatment by electric fields is presented. The partial differential equations describing species transport are developed by applying the law of mass conservation to their fluxes...

  5. Generalization of the proposed IEEE standard for floating-point arithmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.

    1982-12-10

    Several years ago the Microprocessor Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society established a Floating-Point Working Group to draft a standard binary floating-point arithmetic on 32-bit microprocessors. As that task neared completion, a second working group was established to generalize the proposed binary standard for other radices and wordlengths. We discuss the emerging generalization, its influence on final deliberations on the proposed binary standard, and the implications for numerical computation.

  6. Economic aspects of electricity and industrial heat generating reactors; Aspect economique des reacteurs produisant de l'electricite et de la chaleur industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Aldebert, J. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1964-07-01

    The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [French] L'interet economique de centrales nucleaires productrices d'electricite decroit lorsque la puissance decroit. Cependant, lorsqu'on associe une turbine a contrepression a un reacteur et qu'il est possible d'utiliser dans de bonnes conditions la chaleur residuelle, on peut montrer que dans certaines conditions assez realistes, des equipements nucleaires d'une puissance unitaire peu elevee peuvent etre competitifs avec des equipements conventionnels. Cette communication a donc pour but de mettre en evidence quelles sont ces conditions particulieres de rentabilite de l'energie nucleaire. Elles sont liees a la localisation de la centrale et a son contexte economique general, a la structure de la demande d'energie electrique et thermique a laquelle elle doit satisfaire, au niveau des couts des

  7. Conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan-Cheng; Xia Li-Li; Wang Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems. The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for mechanico-electrical systems are provided. The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry under the infinitesimal singleparameter transformation group. The generalized Hojman conserved quantities from the conformal invariance of the system are given. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  8. General theories for the electrical transport properties of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L T; Nanda, K K, E-mail: nanda@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2011-08-05

    We have shown that the general theories of metals and semiconductors can be employed to understand the diameter and voltage dependency of current through metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes, respectively. The current through a semiconducting multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is associated with the energy gap that is different for different shells. The contribution of the outermost shell is larger as compared to the inner shells. The general theories can also explain the diameter dependency of maximum current through nanotubes. We have also compared the current carrying ability of a MWCNT and an array of the same diameter of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and found that MWCNTs are better suited and deserve further investigation for possible applications as interconnects.

  9. Improved Generalized Predictive Control Algorithm with Offline and Online Identification and Its Application to Fixed Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世明; 王海清

    2003-01-01

    An improved generalized predictive control algorithm is presented in this paper by incorporating offline identification into onlie identification.Unlike the existing generalized predictive control algorithms.the proposed approach divides parameters of a predictive model into the time invariant and time-varying ones,which are treated respectively by offline and onlie identification algorithms.Therefore,both the reliability and accuracy of the predictive model are improved,Two simulation examples of control of a fixed bed reactor show that this new algorithm is not only reliable and stable in the case of uncertainties and abnormal distrubances,but also adaptable to slow time varying processes.

  10. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... full General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for an exemption of the Cadillac SRX vehicle line...

  11. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  12. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-02-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L during 30 days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80 g-N/m(2)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m(2) was generated at 2.85 A/m(2). Both current driven NH4(+) migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a study sponsored by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) that aims to document and implement an annual process designed to identify a realistic and timely set of input assumptions (e.g., technology cost and performance, fuel costs), and a diverse set of potential futures (standard scenarios), initially for electric sector analysis.

  14. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of developing various daylighting strategies for a standard office building in relation to their ability to reduce electric lighting consumption. The reference building design for this study corresponds to a typical configuration that minimises the construction co...

  15. 2017 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Das, Paritosh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    The 2017 Standard Scenarios includes a suite of U.S. electricity sector scenarios. The report explores four power sector storylines, including the growth in natural gas and renewable energy, the relative competitiveness of wind and solar PV, the potential impact of low-cost battery storage, and the impact of nuclear lifetimes on the capacity expansion of the power sector.

  16. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  17. System assessment of helical reactors in comparison with tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Imagawa, S.; Muroga, T.; Sagara, A.; Okamura, S.

    2002-10-01

    A comparative assessment of tokamak and helical reactors has been performed using equivalent physics/engineering model and common costing model. Higher-temperature plasma operation is required in tokamak reactors to increase bootstrap current fraction and to reduce current-drive (CD) power. In helical systems, lower-temperature operation is feasible and desirable to reduce helical ripple transport. The capital cost of helical reactor is rather high, however, the cost of electricity (COE) is almost same as that of tokamak reactor because of smaller re-circulation power (no CD power) and less-frequent blanket replacement (lower neutron wall loading). The standard LHD-type helical reactor with 5% beta value is economically equivalent to the standard tokamak with 3% beta. The COE of lower-aspect ratio helical reactor is on the same level of high-{beta}{sub N} tokamak reactors. (author)

  18. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  19. Command control of reactors and factories: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appell, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1998-07-01

    As any industrial installation, the nuclear power plants and the fuel reprocessing plants require means to survey and to command the physical process and the associated equipment. These means are grouped under the designation of `command-control`. The command control is constituted by captors allowing to transform the physical quantities in electric signals, by automates allowing to treat these signals, by surveillance and control means at operators disposal and finally activators allowing to transform the command electric signals in mechanical actions on the process. The equipment has to answer to specifications imposed by nuclear safety. (N.C.)

  20. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duysen, J. C.; Meric de Bellefon, G.

    2017-02-01

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  1. Preliminary Study on the High Efficiency Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Kyun; Cho, Bong Hyun and others

    2006-01-15

    This research has been performed to introduce a concept of supercritical pressure water cooled reactor(SCWR) in Korea The area of research includes core conceptual design, evaluation of candidate fuel, fluid systems conceptual design with mechanical consideration, preparation of safety analysis code, and construction of supercritical pressure heat transfer test facility, SPHINX, and preliminary test. As a result of the research, a set of tools for the reactor core design has been developed and the conceptual core design with solid moderator was proposed. The direct thermodynamic cycle has been studied to find a optimum design. The safety analysis code has also been adapted to supercritical pressure condition. A supercritical pressure CO2 heat transfer test facility has been constructed and preliminary test proved the facility works as expected. The result of this project will be good basis for the participation in the international collaboration under GIF GEN-IV program and next 5-year mid and long term nuclear research program of MOST. The heat transfer test loop, SPHINX, completed as a result of this project may be used for the power cycle study as well as further heat transfer study for the various geometries.

  2. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  3. 40 CFR 432.3 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH... standard for pH. Any discharge subject to BPT, BCT, or NSPS limitations or standards in this part must remain within the pH range of 6 to 9....

  4. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  5. Optimization of enhanced bioelectrical reactor with electricity from microbial fuel cells for groundwater nitrate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Baogang; Tian, Caixing; Feng, Chuanping; Wang, Zhijun; Cheng, Ming; Hu, Weiwu

    2016-01-01

    Factors influencing the performance of a continual-flow bioelectrical reactor (BER) intensified by microbial fuel cells for groundwater nitrate removal, including nitrate load, carbon source and hydraulic retention time (HRT), were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). With the target of maximum nitrate removal and minimum intermediates accumulation, nitrate load (for nitrogen) of 60.70 mg/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 849.55 mg/L and HRT of 3.92 h for the BER were performed. COD was the dominant factor influencing performance of the system. Experimental results indicated the undistorted simulation and reliable optimized values. These demonstrate that RSM is an effective method to evaluate and optimize the nitrate-reducing performance of the present system and can guide mathematical models development to further promote its practical applications.

  6. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Unsteady MHD Generalized Couette Flow with Variable Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691

  8. Assessment of the need for noise control research on electric power transformers and reactors. Report No. 4289

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D. N.; Gordon, C. G.

    1980-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify the needs (if any) for noise control research applicable to electric utility transformers and reactors to comply with quantitative state noise regulations. The study was accomplished by analyzing available published data, by studying a sample of utility substation drawings, and by assessing various noise-control design approaches. No experimental work was done. The study was restricted to outdoor substations. A model was prepared to predict noise from existing US substations. A sample of 658 substation designs from five utilities was analyzed to refine the above model and to provide a detailed analysis of the configurations, capacities, and noise-control features of present US substations. A typical substation was defined. Advanced transformer designs (low-loss core, amorphous core, SF/sub 6/-cooled, vapor-cooled, superconducting) for future substations were reviewed to estimate their noise impacts. Noise abatement options were assessed to define where future noise-control research would be appropriate. It was concluded that: at present, about 5% of the electric utility substations in the US, require an average of 14 dBA of noise reduction to comply with existing noise regulations; estimated cost of compliance is about $200 million; and transformer noise is the dominant problem; current technology can provide the necessary noise control, but it is very costly. Additional research and demonstration programs are recommended to reduce the cost of retrofit noise control treatments for existing substations. It is essential that the electric utility industry be involved in guiding this research.

  9. 77 FR 9303 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ..., for example, biomass co-fired EGUs because their use is not yet commonplace, we believe this... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional,...

  10. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  11. Explanations on Proposals for Revision of IEC Standards for Electric Pressure Cookers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xingguo

    2011-01-01

    Elastic structure pressure cooker is an innovative product of China's independent intellectual property rights and contains the technologies accumulated in China's household electric appliance industry for years and the wisdoms and assiduous efforts of numerous household electric appliance experts.On June 8,2011,four proposals on revision of international standards for electric pressure cookers made by China delegation was approved at the 83rd Meeting of IEC/TC 61 at Bali,Indonesia,and successfully preceded into the CDV stage.Such four proposals are about Elastic Structure Pressure Cooker,Anti-blocking Safety,Actual Cooking Safety,Pressure Relief Safety and Lid Closing Safety.These proposals are explained as follows.

  12. Proposed standards for medical education submissions to the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Bowen, Judith L; Gerrity, Martha S; Kalet, Adina L; Kogan, Jennifer R; Spickard, Anderson; Wayne, Diane B

    2008-07-01

    To help authors design rigorous studies and prepare clear and informative manuscripts, improve the transparency of editorial decisions, and raise the bar on educational scholarship, the Deputy Editors of the Journal of General Internal Medicine articulate standards for medical education submissions to the Journal. General standards include: (1) quality questions, (2) quality methods to match the questions, (3) insightful interpretation of findings, (4) transparent, unbiased reporting, and (5) attention to human subjects' protection and ethical research conduct. Additional standards for specific study types are described. We hope these proposed standards will generate discussion that will foster their continued evolution.

  13. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  14. General Electric Company proposed management plan, commercial buildings, National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The National Solar Demonstration Plan (NSDP) for the solar heating and cooling of non-residential buildings is designed to meet the goals and objectives of ERDA 23A. The plan has been formulated for a matrix of two hundred (200) commercial demonstration projects. This report contains the General Electric recommendations for the NSDP pertaining to the management structure, demonstration implementation, schedules, data dissemination, and resource requirements. Closely associated with these major planning elements are the related elements in the other recent General Electric reports submitted under the SHACOB Phase I contract. (WDM)

  15. Generalized Mei Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Mechanico-electrical Systems with Nonholonomic Controllable Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-Li; ZHAO Xian-Lin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the total time derivative along the trajectory, we study the generalized Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for mechanico-electrical systems with nonholonomie controllable constraints. Firstly, the definition and criterion of Mei symmetry for mechanico-electrical systems with nonholonomic controllable constraints are presented. Secondly, a coordination function is introduced, and the conditions of existence of generalized Mei conserved quantity as well as the forms are proposed. Lastly, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  16. Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Chapman, Caroline; Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sumner, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.sumner@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This report examines the impact of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the U.S. to examine the impact of a variety of emissions caps-and RPS scenarios both individually and combined. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations simulated in the modeling. - Research highlights: {yields} The report examines renewable portfolio standards and cap-and-trade policy options. {yields} The analysis uses the NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System model. {yields} A carbon emissions cap and an RPS can be complementary policies.{yields} The cap alone case drives significant renewable generation.{yields} A 25% RPS has similar near term emissions as base cap at similar electricity price.

  17. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  18. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  19. Perceived benefits of adopting Standard – Based pricing mechanism for mechanical and electrical services installations

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu Amuda Yusuf; Sarajul Fikri Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Cost is an important measure of project success and clients will expect a reliable forecast at the early stage of construction projects to inform their business decision. This study was undertaken to investigate the current practices in managing cost of mechanical and electrical (M&E) services in buildings. The perceptions of practitioners on the benefits of adopting Standard – Based Pricing Mechanism for M&E services as used for building fabrics and finishes was ascertained. The meth...

  20. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  1. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  2. Standard and nonstandard nematic electrohydrodynamic convection in the presence of asymmetric ac electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jonathan; Hogan, S John

    2008-10-01

    In planar nematic electrohydrodynamic convection (EHC), a microscopic liquid crystal cell is driven by a homogeneous ac electric field, which, if strong enough, causes the fluid to destabilize into a regular pattern-forming state. We consider asymmetric electric fields E(t)=E(t+T) not equal-E(t+T2) , which leads to the possibility of three different types of instabilities at onset: conductive, dielectric, and subharmonic. The first two are already well known as they are easily produced when the system is driven by symmetric electric fields; the third can only occur when the electric field symmetry is broken. We present theoretical results on EHC using linear stability analysis and Floquet theory. We consider rigid and free boundary conditions, extending the model to two Fourier modes in the vertical plane, the inclusion of flexoelectricity, and using standard (nematic electric conductivity sigma_{a}>0 and dielectric anisotorpy _{a}conduction and subharmonic regimes disappear and only the dielectric threshold exists.

  3. Standardization of the Electricity and Economic Potentials of Landfill gas (LFG in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N AKUJIEZE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, various practical data and scholarly estimations of the electricity potentials of landfill gas (LFG have been forwarded and these can be juxtaposed for estimations in the megacity called Lagos. The calculated values were between 63.22- 700MW of  derivable electricity. However, in order to limit observable disparities and ambiguities in these derivations and thus allow for more accurate projections, these estimations can be gauged using as template; -stoichiometry, establishing 50% of landfill gas as methane, assuming 50% of this volume as recoverable, and using a proposed engine efficiency of 30%. This standardization projects a theoretical mean achievable electrical power of 121.69 MW for the Lagos area from a population of about 21 million with a generation per capita (GPC of 0.63kg with biodegradable content of about 60%. The yearly electrical energy was placed at 1,066,004.4 MWh with tariff revenue in excess of US$ 106.6 million /yr. An accruing carbon credit of about US$75.59 million /yr is expected from certified emission reduction (CER. The projected derivations can be used as models for evaluation of the landfill gas and electricity potentials in many parts of the world.

  4. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and motorcycles to produce sounds meeting the requirements of this standard. This proposed standard applies to electric vehicles (EVs) and to those hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle's internal combustion engine (ICE) operating. This standard would ensure that blind, visually-impaired, and other pedestrians are able to detect and recognize nearby hybrid and electric vehicles, as required by the PSEA, by requiring that hybrid and electric vehicles emit sound that pedestrians would be able to hear in a range of ambient environments and contain acoustic signal content that pedestrians will recognize as being emitted from a vehicle. The benefit of reducing the pedestrian injury rate per registered vehicle of HVs to ICE vehicles when 4.1% of the fleet is HV and EV would be 2790 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries. We also estimate that this proposal will result in 10 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries caused by LSVs. Thus, 2800 total injured pedestrians are expected to be avoided due to this proposal representing 35 equivalent lives saved. We do not estimate any quantifiable benefits for EVs because it is our view that EV manufacturers would have installed alert sounds in their cars without passage of the PSEA and this proposed rule. Comparison of costs and benefits expected due to this rule provides a cost of $0.83 to $0.99 million per equivalent life saved across the 3 and 7 percent discount levels for the light EV and HV and LSV fleet. According to our present model, a countermeasure that allows a vehicle

  5. National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" Was Officially Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ May 28 2004, sponsored by Standardization Administration of P.R. China ( SAC ) and Certification and Accreditation Administration of P.R. China (CNCA), China National Accreditation Board For Laboratories (CNAL) organized the press conference on National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" in Beijing.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of generalized Maxwell fluids in a rectangular micropump under an AC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guangpu [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Jian, Yongjun, E-mail: jianyj@imu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Chang, Long [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China); Buren, Mandula [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China)

    2015-08-01

    By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented. - Highlights: • MHD flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field is analyzed. • The MHD flow is confined to a two-dimensional rectangular micropump. • Analytical solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables. • The influences of related parameters on the MHD velocity are discussed.

  7. 76 FR 68634 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... visual inspections of the forward engine mount assembly side links for cracks, stripping and reapplying... 9346M99P04, installed on the forward engine mount assembly (also known as Configuration 2). Unsafe Condition...-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines...

  8. 75 FR 77570 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... engine mount assembly (also known ] as Configuration 2). These engines are installed on, but not limited... Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...) for General Electric (GE) CF6-45/-50 series and CF6-80A series turbofan engines with certain...

  9. Fuel element development committee: Annual report from the General Electric Company, Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.; Minor, J.E.; Stringer, J.T.

    1964-08-14

    A summary of HAPO activities is given to include separate sections on the N-Reactor and other current production reactors. Specific programs and fuel performance for current production reactor fuels is discussed. Also, the production status, fuel performance, development program and process technology for N-Reactor fuels is presented.

  10. 42 CFR 403.206 - General standards for Medicare supplemental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General standards for Medicare supplemental policies. 403.206 Section 403.206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental...

