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Sample records for gene eyes absent

  1. The "eyes absent" (eya) gene in the eye-bearing hydrozoan jellyfish Cladonema radiatum: conservation of the retinal determination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziussi, Daria Federica; Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter Jakob

    2012-06-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a member of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), a set of genes responsible for eye specification in Drosophila. Eya is a dual function protein, working as a transcription factor in the nucleus and as a tyrosine phosphatase in the cytoplasm. It had been shown that Pax and Six family genes, main components of the RDGN, are present in the hydrozoan Cladonema radiatum and that they are expressed in the eye. However, nothing had been known about the Eya family in hydrozoan jellyfish. Here we report the presence of an Eya homologue (CrEya) in Cladonema. Real-time PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that CrEya is expressed in the eye. Furthermore, the comprehensive survey of eukaryote genomes revealed that the acquisition of the N-terminal transactivation domain, including the EYA Domain 2 and its adjacent sequence shared by all eumetazoans, happened early in evolution, before the separation of Cnidaria and Bilateria. Our results uncover the evolution of the two domains and show a conservation of the expression pattern of the Eya gene between Cnidaria and Bilateria, which, together with previous data, supports the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of metazoans eyes. We additionally show that CrEya is also expressed in the oocytes, where two other members of the RDGN, CrPaxB, and Six4/5-Cr, are known to be expressed. These data suggest that several members of the RDGN have begun to be localized also into the different context of egg development early in the course of metazoan evolution.

  2. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

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    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  3. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Huang, Sai; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Guo-Feng; Qian, Kun; Gao, Hong-Hao; Guan, Wei; Shi, Jin-Long; Liu, An-Qi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bian-Hong; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML. By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells, we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML. Methods: Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines. Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4. Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region. The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, and clonogenic assay. Results: EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells, compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells, respectively. We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases. Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines. We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis of Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target

  4. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Huang; Meng-Meng Jiang; Guo-Feng Chen; Kun Qian; Hong-Hao Gao; Wei Guan; Jin-Long Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background:The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML 1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML.By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells,we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML.Methods:Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR),quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR),and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines.Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4.Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region.The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation,apoptosis,and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8,flow cytometry,and clonogenic assay.Results:EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells,compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells,respectively.We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases.Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines.We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis ofKasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control,respectively.Conclusions:Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene.In addition,we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target and a potential candidate

  5. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  6. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21 Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Sai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target and a potential candidate for treating AML1-ETO+ t (8;21 AML.

  7. Eyes absent tyrosine phosphatase activity is not required for Drosophila development or survival.

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    Meng Jin

    Full Text Available Eyes absent (Eya is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that regulates multiple developmental processes throughout the metazoans. Drosophila eya is necessary for survival as well as for the formation of the adult eye. Eya contains a tyrosine phosphatase domain, and mutations altering presumptive active-site residues lead to strongly reduced activities in ectopic eye induction, in vivo genetic rescue using the Gal4-UAS system, and in vitro phosphatase assays. However, these mutations have not been analyzed during normal development with the correct levels, timing, and patterns of endogenous eya expression. To investigate whether the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya plays a role in Drosophila survival or normal eye formation, we generated three eya genomic rescue (eyaGR constructs that alter key active-site residues and tested them in vivo. In striking contrast to previous studies, all eyaGR constructs fully restore eye formation as well as viability in an eya null mutant background. We conclude that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is not required for normal eye development or survival in Drosophila. Our study suggests the need for a re-evaluation of the mechanism of Eya action and underscores the importance of studying genes in their native context.

  8. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  9. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

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    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I; Ramírez, Ana I; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  10. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

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    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  11. Identification and Analysis of Genes Present in Leptospira interrogens serovar lai but Absent in L.biflexa serovar monvalerio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping HE; Xiang-Yan ZHANG; Xiao-Kui GUO; Bao-Yu HU; Xiao-Tian HUANG; Yang YANG; Guo-Ping ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    Genes present in virulent bacterial strains but absent in avirulent close relatives can be of great biologic and clinical interest. This project aimed to identify strain specific DNA sequences of Leptospira interrogens serovar lai, which is absent in the saprophytic L. biflexa serovar monvalerio, via suppression subtractive hybridization with the former as the tester while the latter as the driver. The mixture of PCR amplified DNA fragments from two subtractive hybridization experiments were cloned into pMD 18-T vector and the positive clones were identified by dot blotting against the chromosome DNA of the two strains individually. After DNA sequencing and analysis, the distribution of these genomic fragment sequences in a panel of pathogenic and nonpathogenic leptospires was investigated employing dot blot analysis. Among the 188 positive clones randomly chosen, 24 contained the tester strain specific genomic regions, of which, 5were non-coding fragments while the others contained 23 distinct protein coding sequences. Besides 9 genes encoding functional proteins, 12 genes encode unknown proteins and the rest two genes encode proteins with recognizable domain structures, one for a putative leucine-rich repeats (LRR) family protein while the other as an outer-membrane protein. Our experiment results indicated that suppression subtractive hybridization is effective for screening specific DNA sequences between two leptospiral strains, and some of these sequences might be responsible for virulence determination. Further analysis of these DNA sequences will provide important information on the pathogenesis of Leptospira.

  12. A single gene (yes controls pigmentation of eyes and scales in Heliothis virescens

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    Thomas M. Brown

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A yellow-eyed mutant was discovered in a strain of Heliothis virescens, the tobacco budworm, that already exhibited a mutation for yellow scale, y. We investigated the inheritance of these visible mutations as candidate markers for transgenesis. Yellow eye was controlled by a single, recessive, autosomal factor, the same type of inheritance previously known for y. Presence of the recombinant mutants with yellow scales with wild type eyes in test crosses indicated independent segregation of genes for these traits. The recombinant class with wild type scales and yellow eyes was completely absent and there was a corresponding increase of the double mutant parental class having yellow scales and yellow eyes. These results indicated that a single factor for yellow eye also controls yellow scales independently of y. This gene was named yes, for yellow eye and scale. We hypothesize that yes controls both eye and scale color through a deficiency in transport of pigment precursors in both the ommochrome and melanin pathways. The unlinked gene y likely controls an enzyme affecting the melanin pathway only. Both y and yes segregated independently of AceIn, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity, and sodium channel hscp, which are genes related to insecticide resistance.

  13. Comparative genomic profiling of Dutch clinical Bordetella pertussis isolates using DNA microarrays: Identification of genes absent from epidemic strains

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    van Gent Marjolein

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in humans, is re-emerging in many countries despite vaccination. Several studies have shown that significant shifts have occurred in the B. pertussis population resulting in antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and suggesting pathogen adaptation. In the Netherlands, the resurgence of pertussis is associated with the rise of B. pertussis strains with an altered promoter region for pertussis toxin (ptxP3. Results We used Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, Multiple-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to characterize the ptxP3 strains associated with the Dutch epidemic. For CGH analysis, we developed an oligonucleotide (70-mers microarray consisting of 3,581 oligonucleotides representing 94% of the gene repertoire of the B. pertussis strain Tohama I. Nine different MLST profiles and 38 different MLVA types were found in the period 1993 to 2004. Forty-three Dutch clinical isolates were analyzed with CGH, 98 genes were found to be absent in at least one of the B. pertussis strains tested, these genes were clustered in 8 distinct regions of difference. Conclusion The presented MLST, MLVA and CGH-analysis identified distinctive characteristics of ptxP3 B. pertussis strains -the most prominent of which was a genomic deletion removing about 23,000 bp. We propose a model for the emergence of ptxP3 strains.

  14. The Histone Methyltransferase Gene Absent, Small, or Homeotic Discs-1 Like Is Required for Normal Hox Gene Expression and Fertility in Mice1

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    Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Geister, Krista A.; Jones, Morgan; Waqas, Meriam; Maillard, Ivan; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling influences gene expression in developing and adult organisms. Active and repressive marks of histone methylation dictate the embryonic expression boundaries of developmentally regulated genes, including the Hox gene cluster. Drosophila ash1 (absent, small or homeotic discs 1) gene encodes a histone methyltransferase essential for regulation of Hox gene expression that interacts genetically with other members of the trithorax group (TrxG). While mammalian members of the mixed lineage leukemia (Mll) family of TrxG genes have roles in regulation of Hox gene expression, little is known about the expression and function of the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila ash1 gene, Ash1-like (Ash1l). Here we report the expression of mouse Ash1l gene in specific structures within various organs and provide evidence that reduced Ash1l expression has tissue-specific effects on mammalian development and adult homeostasis. Mutants exhibit partially penetrant postnatal lethality and failure to thrive. Surviving mutants have growth insufficiency, skeletal transformations, and infertility associated with developmental defects in both male and female reproductive organs. Specifically, expression of Hoxa11 and Hoxd10 are altered in the epididymis of Ash1l mutant males and Hoxa10 is reduced in the uterus of Ash1l mutant females. In summary, we show that the histone methyltransferase Ash1l is important for the development and function of several tissues and for proper expression of homeotic genes in mammals. PMID:26333994

  15. Direct regulatory interaction of the eyeless protein with an eye-specific enhancer in the sine oculis gene during eye induction in Drosophila.

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    Niimi, T; Seimiya, M; Kloter, U; Flister, S; Gehring, W J

    1999-05-01

    The Pax-6 gene encodes a transcription factor with two DNA-binding domains, a paired and a homeodomain, and is expressed during eye morphogenesis and development of the nervous system. Pax-6 homologs have been isolated from a wide variety of organisms ranging from flatworms to humans. Since loss-of-function mutants in insects and mammals lead to an eyeless phenotype and Pax-6 orthologs from distantly related species are capable of inducing ectopic eyes in Drosophila, we have proposed that Pax-6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. To determine the extent of evolutionary conservation of the eye morphogenetic pathway, we have begun to identify subordinate target genes of Pax-6. Previously we have shown that expression of two genes, sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya), is induced by eyeless (ey), the Pax-6 homolog of Drosophila. Here we present evidence from ectopic expression studies in transgenic flies, from transcription activation studies in yeast, and from gel shift assays in vitro that the EY protein activates transcription of sine oculis by direct interaction with an eye-specific enhancer in the long intron of the so gene.

  16. Genes May Explain Why Kids with Autism Avoid Eye Contact

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167182.html Genes May Explain Why Kids With Autism Avoid Eye ... Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). "Understanding how genes influence social behaviors will help researchers identify new ...

  17. An Eye on Trafficking Genes: Identification of Four Eye Color Mutations in Drosophila

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    Paaqua Grant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genes that code for proteins involved in organelle biogenesis and intracellular trafficking produce products that are critical in normal cell function . Conserved orthologs of these are present in most or all eukaryotes, including Drosophila melanogaster. Some of these genes were originally identified as eye color mutants with decreases in both types of pigments found in the fly eye. These criteria were used for identification of such genes, four eye color mutations that are not annotated in the genome sequence: chocolate, maroon, mahogany, and red Malpighian tubules were molecularly mapped and their genome sequences have been evaluated. Mapping was performed using deletion analysis and complementation tests. chocolate is an allele of the VhaAC39-1 gene, which is an ortholog of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase AC39 subunit 1. maroon corresponds to the Vps16A gene and its product is part of the HOPS complex, which participates in transport and organelle fusion. red Malpighian tubule is the CG12207 gene, which encodes a protein of unknown function that includes a LysM domain. mahogany is the CG13646 gene, which is predicted to be an amino acid transporter. The strategy of identifying eye color genes based on perturbations in quantities of both types of eye color pigments has proven useful in identifying proteins involved in trafficking and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. Mutants of these genes can form the basis of valuable in vivo models to understand these processes.

  18. An Eye on Trafficking Genes: Identification of Four Eye Color Mutations in Drosophila.

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    Grant, Paaqua; Maga, Tara; Loshakov, Anna; Singhal, Rishi; Wali, Aminah; Nwankwo, Jennifer; Baron, Kaitlin; Johnson, Diana

    2016-10-13

    Genes that code for proteins involved in organelle biogenesis and intracellular trafficking produce products that are critical in normal cell function . Conserved orthologs of these are present in most or all eukaryotes, including Drosophila melanogaster Some of these genes were originally identified as eye color mutants with decreases in both types of pigments found in the fly eye. These criteria were used for identification of such genes, four eye color mutations that are not annotated in the genome sequence: chocolate, maroon, mahogany, and red Malpighian tubules were molecularly mapped and their genome sequences have been evaluated. Mapping was performed using deletion analysis and complementation tests. chocolate is an allele of the VhaAC39-1 gene, which is an ortholog of the Vacuolar H(+) ATPase AC39 subunit 1. maroon corresponds to the Vps16A gene and its product is part of the HOPS complex, which participates in transport and organelle fusion. red Malpighian tubule is the CG12207 gene, which encodes a protein of unknown function that includes a LysM domain. mahogany is the CG13646 gene, which is predicted to be an amino acid transporter. The strategy of identifying eye color genes based on perturbations in quantities of both types of eye color pigments has proven useful in identifying proteins involved in trafficking and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. Mutants of these genes can form the basis of valuable in vivo models to understand these processes.

  19. Advances in Gene Therapy for Diseases of the Eye.

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    Petit, Lolita; Khanna, Hemant; Punzo, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few years, huge progress has been made with regard to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of the eye. Such knowledge has led to the development of gene therapy approaches to treat these devastating disorders. Challenges regarding the efficacy and efficiency of therapeutic gene delivery have driven the development of novel therapeutic approaches, which continue to evolve the field of ocular gene therapy. In this review article, we will discuss the evolution of preclinical and clinical strategies that have improved gene therapy in the eye, showing that treatment of vision loss has a bright future.

  20. Advances in Gene Therapy for Diseases of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lolita; Khanna, Hemant; Punzo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, huge progress has been made with regard to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of the eye. Such knowledge has led to the development of gene therapy approaches to treat these devastating disorders. Challenges regarding the efficacy and efficiency of therapeutic gene delivery have driven the development of novel therapeutic approaches, which continue to evolve the field of ocular gene therapy. In this review article, we will discuss the evolution of preclinical and clinical strategies that have improved gene therapy in the eye, showing that treatment of vision loss has a bright future. PMID:27178388

  1. Expression of olfactory signaling genes in the eye.

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    Alexey Pronin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To advance our understanding how the outer eye interacts with its environment, we asked which cellular receptors are expressed in the cornea, focusing on G protein-coupled receptors. METHODS: Total RNA from the mouse cornea was subjected to next-generation sequencing using the Illumina platform. The data was analyzed with TopHat and CuffLinks software packages. Expression of a representative group of genes detected by RNA-seq was further analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology and fluorescent microscopy. RESULTS: We generated more than 46 million pair-end reads from mouse corneal RNA. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the mouse corneal transcriptome reconstructed from these reads represents over 10,000 gene transcripts. We identified 194 GPCR transcripts, of which 96 were putative olfactory receptors. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of several olfactory receptors and related genes, including olfactory marker protein and the G protein associated with olfaction, Gαolf. In situ hybridization showed that mRNA for olfactory marker protein, Gαolf and possibly some olfactory receptors were found in the corneal epithelial cells. In addition to the corneal epithelium, Gαolf was present in the ganglionic and inner nuclear layers of the retina. One of the olfactory receptors, Olfr558, was present primarily in vessels of the eye co-stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating expression in arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: Several species of mRNA encoding putative olfactory receptors and related genes are expressed in the mouse cornea and other parts of the eye indicating they may play a role in sensing chemicals in the ocular environment.

  2. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

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    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Gross, Joshua B.; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R.; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O’Quin, Kelly E.; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M. J.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  3. The Identification and the Functional Validation of Eye Development and Regeneration Genes in Schmidtea Mediterranea

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Discovering the master genes necessary to build the eye in an invertebrate model such as S. mediterranea could help us to understand numerous retinopathies and age-related degeneration of the human eye. The aim of this study was to select and determine the functional activity of genes involved in the regeneration and development of the S. mediterranea eye. Gene ontology was the tool used to select the genes; while RNA interference and RNA hybridization provided the first approach towards esta...

  4. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the Small eye gene in mice and Aniridia in humans.

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    Quiring, R; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1994-08-05

    A Drosophila gene that contains both a paired box and a homeobox and has extensive sequence homology to the mouse Pax-6 (Small eye) gene was isolated and mapped to chromosome IV in a region close to the eyeless locus. Two spontaneous mutations, ey2 and eyR, contain transposable element insertions into the cloned gene and affect gene expression, particularly in the eye primordia. This indicates that the cloned gene encodes ey. The finding that ey of Drosophila, Small eye of the mouse, and human Aniridia are encoded by homologous genes suggests that eye morphogenesis is under similar genetic control in both vertebrates and insects, in spite of the large differences in eye morphology and mode of development.

  5. Toward an Understanding of Divergent Compound Eye Development in Drones and Workers of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.): A Correlative Analysis of Morphology and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Antonio, David S; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina. The expression analysis focused on seven genes important for Drosophila eye development: eyes absent, sine oculis, embryonic lethal abnormal vision, minibrain, small optic lobes, epidermal growth factor receptor, and roughest. All except small optic lobes were more highly expressed in third-instar drone larvae, but then, in the fourth and fifth instar, their expression was sex-specifically modulated, showing shifts in temporal dynamics. The clearest differences were seen for small optic lobes, which is highly expressed in the developing eye of workers, and minibrain and roughest, which showed a strong expression peak coinciding with retina differentiation. A microarray analysis for optic lobe/retina complexes revealed the differential expression of several metabolism-related genes, as well as of two micro-RNAs. While we could not see major morphological differences in the developing eye structures before the pupal stage, the expression differences observed for the seven candidate genes and in the transcriptional microarray profiles indicate that molecular signatures underlying sex-specific optic lobe and retina development become established throughout the larval stages.

  6. Gene therapy in the second eye of RPE65-deficient dogs improves retinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, M J; Bartoe, J T; Barker, S E; Smith, A J; Curran, P G; Bainbridge, J W; Ali, R R; Petersen-Jones, S M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether immune responses interfered with gene therapy rescue using subretinally delivered recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2 carrying the RPE65 cDNA gene driven by the human RPE65 promoter (rAAV2.hRPE65p.hRPE65) in the second eye of RPE65-/- dogs that had previously been treated in a similar manner in the other eye. Bilateral subretinal injection was performed in nine dogs with the second eye treated 85-180 days after the first. Electroretinography (ERG) and vision testing showed rescue in 16 of 18 treated eyes, with no significant difference between first and second treated eyes. A serum neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to rAAV2 was detected in all treated animals, but this did not prevent or reduce the effectiveness of rescue in the second treated eye. We conclude that successful rescue using subretinal rAAV2.hRPE65p.hRPE65 gene therapy in the second eye is not precluded by prior gene therapy in the contralateral eye of the RPE65-/- dog. This finding has important implications for the treatment of human LCA type II patients.

  7. Differential regulation of two period genes in the Xenopus eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, M; Wang, Y; Steenhard, B M; Besharse, J C

    2000-10-20

    The recent identification and analysis of mammalian homologues of the well characterized Drosophila circadian clock gene, Period (Per), has led to the idea that key features of vertebrate circadian rhythmicity are conserved at the molecular level. The Xenopus laevis retina contains a circadian clock mechanism that can be studied in vitro. To study the rhythmic expression of Per in the Xenopus retina, we used a degenerate RT-PCR strategy to obtain cDNA clones covering the entire 1427 amino acid coding region of a Xenopus homologue of Per2 and a partial cDNA sequence for a Xenopus homologue of Per1. Northern blot analysis shows that xPer1 and xPer2 transcripts are expressed most abundantly in the eye and the brain. However, rhythmic expression of xPer2 transcripts in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is light dependent and occurs only under 12 h light/12 h dark (LD) conditions, not in constant dark (DD). In contrast, xPer1 mRNA accumulation is rhythmic under both LD and DD conditions. Light dependent regulation of xPer2 mRNA and circadian regulation of xPer1 mRNA in the Xenopus retina differs from that in Drosophila and mammals. Light dependence of xPer2 mRNA levels and the offset phase relationship of the xPer2 rhythm to that for xPer1 suggests a role for xPer2 in circadian entrainment.

  8. A nonsense nucleotide substitution in the oculocutaneous albinism II gene underlies the original pink-eyed dilution allele (Oca2(p)) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Haruka; Kiniwa, Yukiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Yang, Mu; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2(p)); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2(p) allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, which prompted us to undertake a molecular genetic analysis of the Oca2 gene of this strain. Our genetic linkage analysis suggests that the locus for the pink-eyed dilution phenotype of NCT is tightly linked to the Oca2 locus. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the NCT mouse has a nonsense nucleotide substitution at exon 7 of the Oca2 gene. Examination of three mouse strains (NZW/NSlc, SJL/J, and 129X1/SvJJmsSlc) with the original Oca2(p) allele revealed the presence of a nonsense nucleotide substitution identical to that in the NCT strain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Oca2 transcripts were absent in the skin of NCT mice, suggesting intervention of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that the nonsense nucleotide substitution in the Oca2 gene underlies the Oca2(p) allele. Our data also indicate that the NCT mouse can be used not only as a cataract model, but also as a model for human type II oculocutaneous albinism.

  9. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Sarah M.; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the dorsal eye margin. We found that pnr acts downstream of Ey and affect the retinal determination pathway by suppressing eya. Further analysis of the “eye suppression” function of pnr revealed that this function is likely mediated through suppression of the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and is independent of homothorax (hth), a negative regulator of eye. Pnr expression is restricted to the peripodial membrane on the dorsal eye margin, which gives rise to head structures around the eye, and pnr is not expressed in the eye disc proper that forms the retina. Thus, pnr has dual function, during early developmental stages pnr is involved in axial patterning whereas later it promotes the head specific fate. These studies will help in understanding the developmental regulation of boundary formation of the eye field on the dorsal eye margin. PMID:20691679

  10. Human sterile alpha motif domain 9, a novel gene identified as down-regulated in aggressive fibromatosis, is absent in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Sherilyn

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoplasia can be driven by mutations resulting in dysregulation of transcription. In the mesenchymal neoplasm, aggressive fibromatosis, subtractive hybridization identified sterile alpha motif domain 9 (SAMD9 as a substantially down regulated gene in neoplasia. SAMD9 was recently found to be mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. In this study, we studied the gene structure and function of SAMD9, and its paralogous gene, SAMD9L, and examined these in a variety of species. Results SAMD9 is located on human chromosome 7q21.2 with a paralogous gene sterile alpha motif domain 9 like (SAMD9L in the head-to-tail orientation. Although both genes are present in a variety of species, the orthologue for SAMD9 is lost in the mouse lineage due to a unique genomic rearrangement. Both SAMD9 and SAMD9L are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. SAMD9 is expressed at a lower level in a variety of neoplasms associated with β-catenin stabilization, such as aggressive fibromatosis, breast, and colon cancers. SAMD9 and SAMD9L contain an amino-terminal SAM domain, but the remainder of the predicted protein structure does not exhibit substantial homology to other known protein motifs. The putative protein product of SAMD9 localizes to the cytoplasm. In vitro data shows that SAMD9 negatively regulates cell proliferation. Over expression of SAMD9 in the colon cancer cell line, SW480, reduces the volume of tumors formed when transplanted into immune-deficient mice. Conclusion SAMD9 and SAMD9L are a novel family of genes, which play a role regulating cell proliferation and suppressing the neoplastic phenotype. This is the first report as far as we know about a human gene that exists in rat, but is lost in mouse, due to a mouse specific rearrangement, resulting in the loss of the SAMD9 gene.

  11. Meis1 coordinates a network of genes implicated in eye development and microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Séverine; González-Lázaro, Monica; Beccari, Leonardo; Carramolino, Laura; Martin-Bermejo, Maria Jesus; Amarie, Oana; Mateos-San Martín, Daniel; Torroja, Carlos; Bogdanović, Ozren; Doohan, Roisin; Puk, Oliver; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Graw, Jochen; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Casares, Fernando; Torres, Miguel; Bovolenta, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Microphthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by reduced eye size and visual deficits of variable degree. Sporadic and hereditary microphthalmos have been associated with heterozygous mutations in genes fundamental for eye development. Yet, many cases are idiopathic or await the identification of molecular causes. Here we show that haploinsufficiency of Meis1, which encodes a transcription factor with evolutionarily conserved expression in the embryonic trunk, brain and sensory organs, including the eye, causes microphthalmic traits and visual impairment in adult mice. By combining analysis of Meis1 loss-of-function and conditional Meis1 functional rescue with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq approaches we show that, in contrast to its preferential association with Hox-Pbx BSs in the trunk, Meis1 binds to Hox/Pbx-independent sites during optic cup development. In the eye primordium, Meis1 coordinates, in a dose-dependent manner, retinal proliferation and differentiation by regulating genes responsible for human microphthalmia and components of the Notch signaling pathway. In addition, Meis1 is required for eye patterning by controlling a set of eye territory-specific transcription factors, so that in Meis1(-/-) embryos boundaries among the different eye territories are shifted or blurred. We propose that Meis1 is at the core of a genetic network implicated in eye patterning/microphthalmia, and represents an additional candidate for syndromic cases of these ocular malformations.

  12. Perceptions and understanding of genetics and genetic eye disease and attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy in a primary eye care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, Pratyusha; Garrioch, Robert; Votruba, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Genetic eye pathology represents a significant percentage of the causes of blindness in industrialized countries. This study explores the level of understanding and perceptions of genetics and inherited eye diseases and the attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy. The study was conducted in two parts. Participant groups included were: undergraduate students of optometry, primary eye care professionals and members of the general public. A preliminary study aimed to understand perceptions and to explore the level of knowledge about genetics in general, eye genetics and gene therapy. A second survey was designed to explore attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy. The majority of participants (82%) perceived genetics as an important science. However, none of them showed a high level of understanding of genetics and inherited eye diseases. Undergraduate students and primary eye care professionals were better informed about inherited eye diseases than the general public (p = 0.001). The majority (80%) across all three groups had a positive attitude to genetic testing and gene therapy. There was a lack of knowledge about the genetic services available among all groups of participants. This calls for serious thinking about the level of dissemination of information about genetics and inherited eye diseases. It shows a broadly supportive attitude to genomic medicine among the public. Improving public awareness and education in inherited eye diseases can improve the utility of genetic testing and therapy.

  13. Eye-Specific Gene Expression following Embryonic Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish: Roles for Heat Shock Factor 1

    OpenAIRE

    KASHYAP, BHAVANI; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 hours post-fertilization). The...

  14. Retinal homeobox genes and the role of cell proliferation in cavefish eye degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Allen G; Famuditimi, Kuburat; Jeffery, William R

    2002-05-01

    The teleost Astyanax mexicanus exhibits eyed surface dwelling (surface fish) and blind cave dwelling (cavefish) forms. Despite lacking functional eyes as adults, cavefish embryos form eye primordia, which later arrest in development, degenerate and sink into the orbit. We are comparing the expression patterns of various eye regulatory genes during surfacefish and cavefish development to determine the cause of eye degeneration. Here we examine Rx and Chx/Vsx family homeobox genes, which have a major role in cell proliferation in the vertebrate retina. We isolated and sequenced a full-length RxcDNA clone (As-Rx1) and part of a Chx/Vsx(As-Vsx2) gene, which appear to be most closely related to the zebrafish Rx1 and Alx/Vsx2 genes respectively. In situ hybridization shows that these genes have similar but non-identical expression patterns during Astyanax eye development. Expression is first detected in the optic vesicle, then throughout the presumptive retina of the optic cup, and finally in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), the region of the growing retina where most new retinoblasts are formed. In addition, As-Rx1 is expressed in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina, which contains the photoreceptor cells, and As-Vsx2 is expressed in the inner nuclear layer, probably in the bipolar cells. With the exception of reduced As-Rx-1 expression in the ONL, the As-Rx1 and As-Vsx2 expression patterns were unchanged in the developing retina of two different cavefish populations, suggesting that cell proliferation is not inhibited. These results were confirmed by using PCNA and BrdU markers for retinal cell division. We conclude that the CMZ is active in cell proliferation long after eye growth is diminished and is therefore not the major cause of eye degeneration.

  15. Morphological and molecular development of the eyes during embryogenesis of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José María; Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    Photoreception is one of the most primitive sensory functions in metazoans. Despite the diversity of forms and components of metazoan eyes, many studies have demonstrated the existence of a common cellular and molecular basis for their development. Genes like pax6, sine oculis, eyes absent, dachshund, otx, Rx and atonal are known to be associated with the specification and development of the eyes. In planarians, sine oculis, eyes absent and otxA play an essential role during the formation of the eye after decapitation, whereas pax6, considered by many authors as a master control gene for eye formation, does not seem to be involved in adult eye regeneration. Whether this is a peculiarity of adult planarians or, on the contrary, is also found in embryogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we characterize embryonic eye development in the planarian species Schmidtea polychroa using histological sections and molecular markers. Additionally, we analyse the expression pattern of the pax6-sine oculis-eyes absent-dachshund network, and the genes Rx, otxA, otxB and atonal. We demonstrate that eye formation in planarian embryos shows great similarities to adult eye regeneration, both at the cellular and molecular level. We thus conclude that planarian eyes exhibit divergent molecular patterning mechanisms compared to the prototypic ancestral metazoan eye.

  16. PHACE syndrome and congenitally absent thyroid gland at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Mark D; Yu, John-Paul J; Asch, Sarah; Mathes, Erin F

    2016-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, and abnormalities of the eye. Thyroid disorders associated with PHACE syndrome have been described, although there are limited reports of this rare occurrence. We report a case of PHACE syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism in an infant, for which absent thyroid gland was diagnosed at magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Poland syndrome with absent ribs

    OpenAIRE

    Rupam Kumar Ta; Kaushik Saha; Arnab Saha; Santanu Ghosh; Mrinmoy Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness...

  18. Poland syndrome with absent ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Kumar Ta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness of right hand.

  19. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Johns, Philip M; Metheny, Jackie D; Baker, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae) are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and related sexually

  20. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  1. NGS-based Molecular diagnosis of 105 eyeGENE(®) probands with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongqi; Bowles, Kristen; Goetz, Kerry; Scholl, Hendrik P N; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xinjing; Xu, Shan; Wang, Keqing; Wang, Hui; Chen, Rui

    2015-12-15

    The National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE(®)) was established in an effort to facilitate basic and clinical research of human inherited eye disease. In order to provide high quality genetic testing to eyeGENE(®)'s enrolled patients which potentially aids clinical diagnosis and disease treatment, we carried out a pilot study and performed Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based molecular diagnosis for 105 Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) patients randomly selected from the network. A custom capture panel was designed, which incorporated 195 known retinal disease genes, including 61 known RP genes. As a result, disease-causing mutations were identified in 52 out of 105 probands (solving rate of 49.5%). A total of 82 mutations were identified, and 48 of them were novel. Interestingly, for three probands the molecular diagnosis was inconsistent with the initial clinical diagnosis, while for five probands the molecular information suggested a different inheritance model other than that assigned by the physician. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that NGS target sequencing is efficient and sufficiently precise for molecular diagnosis of a highly heterogeneous patient cohort from eyeGENE(®).

  2. Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Aleman, Tomas S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B; Windsor, Elizabeth A M; Traboulsi, Elias I; Heon, Elise; Pittler, Steven J; Milam, Ann H; Maguire, Albert M; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M; Bennett, Jean

    2005-04-26

    Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Retinal gene therapy restores vision to blind canine and murine models of LCA. Gene therapy in blind humans with LCA from RPE65 mutations may also have potential for success but only if the retinal photoreceptor layer is intact, as in the early-disease stage-treated animals. Here, we use high-resolution in vivo microscopy to quantify photoreceptor layer thickness in the human disease to define the relationship of retinal structure to vision and determine the potential for gene therapy success. The normally cone photoreceptor-rich central retina and rod-rich regions were studied. Despite severely reduced cone vision, many RPE65-mutant retinas had near-normal central microstructure. Absent rod vision was associated with a detectable but thinned photoreceptor layer. We asked whether abnormally thinned RPE65-mutant retina with photoreceptor loss would respond to treatment. Gene therapy in Rpe65(-/-) mice at advanced-disease stages, a more faithful mimic of the humans we studied, showed success but only in animals with better-preserved photoreceptor structure. The results indicate that identifying and then targeting retinal locations with retained photoreceptors will be a prerequisite for successful gene therapy in humans with RPE65 mutations and in other retinal degenerative disorders now moving from proof-of-concept studies toward clinical trials.