  11. Control systems of fission reactors and of reprocessing plants: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1998-10-01

    As any industrial facility, nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing centers need means to monitor and manage the physical processes that are involved in their activities. All these means form the control system. Control systems are made up of sensors, able to turn physical data into electric signals, of automatic control circuits dedicated to process these electric signals, of supervisor systems to give to the staff the possibility to intervene, and of actuators designed to transform electric signals into actions on the physical process. The general design of control systems has to conform to the requirements imposed by the physical process itself, by nuclear safety and by operating conditions. As for the physical process, requirements can be diverse according to the purpose of the nuclear facility but the continuity must be assured because of the permanent release of energy from irradiated materials. As for safety, we have to notice the stiff requirements for all the equipment that is concerned by the confinement of radioactivity. The general architecture of control systems is made up of 3 levels; i) level 0: sensors and actuators, ii) level 1: automatic control circuits and iii) level 2: the control room. The second and third levels are mainly based on computer and data processing systems. All the equipment is classified into 3 levels of demands. The first level is the stiffest which generally implies that devices are specially designed so that they satisfy all the requirements. (A.C.)

  12. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    OpenAIRE

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim; I.A. Khattab; Sharif, Adel O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II), from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper el...

  13. The measurement of magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel - survey on methods and situation of standards

    CERN Document Server

    Sievert, J

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the different requirements for magnetic measurement techniques for material research, modelling of material properties and grading of the electrical sheet steel for trade purposes is presented. In relation to the main application of laminated electrical steel, this paper deals with AC measurement techniques. Two standard methods, Epstein frame and Single Sheet Tester (SST), producing different results, are used in parallel. This dilemma was analysed in detail. The study leads to a possible solution of the problem, i.e. the possibility of converting the results of one of the two methods into the results of the other in order to satisfy the users of the Epstein method and, at the same time, to improve the acceptance of the more economical SST method.

  14. Perceived benefits of adopting Standard – Based pricing mechanism for mechanical and electrical services installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Amuda Yusuf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important measure of project success and clients will expect a reliable forecast at the early stage of construction projects to inform their business decision. This study was undertaken to investigate the current practices in managing cost of mechanical and electrical (M&E services in buildings. The perceptions of practitioners on the benefits of adopting Standard – Based Pricing Mechanism for M&E services as used for building fabrics and finishes was ascertained. The methodology adopted for the study was semi – structure interview and questionnaire survey.  Inferential statistics technique was used to analyse the data collected. The results revealed that, M&E services tender documents are often based on lump sum contract. Practitioners are of the opinion that the adoption of Standard – Based Pricing Mechanism (SBPM could enhance the quality of M&E services price forecast; ensure active post contract cost monitoring and control; encourage collaborative working relationship; enhance efficient whole life cycle cost management; improve risk management and facilitate efficient tendering process. The study suggested the development of local Standard Method of Measurement for M&E services and proposed strategies to facilitate the adoption of SBPM as basis for forecasting contract price of mechanical and electrical services in buildings.

  15. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  16. Setting Performance Standards for Technical and Nontechnical Competence in General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Peter; Bonrath, Esther M; Louridas, Marisa; Fecso, Andras B; Howe, Brett; Fehr, Adam; Ott, Michael; Mack, Lloyd A; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) create a technical and nontechnical performance standard for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, (2) assess the classification accuracy and (3) credibility of these standards, (4) determine a trainees' ability to meet both standards concurrently, and (5) delineate factors that predict standard acquisition. Scores on performance assessments are difficult to interpret in the absence of established standards. Trained raters observed General Surgery residents performing laparoscopic cholecystectomies using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) and the Objective Structured Assessment of Non-Technical Skills (OSANTS) instruments, while as also providing a global competent/noncompetent decision for each performance. The global decision was used to divide the trainees into 2 contrasting groups and the OSATS or OSANTS scores were graphed per group to determine the performance standard. Parametric statistics were used to determine classification accuracy and concurrent standard acquisition, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to delineate predictive factors. Thirty-six trainees were observed 101 times. The technical standard was an OSATS of 21.04/35.00 and the nontechnical standard an OSANTS of 22.49/35.00. Applying these standards, competent/noncompetent trainees could be discriminated in 94% of technical and 95% of nontechnical performances (P technically and nontechnically competent trainees was identified (P technical and nontechnical performance. Such standards are imperative to implementing summative assessments into surgical training.

  17. Electric Vehicle Communication Standards Testing and Validation Phase I: SAE J2847/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-09-21

    Executive Summary Vehicle to grid communication standards are critical to the charge management and interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee / HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. While the standard development is in progress for more than two years, no definitive guidelines are available for the automobile manufacturers, charging station manufacturers and utility backhaul network systems. At present, there is a wide range of proprietary communication options developed and supported in the industry. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified performance requirements and test plan based on possible communication pathways using power line communication over the control pilot and mains. Though the communication pathways and power line communication technology options are identified, much work needs to be done in developing application software and testing of communication modules before these can be deployed in production vehicles. This report presents a test plan and results from initial testing of two power line communication modules developed to meet the requirements of SAE J2847/1 standard.

  18. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115-121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958-1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251-317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541-1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present) 20

  19. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorville, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.dorville@lpp.polytechnique.fr; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris Sud, Palaiseau (France)

    2015-09-15

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115–121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958–1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251–317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541–1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present

  20. Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Generally Purchased SoleSource Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices, but Improvements Could Be Made (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-24

    including: • FAR Subpart 2.1, “ Definitions ;” • FAR Part 10, “ Market Research;” • DFARS Subpart 215.4, “Contract Pricing ;” • DFARS PGI 212.1...Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Generally Purchased Sole‑Source Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices , but...Purchased Sole‑Source Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices , but Improvements Could Be Made Visit us at

  1. Reliable prediction of electric spark sensitivity of nitramines: a general correlation with detonation pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Pouretedal, Hamid Reza; Semnani, Abolfazl

    2009-08-15

    For nitramines, a general correlation has been introduced to predict electric spark sensitivity through detonation pressure. New method uses maximum obtainable detonation pressure as a fundamental relation so that it can be corrected for some nitramines which have some specific molecular structure. There is no need to use crystal density and heat of formation of nitramine explosives for predicting detonation pressure and electric spark sensitivity. The predicted electric spark sensitivities are compared with calculated results on the basis of quantum mechanical computations for some nitramines that latter can be applied. The root mean square (rms) deviations from experiment for new method and the predicted results of complicated quantum mechanical method are 1.18 and 3.49J, respectively.

  2. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.; Turchi, Peter J.; Burton, Rodney L.; Messer, Sarah; Lovberg, Ralph H.; Hallock, Ashley K.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are often employed to perform field measurements in electric propulsion applications where there are time-varying fields. Magnetic field probes provide the means to measure these magnetic fields and can even be used to measure the plasma current density indirectly through the application of Ampere's law. Measurements of this type can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. Results of the development of a standard for B-dot probe measurements are presented, condensing the available literature on the subject into an accessible set of rules, guidelines, and techniques to standardize the performance and presentation of future measurements.

  3. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  4. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  5. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  6. 40 CFR 439.4 - General limitation or standard for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General limitation or standard for pH. 439.4 Section 439.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... limitation or standard for pH. The pH must remain within the range 6.0 to 9.0 in any discharge subject to...

  7. A Generalized Model for Electrical Power Distribution Feeders’ Contributions to System Reliability Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability indices are parametric quantities used to assess the performance levels of electrical power distribution systems. In this work, a generalized quadratic model is developed for electrical power distribution system contributions to system reliability indices using Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Kaduna and Kano distribution system feeders as case studies. The mean System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI, System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI and Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI contributions to system reliability indices for Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Kaduna and Kano distribution systems were 0.0033, 0.0026, 0.0033 and 0.0018 respectively due to the fact that a prolonged period of interruptions was recorded on most of the feeders attached to Port-Harcourt and Kano distribution systems making them to be less reliable compared to Ikeja and Kaduna distribution systems. The generalized Quadratic model forms a basis for a good design, planning and maintenance of distribution systems at large.

  8. 76 FR 17447 - Penske Logistics LLC a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Penske Logistics LLC a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske... former workers of Penske Logistics LLC, a subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation, El Paso...

  9. 75 FR 11918 - General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7034). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On..., 2009, applicable to workers of General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, including...

  10. A novel condensation reactor for efficient CO2 to methanol conversion for storage of renewable electric energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Martin Johan; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    A novel reactor design for the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol is developed. The conversion limitations because of thermodynamic equilibrium are bypassed via in situ condensation of a water/methanol mixture. Two temperatures zones inside the reactor ensure optimal catalyst activity (high

  11. A novel condensation reactor for efficient CO2 to methanol conversion for storage of renewable electric energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.J.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    A novel reactor design for the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol is developed. The conversion limitations because of thermodynamic equilibrium are bypassed via in situ condensation of a water/methanol mixture. Two temperatures zones inside the reactor ensure optimal catalyst activity (high temper

  12. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are useful for performing measurements in electric space thrusters and various plasma accelerator applications where a time-varying magnetic field is present. Magnetic field probes have proven to be a mainstay in diagnosing plasma thrusters where changes occur rapidly with respect to time, providing the means to measure the magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents and even an indirect measure of the plasma current density through the application of Ampère's law. Examples of applications where this measurement technique has been employed include pulsed plasma thrusters and quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. The Electric Propulsion Technical Committee (EPTC) of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) was asked to assemble a Committee on Standards (CoS) for Electric Propulsion Testing. The assembled CoS was tasked with developing Standards and Recommended Practices for various diagnostic techniques used in the evaluation of plasma thrusters. These include measurements that can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. This paper presents a summary of the standard, describing the preferred methods for fabrication, calibration, and usage of inductive magnetic field probes for use in diagnosing plasma thrusters. Inductive magnetic field probes (also called B-dot probes throughout this document) are commonly used in electric propulsion (EP) research and testing to measure unsteady magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents. The B-dot probe is relatively simple in construction, and requires minimal cost, making it a low-cost technique that is readily accessible to most researchers. While relatively simple, the design of a B-dot probe is not trivial and there are many opportunities for errors in

  13. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  14. Bio-oil production from dry sewage sludge by fast pyrolysis in an electrically-heated fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato O. Arazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of bio-oil produced from sewage sludge using fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Effects of temperature, sludge particle size and vapor residence time on bio-oil properties, such as yield, high heating value (HHV and moisture content were evaluated through experimental and statistical analyses. Characterization of the pyrolysis products (bio-oil and biogas was also done. Optimum conditions produced a bio-oil product with an HHV that is nearly twice as much as lignocellulosic-derived bio-oil, and with properties comparable to heavy fuel oil. Contrary to generally acidic bio-oil, the sludge-derived bio-oil has almost neutral pH which could minimize the pipeline and engine corrosions. The Fourier Transform Infrared and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of bio-oil showed a dominant presence of gasoline-like compounds. These results demonstrate that fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant is a favorable technology to produce biofuels for various applications.

  15. Interaction of atomized colloid with an ac electric field in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor used for deposition of nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profili, Jacopo; Dap, Simon; Levasseur, Olivier; Naude, Nicolas; Belinger, Antoine; Stafford, Luc; Gherardi, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Nanocomposite thin films can be obtained by polymerization of a colloidal solution in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. In such a process, the dispersion of nanoparticles into the matrix is driven by the charging, transport, and deposition dynamics of the atomized colloid. This work examines the interaction of atomized TiO2 nanoparticles with ac electric fields in a plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Experiments are performed with the discharge off to examine transport and deposition phenomena over a wide range of experimental conditions with a fixed particle charge distribution. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the size distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles collected at different locations along the substrate surface placed on the bottom electrode of the DBD reactor can judiciously be controlled by varying the amplitude and frequency of the ac electric field. These results are also compared to the predictions of a simple particle motion model accounting for the electrostatic force, the gravitational force, and the neutral drag force in the laminar flow. It is found that while the initial charge distribution of atomized particles strongly influences the total deposition yield, its maximal position on the substrate, and the width of the deposited area, the initial size distribution of the particles at the entrance of the reactor mostly changes the size distribution at each position along the substrate surface.

  16. Conceptual design of a nucleo electric simulator with PBMR reactor based in Reduced order models; Diseno conceptual de un simulador de nucleo electrica con reactor PBMR basado en modelos de orden reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    This project has as purpose to know to depth the operation of a PBMR nucleo electric type (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor), which has a reactor of moderate graphite spheres and fuel of uranium dioxide cooled with Helium and Brayton thermodynamic cycle. The simulator seeks to describe the dynamics of the one process of energy generation in the nuclear fuel, the process of transport toward the coolant one and the conversion to mechanical energy in the turbo-generators as well as in the heat exchangers indispensable for the process. The dynamics of reload of the fuel elements it is not modeled in detail but their effects are represented in the parameters of the pattern. They are modeled also the turbo-compressors of the primary circuit of the work fluid. The control of the power of the nuclear reactor is modeled by means of reactivity functions specified in the simulation platform. The proposed mathematical models will be settled in the platform of simulation of Simulink-Mat Lab. The proposed control panels for this simulator can be designed and to implement using the box of tools of Simulink that facilitates this process. The work presents the mathematical models more important used for their future implementation in Simulink. (Author)

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General standards for validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT...

  18. The National Standards and Medieval Music in Middle School Choral and General Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Patrick; Beegle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how medieval music can be utilized in the choral and general music classroom to teach middle school students and to address the National Standards for Music Education. Provides background information on medieval music, ideas for lessons, and a glossary of key terms. (CMK)

  19. 12 CFR 621.13 - Content and standards-general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Content and standards-general rules. 621.13 Section 621.13 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING... reconciliation with the books and records of reporting institutions....

  20. The National Standards and Medieval Music in Middle School Choral and General Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Patrick; Beegle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how medieval music can be utilized in the choral and general music classroom to teach middle school students and to address the National Standards for Music Education. Provides background information on medieval music, ideas for lessons, and a glossary of key terms. (CMK)

  1. Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled DC and AC Microgrids - A General Approach Towards Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Vásquez, Juan V.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2009-01-01

    DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived...... the deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchicalcontrolled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach....

  2. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  3. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  4. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

  5. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II, from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper electrodeposition and current efficiency are revealed. The results showed that the increase in pH (provided not lead to the deposition of Cu(OH2, initial concentration of the copper and flow rate increased the electrodeposition of copper as well as improved current efficiency. However, increasing intensity of the applied electric current led to an increase in the electrodeposition of copper and decreased electrical efficiency. It was also observed that reducing the intensity of applied electric current with time during the electrolysis process while maintaining other operating variables constant led to a significant reduction in the consumption of electrical energy used in the process of copper removal by electrodeposition; a reduction of 41.6% could be achieved.

  6. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  7. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Arzu Alpan, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  8. A mechanistic model for predicting flow-assisted and general corrosion of carbon steel in reactor primary coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, D. [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lang, L.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River Lab., ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel in high-temperature lithiated water can be described with a model that invokes dissolution of the protective oxide film and erosion of oxide particles that are loosened as a result. General corrosion under coolant conditions where oxide is not dissolved is described as well. In the model, the electrochemistry of magnetite dissolution and precipitation and the effect of particle size on solubility move the dependence on film thickness of the diffusion processes (and therefore the corrosion rate) away from reciprocal. Particle erosion under dissolving conditions is treated stochastically and depends upon the fluid shear stress at the surface. The corrosion rate dependence on coolant flow under FAC conditions then becomes somewhat less than that arising purely from fluid shear (proportional to the velocity squared). Under non-dissolving conditions, particle erosion occurs infrequently and general corrosion is almost unaffected by flow For application to a CANDU primary circuit and its feeders, the model was bench-marked against the outlet feeder S08 removed from the Point Lepreau reactor, which furnished one value of film thickness and one of corrosion rate for a computed average coolant velocity. Several constants and parameters in the model had to be assumed or were optimised, since values for them were not available. These uncertainties are no doubt responsible for the rather high values of potential that evolved as steps in the computation. The model predicts film thickness development and corrosion rate for the whole range of coolant velocities in outlet feeders very well. In particular, the detailed modelling of FAC in the complex geometry of one outlet feeder (F11) is in good agreement with measurements. When the particle erosion computations are inserted in the balance equations for the circuit, realistic values of crud level are obtained. The model also predicts low corrosion rates and thick oxide films for inlet

  9. Simulation and optimization of an organic-impurity oxidization reactor with a fixed porous bed and an electric heating element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezdilov, N. N.; Dobrego, K. V.; Kozlov, I. M.; Shmelev, E. S.

    2006-09-01

    A reactor for oxidization of low-caloric-value organic impurities contained in the air has been simulated. It comprises a tube with a recuperator, filled with a porous carcass mix, and includes a heating element. The influence of the heating-element placement, the heat losses through the upper cover of the reactor, the flow rate of a gas mixture, and the power of the heater on the maximum temperatures of the porous carcass and the gas and on the concentration of the incompletely oxidized organic impurity at the output of the reactor has been investigated. It is shown that, to burn an impurity completely, it will suffice to heat the gas δTe to 300 K. It has been established that it is best to place a heater at the level of the upper cut of the inner tube of the reactor.

  10. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  11. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  12. Electric dipole moment induced by CP-violating deformations in the noncommutative Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Jian; Yan, Zhe-Hui; Guan, Rong-Hua; Wei, Xing-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The possibility to detect the noncommutative (NC) spacetime in the electric dipole moments (EDM) experiments is studied in the effective field theory of noncommutative Standard Model (NCSM) with many additional deformations. The EDM given by the previous literatures do not have any observable effect since they are spin-independent. In this work, it is found that three of the deformed terms provide extra sources of CP violation contributed to EDM. We show that these EDMs are sensitive to the spin and thus have potential to be measured in the highly precise experiments. In particular, the EDM induced by NC spacetime may not be parallel to the direction of spin, which demonstrates the intrinsic feature of NC field theory.