  3. Identification and characterization of autosomal genes that interact with glass in the developing Drosophila eye

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    Ma, Chaoyong; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Ying; Moses, K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The glass gene encodes a zinc finger, DNA-binding protein that is required for photoreceptor cell development in Drosophila melanogaster. In the developing compound eye, glass function is regulated at two points: (1) the protein is expressed in all cells` nuclei posterior to the morphogenetic furrow and (2) the ability of the Glass protein to regulate downstream genes is largely limited to the developing photoreceptor cells. We conducted a series of genetic screen for autosomal dominant second-site modifiers of the weak allele glass, to discover genes with products that may regulate glass function at either of these levels. Seventy-six dominant enhancer mutations were recovered (and no dominant suppressors). Most of these dominant mutations are in essential genes and are associated with recessive lethality. We have assigned these mutations to 23 complementation groups that include multiple alleles of Star and hedgehog as well as single alleles of Delta, roughened eye, glass and hairy. Mutations in 18 of the complementation groups are embryonic lethals, and of these, 13 show abnormal adult retinal phenotypes in homozygous clones, usually with altered numbers of photoreceptor cells in some of the ommatidia. 116 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  5. ASYMPTOMATIC ABSENT EPIGLOTTIS: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Absence or hypoplasia of the epiglottis is a rare anomaly. Most patients, with absent or hypoplastic epiglottis, have presented, life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress and severe aspiration in infancy or early childhood. We report a case of completely asymptomatic 30 year old female with absent epiglottis posted for modified radical mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).

  6. ASYMPTOMATIC ABSENT EPIGLOTTIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Shahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Absence or hypoplasia of the epiglottis is a rare anomaly. Most patients, with absent or hypoplastic epiglottis, have presented, life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress and severe aspiration in infancy or early childhood. We report a case of completely asymptomatic 30 year old female with absent epiglottis posted for modified radical mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM.

  7. Temporal control of glial cell migration in the Drosophila eye requires gilgamesh, hedgehog, and eye specification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Attix, Suzanne; Gunning, Dorian; Zipursky, S Lawrence

    2002-01-17

    In the Drosophila visual system, photoreceptor neurons (R cells) extend axons towards glial cells located at the posterior edge of the eye disc. In gilgamesh (gish) mutants, glial cells invade anterior regions of the eye disc prior to R cell differentiation and R cell axons extend anteriorly along these cells. gish encodes casein kinase Igamma. gish, sine oculis, eyeless, and hedgehog (hh) act in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration. Targeted expression of Hh in this region rescues the gish phenotype, though the glial cells do not require the canonical Hh signaling pathway to respond. We propose that the spatiotemporal control of glial cell migration plays a critical role in determining the directionality of R cell axon outgrowth.

  8. twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene of Drosophila, acts upstream of eyeless in the control of eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, T; Halder, G; Kloter, U; Souabni, A; Gehring, W J; Busslinger, M

    1999-03-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless (ey) plays a key role in eye development. Here we show tht Drosophila contains a second Pax-6 gene, twin of eyeless (toy), due to a duplication during insect evolution. Toy is more similar to vertebrate Pax-6 proteins than Ey with regard to overall sequence conservation, DNA-binding function, and early expression in the embryo, toy and ey share a similar expression pattern in the developing visual system, and targeted expression of Toy, like Ey, induces the formation of ectopic eyes. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates, however, that Toy functions upstream of ey by directly regulating the eye-specific enhancer of ey. Toy is therefore required for initiation of ey expression in the embryo and acts through Ey to activate the eye developmental program.

  9. Eye-specific gene expression following embryonic ethanol exposure in zebrafish: roles for heat shock factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A; Stenkamp, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 h post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene regulatory networks reused to build novel traits: co-option of an eye-related gene regulatory network in eye-like organs and red wing patches on insect wings is suggested by optix expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2012-03-01

    Co-option of the eye developmental gene regulatory network may have led to the appearance of novel functional traits on the wings of flies and butterflies. The first trait is a recently described wing organ in a species of extinct midge resembling the outer layers of the midge's own compound eye. The second trait is red pigment patches on Heliconius butterfly wings connected to the expression of an eye selector gene, optix. These examples, as well as others, are discussed regarding the type of empirical evidence and burden of proof that have been used to infer gene network co-option underlying the origin of novel traits. A conceptual framework describing increasing confidence in inference of network co-option is proposed. Novel research directions to facilitate inference of network co-option are also highlighted, especially in cases where the pre-existent and novel traits do not resemble each other.

  11. Meiotic drive impacts expression and evolution of x-linked genes in stalk-eyed flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Josephine A; Brand, Cara L; Paczolt, Kimberly A; Johns, Philip M; Baker, Richard H; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Although sex chromosome meiotic drive has been observed in a variety of species for over 50 years, the genes causing drive are only known in a few cases, and none of these cases cause distorted sex-ratios in nature. In stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni), driving X chromosomes are commonly found at frequencies approaching 30% in the wild, but the genetic basis of drive has remained elusive due to reduced recombination between driving and non-driving X chromosomes. Here, we used RNAseq to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between males carrying either a driving X (XSR) or a standard X chromosome (XST), and found hundreds of these, the majority of which are X-linked. Drive-associated transcripts show increased levels of sequence divergence (dN/dS) compared to a control set, and are predominantly expressed either in testes or in the gonads of both sexes. Finally, we confirmed that XSR and XST are highly divergent by estimating sequence differentiation between the RNAseq pools. We found that X-linked transcripts were often strongly differentiated (whereas most autosomal transcripts were not), supporting the presence of a relatively large region of recombination suppression on XSR presumably caused by one or more inversions. We have identified a group of genes that are good candidates for further study into the causes and consequences of sex-chromosome drive, and demonstrated that meiotic drive has had a profound effect on sequence evolution and gene expression of X-linked genes in this species.

  12. A new autosomal dominant eye and lung syndrome linked to mutations in TIMP3 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Isabelle; Bocquet, Béatrice; Labesse, Gilles; Zeitz, Christina; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Lacroux, Annie; Mauget-Faysse, Martine; Drumare, Isabelle; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Mathieu, Cyril; Marquette, Virginie; Sagot, Lola; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Arndt, Carl; Carroll, Patrick; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José-Alain; Puech, Bernard; Audo, Isabelle; Mrejen, Sarah; Hamel, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    To revisit the autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) as a syndromic condition including late-onset pulmonary disease. We report clinical and imaging data of ten affected individuals from 2 unrelated families with SFD and carrying heterozygous TIMP3 mutations (c.572A > G, p.Y191C, exon 5, in family 1 and c.113C > G, p.S38C, exon 1, in family 2). In family 1, all SFD patients older than 50 (two generations) had also a severe emphysema, despite no history of smoking or asthma. In the preceding generation, the mother died of pulmonary emphysema and she was blind after the age of 50. Her two great-grandsons (<20 years), had abnormal Bruch Membrane thickness, a sign of eye disease. In family 2, eye and lung diseases were also associated in two generations, both occurred later, and lung disease was moderate (bronchiectasis). This is the first report of a syndromic SFD in line with the mouse model uncovering the role of TIMP3 in human lung morphogenesis and functions. The TIMP3 gene should be screened in familial pulmonary diseases with bronchiectasis, associated with a medical history of visual loss. In addition, SFD patients should be advised to avoid tobacco consumption, to practice sports, and to undergo regular pulmonary examinations. PMID:27601084

  13. A Hh-driven gene network controls specification, pattern and size of the Drosophila simple eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Domínguez-Cejudo, María A; Amore, Gabriele; Brockmann, Anette; Lemos, María C; Córdoba, Antonio; Casares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    During development, extracellular signaling molecules interact with intracellular gene networks to control the specification, pattern and size of organs. One such signaling molecule is Hedgehog (Hh). Hh is known to act as a morphogen, instructing different fates depending on the distance to its source. However, how Hh, when signaling across a cell field, impacts organ-specific transcriptional networks is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate this issue during the development of the Drosophila ocellar complex. The development of this sensory structure, which is composed of three simple eyes (or ocelli) located at the vertices of a triangular patch of cuticle on the dorsal head, depends on Hh signaling and on the definition of three domains: two areas of eya and so expression--the prospective anterior and posterior ocelli--and the intervening interocellar domain. Our results highlight the role of the homeodomain transcription factor engrailed (en) both as a target and as a transcriptional repressor of hh signaling in the prospective interocellar region. Furthermore, we identify a requirement for the Notch pathway in the establishment of en maintenance in a Hh-independent manner. Therefore, hh signals transiently during the specification of the interocellar domain, with en being required here for hh signaling attenuation. Computational analysis further suggests that this network design confers robustness to signaling noise and constrains phenotypic variation. In summary, using genetics and modeling we have expanded the ocellar gene network to explain how the interaction between the Hh gradient and this gene network results in the generation of stable mutually exclusive gene expression domains. In addition, we discuss some general implications our model may have in some Hh-driven gene networks.

  14. Spermatogenesis Drives Rapid Gene Creation and Masculinization of the X Chromosome in Stalk-Eyed Flies (Diopsidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H.; Narechania, Apurva; DeSalle, Rob; Johns, Philip M.; Reinhardt, Josephine A.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their evolutionary history, genomes acquire new genetic material that facilitates phenotypic innovation and diversification. Developmental processes associated with reproduction are particularly likely to involve novel genes. Abundant gene creation impacts the evolution of chromosomal gene content and general regulatory mechanisms such as dosage compensation. Numerous studies in model organisms have found complex and, at times contradictory, relationships among these genomic attributes highlighting the need to examine these patterns in other systems characterized by abundant sexual selection. Therefore, we examined the association among novel gene creation, tissue-specific gene expression, and chromosomal gene content within stalk-eyed flies. Flies in this family are characterized by strong sexual selection and the presence of a newly evolved X chromosome. We generated RNA-seq transcriptome data from the testes for three species within the family and from seven additional tissues in the highly dimorphic species, Teleopsis dalmanni. Analysis of dipteran gene orthology reveals dramatic testes-specific gene creation in stalk-eyed flies, involving numerous gene families that are highly conserved in other insect groups. Identification of X-linked genes for the three species indicates that the X chromosome arose prior to the diversification of the family. The most striking feature of this X chromosome is that it is highly masculinized, containing nearly twice as many testes-specific genes as expected based on its size. All the major processes that may drive differential sex chromosome gene content—creation of genes with male-specific expression, development of male-specific expression from pre-existing genes, and movement of genes with male-specific expression—are elevated on the X chromosome of T. dalmanni. This masculinization occurs despite evidence that testes expressed genes do not achieve the same levels of gene expression on the X chromosome as they

  15. Spermatogenesis Drives Rapid Gene Creation and Masculinization of the X Chromosome in Stalk-Eyed Flies (Diopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H; Narechania, Apurva; DeSalle, Rob; Johns, Philip M; Reinhardt, Josephine A; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2016-03-26

    Throughout their evolutionary history, genomes acquire new genetic material that facilitates phenotypic innovation and diversification. Developmental processes associated with reproduction are particularly likely to involve novel genes. Abundant gene creation impacts the evolution of chromosomal gene content and general regulatory mechanisms such as dosage compensation. Numerous studies in model organisms have found complex and, at times contradictory, relationships among these genomic attributes highlighting the need to examine these patterns in other systems characterized by abundant sexual selection. Therefore, we examined the association among novel gene creation, tissue-specific gene expression, and chromosomal gene content within stalk-eyed flies. Flies in this family are characterized by strong sexual selection and the presence of a newly evolved X chromosome. We generated RNA-seq transcriptome data from the testes for three species within the family and from seven additional tissues in the highly dimorphic species,Teleopsis dalmanni Analysis of dipteran gene orthology reveals dramatic testes-specific gene creation in stalk-eyed flies, involving numerous gene families that are highly conserved in other insect groups. Identification of X-linked genes for the three species indicates that the X chromosome arose prior to the diversification of the family. The most striking feature of this X chromosome is that it is highly masculinized, containing nearly twice as many testes-specific genes as expected based on its size. All the major processes that may drive differential sex chromosome gene content-creation of genes with male-specific expression, development of male-specific expression from pre-existing genes, and movement of genes with male-specific expression-are elevated on the X chromosome ofT. dalmanni This masculinization occurs despite evidence that testes expressed genes do not achieve the same levels of gene expression on the X chromosome as they do on

  16. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.

  17. Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome in a child with small and absent terminal phalanges and absent nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Ajeawung, Norbert Fonya; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Molidperee, Sirinart; Najafi, Kimia; Gibbs, Richard A; Lee, Brendan H; Hennekam, Raoul C; Campeau, Philippe M

    2017-04-01

    Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome (KOS) is caused by recessive UBE3B mutations and presents with microcephaly, ocular abnormalities, distinctive facial morphology, low cholesterol levels and intellectual disability. We describe a child with microcephaly, brachycephaly, hearing loss, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, cleft palate, multiple renal cysts, absent nails, small or absent terminal phalanges, absent speech and intellectual disability. Syndromes that were initially considered include DOORS syndrome, Coffin-Siris syndrome and Dubowitz syndrome. Clinical investigations coupled with karyotype analysis, array-comparative genomic hybridization, exome and Sanger sequencing were performed to characterize the condition in this child. Sanger sequencing was negative for the DOORS syndrome gene TBC1D24 but exome sequencing identified a homozygous deletion in UBE3B (NM_183415:c.3139_3141del, p.1047_1047del) located within the terminal portion of the HECT domain. This finding coupled with the presence of characteristic features such as brachycephaly, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, short palpebral fissures, cleft palate and developmental delay allowed us to make a diagnosis of KOS. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of considering KOS as a differential diagnosis for patients under evaluation for DOORS syndrome and expand the phenotype of KOS to include small or absent terminal phalanges, nails, and the presence of hallux varus and multicystic dysplastic kidneys.

  18. Promoter polymorphism of the erythropoietin gene in severe diabetic eye and kidney complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongzhong; Yang, Zhenglin; Patel, Shrena; Chen, Haoyu; Gibbs, Daniel; Yang, Xian; Hau, Vincent S; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Harmon, Jennifer; Pearson, Erik; Buehler, Jeanette; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Baifeng; Tinkham, Nicholas H; Zabriskie, Norman A; Zeng, Jiexi; Luo, Ling; Sun, Jennifer K; Prakash, Manvi; Hamam, Rola N; Tonna, Stephen; Constantine, Ryan; Ronquillo, Cecinio C; Sadda, SriniVas; Avery, Robert L; Brand, John M; London, Nyall; Anduze, Alfred L; King, George L; Bernstein, Paul S; Watkins, Scott; Jorde, Lynn B; Li, Dean Y; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pollak, Martin R; Zhang, Kang

    2008-05-13

    Significant morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus result largely from a greatly increased incidence of microvascular complications. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) are two of the most common and severe microvascular complications of diabetes. A high concordance exists in the development of PDR and ESRD in diabetic patients, as well as strong familial aggregation of these complications, suggesting a common underlying genetic mechanism. However, the precise gene(s) and genetic variant(s) involved remain largely unknown. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent angiogenic factor observed in the diabetic human and mouse eye. By a combination of case-control association and functional studies, we demonstrate that the T allele of SNP rs1617640 in the promoter of the EPO gene is significantly associated with PDR and ESRD in three European-American cohorts [Utah: P = 1.91 x 10(-3); Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) Study: P = 2.66 x 10(-8); and Boston: P = 2.1 x 10(-2)]. The EPO concentration in human vitreous body was 7.5-fold higher in normal subjects with the TT risk genotype than in those with the GG genotype. Computational analysis suggests that the risk allele (T) of rs1617640 creates a matrix match with the EVI1/MEL1 or AP1 binding site, accounting for an observed 25-fold enhancement of luciferase reporter expression as compared with the G allele. These results suggest that rs1617640 in the EPO promoter is significantly associated with PDR and ESRD. This study identifies a disease risk-associated gene and potential pathway mediating severe diabetic microvascular complications.

  19. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  20. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  1. Mapping Gene Regulatory Networks in Drosophila Eye Development by Large-Scale Transcriptome Perturbations and Motif Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Potier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome control is operated by transcription factors (TFs controlling their target genes by binding to promoters and enhancers. Conceptually, the interactions between TFs, their binding sites, and their functional targets are represented by gene regulatory networks (GRNs. Deciphering in vivo GRNs underlying organ development in an unbiased genome-wide setting involves identifying both functional TF-gene interactions and physical TF-DNA interactions. To reverse engineer the GRNs of eye development in Drosophila, we performed RNA-seq across 72 genetic perturbations and sorted cell types and inferred a coexpression network. Next, we derived direct TF-DNA interactions using computational motif inference, ultimately connecting 241 TFs to 5,632 direct target genes through 24,926 enhancers. Using this network, we found network motifs, cis-regulatory codes, and regulators of eye development. We validate the predicted target regions of Grainyhead by ChIP-seq and identify this factor as a general cofactor in the eye network, being bound to thousands of nucleosome-free regions.