  13. Current density in generalized Fibonacci superlattices under a uniform electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchadhyayee, P; Biswas, R; Khan, Arif; Mahapatra, P K

    2008-07-09

    We present an exhaustive study on tunneling and electrical conduction in an electrically biased GaAs-Al(y)Ga(1-y)As generalized Fibonacci superlattice. The study is based on transfer matrix formalism using an Airy function approach and provides an exact calculation of the current density in the case of quasi-periodic multibarrier systems. The results suggest the use of such quasi-periodic systems in perfect band-pass or band-eliminator (of extremely low width) circuitry. We have clearly demonstrated the resonance-type peaks and negative differential conductivity regimes in such systems. It has also been found that quasi-periodicity favors sharp negative differential conductivity peaks compared to those in periodic superlattices and thus have profound importance in device applications.

  14. Generalized Flow Tracing for the Analysis of Networked Renewable Electricity Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hörsch, Jonas; Becker, Sarah; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Flow allocation methods represent a valuable tool set to analyze the power flows in networked electricity systems. Based on this flow allocation, the costs associated with the usage of the underlying network infrastructure can be assigned to the users of the electricity system. This paper presents a generalization of the flow tracing method that is applicable to arbitrary compositions of inflow appearing naturally in aggregated networks. The composition of inflow is followed from net-generating sources through the network and assigns corresponding shares of the total power flow as well as of the outflow to the net-consuming sinks. We showcase the analytical power of this method for a scenario based on the IEEE 118 bus network and emphasize the need of appropriate aggregating measures, which allow to integrate over whole time series of fluctuating flow patterns.

  15. Performance and Mechanisms of Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling Mitigation by Coupling Coagulation and Applied Electric Field in a Novel Electrocoagulation Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingqiu; Hu, Chengzhi; Tong, Tiezheng; Zhao, Kai; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-08-01

    A novel electrocoagulation membrane reactor (ECMR) was developed, in which ultrafiltration (UF) membrane modules are placed between electrodes to improve effluent water quality and reduce membrane fouling. Experiments with feedwater containing clays (kaolinite) and natural organic matter (humic acid) revealed that the combined effect of coagulation and electric field mitigated membrane fouling in the ECMR, resulting in higher water flux than the conventional combination of electrocoagulation and UF in separate units (EC-UF). Higher current densities and weakly acidic pH in the EMCR favored faster generation of large flocs and effectively reduced membrane pore blocking. The hydraulic resistance of the formed cake layers on the membrane surface in ECMR was reduced due to an increase in cake layer porosity and polarity, induced by both coagulation and the applied electric field. The formation of a polarized cake layer was controlled by the applied current density and voltage, with cake layers formed under higher electric field strengths showing higher porosity and hydrophilicity. Compared to EC-UF, ECMR has a smaller footprint and could achieve significant energy savings due to improved fouling resistance and a more compact reactor design.

  16. Generalized multiple internal standard method for quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Shi, Cai-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-05-06

    In this contribution, a multiplicative effects model for generalized multiple-internal-standard method (MEMGMIS) was proposed to solve the signal instability problem of LC-MS over time. MEMGMIS model seamlessly integrates the multiple-internal-standard strategy with multivariate calibration method, and takes full use of all the information carried by multiple internal standards during the quantification of target analytes. Unlike the existing methods based on multiple internal standards, MEMGMIS does not require selecting an optimal internal standard for the quantification of a specific analyte from multiple internal standards used. MEMGMIS was applied to a proof-of-concept model system: the simultaneous quantitative analysis of five edible artificial colorants in two kinds of cocktail drinks. Experimental results demonstrated that MEMGMIS models established on LC-MS data of calibration samples prepared with ultrapure water could provide quite satisfactory concentration predictions for colorants in cocktail samples from their LC-MS data measured 10days after the LC-MS analysis of the calibration samples. The average relative prediction errors of MEMGMIS models did not exceed 6.0%, considerably better than the corresponding values of commonly used univariate calibration models combined with multiple internal standards. The advantages of good performance and simple implementation render MEMGMIS model a promising alternative tool in quantitative LC-MS assays.

  17. Electric fields of motor and frontal tDCS in a standard brain space: A computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mikkonen, Marko; Koyama, Soichiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-08-15

    The electric field produced in the brain is the main physical agent of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Inter-subject variations in the electric fields may help to explain the variability in the effects of tDCS. Here, we use multiple-subject analysis to study the strength and variability of the group-level electric fields in the standard brain space. Personalized anatomically-accurate models of 62 subjects were constructed from T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The finite-element method was used to computationally estimate the individual electric fields, which were registered to the standard space using surface based registration. Motor cortical and frontal tDCS were modelled for 16 electrode montages. For each electrode montage, the group-level electric fields had a consistent strength and direction in several brain regions, which could also be located at some distance from the electrodes. In other regions, the electric fields were more variable, and thus more likely to produce variable effects in each individual. Both the anode and cathode locations affected the group-level electric fields, both directly under the electrodes and elsewhere. For motor cortical tDCS, the electric fields could be controlled at the group level by moving the electrodes. However, for frontal tDCS, the group-level electric fields were more variable, and the electrode locations had only minor effects on the group average fields. Our results reveal the electric fields and their variability at the group level in the standard brain space, providing insights into the mechanisms of tDCS for plasticity induction. The data are useful for planning, analysing and interpreting tDCS studies.

  18. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  20. 25 CFR 900.43 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a tribal organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.43 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a...

  1. 25 CFR 900.42 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.42 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian...

  2. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  3. Electric failure on the reactor n.3 of the nuclear power plant of Dampierre; Defaillance electrique sur le reacteur n. 3 de la centrale nucleaire de Dampierre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This note of information resumes the progress of the electric failure on the reactor n.3 of the nuclear power plant of Dampierre, the organization during the incident, it establishes then a comparison with the incident arisen to Forsmark in 2006 and reminds that it lead in an inspection on behalf of the Asn which noticed that all the procedures had been respected by the operators and did not noticed any abnormality in the maintenance. This event was classified at the level 1 of the international nuclear event scale (INES). (N.C.)

  4. A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Lujun; Zhou Daming; Wang Jian; Li Guanhai; Li Zhifeng; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei, E-mail: xschen@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200083 Shanghai (China)

    2011-06-15

    A generalized transformation is proposed to design an illusion device. The device can reshape an arbitrarily shaped perfect electrical conductor (PEC) into another dielectric object with arbitrary geometry. Such a device can evolve into an ideal invisibility cloak with non-conformal boundaries if the virtual space is filled with air. Furthermore, the validity of our proposed transformation is confirmed by two specific devices. One is to convert a regular polygonal PEC cylinder into a circular dielectric cylinder. Another one is to reshape a circular PEC cylinder into a regular polygonal dielectric cylinder.

  5. Electric current in flares ribbons: from the standard model in 3D to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Janvier, Miho; Bommier, V; Schmieder, B; Démoulin, P; Pariat, E

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents for the first time a quantification of the photospheric electric current ribbon evolutions during an eruptive flare, accurately predicted by the standard 3D flare model. The standard flare model in 3D has been developed with the MHD code OHM, which models the evolution of an unstable flux rope. Through a series of paper, the model has been successful in explaining observational characteristics of eruptive flares, as well as the intrinsic 3D reconnection mechanism. Such a model also explains the increase of the photospheric currents as a consequence of the evolution of the coronal current layer where reconnection takes place. The photospheric footprints of the 3D current layer reveal a ribbon shape structure. In the present paper, the evolution of the current density is analyzed for the X-class flare that occurred on 15/02/2011 in AR 11158. We first describe the structural evolution of the high vertical current density regions derived with the UNNOFIT inversion code from magnetograms (HMI, e...

  6. Electric dipole moments of nucleons, nuclei, and atoms: The Standard Model and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jonathan; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; van Kolck, U.

    2013-07-01

    Searches for the permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of molecules, atoms, nucleons and nuclei provide powerful probes of CP violation both within the Standard Model and beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The interpretation of experimental EDM limits requires careful delineation of physics at a wide range of scales, from the long-range atomic and molecular scales to the short-distance dynamics of physics at or beyond the Fermi scale. In this review, we provide a framework for disentangling contributions from physics at these disparate scales, building out from the set of dimension four and six effective operators that embody CP violation at the Fermi scale. We survey computations of hadronic and nuclear matrix elements associated with Fermi-scale CP violation in systems of experimental interest and quantify the present level of theoretical uncertainty in these calculations. Using representative BSM scenarios of current interest, we discuss ways in which the interplay of physics at various scales can generate EDMs at a potentially observable level.

  7. Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Shin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with the standards ISO/IEC 15118, IEC 61851 and IEC 61850-90-8. Our test system leverages the TTCN-3 framework for its flexibility and productivity. We evaluate the test system by lab tests with two reference chargers that we built. We also present the test results in two international testival events for the ISO/IEC 15118 interoperability. We confirmed that our test system is robust, efficient and practical.

  8. Gravitational collapse with standard and dark energy in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gamal G.L.Nashed

    2012-01-01

    A perfect fluid with self-similarity of the second kind is studied within the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR).A spacetime which is not asymptotically flat is derived.The energy conditions of this spacetime are studied.It is shown that after some time the strong energy condition is not enough to satisfy showing a transition from standard matter to dark energy.The singularities of this solution are discussed.

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(2) Power-transmission apparatus, mechanical .307 Switches .951(f)(1) Tests .951(d)(1) Torches .350(g... Distribution Lines (see Power Transmission and Distribution Lines) Electrical, Electricity .400-.449 Battery... Bonding .404(f) Jumper Cables .550(a)(15) Power Transmission and Distribution .954 Return and...

  10. Influence of reactor neutrons irradiation on electrical, optical and structural properties of SnO{sub 2} film prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izerrouken, M., E-mail: izerrouken@yahoo.co [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Draria, BP 43, Sebbala, Draria, Algiers (Algeria); Kermadi, S. [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger gare (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger gare (Algeria); Sari, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Berine, BP 108, Ain-Oussara, Djelfa (Algeria); Boumaour, M. [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger gare (Algeria)

    2009-11-21

    SnO{sub 2} films elaborated by sol-gel method were irradiated with reactor neutron. The irradiations were made at a temperature of about 40 deg. C, with fast neutron fluences (E{sub n}>1.2 MeV) up to 9.6x10{sup 17} n cm{sup -2}. The induced defect has been studied by electrical, optical and structural measurements. The electrical measurements show that the resistivity rapidly increases with increasing fluences up to 3.2x10{sup 17} n cm{sup -2} and remains constant for higher fluence (>6.4x10{sup 17} n cm{sup -2}). The optical measurements show a small decrease of the optical band gap with increasing fluences. From the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the crystallinity and grain size are reduced.

  11. Ethane dehydrogenation over nano-Cr 2O 3 anode catalyst in proton ceramic fuel cell reactors to co-produce ethylene and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Zhu; Luo, Xiao-Xiong; Luo, Jing-Li; Chuang, Karl T.; Sanger, Alan R.; Krzywicki, Andrzej

    Ethane and electrical power are co-generated in proton ceramic fuel cell reactors having Cr 2O 3 nanoparticles as anode catalyst, BaCe 0.8Y 0.15Nd 0.05O 3- δ (BCYN) perovskite oxide as proton conducting ceramic electrolyte, and Pt as cathode catalyst. Cr 2O 3 nanoparticles are synthesized by a combustion method. BaCe 0.8Y 0.15Nd 0.05O 3- δ (BCYN) perovskite oxides are obtained using a solid state reaction. The power density increases from 51 mW cm -2 to 118 mW cm -2 and the ethylene yield increases from about 8% to 31% when the operating temperature of the solid oxide fuel cell reactor increases from 650 °C to 750 °C. The fuel cell reactor and process are stable at 700 °C for at least 48 h. Cr 2O 3 anode catalyst exhibits much better coke resistance than Pt and Ni catalysts in ethane fuel atmosphere at 700 °C.

  12. 10-75-kWe-reactor-powered organic Rankine-cycle electric power systems (ORCEPS) study. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-30

    This 10-75 kW(e) Reactor-ORCEPS study was concerned with the evaluation of several organic Rankine cycle energy conversion systems which utilized a /sup 235/U-ZrH reactor as a heat source. A liquid metal (NaK) loop employing a thermoelectric converter-powered EM pump was used to transfer the reactor energy to the organic working fluid. At moderate peak cycle temperatures (750/sup 0/F), power conversion unit cycle efficiencies of up to 25% and overall efficiencies of 20% can be obtained. The required operating life of seven years should be readily achievable. The CP-25 (toluene) working fluid cycle was found to provide the highest performance levels at the lowest system weights. Specific weights varies from 100 to 50 lb/kW(e) over the power level range 10 to 75 kW(e). (DLC)

  13. New concepts for shaftless recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.; Berty, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd. (BREL) is developing two new laboratory recycle reactors, the ROTOBERTY and the TURBOBERTY. These new reactors are basically improved versions of the original Berty reactor. To understand why the reactors have the features that they do, it is first necessary to briefly review laboratory reactors in general and specifically the original Berty reactor.

  14. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  15. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  16. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  17. Compilation of Quality Improvement Standards of General Dentistry Program in Islamic Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrossadat Hosseini

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of quality assurance makes the standard compilation in educational systems as a high priority subject in medical education. The purpose of this study was to study the compilation of quality improvement standards in general dentistry program in Islamic Republic of Iran.Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was performed during the years of 2011 & 2012 in three phases. In the first phase, previous literature and similar standards were included in a comparative study and screened based on national health policies in Health map. Results were evaluated by 16 dental school representatives using modified Delphi methodology and open-closed questionnaires were filled by their faculty members and were reported back to the dental secretariat of ministry of health in the second phase. In the final phase, results were evaluated in the secretariat by a focus group and the final criteria were introduced based on the secretariat politics. Results: Fifty-eight criteria were created in the first phase. Data were collected from 13 faculties in the second phase (response rate=81%. Eighteen criteria had less than 90% agreement of the participants; however, all of the criteria were agreed by more than 70% of the participants. In the final phase, 48 quality improvement standards in seven areas were accepted and introduced in dental secretariat of the ministry of health.Conclusion: The final standard documents could be used as a national covenant of quality improvement based on their high agreement rate and dependence by national politics in the health map.

  18. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was

  19. 75 FR 6413 - Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision to Standard Review Plan, Section 14.3.12 on Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-3668; e-mail at Carol.Gallagher@nrc.gov . Mail comments to: Michael T. Lesar, Chief, Rulemaking and... Regulations, Part 73, Power Reactor Security Rule (published in the Federal Register (FR) on March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926)). The previous version of this SRP section was published in March 2007 as an...

  20. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor - General combustion and ash behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2011-05-15

    Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite was investigated. The experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The results showed that fuel burnout, NO and SO{sub 2} emission decreased with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced NO emission. For SO{sub 2}, it was found that all of the additives increased the S-retention in ash. Analysis of the bulk composition of fly ash from different experiments indicated that the majority of S and Cl in the fuels were released to gas phase during combustion, whereas the K and Na in the fuels were mainly retained in ash in water insoluble form such as aluminosilicates or silicates. The addition of NaCl, PVC, and ammonium sulphate generally promoted the vaporization of Na and K, resulting in increased formation of water soluble alkalis such as alkali chlorides or sulphates. The vaporization degree of Na and K was found to be correlated during the experiments, suggesting an interaction between the vaporization of Na and K during combustion. By collecting deposits on an air-cooled probe, it was found that the ash deposition propensity in co-combustion decreased with increasing share of SRF. The addition of NaCl and PVC significantly increased the ash deposition propensity, whereas the addition of ammonium sulphate or kaolinite showed a slight reducing effect. 46 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. 77 FR 3070 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... and 1726 RIN 0572-AC20 Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction...--ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 0 1. The authority citation... construction, procurement, engineering services and architectural services for transactions above the...

  2. Models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.Y. [Nottingham Trent University Burton Street, Dept. of Mechinal and Manufacturing Engineering (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the theoretical models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field. The models are on the basis of nucleation and surface fluctuation theories to study the generality of phase change processes under the action of an electric field. Theoretical analysis is carried out and highlights the effect of an electric field on phase change processes from an existing phase to a new phase. The analysis has shown that a critical value of the filed strength could be found theoretically for a certain phase change process. This could be a mechanism of control the processes. (authors)

  3. Standardized sign-out reduces intern perception of medical errors on the general internal medicine ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Stephen M; Arnett, Michael V; Domanski, Jeremy P

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on reducing variation in housestaff handoff procedures have depended on proprietary checkout software. Use of low-technology standardization techniques has not been widely studied. We wished to determine if standardizing the process of intern sign-out using low-technology sign-out tools could reduce perception of errors and missing handoff data. We conducted a pre-post prospective study of a cohort of 34 interns on a general internal medicine ward. Night interns coming off duty and day interns reassuming care were surveyed on their perception of erroneous sign-out data, mistakes made by the night intern overnight, and occurrences unanticipated by sign-out. Trainee satisfaction with the sign-out process was assessed with a 5-point Likert survey. There were 399 intern surveys performed 8 weeks before and 6 weeks after the introduction of a standardized sign-out form. The response rate was 95% for the night interns and 70% for the interns reassuming care in the morning. After the standardized form was introduced, night interns were significantly (p intern. However, the day teams thought there were significantly less perceived errors on the part of the night intern (p = .001) after introduction of the standardized sign-out sheet. There was no difference in mean Likert scores of resident satisfaction with sign-out before and after the intervention. Standardized written sign-out sheets significantly improve the completeness and effectiveness of handoffs between night and day interns. Further research is needed to determine if these process improvements are related to better patient outcomes.

  4. Standard PWR for Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negroni, A.; Velona, F. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy))

    1983-03-01

    A description is given of the general design for the standard PWR which will be used in the seven to eight nuclear power stations provided for in the Italian national energy plan. Special features to meet Italian conditions include double containment and a common foundation mat for the reactor, auxiliary and fuel buildings.

  5. From Classical to Discrete Gravity through Exponential Non-Standard Lagrangians in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ahmad El-Nabulsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-standard Lagrangians have gained a growing importance in theoretical physics and in the theory of non-linear differential equations. However, their formulations and implications in general relativity are still in their infancies despite some advances in contemporary cosmology. The main aim of this paper is to fill the gap. Though non-standard Lagrangians may be defined by a multitude form, in this paper, we considered the exponential type. One basic feature of exponential non-standard Lagrangians concerns the modified Euler-Lagrange equation obtained from the standard variational analysis. Accordingly, when applied to spacetime geometries, one unsurprisingly expects modified geodesic equations. However, when taking into account the time-like paths parameterization constraint, remarkably, it was observed that mutually discrete gravity and discrete spacetime emerge in the theory. Two different independent cases were obtained: A geometrical manifold with new spacetime coordinates augmented by a metric signature change and a geometrical manifold characterized by a discretized spacetime metric. Both cases give raise to Einstein’s field equations yet the gravity is discretized and originated from “spacetime discreteness”. A number of mathematical and physical implications of these results were discussed though this paper and perspectives are given accordingly.

  6. [Standardized management of acupuncture-moxibustion clinic in Singapore General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shu-Li; Tan, Kian Hian; Ong, Biauw Chi; Lim, Shih hui; Yong, Yang; Seah, Cheng Ngee; Huang, Youyi; Han, Seong Ng

    2014-02-01

    The standardized management of acupuncture-moxibustion in Singapore General Hospital is introduced. With gradual improvement of outpatient infrastructure, re-training of medical staff, strict disinfection of manipulation, periodical inspection of medical instruments, unified management of writing, saving and processing in medical records and public education of TCM knowledge, a standardized management system in accordance with modernized hospital is gradually established. As a result, efficiency and quality of clinical treatment is continuously increasing. From April of 1998 to December of 2012, a total of 74 654 times of treatment were performed, and treatment amount per day is gradually increased. The unusual condition of acupuncture is avoided. Periodical strict inspection of joint committee authenticated by domestic and overseas medical health organization is repeatedly passed and accepted. Additionally, three clinical researches funded by Singapore Health-care Company are still in progress in acupuncture-moxibustion department.

  7. A generalized finite difference method for modeling cardiac electrical activation on arbitrary, irregular computational meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trew, Mark L; Smaill, Bruce H; Bullivant, David P; Hunter, Peter J; Pullan, Andrew J

    2005-12-01

    A generalized finite difference (GFD) method is presented that can be used to solve the bi-domain equations modeling cardiac electrical activity. Classical finite difference methods have been applied by many researchers to the bi-domain equations. However, these methods suffer from the limitation of requiring computational meshes that are structured and orthogonal. Finite element or finite volume methods enable the bi-domain equations to be solved on unstructured meshes, although implementations of such methods do not always cater for meshes with varying element topology. The GFD method solves the bi-domain equations on arbitrary and irregular computational meshes without any need to specify element basis functions. The method is useful as it can be easily applied to activation problems using existing meshes that have originally been created for use by finite element or finite difference methods. In addition, the GFD method employs an innovative approach to enforcing nodal and non-nodal boundary conditions. The GFD method performs effectively for a range of two and three-dimensional test problems and when computing bi-domain electrical activation moving through a fully anisotropic three-dimensional model of canine ventricles.

  8. The "Forgotten" Pseudomomenta and Gauge Changes in Generalized Landau Level Problems: Spatially Nonuniform Magnetic and Temporally Varying Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Georgios; Moulopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-05-01

    By perceiving gauge invariance as an analytical tool in order to get insight into the states of the "generalized Landau problem" (a charged quantum particle moving inside a magnetic, and possibly electric field), and motivated by an early article that correctly warns against a naive use of gauge transformation procedures in the usual Landau problem (i.e. with the magnetic field being static and uniform), we first show how to bypass the complications pointed out in that article by solving the problem in full generality through gauge transformation techniques in a more appropriate manner. Our solution provides in simple and closed analytical forms all Landau Level-wavefunctions without the need to specify a particular vector potential. This we do by proper handling of the so-called pseudomomentum ěc {{K}} (or of a quantity that we term pseudo-angular momentum L z ), a method that is crucially different from the old warning argument, but also from standard treatments in textbooks and in research literature (where the usual Landau-wavefunctions are employed - labeled with canonical momenta quantum numbers). Most importantly, we go further by showing that a similar procedure can be followed in the more difficult case of spatially-nonuniform magnetic fields: in such case we define ěc {{K}} and L z as plausible generalizations of the previous ordinary case, namely as appropriate line integrals of the inhomogeneous magnetic field - our method providing closed analytical expressions for all stationary state wavefunctions in an easy manner and in a broad set of geometries and gauges. It can thus be viewed as complementary to the few existing works on inhomogeneous magnetic fields, that have so far mostly focused on determining the energy eigenvalues rather than the corresponding eigenkets (on which they have claimed that, even in the simplest cases, it is not possible to obtain in closed form the associated wavefunctions). The analytical forms derived here for these

  9. The "Forgotten" Pseudomomenta and Gauge Changes in Generalized Landau Level Problems: Spatially Nonuniform Magnetic and Temporally Varying Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Georgios; Moulopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-02-01

    By perceiving gauge invariance as an analytical tool in order to get insight into the states of the "generalized Landau problem" (a charged quantum particle moving inside a magnetic, and possibly electric field), and motivated by an early article that correctly warns against a naive use of gauge transformation procedures in the usual Landau problem (i.e. with the magnetic field being static and uniform), we first show how to bypass the complications pointed out in that article by solving the problem in full generality through gauge transformation techniques in a more appropriate manner. Our solution provides in simple and closed analytical forms all Landau Level-wavefunctions without the need to specify a particular vector potential. This we do by proper handling of the so-called pseudomomentum ěc {{K}} (or of a quantity that we term pseudo-angular momentum L z ), a method that is crucially different from the old warning argument, but also from standard treatments in textbooks and in research literature (where the usual Landau-wavefunctions are employed - labeled with canonical momenta quantum numbers). Most importantly, we go further by showing that a similar procedure can be followed in the more difficult case of spatially-nonuniform magnetic fields: in such case we define ěc {{K}} and L z as plausible generalizations of the previous ordinary case, namely as appropriate line integrals of the inhomogeneous magnetic field - our method providing closed analytical expressions for all stationary state wavefunctions in an easy manner and in a broad set of geometries and gauges. It can thus be viewed as complementary to the few existing works on inhomogeneous magnetic fields, that have so far mostly focused on determining the energy eigenvalues rather than the corresponding eigenkets (on which they have claimed that, even in the simplest cases, it is not possible to obtain in closed form the associated wavefunctions). The analytical forms derived here for these

  10. Study of inflationary generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas for standard and tachyon scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    We consider an inflationary universe model in the context of the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas by taking the matter field as standard and tachyon scalar fields. We evaluate the corresponding scalar fields and scalar potentials during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by modifying the first Friedmann equation. In each case, we evaluate the number of e-folds, scalar as well as tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index, and the important observational parameter, the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of this parameter shows that the model remains incompatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data in each case. (orig.)

  11. Study of Inflationary Generalized Cosmic Chaplygin Gas for Standard and Tachyon Scalar Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2014-01-01

    We consider an inflationary universe model in the context of generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas by taking matter field as standard and tachyon scalar fields. We evaluate the corresponding scalar fields and scalar potentials during intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by modifying the first Friedmann equation. In each case, we evaluate the number of e-folds, scalar as well as tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and important observational parameter, i.e., tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflatons. The graphical behavior of this parameter shows that the model remains incompatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data in each case.

  12. Experimental devices in the osiris reactor to study effects of radiations on fusion reactor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, F.; Thevenot, G.

    1986-11-01

    Within the framework of the Technology Research Program on controlled fusion initiated by the European Communities, the Services des Piles de Saclay (SPS) of Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have been requested to perform some necessary experiments to study the irradiation behaviour of materials which are possible candidates for controlled fusion reactors. This paper describes the devices, generally adapted from a standard model "The COLIBRI", which allow one to carry out, in the OSIRIS reactor, irradiations on the three great families of fusion reactor materials: - lithium containing materials of breeding blanket for in-situ tritium production, - protection materials, and - structural materials.

  13. Experimental devices in the OSIRIS reactor to study effects of radiations on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, F.; Thevenot, G.

    Within the framework of the Technology Research Program on controlled fusion initiated by the European Communities, the Services des Piles de Saclay (SPS) of Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have been requested to perform some necessary experiments to study the irradiation behaviour of materials which are possible candidates for controlled fusion reactors. This paper describes the devices, generally adapted from a standard model The COLIBRI, which allow one to carry out, in the OSIRIS reactor, irradiations on the three great families of fusion reactor materials: Lithium containing materials of breeding blanket for in-situ tritium production, protection materials, and structural materials.

  14. General Equilibrium Analysis of Electricity Market Liberalization in Singapore: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglong XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization in electricity market in Singapore has being undertaken for more than 15 years. This paper evaluates the influence of competition policies by computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Instead of the direct measurement of the impact of competition policy, the benefit of liberalization is reflected by the simulation of a hypothetical regulatory condition. Comparing to the regulatory scenario, simulation result implies the current liberalization raises GDP and exchange rate significantly, but also leaves the tradeoff between higher national income and lower consumer welfare to government. If such choice of economic policy is necessary for political demand, a formal legal framework is required to enforce the restoration of the economy from regulatory restrictions.

  15. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  16. Design guide for category II reactors light and heavy water cooled reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in the ERDA Manual, requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification operation, maintainance, and decommissioning of DOW-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guide and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of Category II reactor structure, components, and systems.

  17. 75 FR 1622 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for the General Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... evaluation, is as follows: Facility: General Electric Company. Location: Evendale, Ohio. Job Titles and/or... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for the General...: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision to evaluate a petition to...

  18. Complex risk analysis for loss of electric power in liquid metal nuclear reactor by system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-07-15

    The power stabilization of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated in the aspect of the liquid metal coolant. The quantification of the risk analysis is performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback and accumulation complex algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulations, which is supported by the Monte-Carlo method. There are 2 kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties. The result shows the stability of the operations when the power can be decided. This shows the higher efficiency of the reactor. The failure frequency is 16/60 = 27%. In the event of Power Stabilized, the failure event is in the quite lower frequency rate. The commercial use of the reactor is important in the operations. (orig.)

  19. A Standardized Transcutaneous Electric Acupoint Stimulation for Relieving Tobacco Urges in Dependent Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of acupuncture in smoking cessation, and its effect on the urge to smoke are unclear. We evaluated the effect of a standardized protocol of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulations (TEAS on alleviating the urge to smoke. Ninety-eight smokers were recruited in two double-blind studies. Participants abstained from smoking for 26 h, and were randomized to receive TEAS alternating between 2 and 100 Hz at four acupoints (LI4 and PC8, PC6 and TE5 at four different intensities (10, 5, Intermittent 5 or 0 mA. The urge to smoke was assessed by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief. In Experiment 1, the 10 mA group (n = 20 was compared with the 5 mA group (n = 20; the increase in smoking urges did not differ significantly. Considering the possibility that 5 mA may be an active intervention, in Experiment 2, a true placebo (0 mA, and a proxy of placebo [Intermittent 5 mA (i5 mA] were compared with 10 mA TEAS. In this experiment, 10 mA (n = 20 TEAS showed a tendency to alleviate smoking urges compared with 0 mA (n = 16, and i5 mA (n = 19 TEAS. Only when the data of smokers with Fagerstöm Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥5 were analyzed that the difference between the 10 mA group and the control group (0 and i5 mA became significant. Based on these preliminary findings, we conclude that TEAS applied on the skin may antagonize the increase in urge to smoke in abstinent-dependent smokers. It seems warranted to assess the efficacy of TEAS in smoking cessation clinical trials involving a larger population of dependent smokers.

  20. Enhanced electricity generation by triclosan and iron anodes in the three-chambered membrane bio-chemical reactor (TC-MBCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin; Ren, Nanqi; Crittenden, John

    2013-11-01

    A three-chambered membrane bio-chemical reactor (TC-MBCR) was developed. The stainless steel membrane modules were used as cathodes and iron plates in the middle chamber served as the anode. The TC-MBCR was able to reduce fouling, remove triclosan (TCS) from a synthetic wastewater treatment and enhance electricity generation by ~60% compared with the cell voltage before TCS addition. The TC-MBCR system generated a relatively stable power output (cell voltage ~0.2V) and the corrosion of iron plates contributed to electricity generation together with microbes on iron anode. The permeation flow from anode to cathode chamber was considered important in electricity generation. In addition, the negatively charged cathode membrane and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) released by iron plates mitigated membrane fouling by approximately 30%, as compared with the control. The removal of COD and total phosphorus was approximately 99% and 90%. The highest triclosan removal rate reached 97.9%. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Development and implementation of k{sub 0}-INAA standardization at 10 MW Pakistan research reactor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H.; Anwar, Y. [Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    The k{sub 0}-method has been developed for 10 MW Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1). It involved the full energy peak efficiency calibration of HPGe detector for different counting geometries and characterization of neutron flux at three irradiation channels. Neutron flux was characterized for thermal to epithermal flux ratio, epithermal flux shape factor, modified spectral index. Westcott's g-factor and fast flux. The method was validated by analyzing IAEA-SL1 (lake sediment) and NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves). All calculations were performed in Excel. The results revealed most of the elements with good accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Condition Assessment survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 9, 0.09 Electrical, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards are presented for service & distribution; lighting; and special systems.

  3. Condition Assessment survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 9, 0.09 Electrical, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards are presented for service & distribution; lighting; and special systems.

  4. Characterizing the energy output generated by a standard electric detonator using shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, V.; Lozano, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper overviews a complete method for the characterization of the explosive energy output from a standard detonator. Measurements of the output of explosives are commonly based upon the detonation parameters of the chemical energy content of the explosive. These quantities provide a correct understanding of the energy stored in an explosive, but they do not provide a direct measure of the different modes in which the energy is released. This optically based technique combines high-speed and ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the casing fragmentation and the detonator-driven shock load. The procedure presented here could be used as an alternative to current indirect methods—such as the Trauzl lead block test—because of its simplicity, high data accuracy, and minimum demand for test repetition. This technique was applied to experimentally measure air shock expansion versus time and calculating the blast wave energy from the detonation of the high explosive charge inside the detonator. Direct measurements of the shock front geometry provide insight into the physics of the initiation buildup. Because of their geometry, standard detonators show an initial ellipsoidal shock expansion that degenerates into a final spherical wave. This non-uniform shape creates variable blast parameters along the primary blast wave. Additionally, optical measurements are validated using piezoelectric pressure transducers. The energy fraction spent in the acceleration of the metal shell is experimentally measured and correlated with the Gurney model, as well as to several empirical formulations for blasts from fragmenting munitions. The fragment area distribution is also studied using digital particle imaging analysis and correlated with the Mott distribution. Understanding the fragmentation distribution plays a critical role when performing hazard evaluation from these types of devices. In general, this technique allows for characterization of the detonator within 6-8% error

  5. Conversion of activated-sludge reactors to microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment coupled to electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Tomoya; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-11-01

    Wastewater can be treated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with the aid of microbes that oxidize organic compounds using anodes as electron acceptors. Previous studies have suggested the utility of cassette-electrode (CE) MFCs for wastewater treatment, in which rice paddy-field soil was used as the inoculum. The present study attempted to convert an activated-sludge (AS) reactor to CE-MFC and use aerobic sludge in the tank as the source of microbes. We used laboratory-scale (1 L in capacity) reactors that were initially operated in an AS mode to treat synthetic wastewater, containing starch, yeast extract, peptone, plant oil, and detergents. After the organics removal became stable, the aeration was terminated, and CEs were inserted to initiate an MFC-mode operation. It was demonstrated that the MFC-mode operation treated the wastewater at similar efficiencies to those observed in the AS-mode operation with COD-removal efficiencies of 75-80%, maximum power densities of 150-200 mW m(-2) and Coulombic efficiencies of 20-30%. These values were similar to those of CE-MFC inoculated with the soil. Anode microbial communities were analyzed by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Comparative analyses revealed that anode communities enriched from the aerobic sludge were largely different from those from the soil, suggesting that similar reactor performances can be supported by different community structures. The study demonstrates that it is possible to construct wastewater-treatment MFCs by inserting CEs into water-treatment tanks.

  6. Dr Robert Aymar, Director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), was nominated to succeed Professor Luciano Maiani as CERN's Director General, to take office on 1 January 2004.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Dr Robert Aymar, Director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), was nominated to succeed Professor Luciano Maiani as CERN's Director General, to take office on 1 January 2004.

  7. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) Monitors for Reactor Surveillance, E706(IIIB)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the use of solid-state track recorders (SSTRs) for neutron dosimetry in light-water reactor (LWR) applications. These applications extend from low neutron fluence to high neutron fluence, including high power pressure vessel surveillance and test reactor irradiations as well as low power benchmark field measurement. (1) This test method replaces Method E 418. This test method is more detailed and special attention is given to the use of state-of-the-art manual and automated track counting methods to attain high absolute accuracies. In-situ dosimetry in actual high fluence-high temperature LWR applications is emphasized. 1.2 This test method includes SSTR analysis by both manual and automated methods. To attain a desired accuracy, the track scanning method selected places limits on the allowable track density. Typically good results are obtained in the range of 5 to 800 000 tracks/cm2 and accurate results at higher track densities have been demonstrated for some cases. (2) Trac...