  2. Lens gene expression analysis reveals downregulation of the anti-apoptotic chaperone alphaA-crystallin during cavefish eye degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Allen G; Byerly, Mardi S; Jeffery, William R

    2007-12-01

    We have conducted a survey of the expression patterns of five genes encoding three different classes of major lens proteins during eye degeneration in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. This species consists of two forms, an eyed surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and a blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) form. Cavefish form an optic primordium with a lens vesicle and optic cup. In contrast to surface fish, however, the cavefish lens does not differentiate fiber cells and undergoes massive apoptosis. The genes encoding the lens intrinsic membrane proteins MIP and MP19 and the divergent betaB1- and gammaM2-crystallins are expressed during cavefish lens development, although their levels are reduced because of a smaller lens, and the spatial distribution of their transcripts is modified because of the lack of differentiated fiber cells. In contrast, the alphaA-crystallin gene, which encodes a heat shock protein-related chaperone with antiapoptotic activity, is substantially downregulated in the developing cavefish lens. The results suggest that suppression of alphaA-crystallin antiapoptotic activity may be involved in cavefish eye degeneration.

  3. The expression of three opsin genes from the compound eye of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is regulated by a circadian clock, light conditions and nutritional status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Zhang, Xinfang; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, we cloned the ultraviolet (UV), blue (BL) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsin genes from the compound eye of the cotton bollworm and then measured their mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR...

  4. Molecular characterization of RAPD and SCAR marker linked to the frog-eye leaf spot resistance gene in soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two fragments SCS3620 and SCS3580 of the co-dominant marker OPS03620&580 that were linked to the resistance gene of soybean frog-eye leaf spot have been completely sequenced.A significant insertion of 30 bp is the main reason of the polymorphism between the two fragments.The results of Southern hybridization indicate that SCS3620 derives from a single- or low-copy sequence and can be used as an RFLP probe.A co-dominant SCAR marker SCS3620&580 has been developed based on the sequences.The segregation of SCS3620&580 is similar to that of RAPD marker OPS03620&580.Significant polymorphism has been shown between resistant and susceptible genotypes when 62 soybean genotypes were surveyed for the SCAR marker.Therefore,the marker can be used in the resistance breeding of soybean frog-eye leaf spot by marker-assisted selection.

  5. Genetic influences are virtually absent for trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A M Van Lange

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns, and beliefs regarding other people's trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns, is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions TAR syndrome thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by the absence of ...

  7. Communication about absent entities in great apes and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    There is currently debate about the extent to which non-linguistic beings such as human infants and great apes are capable of absent reference. In a series of experiments we investigated the flexibility and specificity of great apes' (N=36) and 12 month-old infants' (N=40) requests for absent entities. Subjects had the choice between requesting visible objects directly and using the former location of a depleted option to request more of these now-absent entities. Importantly, we systematically varied the quality of the present and absent options. We found that great apes as well as human infants flexibly adjusted their requests for absent entities to these contextual variations and only requested absent entities when the visible option was of lower quality than the absent option. These results suggest that the most basic cognitive capacities for absent reference do not depend on language and are shared by humans and their closest living relatives.

  8. Isolated unilateral absent patella and contralateral small patella

    OpenAIRE

    Duygun, Fatih; Sertkaya, Omer; Aldemir, Cengiz; DOĞAN, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Isolated bilateral absent patella is seen very rarely. It is generally encountered as a part of nail-patella syndrome. An 18-year-old male patient presented with left absent patella and right small patella.

  9. Glycerol hypersensitivity in a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency is affected by mutations in eye pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Wightman

    Full Text Available Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374 and dGK (CG7995. As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency.

  10. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  11. Blue eye color in humans may be caused by a perfectly associated founder mutation in a regulatory element located within the HERC2 gene inhibiting OCA2 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Hans; Troelsen, Jesper; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The human eye color is a quantitative trait displaying multifactorial inheritance. Several studies have shown that the OCA2 locus is the major contributor to the human eye color variation. By linkage analysis of a large Danish family, we finemapped the blue eye color locus to a 166 Kbp region...... within the HERC2 gene. By association analyses, we identified two SNPs within this region that were perfectly associated with the blue and brown eye colors: rs12913832 and rs1129038. Of these, rs12913832 is located 21.152 bp upstream from the OCA2 promoter in a highly conserved sequence in intron 86...... of HERC2. The brown eye color allele of rs12913832 is highly conserved throughout a number of species. As shown by a Luciferase assays in cell cultures, the element significantly reduces the activity of the OCA2 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the two alleles bind...

  12. Increased frequency of DNA deletions in pink-eyed unstable mice carrying a mutation in the Werner syndrome gene homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases, including cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that the WS gene product is involved in resolving aberrant DNA structures that may arise during the process of DNA replication and/or transcription. To estimate the frequency of DNA deletions directly in the skin of mouse embryos, mice with a deletion of part of the murine WRN helicase domain were created. These mutant mice were then crossed to the pink-eyed unstable animals, which have a 70 kb internal duplication at the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene. This report indicates that the frequency of deletion of the duplicated sequence at the p locus is elevated in mice with a mutation in the WRN allele when compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the inhibitor of topoisomerase I camptothecin also increases the frequency of deletion at the p locus. This frequency is even more elevated in WRN mutant mice treated with camptothecin. In contrast, while the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity by 3-aminobenzamide increases the frequency of DNA deletion, mutant WRN mice are not significantly more sensitive to the inhibition of PARP activity than wild-type animals.

  13. FlyOde - a platform for community curation and interactive visualization of dynamic gene regulatory networks in Drosophila eye development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Koestler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Understanding the regulatory mechanisms governing eye development of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (D. m. requires structured knowledge of the involved genes and proteins, their interactions, and dynamic expression patterns. Especially the latter information is however to a large extent scattered throughout the literature. Results: FlyOde is an online platform for the systematic assembly of data on D. m. eye development. It consists of data on eye development obtained from the literature, and a web interface for users to interactively display these data as a gene regulatory network. Our manual curation process provides high standard structured data, following a specifically designed ontology. Visualization of gene interactions provides an overview of network topology, and filtering according to user-defined expression patterns makes it a versatile tool for daily tasks, as demonstrated by usage examples. Users are encouraged to submit additional data via a simple online form.

  14. Early-onset or rapidly progressive scoliosis in children: check the eyes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, M; Megevand, C; De Haller, R; Merlini, L; Boex, C; Truffert, A; Kaelin, A; Burglen, L; Korff, C M

    2013-11-01

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements, and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence, caused by mutations in the ROBO3 gene which has an important role in axonal guidance and neuronal migration. We describe two female children aged 12 years and 18 months, with progressive scoliosis, in whom the neurological examination showed absent conjugate horizontal eye movements, but preserved vertical gaze and convergence. Cerebral Magnetic resonance imaging findings included pontine hypoplasia, absent facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft, while Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps showed the absence of decussating ponto-cerebellar fibers and superior cerebellar peduncles. Somatosensory and motor evoked potential studies demonstrated ipsilateral sensory and motor responses. The diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of bi-allelic mutations in the ROBO3 gene.

  15. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  16. Six3, a medaka homologue of the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis is expressed in the anterior embryonic shield and the developing eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    1998-06-01

    The conserved transcription factor Pax6 is essential for eye development in Drosophila and mammals (Hill, R.E., Favor, J., Hogan, B.L.M., Ton, C.C.T., Saunders, G.F., Hanson, I.M., Prosser, J., Jordan, T., Hastie, N.D., van Heyningen, V., 1991. Mouse small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox containing gene. Nature 354, 522-525; Ton, C., Hirvonen, H., Miwa, H., Weil, M., Monaghan, P., Jordan, T., van Heyningen, V., Hastie, N., Meijers-Heijboer, H., Drechsler, M., Royer-Pokora, B., Collins, F., Swaroop, A., Strong, L.C., Saunders, G.F., 1991. Positional cloning and characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene from the aniridia region. Cell 6, 1059-1074; Matsuo, T., Osumi-Yamashita, N., Noji, S., Ohuchi, H., Koyama, E., Myokai, F., Matsuo, N., Toniguchi, S., Dari, H., Jseki, S., Ninomiya, Y., Fujiwara, M., Watanabe, T., Eto, K., 1993. A mutation at the Pax-6 gene in rat small eye is associated with impaired migration of midbrain crest cells. Nature genet. 3, 299-304; Quiring, R., Walldorf, U., Kloter, U., Gehring, W.J., 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265, 785-789). These findings led to the hypothesis that additional genes involved in invertebrate and vertebrate eye development are structurally and functionally conserved (Halder, G., Callaerts, P., Gehring, W.J., 1995. New perspectives on eye evolution. Curr. Opin. Gen. Dev. 5, 602-609; Quiring, R., Walldorf, U., Kloter, U., Gehring, W.J., 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265, 785-789). Candidates for such conserved genes are the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis (Cheyette, B.N.R., Green, P.J., Martin, K., Garren, H., Hartenstein, V., Zipursky, S.L., 1994. The Drosophila sine oculis locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein required for the development of the entire visual system. Neuron l2, 977-996) and its murine

  17. Mandibuloacral dysplasia and LMNA A529V mutation in Turkish patients with severe skeletal changes and absent breast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Leyla; Unsal, Evrim; Aktuna, Suleyman; Baltaci, Volkan; Celikkol, Pelin; Akyigit, Fatma; Sen, Askin; Ayvaz, Ozge; Balci, Sevim

    2016-07-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by acroosteolysis (resorption of terminal phalanges), skin changes (hyperpigmentation), clavicular hypoplasia, craniofascial anomalies, a hook nose and prominent eyes, delayed closures of the cranial sutures, lipodystrophy, alopecia, and skeletal anomalies. MAD patients are classified according to lipodystrophy patterns: type A and type B. The vast majority of MAD cases are caused by LMNA gene mutations. MAD patients with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) have been reported to have LMNA R527H, A529V, or A529T mutations. In this report, we describe two MADA patients with progressive skeletal changes, absent breast development, and cataract in addition to the classical MAD phenotype. Both patients were found to be homozygous for the Ala529Val mutation of the LMNA gene. Our female patient is the oldest MADA patient (59 years old) who has ever been reported with the LMNA mutation and also the LMNA Ala529Val mutation. This study is the second report on MADA patients with a homozygous Ala529Val mutation.

  18. Eye-specification genes in the bacterial light organ of the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes, and their expression in response to symbiont cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M.; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    The squid Euprymna scolopes has evolved independent sets of tissues capable of light detection, including a complex eye and a photophore or ‘light organ’, which houses the luminous bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. As the eye and light organ originate from different embryonic tissues, we examined whether the eye-specification genes, pax6, eya, six, and dac, are shared by these two organs, and if so, whether they are regulated in the light organ by symbiosis. We obtained sequences of the four genes with PCR, confirmed orthology with phylogenetic analysis, and determined that each was expressed in the eye and light organ. With in situ hybridization (ISH), we localized the gene transcripts in developing embryos, comparing the patterns of expression in the two organs. The four transcripts localized to similar tissues, including those associated with the visual system ~1/4 into embryogenesis (Naef stage 18) and the light organ ~3/4 into embryogenesis (Naef stage 26). We used ISH and quantitative real-time PCR to examine transcript expression and differential regulation in postembryonic light organs in response to the following colonization conditions: wild-type, luminescent V. fischeri; a mutant strain defective in light production; and as a control, no symbiont. In ISH experiments light organs showed down regulation of the pax6, eya, and six transcripts in response to wild-type V. fischeri. Mutant strains also induced down regulation of the pax6 and eya transcripts, but not of the six transcript. Thus, luminescence was required for down regulation of the six transcript. We discuss these results in the context of symbiont-induced light-organ development. Our study indicates that the eye-specification genes are expressed in light-interacting tissues independent of their embryonic origin and are capable of responding to bacterial cues. These results offer evidence for evolutionary tinkering or the recruitment of eye development genes for use in a light

  19. Differential Gene Expression in Retina of Myopic Chicken Eyes Using mRNA Differential Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenHX; ZhangQJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To study differentially expressed genes in retina of experimental myopic chicken.Methods:Experimental myopia in chicken was induced by form-deprivatin.The mRNA in chicen retina was analyzed by using differential display.Results:Experimental myopia was successfully induced in chicken through form-deprivation.Differentially expressed gene fragments were detected in retina of chicken with myopic evelopment and recovery as compared with normal controld.Conclusion:The differential display of mRNA may be a useful way in cloning myopic-related genes.

  20. Regional Guidelines for management of patients absent Without Leave (AWOL)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    The overarching purpose of these guidelines is to promote the safety and protection of service users and others in the event of a service user going missing or Absent Without Leave (AWOL). The guidelines provide a framework for all staff when it is determined that a service user is absent without leave.

  1. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated......Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...

  2. [The presence of dry eye syndrome and corneal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its association with -174 gene polymorphism for interleukin 6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanská, V; Serý, O; Fojtík, Z; Hlinomazová, Z

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the dry eye syndrome and corneal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to assess its association with the -174 gene polymorphism for interleukin 6. The group consisted of 123 patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis (20 men, 103 women); the mean age was 53 years (+/- 13.6). Every patient had completely ophthalmologic examination and special attention was paid to the amount of tears. The presence of corneal complications was detected in the medical history and evaluated during the slit lamp examination. In all patients the polymorphism-174 IL-6 examinations were performed. For the statistical data processing, the chi square (chi2) test for nominal variable was used. The dry eye syndrome (DES) was found in 98 eyes (79.7%), severe dry eye syndrome was detected in 53 patients (43.1%). Corneal complications appeared in 9 patients (7.3%). DES was present in 32 patients with the GG genotype (91.4%, n1 = 35), in 49 patients with the CG genotype (71.0%, n2 = 69), and in 8 patients with the CC genotype (42.1%, n3 = 19). After the statistical evaluation we have found the association between the dry eye syndrome and the GG genotype (chi2 = 8.9) and the association between less common dry eye syndrome appearance and the presence of the CC genotype (chi2 = 10.3). Severe dry eye syndrome we proved in 18 patients with GG genotype (51.4%, n1 = 35), in 31 patients with CG genotype (44.9%, n2 = 69), and in 4 patients with CC genotype CC (21.1%, n3 = 19). We proved statistically significant association between CC genotype and less often appearance of the severe dry eye syndrome (chi2 = 4.45). Corneal complications we noticed in one patient with GG genotype (2.8%, n1 = 35), in 5 patients with CG genotype (7.2%, n2 = 69), and in 3 patients with CC genotype (15.8%, n3 = 19). We did not prove statistically significant association between the 174 IL-6 polymorphism and corneal complications appearance. The 174 IL-6

  3. Lipid Phases Eye View to Lipofection. Cationic Phosphatidylcholine Derivatives as Efficient DNA Carriers for Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Koynova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of genetic material to cells is needed for tasks of utmost importance in laboratory and clinic, such as gene transfection and gene silencing. Synthetic cationic lipids can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids and are now considered the most promising non-viral gene carriers. They form complexes (lipoplexes with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A critical obstacle for clinical application of the lipid-mediated DNA delivery (lipofection is its unsatisfactory efficiency for many cell types. Understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery is essential for their successful application, as well as for rational design and synthesis of novel cationic lipoid compounds for enhanced gene delivery. According to the current understanding, the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. In particular, recent studies with cationic phospha- tidylcholine derivatives showed that the phase evolution of lipoplex lipids upon interaction and mixing with membrane lipids appears to be decisive for transfection success: specifically, lamellar lipoplex formulations, which were readily susceptible to undergoing lamellar-nonlamellar (precisely lamellar-cubic phase transition upon mixing with cellular lipids, were found rather consistently associated with superior transfection potency, presumably as a result of facilitated DNA release subsequent to lipoplex fusion with the cellular membranes. Further, hydrophobic moiety of the cationic phospholipids was found able to strongly modulate liposomal gene delivery into primary human umbilical artery endothelial cells; superior activity was found for cationic phosphatidylcholine derivatives with two 14-carbon atom monounsaturated hydrocarbon chains, able to induce formation of cubic phase in membranes. Thus, understanding the lipoplex structure and the phase changes upon interacting

  4. The mouse pink-eyed dilution allele of the P-gene greatly inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2011-02-01

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control eumelanin synthesis, melanosome morphology, and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. However, it has not been fully determined whether the mutant allele, p affects pheomelanin synthesis. Effects of the p allele on eumelanin and phemelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice obtained from the F(2) generations (black, pink-eyed black, recessive yellow, pink-eyed recessive yellow, agouti, and pink-eyed agouti) between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-congenic pink-eyed black mice (B10-p/p) and recessive yellow (B10-Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e)) or agouti (B10-A/A) mice. The eumelanin content was dramatically (>20-fold) decreased in pink-eyed black and pink-eyed agouti mice, whereas the pheomelanin content did not decrease in pink-eyed black, pink-eyed recessive yellow, or pink-eyed agouti mice compared to the corresponding P/- mice. These results suggest that the pink-eyed dilution allele greatly inhibits eumelanin synthesis, but not pheomelanin synthesis.

  5. A Comparative Study on the Population Fitness of Three Strains of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Differ in Eye Color-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Luo, Ju; Tang, Jian; Wu, Jincai

    2015-08-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a destructive insect pest on rice throughout Asia. As a visible genetic marker, red eye mutant colony of brown planthopper is a valuable material. Here, we established the near-isogenic lines, NIL-BB and NIL-rr, through mating red eye females to brown eye brothers for eight successive generations. Biological experiments showed that NIL-BB had big fitness cost; however, NIL-rr had comparable survival and fertility parameters with BB, a normal laboratory brown planthopper strain. Significantly lower number eggs per female and egg hatchability were the key factors resulting in big fitness cost of NIL-BB. The population trend indexes of BB, NIL-rr, and NIL-BB were 52.18, 43.80, and 4.19, respectively. Real-time PCR study suggested that the poorer fertility of NIL-BB was not mediated by the differential expression of genes relating to oogenesis. The stronger fitness of NIL-rr compared with NIL-BB may be caused by the eye mutant gene or its closely linked genes having stronger compensation ability for reproduction. The comparable fitness of NIL-rr with BB indicated that NIL-rr may be used in field research. The NIL-BB strain with significantly declined fecundity and survival ability can be used as study model for the signal pathways relating to fecundity.

  6. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  7. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  8. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  9. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., Scientific Director David ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for ...

  12. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (NdpAP). In the CNS, NdpAP expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of NdpAP expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, NdpAP expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. PMID:21055480

  13. Minimal absent words in four human genome assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara P Garcia

    Full Text Available Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. Here, we aim to contribute to the catalogue of human genomic variation by investigating the variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species, using four human genome assemblies. We compare the reference human genome GRCh37 assembly, the HuRef assembly of the genome of Craig Venter, the NA12878 assembly from cell line GM12878, and the YH assembly of the genome of a Han Chinese individual. We find the variation in number and content of minimal absent words between assemblies more significant for large and very large minimal absent words, where the biases of sequencing and assembly methodologies become more pronounced. Moreover, we find generally greater similarity between the human genome assemblies sequenced with capillary-based technologies (GRCh37 and HuRef than between the human genome assemblies sequenced with massively parallel technologies (NA12878 and YH. Finally, as expected, we find the overall variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species to be generally smaller than the variation between species.

  14. Minimal absent words in four human genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sara P; Pinho, Armando J

    2011-01-01

    Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. Here, we aim to contribute to the catalogue of human genomic variation by investigating the variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species, using four human genome assemblies. We compare the reference human genome GRCh37 assembly, the HuRef assembly of the genome of Craig Venter, the NA12878 assembly from cell line GM12878, and the YH assembly of the genome of a Han Chinese individual. We find the variation in number and content of minimal absent words between assemblies more significant for large and very large minimal absent words, where the biases of sequencing and assembly methodologies become more pronounced. Moreover, we find generally greater similarity between the human genome assemblies sequenced with capillary-based technologies (GRCh37 and HuRef) than between the human genome assemblies sequenced with massively parallel technologies (NA12878 and YH). Finally, as expected, we find the overall variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species to be generally smaller than the variation between species.

  15. More epigenetic hits than meets the eye: microRNAs and genes associated with the tumorigenesis of retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana H.O. Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma (RB, a childhood neoplasia of the retinoblasts, can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, with one or multiple foci per eye. RB is associated with somatic loss-of-function of both alleles of the tumor suppressor gene RB1. Hereditary forms emerge due to germline loss-of-function mutations in RB1 alleles. RB has long been the prototypic ‘‘model’’ cancer ever since Knudson’s ‘‘two-hit’’ hypothesis. However, a simple two-hit model for RB is challenged by an increasing number of studies documenting additional hits that contribute to RB development. Here we review the genetics and epigenetics of RB with a focus on the role of small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and on novel findings indicating the relevance of DNA methylation in the development and prognosis of this neoplasia. Studies point to an elaborated landscape of genetic and epigenetic complexity, in which a number of events and pahtways play crucial roles in the origin and prognosis of RB. These include roles for microRNAs, inprinted loci, and parent-of-origin contributions to RB1 regulation and RB progression. This complexity is also manifested in the structure of the RB1 locus itself: it includes numerous repetitive DNA segments and retrotransposon insertion elements, some of which are actively transcribed from the RB1 locus. Altogether, we conclude that RB1 loss of function represents the tip of an iceberg of events that determine RB development, progression, severity, and disease risk. Comprehensive assessment of personalized RB risk will require genetic and epigenetic evaluations beyond RB1 protein coding sequences.

  16. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a puzzle for the optics section of an introductory course on reflections. A teacher could ask students to explain the phenomenon of the "vampire selfie" or the absent reflection. How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The article explains light refraction and its effect on what we see and…

  17. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a puzzle for the optics section of an introductory course on reflections. A teacher could ask students to explain the phenomenon of the "vampire selfie" or the absent reflection. How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The article explains light refraction and its effect on what we see and…

  18. Quantum entanglement, indistinguishability, and the absent-minded driver's problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A; Cabello, Adan; Calsamiglia, John

    2005-01-01

    The absent-minded driver's problem illustrates that probabilistic strategies can give higher pay-offs than deterministic ones. We show that there are strategies using quantum entangled states that give even higher pay-offs, both for the original problem and for the generalized version with an arbitrary number of intersections and any possible set of pay-offs.

  19. Investigating Whether Contacting Absent Students Increases Course Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that student attendance in college classes increases course success. Yet, surprisingly few studies have examined strategies to increase student attendance. The goal of the current study is to consider whether contacting consistently absent students increases success in an undergraduate research methods course. Results of this…

  20. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  1. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. ... protect the eye with a pad or shield, give tetanus prophylaxis and refer. ... A study on penetrating eye injuries in South African children found.

  2. The morphogen Decapentaplegic employs a two-tier mechanism to activate target retinal determining genes during ectopic eye formation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Poonam; Gera, Jayati; Mandal, Lolitika; Mandal, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of morphogen in activating its target genes, otherwise epigenetically repressed, during change in cell fate specification is a very fascinating yet relatively unexplored domain. Our in vivo loss-of-function genetic analyses reveal that specifically during ectopic eye formation, the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp), in conjunction with the canonical signaling responsible for transcriptional activation of retinal determining (RD) genes, triggers another signaling cascade. Involving dTak1 and JNK, this pathway down-regulates the expression of polycomb group of genes to do away with their repressive role on RD genes. Upon genetic inactivation of members of this newly identified pathway, the canonical Dpp signaling fails to trigger RD gene expression beyond a threshold, critical for ectopic photoreceptor differentiation. Moreover, the drop in ectopic RD gene expression and subsequent reduction in ectopic photoreceptor differentiation resulting from inactivation of dTak1 can be rescued by down-regulating the expression of polycomb group of genes. Our results unravel an otherwise unknown role of morphogen in coordinating simultaneous transcriptional activation and de-repression of target genes implicating its importance in cellular plasticity. PMID:27270790

  3. Gene profiling of postnatal Mfrprd6 mutant eyes reveals differential accumulation of Prss56, visual cycle and phototransduction mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Won, Jungyeon; Stearns, Timothy M; Charette, Jeremy R; Hicks, Wanda L; Collin, Gayle B; Naggert, Jürgen K; Krebs, Mark P; Nishina, Patsy M

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP/Mfrp) gene, specifically expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and ciliary body, cause nanophthalmia or posterior microphthalmia with retinitis pigmentosa in humans, and photoreceptor degeneration in mice. To better understand MFRP function, microarray analysis was performed on eyes of homozygous Mfrprd6 and C57BL/6J mice at postnatal days (P) 0 and P14, prior to photoreceptor loss. Data analysis revealed no changes at P0 but significant differences in RPE and retina-specific transcripts at P14, suggesting a postnatal influence of the Mfrprd6 allele. A subset of these transcripts was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In Mfrprd6 eyes, a significant 1.5- to 2.0-fold decrease was observed among transcripts of genes linked to retinal degeneration, including those involved in visual cycle (Rpe65, Lrat, Rgr), phototransduction (Pde6a, Guca1b, Rgs9), and photoreceptor disc morphogenesis (Rpgrip1 and Fscn2). Levels of RPE65 were significantly decreased by 2.0-fold. Transcripts of Prss56, a gene associated with angle-closure glaucoma, posterior microphthalmia and myopia, were increased in Mfrprd6 eyes by 17-fold. Validation by qRT-PCR indicated a 3.5-, 14- and 70-fold accumulation of Prss56 transcripts relative to controls at P7, P14 and P21, respectively. This trend was not observed in other RPE or photoreceptor mutant mouse models with similar disease progression, suggesting that Prss56 upregulation is a specific attribute of the disruption of Mfrp. Prss56 and Glul in situ hybridization directly identified Müller glia in the inner nuclear layer as the cell type expressing Prss56. In summary, the Mfrprd6 allele causes significant postnatal changes in transcript and protein levels in the retina and RPE. The link between Mfrp deficiency and Prss56 up-regulation, together with the genetic association of human MFRP or PRSS56 variants and ocular size, raises the possibility that these genes

  4. Gene profiling of postnatal Mfrprd6 mutant eyes reveals differential accumulation of Prss56, visual cycle and phototransduction mRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani Soundararajan

    Full Text Available Mutations in the membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP/Mfrp gene, specifically expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and ciliary body, cause nanophthalmia or posterior microphthalmia with retinitis pigmentosa in humans, and photoreceptor degeneration in mice. To better understand MFRP function, microarray analysis was performed on eyes of homozygous Mfrprd6 and C57BL/6J mice at postnatal days (P 0 and P14, prior to photoreceptor loss. Data analysis revealed no changes at P0 but significant differences in RPE and retina-specific transcripts at P14, suggesting a postnatal influence of the Mfrprd6 allele. A subset of these transcripts was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. In Mfrprd6 eyes, a significant 1.5- to 2.0-fold decrease was observed among transcripts of genes linked to retinal degeneration, including those involved in visual cycle (Rpe65, Lrat, Rgr, phototransduction (Pde6a, Guca1b, Rgs9, and photoreceptor disc morphogenesis (Rpgrip1 and Fscn2. Levels of RPE65 were significantly decreased by 2.0-fold. Transcripts of Prss56, a gene associated with angle-closure glaucoma, posterior microphthalmia and myopia, were increased in Mfrprd6 eyes by 17-fold. Validation by qRT-PCR indicated a 3.5-, 14- and 70-fold accumulation of Prss56 transcripts relative to controls at P7, P14 and P21, respectively. This trend was not observed in other RPE or photoreceptor mutant mouse models with similar disease progression, suggesting that Prss56 upregulation is a specific attribute of the disruption of Mfrp. Prss56 and Glul in situ hybridization directly identified Müller glia in the inner nuclear layer as the cell type expressing Prss56. In summary, the Mfrprd6 allele causes significant postnatal changes in transcript and protein levels in the retina and RPE. The link between Mfrp deficiency and Prss56 up-regulation, together with the genetic association of human MFRP or PRSS56 variants and ocular size, raises the possibility that

  5. Impaired eye-blink conditioning in waggler, a mutant mouse with cerebellar BDNF deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, S; Chen, L; Qiao, X; Knusel, B; Thompson, R F

    1998-01-01

    In addition to their trophic functions, neurotrophins are also implicated in synaptic modulation and learning and memory. Although gene knockout techniques have been used widely in studying the roles of neurotrophins at molecular and cellular levels, behavioral studies using neurotrophin knockouts are limited by the early-onset lethality and various sensory deficits associated with the gene knockout mice. In the present study, we found that in a spontaneous mutant mouse, waggler, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was selectively absent in the cerebellar granule cells. The cytoarchitecture of the waggler cerebellum appeared to be normal at the light microscope level. The mutant mice exhibited no sensory deficits to auditory stimuli or heat-induced pain. However, they were massively impaired in classic eye-blink conditioning. These results suggest that BDNF may have a role in normal cerebellar neuronal function, which, in turn, is essential for classic eye-blink conditioning.

  6. Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders BERGLUND

    2013-01-01

    In sex role reversed species,predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits,such as ornaments and/or weapons.Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species,whether sex role reversed or not.However,sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species,present in both males and females.This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles:males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments.At the same time,females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons,used in competition over resources or in predator defence.Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare,almost absent,in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons,conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation,and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments.Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males,at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits,as trait costs reduce a female's fecundity.I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons.The same may apply to paternally investing males.Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated.

  7. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  9. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  10. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  11. Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of Octopus bimaculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M Desmond; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-05-15

    Cephalopods are renowned for changing the color and pattern of their skin for both camouflage and communication. Yet, we do not fully understand how cephalopods control the pigmented chromatophore organs in their skin and change their body pattern. Although these changes primarily rely on eyesight, we found that light causes chromatophores to expand in excised pieces of Octopus bimaculoides skin. We call this behavior light-activated chromatophore expansion (or LACE). To uncover how octopus skin senses light, we used antibodies against r-opsin phototransduction proteins to identify sensory neurons that express r-opsin in the skin. We hypothesized that octopus LACE relies on the same r-opsin phototransduction cascade found in octopus eyes. By creating an action spectrum for the latency to LACE, we found that LACE occurred most quickly in response to blue light. We fit our action spectrum data to a standard opsin curve template and estimated the λmax of LACE to be 480 nm. Consistent with our hypothesis, the maximum sensitivity of the light sensors underlying LACE closely matches the known spectral sensitivity of opsin from octopus eyes. LACE in isolated preparations suggests that octopus skin is intrinsically light sensitive and that this dispersed light sense might contribute to their unique and novel patterning abilities. Finally, our data suggest that a common molecular mechanism for light detection in eyes may have been co-opted for light sensing in octopus skin and then used for LACE.

  12. Characterization of the split ends-like gene spenito reveals functional antagonism between SPOC family members during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2006-05-01

    The novel family of SPOC domain proteins is composed of broadly conserved nuclear factors that fall into two subclasses, termed large and small, based on protein size. Members of the large subgroup, which includes Drosophila SPEN and human SHARP, have been characterized as transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of a variety of essential cell signaling pathways, while those of the small subclass have remained largely unstudied. Since SPEN has been implicated in Drosophila eye development, and the small SPOC protein NITO is also expressed in the developing eye, we have used this context to perform a structure-function analysis of NITO and to examine the relationship between the two SPOC family subclasses. Our results demonstrate that the phenotypes obtained from overexpressing NITO share striking similarity to those associated with loss of spen. Dosage-sensitive genetic interactions further support a model of functional antagonism between NITO and SPEN during Drosophila eye development. These results suggest that large and small SPOC family proteins may have opposing functions in certain developmental contexts.

  13. The expression of three opsin genes from the compound eye of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is regulated by a circadian clock, light conditions and nutritional status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yan

    Full Text Available Visual genes may become inactive in species that inhabit poor light environments, and the function and regulation of opsin components in nocturnal moths are interesting topics. In this study, we cloned the ultraviolet (UV, blue (BL and long-wavelength-sensitive (LW opsin genes from the compound eye of the cotton bollworm and then measured their mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels fluctuated over a daily cycle, which might be an adaptation of a nocturnal lifestyle, and were dependent on a circadian clock. Cycling of opsin mRNA levels was disturbed by constant light or constant darkness, and the UV opsin gene was up-regulated after light exposure. Furthermore, the opsin genes tended to be down-regulated upon starvation. Thus, this study illustrates that opsin gene expression is determined by multiple endogenous and exogenous factors and is adapted to the need for nocturnal vision, suggesting that color vision may play an important role in the sensory ecology of nocturnal moths.

  14. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect.