  8. 2D modeling and simulation of the flow dynamics, electric field and reactions in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration and CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Juray; Lorant, Christophe; Descamps, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In atmospheric-pressure plasma reactors, the flow dynamics can be complex, determine the reactor performance and complicate scale-up. Coupling computational fluid dynamics to the calculation of the electric field and plasma chemistry is challenging because of the numerical stiffness introduced by the difference in time scale of the different phenomena involved. Focusing on low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure pure nitrogen plasma, a model and model reduction based solution strategy to deal with the numerical stiffness are presented and evaluated. The influence of the electric field on the flow dynamics and species concentration fields is first qualitatively studied by means of 2D simulations of a sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration. Next, a specific reactor prototype for low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for in-line surface treatments is simulated to illustrate the importance of accounting for the detailed flow dynamics.

  9. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  10. Assessment of released heavy metals from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) existing in shipwrecks through laboratory-scale simulation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Stylianos, Michailakis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2013-04-15

    In a passenger ship, the existence of EEE is obvious. In time, under shipwreck's conditions, all these materials will undergo an accelerated severe corrosion, due to salt water, releasing, consequently, heavy metals and other hazardous substances in the aquatic environment. In this study, a laboratory-scale reactor was manufactured in order to simulate the conditions under which the "Sea Diamond" shipwreck lies (14 bars of pressure and 16°C of temperature) and remotely observe and assess any heavy metal release that would occur, from part of the EEE present in the ship, into the sea. Ten metals were examined and the results showed that zinc, mercury and copper were abundant in the water samples taken from the reactor and in significantly higher concentrations compared to the US EPA CMC (criterion maximum concentration) criterion. Moreover, nickel and lead were found in concentrations higher than the CCC (criterion constant concentration) criterion set by the US EPA for clean seawater. The rest of the elements were measured in concentrations within the permissible limits. It is therefore of environmental benefit to salvage the wreck and recycle all the WEEE found in it.

  11. Development of Electrical Capacitance Sensors for Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Testing at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maolong; Ryals, Matthew; Ali, Amir; Blandford, Edward; Jensen, Colby; Condie, Keith; Svoboda, John; O' Brien, Robert

    2016-08-01

    A variety of instruments are being developed and qualified to support the Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) program and future transient irradiations at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The University of New Mexico (UNM) is working with INL to develop capacitance-based void sensors for determining the timing of critical boiling phenomena in static capsule fuel testing and the volume-averaged void fraction in flow-boiling in-pile water loop fuel testing. The static capsule sensor developed at INL is a plate-type configuration, while UNM is utilizing a ring-type capacitance sensor. Each sensor design has been theoretically and experimentally investigated at INL and UNM. Experiments are being performed at INL in an autoclave to investigate the performance of these sensors under representative Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions in a static capsule. Experiments have been performed at UNM using air-water two-phase flow to determine the sensitivity and time response of the capacitance sensor under a flow boiling configuration. Initial measurements from the capacitance sensor have demonstrated the validity of the concept to enable real-time measurement of void fraction. The next steps include designing the cabling interface with the flow loop at UNM for Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) ATF testing at TREAT and further characterization of the measurement response for each sensor under varying conditions by experiments and modeling.

  12. Existence result for a class of generalized standard materials with thermomechanical coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Paoli, Laetitia

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of a three-dimensional model of thermomechanical coupling for viscous solids exhibiting hysteresis effects. This model is written in accordance with the formalism of generalized standard materials and it is composed of the momentum equilibrium equation combined with the flow rule, which describes some stress-strain dependance, coupled to the heat-transfer equation. More precisely, the coupling terms are linear with respect to the temperature and the displacement and non linear with respect to the internal variable. The main mathematical difficulty lies in the fact that the natural framework for the right-hand side of the heat equation is the space of L1 functions. A local existence result for this thermodynamically consistent problem is obtained by using a fixed-point argument. Then the solutions are proved to be physically admissible and global existence is discussed under some additional assumptions on the data.

  13. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

    1962-06-28

    This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

  14. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  15. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  16. A General Approach for Kinetic Modeling of Solid-Gas Reactions at Reactor Scale: Application to Kaolinite Dehydroxylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favergeon L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the industrial reactors behavior is a difficult task in the case of solid state reactions such as solid-gas reactions. Indeed the solid phase is a granular medium through which circulate gaseous reactants and products. The properties of such a medium are modified in space and time due to reactions occurring at a microscopic scale. The thermodynamic conditions are driven not only by the operating conditions but also by the heat and mass transfers in the reactor. We propose to numerically resolve the thermohydraulic equations combined with kinetic laws which describe the heterogeneous reactions. The major advantage of this approach is due to the large variety of kinetic models of grains transformation (~40 compared to the usual approach, especially in the case of surface nucleation and growth processes which need to quantitatively describe the grain conversion kinetics at a microscopic scale due to nucleation frequency and growth rate laws obtained in separate isothermal and isobaric experiments. The heat and mass transfers terms entering in the balance equations at a macroscopic scale depend on the kinetics evaluated at the microscopic scale. These equations give the temperature and partial pressure in the reactor, which in turn influence the microscopic kinetic behavior.

  17. Resilience in the General Population: Standardization of the Resilience Scale (RS-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Zenger, Markus; Heinen, Ines; Dwinger, Sarah; Decker, Oliver; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to generate normative data for the RS-11 for different age groups for men and women and to further investigate the construct validity and factor structure in the general population. Methods Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany in 2006 (n = 5,036). Results Normative data for the RS-11 were generated for men and women (53.7% female) and different age levels (mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years). Men had significantly higher mean scores compared with women (60.0 [SD = 10.2] vs. 59.3 [SD = 11.0]). Results of CFA supported a one-factor model of resilience. Self-esteem (standardized β = .50) and life satisfaction (standardized β =.20) were associated with resilience. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of resilience with other populations. Results demonstrate a special importance of self-esteem in the understanding of resilience. PMID:26523927

  18. Standardization of electric projects of small hydroelectric power plants; Padronizacao de projetos eletricos de pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberth dos Santos

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a standardizing proposal for Electrical Projects of small hydroelectric central and it has as objective to optimize some solutions for the most cases, considering the great diversity of options. The development of the dissertation is the result of several real cases of projects of hydroelectric centrals. Besides the projects, several bibliographies about the case which is being studied were researched, taking into consideration the entire proposal presented to the respective authors and, finally, as synthesis to all observations made in that study, the presentation of an optimized solution for the job of the electrical components and a proposal for the estimate of costs of those components. The conclusions of this work present a favorable result because they offer an initial proposal for the standardizing of information considered extremely important for the carrying out of a project of hydroelectric central. (author)

  19. Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, E706 (IIF)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents a method for predicting reference transition temperature adjustments for irradiated light-water cooled power reactor pressure vessel materials based on Charpy V-notch 30-ftlbf (41-J) data. Radiation damage calculative procedures have been developed from a statistical analysis of an irradiated material database that was available as of May 2000. The embrittlement correlation used in this guide was developed using the following variables: copper and nickel contents, irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence. The form of the model was based on current understanding for two mechanisms of embrittlement: stable matrix damage (SMD) and copper-rich precipitation (CRP); saturation of copper effects (for different weld materials) was included. This guide is applicable for the following specific materials, copper, nickel, and phosphorus contents, range of irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence based on the overall database: 1.1.1 MaterialsA 533 Type B Class 1 and 2, A302 Grade B, A302 G...

  20. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  1. 75 FR 29588 - Office of New Reactors: Proposed NUREG-0800; Standard Review Plan Section 13.6.6, Draft Revision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... NUREG-0800; Standard Review Plan Section 13.6.6, Draft Revision 0 on Cyber Security Plan AGENCY: Nuclear... public comment on NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for... revision of NUREG-0800, SRP Section 13.6.6 and Regulatory Guide 1.206, ``Combined License Applications...

  2. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  3. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  4. General Electric Company Hanford Works, Project C-431-A Production Facility-Section A, design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, R.T.

    1951-03-29

    The 100-C project is to be located adjacent to the present 100-B Area. It is planned to build an addition to the present 181-B river pump house using the same elevations for pump settings, intakes, and floors as for the present pump house, thus maintaining the same suction conditions and flood protection as B Area. The 105 Building will be located on higher ground than B Area and therefore, protection against possible flood damage is assured. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) general description of project; (2) addition to existing river pump house; (3) raw water lines from 181-B addition to 183-C lead house; (4) the 183-C filter plant; (5) 190-C process pump house; (6) power house addition; (7) high tanks; (8) retention basins; (9) outside streamlines; (10) primary substation; (11) outside underground lines; (12) outside electric lines; (13) roads, railroads, walks, fences; (14) structural design of all buildings; and (15) architectural design of all buildings.

  5. 29 CFR 785.5 - General requirements of sections 6 and 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Fair Labor Standards Act. Section 6 requires the payment of a minimum wage by an employer to his... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements of sections 6 and 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 785.5 Section 785.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  6. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  7. New technologies incorporated to the standards of secondary voltage electric power distribution: pad-mounted transformers, condominium underground network and electronic measurements; Novas tecnologias incorporadas aos padroes de fornecimento de energia eletrica em tensao secundaria de distribuicao: transformadores pedestal, redes subterraneas em condominios e medicao eletronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Edilson L.; Silva, Francisco L.; Oliveira, Joao J.S.; Aguillera, Marco A. [ELETROPAULO, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). E-mail: joaosantos@eletropaulo.com.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a general view on the new technologies, available in the electric power industry, incorporated to the standards of electric power supplying for secondary voltage distribution, and also the utilization of electronic meters, EURIDIS protocol and bus-way type bars.

  8. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  9. 76 FR 27669 - Penske Logistics LLC, a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Penske Logistics LLC, a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske... Regarding Application for Reconsideration applicable to workers and former workers of Penske Logistics LLC...

  10. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use of...-based uranium enrichment facility. Revisions to the application were submitted on March 23, 2010;...

  11. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted a... uranium enrichment facility (the ``proposed action''). The GLE proposes to locate the facility on...

  12. 核测量系统采用标准输出信号的接口问题处理%New Interface Issues of Nuclear Reactor Neutron Flux Measurement System Using Unified Standard Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学杰; 唐凤平; 朱世雷; 黄文; 钟定永

    2012-01-01

    核测量系统采用标准输出信号后,采用自动换档电流放大器的功率测量装置在档位切换时,输出信号有效值与量程的同步性可能出现问题,使保护系统、功率控制系统和报警系统信号接收端产生误动作.本工作对分析接口问题产生的原因进行分析,并提出解决办法.%When nuclear reactor control and protection system uses a unified standard electrical analog signal(4~20 mA)as an exchange signal, there exist problems of synchronization between the virtual value and range of output signals during switching of Neutron Flux Measurement System (NFMS) , and thus false actions occur in the protection system, the alarm system and the power control system. The cause of these new interface issues were described in this paper, and one solution for this problem was given in detail.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  14. Researches on a reactor core in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Iinuma, T; Kubo, K; Kato, H; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, a HIB interaction with a background gas, reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and a HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the ...

  15. 75 FR 47644 - General Electric Company, Transportation Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... 3, 2010, the USCIT remanded United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, Local 506 v..., Pennsylvania (hereafter referred to as the subject facility). On July 1, 2009, United Electrical, Radio and... the subject facility. In accordance with section 223 of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2273, I make the...

  16. 77 FR 22391 - Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... report, ``Each additional ton of greenhouse gases emitted commits us to further change and greater risks... Greenhouse Gas Concentrations; Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division of Earth and Life Sciences... Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources; Electric Utility Generating Units; Proposed Rule...

  17. [Meet the challenge of the implementation of the EMC standard for medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Lin, Weizeng; Liu, Jingling

    2011-03-01

    This paper reveals the EMC quality situation of China's medical electrical equipment and the existing security risks in order to arouse the concerns of the government supervision departments, technical inspection units, the production enterprises and the users. It also serves as a reference when formulating related policies and measures.

  18. Standardization of soil apparent electrical conductivity using multi-temporal surveys across multiple production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an efficient technique for understanding within-field variability of physical and chemical soil characteristics. Commercial devices are readily available for collecting ECa on whole fields and used broadly for crop management in precision agriculture; h...

  19. 76 FR 33129 - Airworthiness Standards; Electrical and Electronic System Lightning Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...). Under that section, the FAA is charged with prescribing regulations to promote safe flight of civil... History Existing regulations for the lightning protection of electrical and electronic systems installed...-by- case evaluation based on engineering and flight crew assessment of the specific function and...

  20. MIRD pamphlet No. 21: a generalized schema for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry--standardization of nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Sgouros, George; Thomas, Stephen R

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  1. Implications of general lepton mass matrices in the standard model on me e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Samandeep; Ahuja, Gulsheen; Gupta, Manmohan

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the standard model (SM), using the facility of weak basis (WB) transformations, the general Dirac neutrino mass matrix and the charged lepton mass matrix can essentially be considered as texture two zero mass matrices. Using type I seesaw formula for Majorana neutrino mass matrix, our analysis yields lower bounds me e≳0.001 eV for normal mass ordering and me e≳0.08 eV for inverted mass ordering, the latter being tantalizingly close to the expected outcome of the ongoing experiments. Interestingly, for inverted mass ordering, me e is largely independent of variation of mass m3, whereas, for normal mass ordering with m1 in the range 0.0001 eV-0.01 eV, the bound on parameter me e gets further sharpened and one obtains me e within the band 0.014-0.042 eV. Further, noting that a particular set of texture four zero quark mass matrices has been shown to be a unique viable option for the description of quark mixing data, an analysis of similar mass matrices in the lepton sector has also been carried out to obtain bounds for the parameter me e with interesting consequences.

  2. MIRD Pamphlet No. 21: A Generalized Schema for Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry-Standardization of Nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W E [University of Florida, Gainesville; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Sgouros, George [Johns Hopkins University; Thomas, Steven R. [University of Cincinnati

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  3. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  4. Influence of electrical parameters on H2O2 generation in DBD non-thermal reactor with water mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Xiao, Zehua; Hao, Chunjing; Qiu, Jian; Liu, Kefu

    2017-06-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor is introduced to generate H2O2 by non-thermal plasma with a mixture of oxygen and water mist produced by an ultrasonic atomizer. The results of our experiment show that the energy yield and concentration of the generated H2O2 in the pulsed discharge are much higher than that in AC discharge, due to its high energy efficiency and low heating effect. Micron-sized liquid droplets produced by an ultrasonic atomizer in water mist have large specific surface area, which greatly reduces mass transfer resistance between hydroxyl radicals and water liquids, leading to higher energy yield and H2O2 concentration than in our previous research. The influence of applied voltage, discharge frequency, and environmental temperature on the generated H2O2 is discussed in detail from the viewpoint of the DBD mechanism. The H2O2 concentration of 30 mg l-1, with the energy yield of 2 g kW-1h-1 is obtained by pulsed discharge in our research.

  5. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on the Degradation of Azo Dye in Three-Dimensional Biofilm Electrode Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Cao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional biofilm electrode reactors (3D-BERs were constructed to degrade the azo dye Reactive Brilliant Red (RBR X-3B. The 3D-BERs with different influent concentrations and external voltages were individually studied to investigate their influence on the removal of X-3B. Experimental results showed that 3D-BERs have good X-3B removal efficiency; even when the influent concentration was 800 mg/L, removal efficiency of 73.4% was still achieved. In addition, the X-3B removal efficiency stabilized shortly after the influent concentration increased. In 3D-BERs, the average X-3B removal efficiency increased from 52.8% to 85.4% when the external voltage rose from 0 to 2 V. We further identified the intermediate products via UV-Vis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses, and discussed the potential mechanism of degradation. After the conjugate structure of X-3B was destroyed, all of the substances generated mainly consisted of lower-molecular-weight organics.

  6. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  7. General classical and quantum-mechanical description of magnetic resonance: an application to electric-dipole-moment experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silenko, Alexander J. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    A general theoretical description of a magnetic resonance is presented. This description is necessary for a detailed analysis of spin dynamics in electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. General formulas describing a behavior of all components of the polarization vector at the magnetic resonance are obtained for an arbitrary initial polarization. These formulas are exact on condition that the nonresonance rotating field is neglected. The spin dynamics is also calculated at frequencies far from resonance with allowance for both rotating fields. A general quantum-mechanical analysis of the spin evolution at the magnetic resonance is fulfilled and the full agreement between the classical and quantum-mechanical approaches is shown. Quasimagnetic resonances for particles and nuclei moving in noncontinuous perturbing fields of accelerators and storage rings are considered. Distinguishing features of quasimagnetic resonances in storage ring electric-dipole-moment experiments are investigated in detail. The exact formulas for the effect caused by the electric dipole moment are derived. The difference between the resonance effects conditioned by the rf electric-field flipper and the rf Wien filter is found and is calculated for the first time. The existence of this difference is crucial for the establishment of a consent between analytical derivations and computer simulations and for checking spin tracking programs. The main systematical errors are considered. (orig.)

  8. Time horizons and electricity futures: An application of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's general theory of economic production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Katharine N. [Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gibson Institute for Land, Food and Environment, Queen' s University of Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Mayumi, Kozo [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    This paper reports theoretical economic production work and uses electricity futures trading to illustrate its argument. The focus is relationships between time, production and tradition both in Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's analytical representation of the production process (i.e., flow/fund model) and in his dialectical scheme dealing with the evolutionary changes in the economic process. Our main arguments are (1) the flow/fund model is designed to be employed in conjunction with attention to how the boundaries of a given process are determined and (2) process boundaries are dialectical distinctions - between process and not-process - that are strongly related to time and tradition. We propose that Georgescu-Roegen's The Entropy Law and the Economic Process is best understood as the elaboration of a general theory of economic production and we developed two conceptual tools (time {open_square} and meta-funds), both of which are related to the dialectical distinction between process and not-process, which we use to operationalise this general theory. Finally, we demonstrate that, although trading in electricity futures is surprising if one uses a stock/flow vs services distinction (because electricity supply is classed as a service) it appears perfectly logical under Georgescu-Roegen's general theory: shortening time horizons, combined with a shift in the relationship between raw fuel supplies and power production procedures, lead to a shift in the status of electricity supply, from fund to flow. (author)

  9. 30 CFR 75.508 - Map of electrical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Map of electrical system. 75.508 Section 75.508... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.508 Map of electrical system. The location and the electrical rating of all stationary electric apparatus in connection...

  10. Flow Control and Measurement in Electric Propulsion Systems: Towards an AIAA Reference Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    capillary radius, m A, B = fit coefficients C = proportional constant Co = orifice coefficient cp = specific heat capacity, J/kg K F = thrust...not yield knowledge of the actual xenon consumption rate. The xenon feed system used on the NASA Deep Space 1 (DS1) and Dawn spacecraft is an example...Interest for Electric Propulsion Systems.1,2,3,4 Noble Gases Other Nonmetals Compounds Helium (He) Hydrogen (H2) Ammonia (NH3) Neon (Ne) Nitrogen (N2

  11. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  12. 76 FR 28333 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards AGENCY: Rural Utilities..., ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 1. The authority citation for part 1724 continues to... architectural services for transactions above the established threshold dollar levels (``threshold levels...

  13. A generalized energy model for the behavior of single-crystal magneto-electric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Akhras, George; Flatau, Alison B.

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores a unified energy-based approach to model the non-linear behavior of both magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials. While the energy-approach developed by Armstrong has been shown to capture the magnetostrictive behavior of materials such as Terfenol-D1 and Iron-Gallium2 along different crystallographic directions, extending this approach to piezoelectric materials presents a considerable challenge. Some piezo-electric materials such as PMN-PT and BaTiO 3 may undergo phase changes under applied electric fields and stress in addition to polarization switching. A modeling approach is developed in this paper to capture these effects. Finally, it is shown that the constitutive behavior for the piezo-electric/magnetostrictive layers, coupled by a simple blocked-force approach, is likely to model the behavior of magneto-electric composites.

  14. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Standard Scenarios and this associated report, which are now in their second year, present an examination of some of the key aspects of the change occurring, or anticipated to occur, in the power sector over the next several decades. The Standard Scenarios consist of 18 power sector scenarios which have been projected using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) long-term capacity expansion model and the dGen rooftop PV diffusion model. The purpose of the Standard Scenarios and this associated report is to provide context, discussion, and data to inform stakeholder decision-making regarding the future direction of U.S. power sector. As an extension to this report, the Standard Scenario outputs are presented in a downloadable format online using the Standard Scenarios' Results Viewer at http://en.openei.org/apps/reeds/. This report reflects high-level conclusions and analysis, whereas the Standard Scenarios' Results Viewer includes the scenario results that can be used for more in-depth analysis.

  15. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  16. Impacts of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  17. Impact of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  18. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  19. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  20. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA. In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will

  1. 77 FR 43015 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... Background B. Current Rulemaking Process III. Summary of the Analyses A. Engineering Analysis B. Markups To..., and software models and tools that will be used to evaluate standards; the results of preliminary... (EPCA), as amended; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE plans to use to...

  2. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Lead time. The final rule specified that manufacturers must... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK48 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., 2007, final rule that upgraded Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact...

  3. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  4. General Relationship between Field Electrical Resistivity Value (ERV and Basic Geotechnical Properties (BGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hazreek Zainal Abidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity technique is a popular alternative method used in geotechnical soil investigations. Most past applications have been particularly in the area of subsurface ground investigations such as to locate boulder, bedrock, water table, etc. Traditionally, this method was performed by a geophysicist expert for data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The final outcome from the electrical resistivity technique was an anomaly image which used to describe and conclude the particular soil condition measured. The anomalies highlighted uncertainties on the nature of soil that was often variable and depended on each particular site condition that gave a site dependent soil electrical resistivity value (ERV. Hence, this study demonstrates a relationship between ERV (ρ and some of the basic geotechnical properties (BGP such as soil moisture content (w, grain size of geomaterial (CS or FS, density (ρbulk and ρdry, porosity (η, void ratio (e and Atterberg limit (AL. Different soil samples were collected and tested under field and laboratory conditions to determine basic geotechnical properties immediately after the field electrical resistivity method was performed. It was found that the electrical resistivity value was different for number of soils tested and was relatively subjective to variations in the geotechnical properties. In other words, electrical resistivity value was greatly influenced by the geotechnical properties as the ERV was higher due to the lower moisture content, void ratio and porosity with a higher value of soil density and vice versa. The relationship of ERV and BGP can be described by ρ α 1/w, ρ α CS, ρ α 1/FS, ρ α ρbulk/dry and ρ α 1/AL. Hence, it was shown that behaviour of ERV was significantly influenced by the variation of basic soil properties and thus applicable to support and enhance the conventional stand alone anomaly outcome which is traditionally used for interpretation purposes.

  5. 12 CFR 25.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operations. This part and the CRA do not require a bank to make loans or investments or to provide services... meet the standards of this part with safe and sound loans, investments, and services on which the banks... standards for loans that benefit low- or moderate-income geographies or individuals, only if consistent...

  6. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  7. Preliminary hazards review overboring Hanford reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilson, R.; Carlson, P.A.

    1962-07-25

    The General Electric Company, as prime contractor to the AEC at Hanford, is proposing to modify the lattice characteristics of the 8 3/8-inch lattice reactors for the purposes of improving the conversion ratio of these reactors. The proposed overbore modification of the reactors would remove the existing aluminum process tubes, enlarge the diameters of the graphite channels by about one-half inch, insert smooth-bore Zircaloy-2 process tubes and refuel the reactor with larger size, self-supported fuel elements. The overbore fuel will remain the internally-and-externally-cooled cylindrical type, but the weight per foot will be about twice that of the present fuel element. The removal of the inlet and outlet piping connections which would be required in the overboring process will permit the replacement of the existing fittings with ones of improved design. Furthermore, new orifices and venturis which are compatible with the hydraulic characteristics of the overbore tube and fuel geometry and the pumping system will be installed. No basic changes are proposed in the pumping system though the reactor flaw rate may be increased 5--10 percent by changes in hydraulic characteristics depending on the water plant flow capacity.

  8. The effectiveness of Renewable Portfolio Standard banding and carve-outs in supporting high-cost types of renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, Greg, E-mail: greg.buckman@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Canberra (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are renewable electricity (RES-E) subsidy mechanisms in which governments mandate how much RES-E should be generated and markets determine the cost of the subsidy needed to generate the RES-E. Two modifications of the RPS that can help support high-cost types of RES-E are banding, where governments mandate higher multiples of RPS tradable certificates for high-cost types of RES-E, and carve-outs, where governments prescribe parts of a RPS target that can be met only by a particular type, or types, of RES-E. This paper analyses the design and generation performance of banding, as used in the UK, with some reference to Italy; and carve-outs, as used in the USA. To date, there is insufficient experience of either device to reach firm conclusions about their generation effectiveness. However, there is early, tentative evidence that banding is successful at supporting high-cost types of RES-E in the UK. Carve-outs are not being fully exploited in US states that use a RPS mechanism, and Italy is using banding in a fairly insignificant way. Though both devices have different design strengths and weaknesses, and either could be adapted to specific RPS markets, banding is probably the better device for supporting high-cost RES-E. - Highlights: > I analysed three countries that use either Renewable Portfolio Standards banding or carve-outs. > I assess whether banding or carve-outs have diversified renewable electricity generation. > There's insufficient banding/carve-out experience to reach firm diversification conclusions. > There's early evidence that the UK banding is diversifying its renewable electricity.

  9. 2015 Standard Scenarios Annual Report: U.S. Electric Sector Scenario Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mulcahy, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-16

    This report is one of several products resulting from an initial effort to provide a consistent set of technology cost and performance data and to define a conceptual and consistent scenario framework that can be used in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) future analyses. The long-term objective of this effort is to identify a range of possible futures of the U.S. electricity sector in which to consider specific energy system issues through (1) defining a set of prospective scenarios that bound ranges of key technology, market, and policy assumptions and (2) assessing these scenarios in NREL’s market models to understand the range of resulting outcomes, including energy technology deployment and production, energy prices, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  10. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  11. Obtaining statistics of cascading line outages spreading in an electric transmission network from standard utility data

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We show how to use standard transmission line outage historical data to obtain the network topology in such a way that cascades of line outages can be easily located on the network. Then we obtain statistics quantifying how cascading outages typically spread on the network. Processing real outage data is fundamental for understanding cascading and for evaluating the validity of the many different models and simulations that have been proposed for cascading in power networks.

  12. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  13. Study on the Programming Standard for Ecological Rescue in General Land Use Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at establishing the operation idea based on the analysis of the connotation, principles and reference indexes for programming standard for ecological rescue. The paper puts forward that the programming standard should take into account the natural, social and economic reference indexes, and modifies the scale and distribution of the ecological rescue according to the order of ecological safety, social safety and economic development. The paper suggests that the land planning department should strengthen the study and datum accumulation in order to establish the technology regulations of programming standard of the ecological rescue.

  14. Effect of hydrazine on general corrosion of carbon and low-alloyed steels in pressurized water reactor secondary side water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvimäki, Sari [Fortum Ltd, Loviisa Power Plant, Loviisa (Finland); Saario, Timo; Sipilä, Konsta [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Bojinov, Martin, E-mail: martin@uctm.edu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Kl. Ohridski Blvd, 8, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The effect of hydrazine on the corrosion of steel in secondary side water investigated by in situ and ex situ techniques. • Oxide grown on steel in 100 ppb hydrazine shows weaker protective properties – higher corrosion rates. • Possible explanation of the accelerating effect of higher concentrations of hydrazine on flow assisted corrosion offered. - Abstract: The effect of hydrazine on corrosion rate of low-alloyed steel (LAS) and carbon steel (CS) was studied by in situ and ex situ techniques under pressurized water reactor secondary side water chemistry conditions at T = 228 °C and pH{sub RT} = 9.2 (adjusted by NH{sub 3}). It is found that hydrazine injection to a maximum level of 5.06 μmol l{sup −1} onto surfaces previously oxidized in ammonia does not affect the corrosion rate of LAS or CS. This is confirmed also by plant measurements at Loviisa NPP. On the other hand, hydrazine at the level of 3.1 μmol l{sup −1} decreases markedly the amount and the size of deposited oxide crystals on LAS and CS surface. In addition, the oxide grown in the presence of 3.1 μmol l{sup −1} hydrazine is somewhat less protective and sustains a higher corrosion rate compared to an oxide film grown without hydrazine. These observations could explain the accelerating effect of higher concentrations of hydrazine found in corrosion studies of LAS and CS.

  15. A General Approach for Associating Standardized Vegetation Classes with Survey Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Linking natural resources surveys to a standardized set of vegetation classes increases the long-term value of the survey data and supports data analysis at broad...

  16. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  17. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  18. Methodology for the integral comparison of nuclear reactors: selecting a reactor for Mexico; Metodologia para la comparacion integral de reactores nucleares: seleccion de un reactor para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes R, R.; Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: ricarera@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    In this work it was built a methodology to compare nuclear reactors of third generation that can be contemplated for future electric planning in Mexico. This methodology understands the selection of the reactors to evaluate eliminating the reactors that still are not sufficiently mature at this time of the study. A general description of each reactor together with their main ones characteristic is made. It was carried out a study for to select the group of parameters that can serve as evaluation indicators, which are the characteristics of the reactors with specific values for each considered technology, and it was elaborated an evaluation matrix indicators including the reactors in the columns and those indicators in the lines. Since that none reactor is the best in all the indicators were necessary to use a methodology for multi criteria taking decisions that we are presented. It was used the 'Fuzzy Logic' technique, the which is based in those denominated diffuse groups and in a system of diffuse inference based on heuristic rules in the way 'If Then consequence> ', where the linguistic values of the condition and of the consequence is defined by diffuse groups, it is as well as the rules always they transform a diffuse group into another. Later on they combine all the diffuse outputs to create a single output and an inverse transformation is made that it transfers the output from the diffuse domain to the real one. They were carried out two studies one with the entirety of the indicators and another in which the indicators were classified in three approaches: the first one refers to indicators related with the planning of the plants inside the context of the general electric sector, the second approach includes indicators related with the characteristics of the fuel and the third it considers indicators related with the acting of the plant in safety and environmental impact. This second study allowed us to know the qualities of

  19. Cardiac Mean Electrical Axis in Thoroughbreds-Standardization by the Dubois Lead Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Cássia Fré; Samesima, Nelson; Pastore, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Different methodologies for electrocardiographic acquisition in horses have been used since the first ECG recordings in equines were reported early in the last century. This study aimed to determine the best ECG electrodes positioning method and the most reliable calculation of mean cardiac axis (MEA) in equines. We evaluated the electrocardiographic profile of 53 clinically healthy Thoroughbreds, 38 males and 15 females, with ages ranging 2-7 years old, all reared at the São Paulo Jockey Club, in Brazil. Two ECG tracings were recorded from each animal, one using the Dubois lead positioning system, the second using the base-apex method. QRS complex amplitudes were analyzed to obtain MEA values in the frontal plane for each of the two electrode positioning methods mentioned above, using two calculation approaches, the first by Tilley tables and the second by trigonometric calculation. Results were compared between the two methods. There was significant difference in cardiac axis values: MEA obtained by the Tilley tables was +135.1° ± 90.9° vs. -81.1° ± 3.6° (pDubois, respectively. Furthermore, Dubois method presented small range of variation without statistical or clinical difference by either calculation mode, while there was a wide variation in the base-apex method. Dubois improved centralization of the Thoroughbreds' hearts, engendering what seems to be the real frontal plane. By either calculation mode, it was the most reliable methodology to obtain cardiac mean electrical axis in equines.

  20. Decision-support tool for assessing future nuclear reactor generation portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jain (Shashi); F Roelofs; C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractCapital costs, fuel, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and electricity prices play a key role in the economics of nuclear power plants. Often standardized reactor designs are required to be locally adapted, which often impacts the project plans and the supply chain. It then becomes

  1. Decision-support tool for assessing future nuclear reactor generation portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Capital costs, fuel, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and electricity prices play a key role in the economics of nuclear power plants. Often standardized reactor designs are required to be locally adapted, which often impacts the project plans and the supply chain. It then becomes difficult to

  2. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  3. 75 FR 5151 - General Electric Company Transportation Division; Erie, PA; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... of these articles abroad. In the request for reconsideration the petitioner alleged that General... during the relevant period. To support their allegations, the petitioners attached several newspaper articles citing company's expansion plans into the emerging markets. The articles do not imply that General...

  4. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  5. Cardiac Mean Electrical Axis in Thoroughbreds—Standardization by the Dubois Lead Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Cássia Fré; Samesima, Nelson; Pastore, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Different methodologies for electrocardiographic acquisition in horses have been used since the first ECG recordings in equines were reported early in the last century. This study aimed to determine the best ECG electrodes positioning method and the most reliable calculation of mean cardiac axis (MEA) in equines. Materials and Methods We evaluated the electrocardiographic profile of 53 clinically healthy Thoroughbreds, 38 males and 15 females, with ages ranging 2–7 years old, all reared at the São Paulo Jockey Club, in Brazil. Two ECG tracings were recorded from each animal, one using the Dubois lead positioning system, the second using the base-apex method. QRS complex amplitudes were analyzed to obtain MEA values in the frontal plane for each of the two electrode positioning methods mentioned above, using two calculation approaches, the first by Tilley tables and the second by trigonometric calculation. Results were compared between the two methods. Results There was significant difference in cardiac axis values: MEA obtained by the Tilley tables was +135.1° ± 90.9° vs. -81.1° ± 3.6° (p<0.0001), and by trigonometric calculation it was -15.0° ± 11.3° vs. -79.9° ± 7.4° (p<0.0001), base-apex and Dubois, respectively. Furthermore, Dubois method presented small range of variation without statistical or clinical difference by either calculation mode, while there was a wide variation in the base-apex method. Conclusion Dubois improved centralization of the Thoroughbreds' hearts, engendering what seems to be the real frontal plane. By either calculation mode, it was the most reliable methodology to obtain cardiac mean electrical axis in equines. PMID:28095442

  6. Construction of a General Standard Molecule for the Qualitative Detection in Different Transgenic Foodcrops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Jinxia; GAO Xuejun; YU Yanbo; QU Bo; YUAN Xiaohan; LIU Ying; GUO Shicheng

    2009-01-01

    Now every laboratory is facing a common problem that is seriously lacking in the standard reference molecule in the GMC detecting research center. Constructing the recombinant plasmid is the urgent demand. In order to overcome this problem, this study respectively cloned CrylA(B), BAR, CP4-EPSPS, PAT and RBCL genes into PMDIS-T vector. This constructed plasmid could be used as the standard reference molecule in the qualitative detecting of the exogenous CP4-EPSPS gene, CrylA(B) gone, BAR gene and PAT gene. Identification by double restriction endonuclease digestion and identification by PCR proved that the test result was positive. All of these indicated that the established reference molecules in this study were suitable for the qualitative analysis standard of this GMC detection.

  7. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Construction and operation of parallel electric and magnetic field spectrometers for mass/energy resolved multi-ion charge exchange diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, S. S.; Roquemore, A. L.