  15. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  16. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  20. Comparison of Gene Expression Profile of Epiretinal Membranes Obtained from Eyes with Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy to That of Secondary Epiretinal Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Ryo; Yoshida, Shigeo; Ogura, Atsushi; Nakama, Takahito; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Nakao, Shintaro; Sassa, Yukio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Oshima, Yuji; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Kono, Toshihiro; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2013-01-01

    Background Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a destructive complication of retinal detachment and vitreoretinal surgery which can lead to severe vision reduction by tractional retinal detachments. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) associated with a PVR (PVR-ERM) and to compare it to the expression profile of less-aggressive secondary ERMs. Methodology/Principal Findings A PCR-amplified complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed using the RNAs isolated from ERMs obtained during vitrectomy. The sequence from the 5′ end was obtained for randomly selected clones and used to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). We obtained 1116 nonredundant clusters representing individual genes expressed in PVR-ERMs, and 799 clusters representing the genes expressed in secondary ERMs. The transcriptome of the PVR-ERMs was subdivided by functional subsets of genes related to metabolism, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, signaling, and other functions, by FatiGo analysis. The genes highly expressed in PVR-ERMs were compared to those expressed in the secondary ERMs, and these were subdivided by cell adhesion, proliferation, and other functions. Querying 10 cell adhesion-related genes against the STRING database yielded 70 possible physical relationships to other genes/proteins, which included an additional 60 genes that were not detected in the PVR-ERM library. Of these, soluble CD44 and soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 were significantly increased in the vitreous of patients with PVR. Conclusions/Significance Our results support an earlier hypothesis that a PVR-ERM, even from genomic points of view, is an aberrant form of wound healing response. Genes preferentially expressed in PVR-ERMs may play an important role in the progression of PVR and could be served as therapeutic targets. PMID:23372684

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... loss can occur. How does diabetes affect my eyes? Diabetes affects your eyes when your blood glucose, ...

  3. Heteroglossia and Fragmentariness in the Absent Therapist by Will Eaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drąg Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In “Discourse in the Novel” Mikhail Bakhtin argues that heteroglossia - a diversity of voices or languages - is one of the essential properties of the novel. The distinct languages spoken by individual characters (referred to as “character speech”, he maintains, inevitably affect “authorial speech”. In experimental fiction, where “authorial speech” is often eliminated altogether, one can speak of the most radical instance of novelistic polyphony. Whereas in The Sound and the Fury, The Waves and B.S. Johnson’s House Mother Normal in place of the narrator the reader is presented with several parallel voices which offer an alternative version of some of the same incidents, Will Eaves’s The Absent Therapist (2014 comprises 150 one- or two-page monologues, each of which is delivered by a different nameless speaker. The book, described by reviewers as an “experimental novella”, a “miniature novel”, and an “anti-novel”, is devoid of any frame that would account for the coexistence of so many stories. The only interpretive clues are provided in the paratext: the title and the dedication from 1 Corinthians (“There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification”. They appear to invite the reading of the entire text as an amalgam of disparate (but also, in large part, desperate voices united by their addressee - the figure of the therapist who is not there. The aim of the article is to examine Eaves’s assemblage of voices and outline the tenuous relationship between the sections. The analysis of common themes and motifs that provide a degree of qualified unity to the book’s multiple monologues is situated in the context of fragmentary writing (as practised, among others, by Burroughs and Barthes and its postmodernist aesthetics of the collage.

  4. Oxygen supply from the bird's eye perspective: globin E is a respiratory protein in the chicken retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Miriam; Kiger, Laurent; Thielebein, Anke; Gerlach, Frank; Hankeln, Thomas; Marden, Michael C; Burmester, Thorsten

    2011-07-29

    The visual process in the vertebrate eye requires high amounts of metabolic energy and thus oxygen. Oxygen supply of the avian retina is a challenging task because birds have large eyes, thick retinae, and high metabolic rates but neither deep retinal nor superficial capillaries. Respiratory proteins such as myoglobin may enhance oxygen supply to certain tissues, and thus the mammalian retina harbors high amounts of neuroglobin. Globin E (GbE) was recently identified as an eye-specific globin of chicken (Gallus gallus). Orthologous GbE genes were found in zebra finch and turkey genomes but appear to be absent in non-avian vertebrate classes. Analyses of globin phylogeny and gene synteny showed an ancient origin of GbE but did not help to assign it to any specific globin type. We show that the photoreceptor cells of the chicken retina have a high level of GbE protein, which accumulates to ∼10 μM in the total eye. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed an ∼50,000-fold higher level of GbE mRNA in the eye than in the brain. Spectroscopic analysis and ligand binding kinetics of recombinant chicken GbE reveal a penta-coordinated globin with an oxygen affinity of P(50) = 5.8 torrs at 25 °C and 15 torrs at 41 °C. Together these data suggest that GbE helps to sustain oxygen supply to the avian retina.

  5. Allele variations in the OCA2 gene (pink-eyed-dilution locus) are associated with genetic susceptibility to melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Meziani, Roubila; Bertrand, Guylene; Gérard, Benedicte; Descamps, Vincent; Archimbaud, Alain; Picard, Catherine; Ollivaud, Laurence; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Kerob, Delphine; Lanternier, Guy; Lebbe, Celeste; Saiag, P; Crickx, Beatrice; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Grandchamp, Bernard; Soufir, Nadem; Melan-Cohort

    2005-08-01

    The occuloalbinism 2 (OCA2) gene, localized at 15q11, encodes a melanosomal transmembrane protein that is involved in the most common form of human occulo-cutaneous albinism, a human genetic disorder characterized by fair pigmentation and susceptibility to skin cancer. We wondered whether allele variations at this locus could influence susceptibility to malignant melanoma (MM). In all, 10 intragenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 113 patients with melanomas and in 105 Caucasian control subjects with no personal or family history of skin cancer. By comparing allelic distribution between cases and controls, we show that MM and OCA2 are associated (p value=0.030 after correction for multiple testing). Then, a recently developed strategy, the 'combination test' enabled us to show that a combination formed by two SNPs was most strongly associated to MM, suggesting a possible interaction between intragenic SNPs. In addition, the role of OCA2 on MM risk was also detected using a logistic model taking into account the presence of variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R, a key pigmentation gene) and all pigmentation characteristics as melanoma risk factors. Our data demonstrate that a second pigmentation gene, in addition to MC1R, is involved in genetic susceptibility to melanoma.

  6. A novel puf-A gene predicted from evolutionary analysis is involved in the development of eyes and primordial germ-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Kuo

    Full Text Available Although the human genome project has been completed for some time, the issue of the number of transcribed genes with identifiable biological functions remains unresolved. We used zebrafish as a model organism to study the functions of Ka/Ks-predicted novel human exons, which were identified from a comparative evolutionary genomics analysis.In this study, a novel gene, designated as puf-A, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its homologs in zebrafish, mouse, and human were identified as one of the three homolog clusters which were consisted of 14 related proteins with Puf repeats. Computer modeling of human Puf-A structure and a pull-down assay for interactions with RNA targets predicted that it was a RNA-binding protein. Specifically, Puf-A contained a special six Puf-repeat domain, which constituted a unique superhelix half doughnut-shaped Puf domain with a topology similar to, but different from the conventional eight-repeat Pumilio domain. Puf-A transcripts were uniformly distributed in early embryos, but became restricted primarily to eyes and ovaries at a later stage of development. In mice, puf-A expression was detected primarily in retinal ganglion and pigmented cells. Knockdown of puf-A in zebrafish embryos resulted in microphthalmia, a small head, and abnormal primordial germ-cell (PGC migration. The latter was confirmed by microinjecting into embryos puf-A siRNA containing nanos 3' UTR that expressed in PGC only. The importance of Puf-A in the maturation of germline stem cells was also implicated by its unique expression in the most primitive follicles (stage I in adult ovaries, followed by a sharp decline of expression in later stages of folliculogenesis. Taken together, our study shows that puf-A plays an important role not only in eye development, but also in PGC migration and the specification of germ cell lineage. These studies represent an exemplary implementation of a unique platform to uncover unknown function(s of

  7. A novel puf-A gene predicted from evolutionary analysis is involved in the development of eyes and primordial germ-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Chang, Jui-Chin; Chang, Chien-Huei; Huang, Ling-Jyun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Yu, Alice Lin-Tsing; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Yu, John

    2009-01-01

    Although the human genome project has been completed for some time, the issue of the number of transcribed genes with identifiable biological functions remains unresolved. We used zebrafish as a model organism to study the functions of Ka/Ks-predicted novel human exons, which were identified from a comparative evolutionary genomics analysis.In this study, a novel gene, designated as puf-A, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its homologs in zebrafish, mouse, and human were identified as one of the three homolog clusters which were consisted of 14 related proteins with Puf repeats. Computer modeling of human Puf-A structure and a pull-down assay for interactions with RNA targets predicted that it was a RNA-binding protein. Specifically, Puf-A contained a special six Puf-repeat domain, which constituted a unique superhelix half doughnut-shaped Puf domain with a topology similar to, but different from the conventional eight-repeat Pumilio domain. Puf-A transcripts were uniformly distributed in early embryos, but became restricted primarily to eyes and ovaries at a later stage of development. In mice, puf-A expression was detected primarily in retinal ganglion and pigmented cells. Knockdown of puf-A in zebrafish embryos resulted in microphthalmia, a small head, and abnormal primordial germ-cell (PGC) migration. The latter was confirmed by microinjecting into embryos puf-A siRNA containing nanos 3' UTR that expressed in PGC only. The importance of Puf-A in the maturation of germline stem cells was also implicated by its unique expression in the most primitive follicles (stage I) in adult ovaries, followed by a sharp decline of expression in later stages of folliculogenesis. Taken together, our study shows that puf-A plays an important role not only in eye development, but also in PGC migration and the specification of germ cell lineage. These studies represent an exemplary implementation of a unique platform to uncover unknown function(s) of human genes and

  8. Absent MicroRNAs in Different Tissues of Patients with Acquired Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine S Siegismund; Maria Rohde; Uwe Kuhl; Felicitas Escher; Heinz Peter Schultheiss; Dirk Lassner

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be found in a wide range of tissues and body fluids, and their specific signatures can be used to determine diseases or predict clinical courses. The miRNA profiles in biological samples (tissue, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or other body fluids) differ significantly even in the same patient and therefore have their own specificity for the presented con-dition. Complex profiles of deregulated miRNAs are of high interest, whereas the importance of non-expressed miRNAs was ignored. Since miRNAs regulate gene expression rather negatively, absent miRNAs could indicate genes with unaltered expression that therefore are normally expressed in specific compartments or under specific disease situations. For the first time, non-detectable miRNAs in different tissues and body fluids from patients with different diseases (cardiomyopathies, Alzheimer’s disease, bladder cancer, and ocular cancer) were analyzed and com-pared in this study. miRNA expression data were generated by microarray or TaqMan PCR-based platforms. Lists of absent miRNAs of primarily cardiac patients (myocardium, blood cells, and serum) were clustered and analyzed for potentially involved pathways using two prediction platforms, i.e., miRNA enrichment analysis and annotation tool (miEAA) and DIANA miRPath. Extensive search in biomedical publication databases for the relevance of non-expressed miRNAs in predicted pathways revealed no evidence for their involvement in heart-related pathways as indicated by software tools, confirming proposed approach.

  9. Absent MicroRNAs in Different Tissues of Patients with Acquired Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Siegismund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can be found in a wide range of tissues and body fluids, and their specific signatures can be used to determine diseases or predict clinical courses. The miRNA profiles in biological samples (tissue, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or other body fluids differ significantly even in the same patient and therefore have their own specificity for the presented condition. Complex profiles of deregulated miRNAs are of high interest, whereas the importance of non-expressed miRNAs was ignored. Since miRNAs regulate gene expression rather negatively, absent miRNAs could indicate genes with unaltered expression that therefore are normally expressed in specific compartments or under specific disease situations. For the first time, non-detectable miRNAs in different tissues and body fluids from patients with different diseases (cardiomyopathies, Alzheimer’s disease, bladder cancer, and ocular cancer were analyzed and compared in this study. miRNA expression data were generated by microarray or TaqMan PCR-based platforms. Lists of absent miRNAs of primarily cardiac patients (myocardium, blood cells, and serum were clustered and analyzed for potentially involved pathways using two prediction platforms, i.e., miRNA enrichment analysis and annotation tool (miEAA and DIANA miRPath. Extensive search in biomedical publication databases for the relevance of non-expressed miRNAs in predicted pathways revealed no evidence for their involvement in heart-related pathways as indicated by software tools, confirming proposed approach.

  10. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  11. A potential diagnostic marker for ovarian cancer: Involvement of the histone acetyltransferase, human males absent on the first

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Xiaoming; Su, Jiaming; Bian, Xiaolei; Ni, Jinsong; YUE, YING; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2013-01-01

    Human males absent on the first (hMOF), a human ortholog of the Drosophila MOF protein, is responsible for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetylation in human cells. The depletion of hMOF leads to a global reduction in histone H4K16 acetylation in human cells, genomic instability, cell cycle defects, reduced transcription of certain genes, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Studies have shown that abnormal hMOF gene expression is involved in a number of primary cancers. ...

  12. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  16. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  18. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  19. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  1. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  2. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  3. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  4. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  5. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  6. Heterologous expression of tyrosinase recapitulates the misprocessing and mistrafficking in oculocutaneous albinism type 2: effects of altering intracellular pH and pink-eyed dilution gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni-Komatsu, Li; Orlow, Seth J

    2006-03-01

    The processing and trafficking of tyrosinase, a melanosomal protein essential for pigmentation, was investigated in a human epithelial 293 cell line that stably expresses the protein. The effects of the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene product, in which mutations result in oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), on the processing and trafficking of tyrosinase in this cell line were studied. The majority of tyrosinase was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment and the early Golgi compartment in the 293 cells expressing the protein. Coexpression of p could partially correct the mistrafficking of tyrosinase in 293 cells. Tyrosinase was targeted to the late endosomal and lysosomal compartments after treatment of the cells with compounds that correct the tyrosinase mistrafficking in albino melanocytes, most likely through altering intracellular pH, while the substrate tyrosine had no effect on the processing of tyrosinase. Remarkably, this heterologous expression system recapitulates the defective processing and mistrafficking of tyrosinase observed in OCA2 albino melanocytes and certain amelanotic melanoma cells. Coexpression of other melanosomal proteins in this heterologous system may further aid our understanding of the details of normal and pathologic processing of melanosomal proteins.

  7. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulagna Banerjee; Suchismita Das; Anuradha Lohia

    2002-11-01

    Fidelity in transmission of genetic characters is ensured by the faithful duplication of the genome, followed by equal segregation of the genetic material in the progeny. Thus, alternation of DNA duplication (S-phase) and chromosome segregation during the M-phase are hallmarks of most well studied eukaryotes. Several rounds of genome reduplication before chromosome segregation upsets this cycle and leads to polyploidy. Polyploidy is often witnessed in cells prior to differentiation, in embryonic cells or in diseases such as cancer. Studies on the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica suggest that in its proliferative phase, this organism may accumulate polyploid cells. It has also been shown that although this organism contains sequence homologs of genes which are known to control the cell cycle of most eukaryotes, these genes may be structurally altered and their equivalent function yet to be demonstrated in amoeba. The available information suggests that surveillance mechanisms or ‘checkpoints’ which are known to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle may be absent or altered in E. histolytica.

  8. The genetic control of eye development and its implications for the evolution of the various eye-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Walter J

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the Pax 6 homologs of mammals and insects prevent eye development and targeted expression of both mammal and insect Pax 6 homologs is capable of inducing functional ectopic eyes. Supported by RNA interference experiments in planarians and nemerteans, these findings indicate that Pax 6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. Since all metazoan eyes use rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule and the same master control gene for eye development, we postulate a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. The finding of well developed eyes in jellyfish which essentially lack a brain, leads us to propose that the eye as a sensory organ evolved before the brain which is an information processing organ. The finding of highly developed eyes with a lens, vitreous body, stacked membranes like a retina and shielding pigment in unicellular dinoflagellates, raises the possibility that the prototypic eyes might have been acquired from symbionts.

  9. Turner Syndrome and apparent absent uterus: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akierman, Sarah V; Skappak, Christopher D; Girgis, Rose; Ho, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    We report on a patient who initially presented with delayed puberty and an absent uterus on imaging with ultrasound and MRI. She was subsequently diagnosed with Turner Syndrome. Turner Syndrome typically presents with early loss of ovarian function and should be considered when primary ovarian insufficiency is present with apparent absent uterus on imaging. Follow-up imaging of the apparent absent uterus post-estrogen replacement therapy is important to confirm a normal uterus. A diagnosis of an absent uterus can be psychologically traumatic for patients and families, and can have significant implications for future fertility options.

  10. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  11. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Nakanishi

    Full Text Available In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B. In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B, during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  12. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  13. Successful Black Men from Absent-Father Homes and Their Resilient Single Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Angie D.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Irby, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of absent fathers is a common occurrence in today's homes that appears to be escalating, especially in Black households across the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of successful Black men who were raised in absent-father homes as well as the lived experiences of their resilient single…

  14. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  15. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  16. Successful Black Men from Absent-Father Homes and Their Resilient Single Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Angie D.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Irby, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of absent fathers is a common occurrence in today's homes that appears to be escalating, especially in Black households across the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of successful Black men who were raised in absent-father homes as well as the lived experiences of their resilient single…

  17. Evaluation of GoldenEye 16BT System in Application of ABO Gene and Paternity Testing%GoldenEye 16BT体系在ABO基因及亲子鉴定中的应用评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤美云; 张金国; 黄健; 瞿志雄; 单飞豹; 吴孟津

    2009-01-01

    目的:调查湖南地区汉族ABO血型及其基因型,评估GoldenEye 16BT体系在血型与亲子鉴定中的检验能力.方法:以533例亲子鉴定案例为基础,用抗A(B)血清检测1248个个体的血清学血型,观察和分析GoldenEye 16BT体系在ABO基因型检测和15个STR基因座的遗传学数据资料.结果:(1)1248个个体中,1245(97.76%)个个体的血清学血型与基因型检测结果相符,有3例O型血经基因检测发现1例含A基因、2例含B基因 .688名无关个体血清学血型A>O>B>AB,等位基因频率O>A>B.(2)GoldenEye 16BT体系累计个体识别能力为0.9999999999999999971,累积非父排除率为0.999999999999971.533例亲子鉴定中有380例肯定亲权关系,153例排除亲权关系;11例中有1个STR基因座发生突变.结论:GoldenEye 16BT体系用于ABO基因型检测与亲权鉴定是高效、可靠的.

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  1. Effect of sox19b gene knockdown on the eyes development in zebra fish%sox19b在斑马鱼胚胎眼睛发育中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 杨阳; 陈学冉; 史玮; 林浴霜; 郝爱军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the function of sox19b on the eye development in zebrafish by knockdown of sox19b. Methods To inhibit the expression of sox196 by microinjection of soxl9b morpholinos( MO)and then observe the effect of the development of the eyes in zebrafish by RT-PCR and the whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results The development of the eyes was abnormal after knockdown of sox 196, mainly showed small eyes or eye deficiency and the abnormal retina and lens( n = 57/93 ) . The expression of some important genes during the development of the eyes, such as rx3, pax2a and vsx2, was decreased apparently in the sox19b morphant. Conclusion The transcription factor, sox196 is critical for the development of the eyes via the regulation of the important eye-field transcription factors, EFTEs in early zebrafish embryos.%目的 通过抑制sox19b基因的表达,探讨sox19b基因在斑马鱼胚胎眼睛发育和形成中的作用.方法 通过显微注射sox19b吗啉寡聚核苷酸(MO)抑制sox19b基因的表达,观察胚胎发育过程中表型的变化;采用石蜡包埋组织切片及HE染色、RT-PCR和整封原位杂交等方法探讨敲除sox19b后对斑马鱼胚胎眼睛发育的调控机制.结果 敲除sox19b基因后,斑马鱼胚胎眼睛发育受到影响,表现为眼睛变小或缺失,视网膜及晶状体结构发育异常(n=57/93);眼睛发育过程中重要调控基因rx3、pax2a及vsx2等表达明显降低,进而影响眼睛的发育和形成.结论 sox19b基因作为转录调控因子,可以通过调节眼区转录因子的表达进而影响斑马鱼胚胎早期眼睛的发育和形成.

  2. The eyes know: eye movements as a veridical index of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E; Baym, Carol L; Warren, David E; Cohen, Neal J

    2012-03-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether observers' eye movements distinguish studied faces from highly similar novel faces. Participants' eye movements were monitored while they viewed three-face displays. Target-present displays contained a studied face and two morphed faces that were visually similar to it; target-absent displays contained three morphed faces that were visually similar to a studied, but not tested, face. On each trial in a test session, participants were instructed to choose the studied face if it was present or a random face if it was not and then to indicate whether the chosen face was studied. Whereas manipulating visual similarity in target-absent displays influenced the rate of false endorsements of nonstudied items as studied, eye movements proved impervious to this manipulation. Studied faces were viewed disproportionately from 1,000 to 2,000 ms after display onset and from 1,000 to 500 ms before explicit identification. Early viewing also distinguished studied faces from faces incorrectly endorsed as studied. Our findings show that eye movements provide a relatively pure index of past experience that is uninfluenced by explicit response strategies, and suggest that eye movement measures may be of practical use in applied settings.

  3. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  6. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  7. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  9. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  10. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  11. absent fathers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... of care, moral and ethical guidance, emotional, practical, and ... do justice to both equally important father roles, often emphasizing ... argument that children need their (biological) father to pursue anti-feminist campaigns designed to return women to their dependence on men or to reduce their autonomy”.

  12. Broadly altered gene expression in blood leukocytes in essential hypertension is absent during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, H; Gaillard, CAJM; van der Meijden, BB; Dijstelbloem, HM; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; van Leenen, D; Holstege, FCP; Joles, JA; Bluyssen, HAR; Koomans, HA; Braam, B

    2004-01-01

    We assessed whether large-scale expression profiling of leukocytes of patients with essential hypertension reflects characteristics of systemic disease and whether such changes are responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Total RNA from leukocytes were obtained from untreated (n=6) and treated (n=6)

  13. LH receptor gene expression is essentially absent in breast tumor tissue: Implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Kuijper (Martijn); K. Ruigrok-Ritstier (Kirsten); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); D. Piersma (Djura); M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women. Early age at full term pregnancy has a protective effect against breast cancer. Evidence coming from a rat breast cancer model suggests a possible role for the pregnancy hormone hCG, a ligand of the LH recepto

  14. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  15. Absent words and the (dis)similarity analysis of DNA sequences:An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammad Saifur; Alatabbi, Ali; Athar, Tanver; Crochemore, Maxime; Rahman, M. Sohel

    2016-01-01

    Background: An absent word with respect to a sequence is a word that does not occur in the sequence as a factor; an absent word is minimal if all its factors on the other hand occur in that sequence. In this paper we explore the idea of using minimal absent words (MAW) to compute the distance between two biological sequences. The motivation and rationale of our work comes from the potential advantage of being able to extract as little information as possible from large genomic sequences to re...

  16. Absent words and the (dis)similarity analysis of DNA sequences: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammad Saifur; Alatabbi, Ali; Athar, Tanver; Crochemore, Maxime; Rahman, M. Sohel

    2016-01-01

    Background An absent word with respect to a sequence is a word that does not occur in the sequence as a factor; an absent word is minimal if all its factors on the other hand occur in that sequence. In this paper we explore the idea of using minimal absent words (MAW) to compute the distance between two biological sequences. The motivation and rationale of our work comes from the potential advantage of being able to extract as little information as possible from large genomic sequences to rea...

  17. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for the Madison Limestone, Black Hills area, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Madison Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Madison Limestone is absent...

  18. Thrombocytopenia and absent radii (TAR syndrome associated with bilateral congenital cataract: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Thrombocytopenia with absent radii is a rare congenital defect with hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia that may have additional anomalies. We report the case of a girl baby with thrombocytopenia and absent radii syndrome and bilateral congenital cataract. This anomaly has not been previously reported in the children of a non- consanguineous marriage. Case presentation This case report describes a two-day-old girl baby of Arab origin with thrombocytopenia and absent radii syndrome and bilateral congenital cataract. Conclusions This report describes a finding of bilateral congenital cataract associated with thrombocytopenia and absent radii syndrome that has been reported only once before in the literature. This case report highlights a new ocular manifestation in one of the bone marrow failure syndromes.

  19. Absent sella turcica: a case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroder, Viktoriya; Miller, Todd; Cohen, M Michael; Shanske, Alan Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Absent sella turcica is an extremely rare and dramatic radiographic finding. It may be isolated or occur in the presence of other anomalies, often involving the adenohypophysis. Our evaluation of a female infant with multiple anomalies including absence of the sella turcica, a normal pituitary in the craniopharyngeal canal, normal pituitary function, choanal atresia and anomalies of the appendiceal skeleton prompted a review of the occurrence and biology of an absent sella turcica.

  20. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  1. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Conjunctivitis) Eyes Corneal Abrasions Styes Activity: Eyes ...

  2. Hubungan Perilaku Petugas Paramedis Perawatan Terhadap Peraturan Absentéisme Dengan Absentéisme di Rumah Sakit Umum Tanjung Pura, Langkat Tahun 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Fadillah

    2013-01-01

    Banyaknya hari kerja yang hilang (absentéisme) pada petugas paramedis perawatan sangat mempengaruhi dan mempunyai dampak langsung terhadap produkt îvitas serta efektivitas pelayanan didalam Rumah sakit, karena bagian unit perawatan di Rumah sakit harus terus menerus berfungsi selama 24 jam sehari dan 365 hari setahun untuk memberikan pelayanan asuhan dan pelayanan perawatan secara efektif. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan perilaku petugas paramedis perawatan terhadap pera...

  3. Noncanonical Decapentaplegic Signaling Activates Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 To Restrict Hedgehog Activity and Limit Ectopic Eye Differentiation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Poonam; Gera, Jayati; Ghosh, Saikat; Mandal, Lolitika; Mandal, Sudip

    2017-09-01

    One of the pertinent issues associated with cellular plasticity is to understand how the delicate balance between the determined state of cells and the extent to which they can transdetermine is maintained. Employing the well-established model of generating ectopic eyes in developing wing discs of Drosophila by ectopic eyeless expression, we provide evidence for the genetic basis of this mechanism. By both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic analyses, we demonstrate that Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1) plays an important role in regulating the extent of ectopic ommatidial differentiation. Transcriptional activation of ectopic Mmp1 by the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is not triggered by its canonical signaling pathway which involves Mad. Rather, Dpp activates an alternate cascade involving dTak1 and JNK, to induce ectopic Mmp1 expression. Mutational analyses reveal that Mmp1 negatively regulates ectopic eye differentiation by restricting the rate of proliferation and the levels of expression of retinal-determining genes dachshund and eyes absent This is primarily achieved by restricting the range of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Importantly, the increase in proliferation and upregulation of target retinal-determining genes, as observed upon attenuating Mmp1 activity, gets significantly rescued when ectopic eyes are generated in wing discs of hh heterozygous mutants. In conjunction with the previously established instructive and permissive roles of Dpp in facilitating ectopic eye differentiation in wing discs, the outcome of this study sheds light on a mechanism by which Dpp plays a dual role in modulating the delicate balance between the determined state of cells and the extent they can transdetermine. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Absent cervical spine pedicle: report of a case in a mediaeval skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Simon [English Heritage Centre for Archaeology, Ancient Monuments Laboratory, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    This paper presents a first dry-bone study of the anatomy of an absent cervical spine pedicle and briefly reviews the literature involving this anomaly. The case study is of the absence of the right cervical spine pedicle at C6 in a mediaeval skeleton from England. Key features of the anomaly, including, in addition to the absent pedicle, dysplasia of the ipsilateral transverse process, dorsal displacement of the articular pillar, and reversal of the ipsilateral facet articulation with the supra-adjacent vertebra, are illustrated. Compromise of cervical spine stability is demonstrated. Literature review revealed 69 cases of absent cervical spine pedicle; all were unilateral, and there was no side or gender preference. The current case is a first description of an absent cervical spine pedicle in an archaeological skeleton. It indicates the presence of the anomaly in a European population more than 600 years before the first clinical description. Absent cervical spine pedicle appears to be a rare variant today; the paucity of archaeological cases shows that this was also the case in the past. (orig.)

  5. Safety and durability of effect of contralateral-eye administration of AAV2 gene therapy in patients with childhood-onset blindness caused by RPE65 mutatons: a follow-on phase 1 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jean; Wellman, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathleen A; McCague, Sarah; Ashtari, Manzar; DiStefano-Pappas, Julie; Elci, Okan U; Chung, Daniel C; Sun, Junwei; Wright, J Fraser; Cross, Dominique R; Aravand, Puya; Cyckowski, Laura L; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Mingozzi, Federico; Auricchio, Alberto; Pierce, Eric A; Ruggiero, Jason; Leroy, Bart P; Simonelli, Francesca; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Safety and efficacy have been shown in a phase 1 dose-escalation study involving a unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) in individuals with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations. This finding, along with the bilateral nature of the disease and intended use in treatment, prompted us to determine the safety of administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2 to the contralateral eye in patients enrolled in the phase 1 study. Methods In this follow-on phase 1 trial, one dose of AAV2-hRPE65v2 (1·5 × 1011 vector genomes) in a total volume of 300 μL was subretinally injected into the contralateral, previously uninjected, eyes of 11 children and adults (aged 11–46 years at second administration) with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations, 1·71–4·58 years after the initial subretinal injection. We assessed safety, immune response, retinal and visual function, functional vision, and activation of the visual cortex from baseline until 3 year follow-up, with observations ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01208389. Findings No adverse events related to the AAV were reported, and those related to the procedure were mostly mild (dellen formation in three patients and cataracts in two). One patient developed bacterial endophthalmitis and was excluded from analyses. We noted improvements in efficacy outcomes in most patients without significant immunogenicity. Compared with baseline, pooled analysis of ten participants showed improvements in mean mobility and full-field light sensitivity in the injected eye by day 30 that persisted to year 3 (mobility p=0·0003, white light full-field sensitivity p0·49 for all time-points compared with baseline). Interpretation To our knowledge, AAV2-hRPE65v2 is the first successful gene therapy administered to the contralateral eye. The results highlight the use of several outcome

  6. Two Adult Patients with Ectopic Neurohypophysis and Panhypopituitarism Due to Absent Pituitary Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fettah Acıbucu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of 27-year-old and 19-year-old female patients with ectopic neurohypophysis and panhypopituitarism due to absent pituitary stalk. They were admitted to the endocrinology clinic with short stature, growth retardation and primary amenorrhea. Basal hormones revealed secondary hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism and growth hormone insufficiency. Peak cortisol response to the short synacthen test (SST was normal but was inadequate to insulin tolerance test. The other dynamic pituitary function tests showed panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed an ectopic posterior pituitary tissue and absent pituitary stalk. We administered hormone replacement therapy. As this disorder is usually encountered in the pediatric age group, we report here two adult patients with ectopic posterior pituitary tissue, absent pituitary stalk and panhypopituitarism.

  7. Video-Based Eye Tracking to Detect the Attention Shift: A Computer Classroom Context-Aware System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Lung; Lee, Jiann-Shu; Hsieh, Min-Chai

    2014-01-01

    Eye and head movements evoked in response to obvious visual attention shifts. However, there has been little progress on the causes of absent-mindedness so far. The paper proposes an attention awareness system that captures the conditions regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attentional switching in computer classroom.…

  8. Video-Based Eye Tracking to Detect the Attention Shift: A Computer Classroom Context-Aware System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Lung; Lee, Jiann-Shu; Hsieh, Min-Chai

    2014-01-01

    Eye and head movements evoked in response to obvious visual attention shifts. However, there has been little progress on the causes of absent-mindedness so far. The paper proposes an attention awareness system that captures the conditions regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attentional switching in computer classroom.…

  9. Safety and durability of effect of contralateral-eye administration of AAV2 gene therapy in patients with childhood-onset blindness caused by RPE65 mutations: a follow-on phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jean; Wellman, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathleen A; McCague, Sarah; Ashtari, Manzar; DiStefano-Pappas, Julie; Elci, Okan U; Chung, Daniel C; Sun, Junwei; Wright, J Fraser; Cross, Dominique R; Aravand, Puya; Cyckowski, Laura L; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Mingozzi, Federico; Auricchio, Alberto; Pierce, Eric A; Ruggiero, Jason; Leroy, Bart P; Simonelli, Francesca; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M

    2016-08-13

    Safety and efficacy have been shown in a phase 1 dose-escalation study involving a unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) in individuals with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations. This finding, along with the bilateral nature of the disease and intended use in treatment, prompted us to determine the safety of administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2 to the contralateral eye in patients enrolled in the phase 1 study. In this follow-on phase 1 trial, one dose of AAV2-hRPE65v2 (1.5 × 10(11) vector genomes) in a total volume of 300 μL was subretinally injected into the contralateral, previously uninjected, eyes of 11 children and adults (aged 11-46 years at second administration) with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations, 1.71-4.58 years after the initial subretinal injection. We assessed safety, immune response, retinal and visual function, functional vision, and activation of the visual cortex from baseline until 3 year follow-up, with observations ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01208389. No adverse events related to the AAV were reported, and those related to the procedure were mostly mild (dellen formation in three patients and cataracts in two). One patient developed bacterial endophthalmitis and was excluded from analyses. We noted improvements in efficacy outcomes in most patients without significant immunogenicity. Compared with baseline, pooled analysis of ten participants showed improvements in mean mobility and full-field light sensitivity in the injected eye by day 30 that persisted to year 3 (mobility p=0.0003, white light full-field sensitivity peyes over the same time period (mobility p=0.7398, white light full-field sensitivity p=0.6709). Changes in visual acuity from baseline to year 3 were not significant in pooled analysis in the second eyes or the previously injected eyes (p>0.49 for all time

  10. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue covering the white of your eye and inside your eyelids. Normally, our eyes constantly make tears ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  15. TUBERCULOSIS AND THE EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Mycobacteria; Tuberculosis; Eye ... of tuberculous eye disease or ocular tuberculosis has also been raised. Ocular ... patients with ocular complaints, compiled in an area ..... tuberculomas are usually solitary and may measure up.