    1998-07-01

    A novel charge exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for neutral particle diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The E∥B spectrometer has an energy range of 0.5⩽A (amu)E (keV)⩽600 and provides mass-resolved energy spectra of H+, D+, and T+ (or 3He+) ion species simultaneously during a single discharge. The detector plane exhibits parallel rows of analyzed ions, each row containing the energy dispersed ions of a given mass-to-charge ratio. The detector consists of a large area microchannel plate (MCP) which is provided with three rectangular, semicontinuous active area strips, one coinciding with each of the mass rows for detection of H+, D+, and T+ (or 3He+) and each mass row has 75 energy channels. To suppress spurious signals attending operation of the plate in the magnetic fringe field of the spectrometer, the MCP was housed in a double-walled iron shield with a wire mesh ion entrance window. Using an accelerator neutron generator, the MCP neutron detection efficiency was measured to be 1.7×10-3 and 6.4×10-3 counts/neutron/cm2 for 2.5 MeV-DD and 14 MeV-DT neutrons, respectively. The design and calibration of the spectrometer are described in detail, including the effect of MCP exposure to tritium, and results obtained during high performance D-D operation on TFTR are presented to illustrate the performance of the E∥B spectrometer. The spectrometers were not used during D-T plasma operation due to the cost of providing the required radiation shielding.

  9. 对电动轮椅车标准相关内容的探讨%Modification Suggestion of Electrically Powered Wheelchairs Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单新颖

    2013-01-01

    我国目前电动轮椅车标准GB/T 12996-1991《电动轮椅车》正在修订,本文参考国际标准、欧洲标准和日本标准测试方法,对比现行国家标准,分析电动轮椅车产品标准并提出新的建议。%Electrically Powered Wheelchairs Standards (GB/T 12996-1991) is being modified in China. With the help of the test meth-ods from the international standard, European standard and Japanese standard, in contrast to Chinese national standards, the article discussed the new Electrically Powered Wheelchairs Standards.

  10. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  11. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-05

    This report provides current statistical data on every fuel assembly irradiated in commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States. It also provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the nuclear and electric industries and the general public. It uses data from the mandatory, ``Nuclear Fuel Data`` survey, Form RW-859 for 1992 and historical data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on previous Form RW-859 surveys. The report was prepared by the EIA under a Memorandum of Understanding with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

  12. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  13. Common-Cause Failure Analysis for Reactor Protection System Reliability Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentillon, C.; Rasmuson, D.; Eide, S.; Wierman, T.

    1999-08-01

    Analyses were performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U.S. Westinghouse and General Electric commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data from these reactors were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LER). The common-cause failure (CCF) modeling in the fault trees developed for these studies and the analysis and use of common-cause failure data were sophisticated, state-of-the-art efforts. The overall CCF effort helped to test and expand the limits of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's CCF methodology.

  14. Standard symmetric operators in Pontryagin spaces : a generalized von Neumann formula and minimality of boundary coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizov, Tomas; Ćurgus, Branko; Dijksma, Aad

    2003-01-01

    Certain meromorphic matrix valued functions on C\\R, the so-called boundary coefficients, are characterized in terms of a standard symmetric operator S in a Pontryagin space with finite (not necessarily equal) defect numbers, a meromorphic mapping into the defect subspaces of S, and a boundary mappin

  15. 12 CFR 563e.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flexible underwriting standards for loans that benefit low- or moderate-income geographies or individuals..., distribution of household income, nature of housing stock, housing costs, and other relevant data pertaining to... development agencies, or other sources; (3) The savings association's product offerings and business strategy...

  16. 12 CFR 345.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards for loans that benefit low- or moderate-income geographies or individuals, only if consistent with... data on median income levels, distribution of household income, nature of housing stock, housing costs... other sources; (3) The bank's product offerings and business strategy as determined from data provided...

  17. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... light or heavy duty motor vehicle equipped with an engine certified to the nonroad provision of 40 CFR... standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. (a)(1) Every new motor vehicle (or new motor vehicle... with respect to any Otto-cycle or diesel heavy-duty vehicle which uses an engine which has not...

  18. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., and time needed to revise sales and marketing strategies. (42 U.S.C. 6295(i)(6)(A)(iv)) Further, for... contracts, workers, raw materials, and time needed to revise sales and marketing strategies. (42 U.S.C. 6295... savings greater than or equal to the savings from a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lm/W, sales of GSLs...

  19. Tests of Alignment among Assessment, Standards, and Instruction Using Generalized Linear Model Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    An essential component in school accountability efforts is for assessments to be well-aligned with the standards or curriculum they are intended to measure. However, relatively little prior research has explored methods to determine statistical significance of alignment or misalignment. This study explores analyses of alignment as a special case…

  20. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance beh

  1. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance beh

  2. Electric dipole moment of the deuteron in the standard model with $NN - \\Lambda N - \\Sigma N$ coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron in the standard model with $|\\Delta S| =1$ interactions by taking into account the $NN - \\Lambda N - \\Sigma N$ channel coupling. The two-body problem is solved with the Gaussian Expansion Method using the realistic Argonne $v18$ nuclear force and the $YN$ potential which can reproduce the binding energies of $^3_\\Lambda$H, $^3_\\Lambda$He, and $^4_\\Lambda$He. The $|\\Delta S| =1$ interbaryon potential is modeled by the one-meson exchange process. It is found that the deuteron EDM is modified by less than 10\\%, and the main contribution to this deviation is due to the polarization of the hyperon-nucleon channels. The effect of the $YN$ interaction is small, and treating $ \\Lambda N$ and $ \\Sigma N$ channels as free is a good approximation for the EDM of the deuteron.

  3. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  4. Charging a renewable future: The impact of electric vehicle charging intelligence on energy storage requirements to meet renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kate E.; Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Increased usage of renewable energy resources is key for energy system evolution to address environmental concerns. Capturing variable renewable power requires the use of energy storage to shift generation and load demand. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles, however, impacts the load demand profile and therefore the capacity of energy storage required to meet renewable utilization targets. This study examines how the intelligence of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integration impacts the required capacity of energy storage systems to meet renewable utilization targets for a large-scale energy system, using California as an example for meeting a 50% and 80% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2030 and 2050. For an 80% RPS in 2050, immediate charging of PEVs requires the installation of an aggregate energy storage system with a power capacity of 60% of the installed renewable capacity and an energy capacity of 2.3% of annual renewable generation. With smart charging of PEVs, required power capacity drops to 16% and required energy capacity drops to 0.6%, and with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging, non-vehicle energy storage systems are no longer required. Overall, this study highlights the importance of intelligent PEV charging for minimizing the scale of infrastructure required to meet renewable utilization targets.

  5. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  6. The generalization of A. E. Kennelly theory of complex representation of the electrical quantities in sinusoidal periodic regime to the one and three-phase electric quantities in non-sinusoidal periodic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Mihai, Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new mathematical method of electrical circuits calculus is proposed based on the theory of the complex linear operators in matrix form. The newly proposed method generalizes the theory of complex representation of electrical quantities in sinusoidal periodic regime to the non-sinusoidal periodic regime.

  7. A General Formula for Ion Concentration-Dependent Electrical Conductivities in Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahardika P. Aji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to develop a model for describing the effect of ion concentration on the electrical conductivity of polymer electrolytes by considering two mechanisms simultaneously: Enhancements of ion concentration and amorphous phase. Approach: The problems based on new observations in polymer electrolyte when ion concentration in the polymer electrolytes was increased, both the fraction of amorphous phase and the charge carriers increase simultaneously. The model was based on the assumption when ions were inserted into the polymer host, there was an optimum distance between ions at which the ions move easily throughout the polymer. The average distance between ions in the polymer depends on the ion concentration. And we also considered the effect of ion concentration on the amorphous phase in the polymer. Results: We inspected the validity of the model by comparing the model predictions with various experimental data. The new analytical expressions for the electrical conductivity dependent of ion concentration was developed by considering two mechanisms simultaneously in polymer electrolytes, i.e., enhancement of the carries concentration and amorphous phase fraction. Interestingly, most of fitting parameters were not arbitrarily selected, but were derived from the appropriate experimental data. Conclusion: The model can be used to explain the conductivity behavior of other polymer electrolyte systems by selecting appropriately less number of parameters. This model result is fully supported by available experimental data.

  8. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  9. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  10. Stability and non-standard finite difference method of the generalized Chua's circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework to obtain approximate numerical solutions of the fractional-order Chua\\'s circuit with Memristor using a non-standard finite difference method. Chaotic response is obtained with fractional-order elements as well as integer-order elements. Stability analysis and the condition of oscillation for the integer-order system are discussed. In addition, the stability analyses for different fractional-order cases are investigated showing a great sensitivity to small order changes indicating the poles\\' locations inside the physical s-plane. The GrnwaldLetnikov method is used to approximate the fractional derivatives. Numerical results are presented graphically and reveal that the non-standard finite difference scheme is an effective and convenient method to solve fractional-order chaotic systems, and to validate their stability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Refined analysis and updated constraints on general non-standard tbW couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Hioki, Zenro; Uejima, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We recently studied possible non-standard tbW couplings based on the effective-Lagrangian which consists of four kinds of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) invariant dimension-6 effective operators and gave an experimentally allowed region for each non-standard coupling. We here re-perform that analysis much more precisely based on the same experimental data but on a new computational procedure using the Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU) calculation system. Comparing these two analyses with each other, the previous one is found to have given quite reliable results despite of its limited computation capability. We then apply this new procedure to the latest data and present updated results.

  12. Refined analysis and updated constraints on general non-standard tbW couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Zenrō; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Uejima, Akira

    2016-10-01

    We recently studied possible non-standard tbW couplings based on the effective-Lagrangian which consists of four kinds of SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) invariant dimension-6 effective operators and gave an experimentally allowed region for each non-standard coupling. We here re-perform that analysis much more precisely based on the same experimental data but on a new computational procedure using the Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU) calculation system. Comparing these two analyses with each other, the previous one is found to have given quite reliable results despite of its limited computation capability. We then apply this new procedure to the latest data and present updated results.

  13. Refined analysis and updated constraints on general non-standard tbW couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenrō Hioki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently studied possible non-standard tbW couplings based on the effective-Lagrangian which consists of four kinds of SU(3×SU(2×U(1 invariant dimension-6 effective operators and gave an experimentally allowed region for each non-standard coupling. We here re-perform that analysis much more precisely based on the same experimental data but on a new computational procedure using the Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU calculation system. Comparing these two analyses with each other, the previous one is found to have given quite reliable results despite of its limited computation capability. We then apply this new procedure to the latest data and present updated results.

  14. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Final progress report, July 1981-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.R.

    1981-11-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, and general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and through the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the final period from July 1981 to September 1981. This is the last quarterly progress report to be issued for this program.

  15. Fracture propagation in brittle materials as a standard dissipative process: General theorems and crack tracking algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, A.; Fantoni, F.

    2016-10-01

    The present work frames the problem of three-dimensional quasi-static crack propagation in brittle materials into the theory of standard dissipative processes. Variational formulations are stated. They characterize the three dimensional crack front "quasi-static velocity" as minimizer of constrained quadratic functionals. An implicit in time crack tracking algorithm that computationally handles the constraint via the penalty method algorithm is introduced and proof of concept is provided.

  16. International financial reporting standards and American generally accepted accounting principles: the convergence lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Kuzina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adopting process in different countries. Special attention has been paid to the processes taking place in the United States. In recent years there have been numerous attempts to assess the impact of IFRS on the developed and developing capital markets, and to use the results of this assessment as arguments in the debate about the effectiveness of regulation of corporate reporting, in particular about the introduction of a mandatory requirement to use global accounting standards. Two main regulatory bodies inthe corporate reporting area in the world – The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC and the Board of Trustees of the IFRS Foundation – use the results of academic research based on empirical observations of IFRS use onwards from 2005 to support its position on possible benefits from the introduction of global reporting standards and recommendations on different approaches to the practical implementation of this idea. Analysis of the preparatory process for the adoption of IFRS in the United States is required for error analysis of IFRS implementation in Ukraine.

  17. 77 FR 67628 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Meeting. Public input Document--edition Document title closing date NFPA 2--2011 Hydrogen Technologies 1/4... Standard for the 7/8/2013 Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). NFPA 72--2013... Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants. NFPA 805--2010 Performance-Based 1/4/2013 Standard for...

  18. Standard model contribution to the electric dipole moment of the deuteron, $^3$H, and $^3$He nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2015-01-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron, $^3$H, and $^3$He nuclei generated by the one-meson exchange CP-odd nuclear force in the standard model. The effective $|\\Delta S| = 1$ four-quark operators are matched to the $|\\Delta S| = 1$ standard model processes involving the CP phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the electroweak scale and run down to the hadronic scale $\\mu = 1$ GeV according to the renormalization group evolution in the next-to-leading logarithmic order. At the hadronic scale, the hadron matrix elements are modeled in the factorization approach. We then obtain the one-meson (pion, eta meson, and kaon) exchange CP-odd nuclear force, which is the combination of the $|\\Delta S| = 1$ meson-baryon vertices which issue from the penguin operator and the hyperon-nucleon transition. From this CP-odd nuclear force, the nuclear EDM is calculated with the realistic Argonne $v18$ interaction and the CP-odd nuclear force using the Gaussian expansion metho...

  19. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model. [Ramini et.al. Polym. Chem., 2013, 4, 4948.] In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species. As in previous studies, the model with a one-dimensional domain best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated d...

  20. Introducing Distance and Measurement in General Relativity: Changes for the Standard Tests and the Cosmological Large-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of incompressible homogeneous fluid.

  1. Advanced Nuclear Reactor Concepts for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoche, D.; Sassen, F.; Tietsch, W. [Westinghouse Electric Germany, Postfach 10 05 63, 68140 Mannheim (Germany); Yujie, Dong; Li, Cao [INET, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    China is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. With 1.3 billion people China also has the largest population worldwide. The growing economy, the migration of people from rural areas to cities and the augmentation in living standard will drive the energy demand of China in the coming decades. At present the installed electrical power is about 500 GW. In the years 2004 and 2005 the added electrical capacity was around 60 GW per year. Chinas primary energy demand is covered mainly by the use of coal. Coal also will remain the main energy source in the coming decades in China. Nevertheless taking into account more and more environmental aspects and the goal to reduce dependencies on energy imports a better energy mix strategy is planed to change including at an increasing level the renewable and nuclear option. Present the nuclear park is characterised by a large variety of different types of reactors. With the AP-1000, EPR and the gas-cooled High Temperature Reactor (HTR) the spectrum of different reactor types will be further enlarged. (authors)

  2. A method for selecting the CIE standard general sky model with regard to calculating luminance distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Marinelli, Valerio; Mele, Marilena

    2013-04-01

    It is known that the best predictions of sky luminances are obtainable by the CIE 15 standard skies model, but the predictions by this model need knowledge of the measured luminance distributions themselves, since a criterion for selecting the type of sky starting from the irradiance values has not found until now. The authors propose a new simple method of applying the CIE model, based on the use of the sky index Si. A comparison between calculated luminance data and data measured in Arcavacata of Rende (Italy), Lyon (France) and Pamplona (Spain) show a good performance of this method in comparison with other methods of calculation of luminance existing in the literature.

  3. Towards a Standard Architecture for Digital Voting Systems - Defining a Generalized Ballot Schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochran, Dermot Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many electoral jurisdictions have their own distinctive voting schemes. There is no clear consensus about the ideal voting scheme for fair elections. Various systems for electronic and online voting have been either proposed or developed, but these systems tend to be aimed at particular vote...... counting schemes e.g. plurality. This paper proposes a way to decouple the ballot casting process from the vote counting scheme, using a generalized ballot schema....

  4. Standard model contribution to the electric dipole moment of the deuteron, 3H, and 3He nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Hiyama, Emiko

    2016-02-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron, 3H, and 3He nuclei generated by the one-meson exchange CP-odd nuclear force in the standard model. The effective |Δ S| = 1 four-quark operators are matched to the |Δ S| = 1 standard model processes involving the CP phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the electroweak scale and run down to the hadronic scale μ = 1 GeV according to the renormalization group evolution in the next-to-leading logarithmic order. At the hadronic scale, the hadron matrix elements are modeled in the factorization approach. We then obtain the one-meson (pion, eta meson, and kaon) exchange CP-odd nuclear force, which is the combination of the |Δ S| = 1 meson-baryon vertices which issue from the penguin operator and the hyperon-nucleon transition. From this CP-odd nuclear force, the nuclear EDM is calculated with the realistic Argonne v18 interaction and the CP-odd nuclear force using the Gaussian expansion method. It is found that the EDMs of light nuclear systems are of order O (10-31) e cm. We also estimate the standard model contribution to other hadronic CP violating observables such as the EDMs of 6Li, 9Be nuclei, and the atomic EDMs of 129Xe, 199Hg, 211Rn, and 225Ra generated through the nuclear Schiff moment. We then analyze the source of theoretical uncertainties and show some possible ways to overcome them.

  5. Optimization of radial dimension and electricity cost for compact hybrid reactor%紧凑型混合堆径向几何尺寸与发电成本的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2011-01-01

    紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆是一种新的概念设计,文章通过改变聚变系统径向几何尺寸上的等离子体大小半径,分析了紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆的发电成本并进行优化,模拟结果表明紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆较传统的标准混合堆具有更大的经济优势.%Compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor(CFFHR) is a new kind of conceptual design. In this paper, the electricity cost of CFFHR is optimized by changing the radial dimensions of plasma major radius and minor radius of the fusion system. The simulation results show that the CFFHR is more economic than the traditional hybrid reactor.

  6. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  7. Standardization of the NEO-PI-3 in the Greek general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Moysidou, Stefania; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Mobayed, Nisreen; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop; Costa, Paul; McCrae, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was to validate the Greek translation of the NEO-PI-3 in the general Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population of whom 59.4% were females and 40.6% males aged 40.80 ± 11.48. The NEO-PI-3 was translated into Greek and back-translated into English, and the accuracy of the translation was confirmed and established. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, and the calculation of Pearson product-moment correlations. Sociodemographics groups were compared by ANOVA. Most facets had Cronbach's alpha above 0.60. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable loading of the facets on their own hypothesized factors and very good estimations of Cronbach's alphas for the hypothesized factors, so it was partially supportive of the five-factor structure of the NEO-PI-3.The factors extracted with Procrustes rotation analysis can be considered reasonably homologous to the factors of the American normative sample. Correlations between dimensions were as expected and similar to those reported in the literature. The literature suggests that overall, the psychometric properties of NEO-PI-3 scales have been found to generalize across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement. In accord with this, the results of the current study confirm the reliability of the Greek translation and adaptation of the NEO-PI-3. The inventory has comparable psychometric properties in its Greek version in comparison to the original and other national translations, and it is suitable for clinical as well as research use.

  8. Frequency standards based on ultracold atoms in tests of general relativity, navigation and gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, K. Yu.; Kudeyarov, K. S.; Kolachevsky, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    Research and development in the field of optical clocks based on ultracold atoms and ions have enabled the relative uncertainty in frequency to be reduced down to a few parts in 1018. The use of novel, precise frequency comparison methods opens up new possibilities for basic research (sensitive tests of general relativity, a search for a drift of fundamental constants and a search for ‘dark matter’) as well as for state-of-the-art navigation and gravimetry. We discuss the key methods that are used in creating precision clocks (including transportable clocks) based on ultracold atoms and ions and the feasibility of using them in resolving current relativistic gravimetry issues.

  9. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  10. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  11. A Review on Developing Industrial Standards to Introduce Digital Computer Application for Nuclear I and C and HMIT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    A comprehensive review on the technical standards about human factors (HF) design and software reliability maintenance for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT) in Japanese light water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs) was given in this paper mainly by introducing the relevant activities at the Japan Electric Association to set up many industrial standards within the traditional framework of nuclear safety regulation in Japan. In Japan, the Fukushima Daiichi accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 has great impact on nuclear regulation and nuclear industries where concerns by the general public about safety have heightened significantly. However for the part of HF design and software reliability maintenance of digital I and C and HMIT for NPP, the author believes that the past practice of Japanese activities with the related technical standards can be successfully inherited in the future, by reinforcing the technical preparedness for the prevention and mitigation against any types of severe accident occurrence.

  12. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  13. Characteristics of a different fuel cycle in a PBMR-400 for burning reactor grade plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, Eben [M-TECH Industrial (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 54620, Wierdapark 0149 (South Africa)], E-mail: ejm@mtechindustrial.com; Teuchert, Eberhard [M-TECH Industrial (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 54620, Wierdapark 0149 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    An outstanding feature of the high temperature, gas-cooled, version of a Generation IV type reactor is its versatility in application. Apart from the capacity in high temperature gas-cooled reactors to generate electricity it could desalinate (multi-effect distillation [MED] by deploying excess heat or reverse osmosis by deploying excess electricity), produce hydrogen (by deploying excess electricity), whereas this article showcases the on-line fuelling characteristics of a pebble bed reactor concept for the incineration of reactor grade plutonium, whilst producing electricity. The VSOP-A system of codes is employed to demonstrate by calculation how the standard PBMR-400 commercial reactor design offers similar inherent safety characteristics with a Pu-Th/U advanced fuel cycle. This implies that no significant design changes are necessary to implement such a fuel cycle. Furthermore, the flexibility of the pebble fuel concept is deployed to house the fertile material in one type of pebble, whilst a second type will contain the fissile or driver material.

  14. A general binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk differences from binary response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Varadhan, Ravi; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2013-02-28

    Estimates of absolute risks and risk differences are necessary for evaluating the clinical and population impact of biomedical research findings. We have developed a linear-expit regression model (LEXPIT) to incorporate linear and nonlinear risk effects to estimate absolute risk from studies of a binary outcome. The LEXPIT is a generalization of both the binomial linear and logistic regression models. The coefficients of the LEXPIT linear terms estimate adjusted risk differences, whereas the exponentiated nonlinear terms estimate residual odds ratios. The LEXPIT could be particularly useful for epidemiological studies of risk association, where adjustment for multiple confounding variables is common. We present a constrained maximum likelihood estimation algorithm that ensures the feasibility of risk estimates of the LEXPIT model and describe procedures for defining the feasible region of the parameter space, judging convergence, and evaluating boundary cases. Simulations demonstrate that the methodology is computationally robust and yields feasible, consistent estimators. We applied the LEXPIT model to estimate the absolute 5-year risk of cervical precancer or cancer associated with different Pap and human papillomavirus test results in 167,171 women undergoing screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The LEXPIT model found an increased risk due to abnormal Pap test in human papillomavirus-negative that was not detected with logistic regression. Our R package blm provides free and easy-to-use software for fitting the LEXPIT model.

  15. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [CERCA, Romans (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Aix en Provence (France)

    2000-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor are presented. Safety criteria are explained. Finally, merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are discussed. (author)

  16. Optimal Topology and Experimental Evaluation of Piezoelectric Materials for Actively Shunted General Electric Polymer Matrix Fiber Composite Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Duffy, Kirsten; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with GE Aviation, has begun the development of a smart adaptive structure system with piezoelectric (PE) transducers to improve composite fan blade damping at resonances. Traditional resonant damping approaches may not be realistic for rotating frame applications such as engine blades. The limited space in which the blades reside in the engine makes it impossible to accommodate the circuit size required to implement passive resonant damping. Thus, a novel digital shunt scheme has been developed to replace the conventional electric passive shunt circuits. The digital shunt dissipates strain energy through the load resistor on a power amplifier. General Electric (GE) designed and fabricated a variety of polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) test specimens. Investigating the optimal topology of PE sensors and actuators for each test specimen has revealed the best PE transducer location for each target mode. Also a variety of flexible patches, which can conform to the blade surface, have been tested to identify the best performing PE patch. The active damping control achieved significant performance at target modes. This work has been highlighted by successful spin testing up to 5000 rpm of subscale GEnx composite blades in Glenn s Dynamic Spin Rig.

  17. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  18. Efficacy of addition of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to standardized physical therapy in subacute spinal spasticity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Win Min

    2014-11-01

    To study the immediate and short-term efficacy of adding transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to standardized physical therapy on subacute spasticity within 6 months of spinal cord injury. Randomized controlled trial for 3 weeks. A university hospital. Subjects (N=16) with clinically determined spasticity were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=8) or the control group (n=8). Sixty-minute sessions of TENS over the bilateral common peroneal nerves before 30 minutes of physical therapy for the experimental group and 30 minutes of physical therapy alone for the control group. All patients in both groups had access to standardized rehabilitation care. The composite spasticity score, which included 3 subscores (ankle jerk, muscle tone, and ankle clonus scores), was used as the primary end point to assess plantar flexor spasticity. These subscores were designated as secondary end points. Serial evaluations were made at baseline before study entry and immediately after the first and last sessions in both groups. On analysis for immediate effects, there was a significant reduction only in the composite spasticity score (mean difference, 1.75; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-3.03; P=.002) in the experimental group, but no significant reduction was observed in all outcome variables in the control group. A significant difference in the composite spasticity score (1.63; 99% CI, 0.14-3.11; P=.006) was observed between the 2 groups. After 15 sessions of treatment, a significant reduction was determined in the composite spasticity score (2.75; 99% CI, 1.31-4.19; P<.001), the muscle tone score (1.75; 99% CI, 0.16-3.34; P=.006), and the ankle clonus score (0.75; 99% CI, 0.18-1.32; P=.003) in the experimental group, whereas none of the outcome variables revealed a significant reduction in the control group. The between-group difference was significant only for the composite spasticity score (2.13; 99% CI, 0.59-3.66; P=.001) and the muscle tone

  19. GB 19865 & GB 6675 ANNEX A.A —— SAFETY OF ELECTRICAL TOYS Differences Between the new and old Chinese National Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ganghua; He Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    This article anlayzes the different requirements for electrical toys safety between GB 6675-2003 and GB 19865-2005. This information is summed up in table form to make it easy for toy designers and manufacturers to grasp the new standard.

  20. A review of qualitative inspection aspects of end fittings in an Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Urva Pancholi; Dhaval Dave; Ajay Patel

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides a summarized description of the current state of knowledge and practices used in India, in the qualitative inspection of end fittings – a key component of the fuel channel assembly of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), generally of a Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) type. Further it discusses various quality inspection techniques; and the high standards and mechanical precision of the job required, to be accepted as viable nuclear reactor component. The techniqu...

  1. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T. J. [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a

  2. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T. J. [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a

  3. Nuclear research reactors activities in INVAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Juan Pablo [INVAP, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the different activities in the research reactor field that are being carried out by INVAP. INVAP is presently involved in the design of three new research reactors in three different countries. The RA-10 is a multipurpose reactor, in Argentina, planned as a replacement for the RA-3 reactor. INVAP was contracted by CNEA for carrying out the preliminary engineering for this reactor, and has recently been contracted by CNEA for the detailed engineering. CNEA groups are strongly involved in the design of this reactor. The RMB is a multipurpose reactor, planned by CNEN from Brazil. CNEN, through REDETEC, has contracted INVAP to carry out the preliminary engineering for this reactor. As the user requirements for RA-10 and RMB are very similar, an agreement was signed between Argentina and Brasil governments to cooperate in these two projects. The agreement included that both reactors would use the OPAL reactor in Australia, design and built by INVAP, as a reference reactor. INVAP has also designed the LPRR reactor for KACST in Saudi Arabia. The LPRR is a 30 kw reactor for educational purposes. KACST initially contracted INVAP for the engineering for this reactor and has recently signed the contract with INVAP for building the reactor. General details of these three reactors will be presented.

  4. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  5. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Experimenters' Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagle, C.D. (comp.)

    1982-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has three multipurpose research reactors which accommodate testing loops, target irradiations, and beam-type experiments. Since the experiments must share common or similar facilities and utilities, be designed and fabricated by the same groups, and meet the same safety criteria, certain standards for these have been developed. These standards deal only with those properties from which safety and economy of time and money can be maximized and do not relate to the intent of the experiment or quality of the data obtained. The necessity for, and the limitations of, the standards are discussed; and a compilation of general standards is included.

  7. NLO+NLL limits on W' and Z' gauge boson masses in general extensions of the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježo, Tomáš; Klasen, Michael; Lamprea, David R.; Lyonnet, Florian; Schienbein, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    QCD resummation predictions for the production of charged ( W ') and neutral ( Z ') heavy gauge bosons decaying leptonically are presented. The results of our resummation code at next-to-leading order and next-to-leading logarithmic (NLO+NLL) accuracy are compared to Monte Carlo predictions obtained with PYTHIA at leading order (LO) supplemented with parton showers (PS) and FEWZ at NLO and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) for the p T -differential and total cross sections in the Sequential Standard Model (SSM) and general SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models. The LO+PS Monte Carlo and NNLO fixed-order predictions are shown to agree approximately with those at NLO+NLL at small and intermediate p T , respectively, and the importance of resummation for total cross sections is shown to increase with the gauge boson mass. The theoretical uncertainties are estimated by variations of the renormalisation/factorisation scales and of the parton densities, the former being significantly reduced by the resummation procedure. New limits at NLO+NLL on W ' and Z ' boson masses are obtained by reinterpreting the latest ATLAS and CMS results in general extensions of the Standard Model.

  8. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination.

  9. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  10. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  11. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjoo Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indicators to meet data availability, nuclear energy relevancy, comparability among energy options, and fit with Korean energy policy objectives. The results show that sodium-cooled fast reactors is a better alternative than existing nuclear power as well as coal electricity generation across social, economic and environmental dimensions. Our method makes comparison between energy alternatives easier, thereby clarifying consequences of different energy policy decisions.

  12. Status report on the conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A preliminary conceptual design is presented for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants. The study has been made in sufficient depth to indicate no insurmountable technical problems exist and has provided a basis for valid cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources.

  13. International development trend of electric vehicle charging standard%电动汽车国际充电标准发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜文

    2013-01-01

    近年来,主要汽车大国纷纷开展电动汽车的研发与生产,但发展方向却不尽一致。因各国电力系统存在差异,故电动汽车在充电设备及规格、车辆设计等方面的研发方向就各不相同。对主要汽车大国日本和欧美的电动汽车充电标准进行比较研究,并对我国所应采取标准化行动提出政策建议。%In recent years, the main auto powers carry out re-search and production of electric vehicles. Though the aim to devel-op electric vehicle is the same, the development direction is not con-sistent for every country. With differences among the electric power system, research and development direction of the electric vehicle in the specifications and charging equipment, vehicle design aspects is different. To the major automobile power in Japan and Europe and the United States a comparative study of electric vehicle charging standards is compared and studied , and policy suggestions are put forward on the standardization action in China.

  14. 解放军总医院群体工程电气设计%Electrical Design of General Hospital of PLA Project Hospital of PLA Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王漪; 涂路; 奚传栋

    2013-01-01

      本文从供电可靠性、安全用电、绿色建筑等角度简要介绍了解放军总医院群体工程强电专业设计的特点。%This article describes the characteristics of electrical design of General Hospital of PLA Project, such as the reliability of power supply , electrical safety and green buildings.

  15. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor; evaluation on safety concerns of integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Chul; Kim, Woong Sik; Lee, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP) is being developed to produce electricity and fresh water, and is expected to locate near population zone. In the aspect of safety, it is required to protect the public and environment from the possible releases of fission products and to prevent the fresh water from the contamination of radioactivity. Thus, in this study, the safety characteristics of the integral reactor adopting passive and inherent safety features significantly different from existing nuclear power plants were investigated. Also, safety requirements applicable to the NDP were analyzed based on the regulatory requirements for current light water reactor and advanced reactor designs, and user requirements for small-medium size reactors. Based on these analyses, some safety concerns to be considered in the design stage have been identified and discussed. They include the use of proven technology for new safety features, systematic event classification and selection, strengthening containment function, and the safety impacts on desalination-related systems. The study presents the general safety requirements applicable to licensing of an integral reactor and suggests additional regulatory requirements, which need to be developed, based on the direction to resolution of the safety concerns. The efforts to identify and technically resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide the early confidence of SMART safety and the technical basis to evaluate the safety to designers and reviewers in the future. Suggestion on the development of additional regulatory requirements will contribute for the regulator to taking actions for licensing of an integral reactor. 66 refs., 5 figs., 24 tabs. (Author)

  16. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  17. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  18. Review of the proposed materials of construction for the SBWR and AP600 advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Two advanced light water reactor (LWR) concepts, namely the General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) and the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe Reactor (AP600), were reviewed in detail by Argonne National Laboratory. The objectives of these reviews were to (a) evaluate proposed advanced-reactor designs and the materials of construction for the safety systems, (b) identify all aging and environmentally related degradation mechanisms for the materials of construction, and (c) evaluate from the safety viewpoint the suitability of the proposed materials for the design application. Safety-related systems selected for review for these two LWRs included (a) reactor pressure vessel, (b) control rod drive system and reactor internals, (c) coolant pressure boundary, (d) engineered safety systems, (e) steam generators (AP600 only), (f) turbines, and (g) fuel storage and handling system. In addition, the use of cobalt-based alloys in these plants was reviewed. The selected materials for both reactors were generally sound, and no major selection errors were found. It was apparent that considerable thought had been given to the materials selection process, making use of lessons learned from previous LWR experience. The review resulted in the suggestion of alternate an possibly better materials choices in a number of cases, and several potential problem areas have been cited.

  19. China experimental fast reactor; Le reacteur rapide experimental chinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianmin, X. [Institut d' Ingenierie Nucleaire de Pekin (China); Cunren, L. [Centre d' Etude de Surete de Pekin (China)

    2007-07-15

    The Chinese experimental fast reactor (CEFR) is a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor whose short term purposes are: -) the validation of computer codes, -) the check of the relevance of standards, and -) the gathering of experimental data on fast reactors. On the long term the expectations will focus on: -) gaining experience in fast reactor operations, -) the testing of nuclear fuels and materials, and -) the study of sodium compounds. The main technical features of CEFR are: -) thermal power output: 65 MW (electrical power output: 20 MW), -) size of the core: height: 45 cm, diameter: 60 cm, -) maximal linear output: 430 W/cm, -) neutron flux: 3.7*10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}/s, -) input/output sodium temperature: 360 / 530 Celsius degrees, -) 2 loops for the primary system and 2 loops for the secondary system. The temperature coefficient and the power coefficient are settled to stay negative for any change in the values of the core parameters. The installation of the reactor vessel will be completed by mid 2007. The first criticality of CEFR is expected during the first semester of 2010. (A.C.)

  20. 电力行业标准研制贡献大数据分析%Big Data Analysis on Standard Development Contribution in Electric Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕; 王宏; 周育忠; 利国鹏; 甘克勤

    2016-01-01

    This paper starts with the significance and present situation of the big data analysis of standard, and researches on the theory and method of"big data analysis on standard development contribution in electric power industry", finally forms demonstration results of standard big data service in the electric power industry:the big data empirical analysis on standard development contribution in electric power industry taking China Southern Power Grid Company Limited as an example.%本文从标准大数据分析的意义和研究现状出发,研究一种“电力行业标准研制贡献大数据分析”的理论与方法,最终形成电力行业标准大数据服务的示范性成果:以中国南方电网有限责任公司为例的电力行业标准研制贡献大数据实证分析。