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  19. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  20. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  1. Identity and the absent mother in Atta's Everything Good will Come

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    though is the fact that these absent characters are the causes—in fact, the proximate causes for the onstage ... dark whose paths cannot cross. Thus, in the ... seeks Enitan out, it is through the window: “Sheri was not afraid of my mother. If she.

  2. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  3. Identity and the absent mother in Atta's Everything Good will Come

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ence the relationship of Enitan and Sheri against the backdrop of the trope of ... Identity, religion and the trope of the absent mother are three dominant motifs in ..... Because of the loss of her son and her disappointment in her marriage, Victoria.

  4. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists re

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  8. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  9. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  10. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  11. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  12. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  13. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  14. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Nautilus and pygmy squid developing eye provides insights in lens and eye evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Ogura, Atsushi; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods like squids have a camera-type eye similar to vertebrates. On the other hand, Nautilus (Nautiloids) has a pinhole eye that lacks lens and cornea. Since pygmy squid and Nautilus are closely related species they are excellent model organisms to study eye evolution. Having being able to collect Nautilus embryos, we employed next-generation RNA sequencing using Nautilus and pygmy squid developing eyes. Their transcriptomes were compared and analyzed. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology revealed that contigs related to nucleic acid binding were largely up-regulated in squid, while the ones related to metabolic processes and extracellular matrix-related genes were up-regulated in Nautilus. These differences are most likely correlated with the complexity of tissue organization in these species. Moreover, when the analysis focused on the eye-related contigs several interesting patterns emerged. First, contigs from both species related to eye tissue differentiation and morphogenesis as well as to cilia showed best hits with their Human counterparts, while contigs related to rabdomeric photoreceptors showed the best hit with their Drosophila counterparts. This bolsters the idea that eye morphogenesis genes have been generally conserved in evolution, and compliments other studies showing that genes involved in photoreceptor differentiation clearly follow the diversification of invertebrate (rabdomeric) and vertebrate (ciliated) photoreceptors. Interestingly some contigs showed as good a hit with Drosophila and Human homologues in Nautilus and squid samples. One of them, capt/CAP1, is known to be preferentially expressed in Drosophila developing eye and in vertebrate lens. Importantly our analysis also provided evidence of gene duplication and diversification of their function in both species. One of these genes is the Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1/Nf1), which in mice has been implicated in lens formation, suggesting a hitherto unsuspected role in the evolution

  16. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Harjai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases.

  17. Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser (MRKH) syndrome with absent thumbs and big toes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mahira

    2014-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare developmental failure of Müllerian ducts. Principle clinical features of MRKH syndrome are primary amenorrhoea associated with congenital absence of vagina, uterine anomalies, normal ovaries, 46 XX karyotype with normal female secondary sexual characteristics and frequent association with renal, skeletal, and other congenital anomalies. A case of a 3-year-old child with congenitally absent thumbs and big toes is reported herein; she was brought in with complaints of urinary incontinence. Radiological investigation (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan) revealed absent uterus and vagina while both ovaries were normal. Intravenous urography (IVU) study showed bifid pelvicalyceal systems bilaterally. Karyotyping revealed a 46 XX female phenotype. Laparoscopy confirmed normal ovaries bilaterally and small unfused uterine buds lying beside both ovaries on each side of pelvis. Early diagnosis of MRKH syndrome is essential for timely planning of vaginal and (if possible) uterine reconstructive surgeries.

  18. A CASE OF OPEN LIP SCHIZENCEPHALY ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENT SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM AND ARACHNOID CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizencephaly (spilt brain is an uncommon disorder of cerebral cortical development, characterized by congenital clefts spanning the cerebral hemispheres from the pial surface to the lateral ventricles and lined by dysplastic cortical gray matter, the condition is present at birth and present early in life. Here we present an adult patient of open lip schizencephaly associated with absent septum pellucidum and arachnoid cyst presenting with seizure on and off for past four years.

  19. Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques Reveal that Genomic Imprinting Is Absent in Day-Old Gallus gallus domesticus Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Kaiyang; Zhang, Daixi; Li, Junying; Xu, Guiyun; Zheng, Jiangxia; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon characterized by parent-of-origin-specific gene expression. While widely documented in viviparous mammals and plants, imprinting in oviparous birds remains controversial. Because genomic imprinting is temporal- and tissue-specific, we investigated this phenomenon only in the brain tissues of 1-day-old chickens (Gallus gallus). We used next-generation sequencing technology to compare four transcriptomes pooled from 11 chickens, generated from reciprocally crossed families, to the DNA sequences of their parents. Candidate imprinted genes were then selected from these sequence alignments and subjected to verification experiments that excluded all but one SNP. Subsequent experiments performed with two new sets of reciprocally crossed families resulted in the exclusion of that candidate SNP as well. Attempts to find evidence of genomic imprinting from long non-coding RNAs yielded negative results. We therefore conclude that genomic imprinting is absent in the brains of 1-day-old chickens. However, due to the temporal and tissue specificity of imprinting, our results cannot be extended to all growth stages and tissue types.

  20. The bulk and the tail of minimal absent words in genome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik; Innocenti, Nicolas; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Minimal absent words (MAW) of a genomic sequence are subsequences that are absent themselves but the subwords of which are all present in the sequence. The characteristic distribution of genomic MAWs as a function of their length has been observed to be qualitatively similar for all living organisms, the bulk being rather short, and only relatively few being long. It has been an open issue whether the reason behind this phenomenon is statistical or reflects a biological mechanism, and what biological information is contained in absent words. In this work we demonstrate that the bulk can be described by a probabilistic model of sampling words from random sequences, while the tail of long MAWs is of biological origin. We introduce the concept of a core of a MAW, which are sequences present in the genome and closest to a given MAW. We show that in E. faecalis, E. coli and yeast the cores of the longest MAWs, which exist in two or more copies, are located in highly conserved regions the most prominent example being ribosomal RNAs. We also show that while the distribution of the cores of long MAWs is roughly uniform over these genomes on a coarse-grained level, on a more detailed level it is strongly enhanced in 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) and, to a lesser extent, also in 5’ UTRs. This indicates that MAWs and associated MAW cores correspond to fine-tuned evolutionary relationships, and suggest that they can be more widely used as markers for genomic complexity.

  1. Thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot: a rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chetan Kumar,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Aakash Pandita,2 Sanjay Bhalerao1 1Department of Pediatrics, Madras Institute of Orthopedic and Trauma, Manapakkam, Chennai, India; 2Department of Neonatology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR syndrome is a very rare and infrequently seen congenital disorder with an approximate frequency of 0.42/100,000 live births. It is associated with bilateral absence of radii, hypo-megakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, and presence of both thumbs. The other systems which are affected by TAR syndrome include skeletal, hematologic, and cardiac systems. Intracranial hemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and cardiac disorders are a common association usually seen with this syndrome and are usual cause of death. We describe a 3-month-old infant who was diagnosed with TAR syndrome on the basis of clinical features (thrombocytopenia and bilateral absent radius bone and confirmed by genetic analysis. The patient was diagnosed to have Tetralogy of Fallot, for which the infant was managed with definitive repair and thrombocytopenia was managed with platelet transfusion. Infants with TAR syndrome should be assessed for other associated malformations of various systems and followed up regularly and parents should be counseled for associated expected complications in these patients. We report an infant with TAR syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot, which has not been reported in medical literature until now and this is the first case of its type. Keywords: thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome, Tetralogy of Fallot, microdeletion 1q21.1, RBM8A

  2. Cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity are absent in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2013-02-01

    Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome) is an hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III), expressed at birth, that is associated with reduced pain and temperature sensibilities and absent baroreflexes, causing orthostatic hypotension as well as labile blood pressure that increases markedly during emotional excitement. Given the apparent absence of functional baroreceptor afferents, we tested the hypothesis that the normal cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are absent in patients with familial dysautonomia. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted percutaneously into muscle or cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in 12 patients with familial dysautonomia. Spontaneous bursts of MSNA were absent in all patients, but in five patients we found evidence of tonically firing sympathetic neurones, with no cardiac rhythmicity, that increased their spontaneous discharge during emotional arousal but not during a manoeuvre that unloads the baroreceptors. Conversely, skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), recorded in four patients, appeared normal. We conclude that the loss of phasic bursts of MSNA and the loss of baroreflex modulation of muscle vasoconstrictor drive contributes to the poor control of blood pressure in familial dysautonomia, and that the increase in tonic firing of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones contributes to the increase in blood pressure during emotional excitement.

  3. OTX2 and CRX rescue overlapping and photoreceptor‐specific functions in the Drosophila eye

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrell, David; Xie, Baotong; Workman, Michael; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew; Gebelein, Brian; Cook, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    .... Drosophila encodes a single Otd factor that has multiple functions during eye development. Using the Drosophila eye as a model, we tested the ability of the human OTX1, OTX2, and CRX genes, as well as several disease...

  4. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  5. Personal Identification by Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinović, Dunja; Čoklo, Miran; Njirić, Sanja; Mužić, Vedrana

    2011-01-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems usi...

  6. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye- tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown...simultaneously on a high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye- tracking unit in order to optimize the human-machine interface. The IR Eye...system was flight tested using the Advanced system Research Aircraft (Bell 412 helicopter) from the Flight Research Laboratory of the National Research

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  9. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  10. Multi-slice computed tomography assessment of bronchial compression with absent pulmonary valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min; Sun, Ai-Min; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ming; Qiu, Hai-Sheng [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Liu, Jin-Fen [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai (China); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai (China); Berdon, Walter E. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare cardiovascular anomaly that can result in profound tracheobronchial compression. To demonstrate the advantage of multi-slice CT in diagnosing tracheobronchial compression, its severity as related to the adjacent dilated pulmonary arteries, and associated lung and cardiac lesions. We included children with absent pulmonary valve who were reviewed by multi-slice CT during a 17-year period. The number and locations of stenoses and lung lesions were noted and the severity of stenosis was categorized. The diameter of the pulmonary artery was measured and associated cardiac defects were demonstrated. Thirty-one children (14 girls and 17 boys) were included. Of these, 29 had ventricular septal defect and 2 had an intact ventricular septum. Twenty-nine children (94%) had tracheobronchial compression, judged to be mild in nine children (31%), moderate in 10 (34%) and severe in 10 (34%). The different locations of the stenosis (carina, main bronchi, lobar and segmental bronchi) were observed. And the number and location of lung lesions demonstrated that the right middle and left upper and lower lobes were often affected. The diameter of the pulmonary artery in these children was well above normal published values, and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a correlation between the size of the pulmonary artery and the severity of the tracheobronchial stenosis. Nineteen children (61%) underwent surgery and 4 of these children had a multi-slice CT post-operative follow-up study. Absent pulmonary valve can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Multi-slice CT can accurately depict areas of tracheobronchial compression, associated lung lesions and cardiac defects, helping to direct the surgeon. (orig.)

  11. The value of the absent bow tie sign in MRI of bucket-handle tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Andrew J.B.; Halliday, Tonya; Raby, Nigel

    2000-08-01

    AIM: To assess the accuracy of the absent bow tie sign in diagnosing bucket handle meniscal tears (BHT) of the knee menisci. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 3-year period, we correlated the MRI and arthroscopic findings and the presence of the various signs. One hundred and seven knees were reviewed: 74 where either MRI or arthroscopy had identified a BHT and 33 which were either normal (31), or a simple tear was identified (2). All cases were reviewed by a single radiologist with a musculoskeletal interest blinded to the original results. Each was assessed for the presence of (1) a central meniscal fragment, (2) the double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sign, (3) the bow tie sign and (4) the contribution of a 3D-volume sequence. RESULTS: Optimal results were obtained using standard sequences and a 3D-volume sequence, giving a sensitivity of 74% and positive predictive value of 89%. The bow tie sign gave a sensitivity of 71% and positive predictive value of 76%, significantly less than previous reports. The 18 BHTs diagnosed by arthroscopy but missed by MRI showed other abnormal findings at MRI and were not reported as normal. CONCLUSION: We were not able to reproduce the previously reported high sensitivity and specificity of the absent bow tie sign. Despite optimization of all factors, the accurate diagnosis of a bucket handle tear remains difficult, and is most reliably made by identifying a central meniscal fragment, rather than relying on secondary signs such as the absent bow tie sign. Watt, A.J.B. (2000)

  12. Transient Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Koenraad A.; Lemij, Hans G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate transient focal microcystic retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes in images obtained with several imaging techniques used in daily glaucoma care. Methods. Images of 117 glaucoma patients and 91 healthy subjects participating in a large prospective follow-up study into glaucoma imaging were reviewed. Participants were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), scanning laser tomography (SLT), and standard automated perimetry (SAP). The presence of a focal retinoschisis in SD-OCT was observed and correlated to SLP, SLT, and SAP measurements, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results. Seven out of 117 glaucoma patients showed a transient, localised, peripapillary, heterogeneous microcystic schisis of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and sometimes other retinal layers as well in SD-OCT. None of the healthy eyes showed this phenomenon nor did any of the other imaging techniques display it as detailed and consistently as did the SD-OCT. SAP showed a temporarily decreased focal retinal sensitivity during the retinoschisis and we found no signs of glaucomatous progression related to the retinoschisis. Conclusions. Transient microcystic retinoschisis appears to be associated with glaucomatous wedge defects in the RNFL. It was best observed with SD-OCT and it was absent in healthy eyes. We found no evidence that the retinoschisis predicted glaucomatous progression. PMID:28168045

  13. Transient Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josine van der Schoot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate transient focal microcystic retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes in images obtained with several imaging techniques used in daily glaucoma care. Methods. Images of 117 glaucoma patients and 91 healthy subjects participating in a large prospective follow-up study into glaucoma imaging were reviewed. Participants were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, scanning laser tomography (SLT, and standard automated perimetry (SAP. The presence of a focal retinoschisis in SD-OCT was observed and correlated to SLP, SLT, and SAP measurements, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results. Seven out of 117 glaucoma patients showed a transient, localised, peripapillary, heterogeneous microcystic schisis of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and sometimes other retinal layers as well in SD-OCT. None of the healthy eyes showed this phenomenon nor did any of the other imaging techniques display it as detailed and consistently as did the SD-OCT. SAP showed a temporarily decreased focal retinal sensitivity during the retinoschisis and we found no signs of glaucomatous progression related to the retinoschisis. Conclusions. Transient microcystic retinoschisis appears to be associated with glaucomatous wedge defects in the RNFL. It was best observed with SD-OCT and it was absent in healthy eyes. We found no evidence that the retinoschisis predicted glaucomatous progression.

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ... Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ...

  16. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our ... Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our ...

  18. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work ... Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ... Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  19. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  20. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  1. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  2. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  3. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  4. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  5. Profuse congenital familial milia with absent dermatoglyphics (Basan's Syndrome): description of a new family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Paula Carolina; Larralde, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Milia are common, small, keratin-containing cysts frequently seen in all age groups. They may arise spontaneously or develop after a variety of stimuli. They can be found alone or as part of syndromes. We present a female neonate born not only with profuse facial milia, but also with acral bullae and absent dermatoglyphics. Similar features were seen in several members of her family. These findings correspond to the syndrome known as Basan's syndrome, a rare autosomal-dominant inherited dermatosis characterized by profuse congenital milia, transient neonatal acral bullae, and absence of dermatoglyphics.

  6. Syndrome of absent abdominal muscles: two cases with microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Reid R.

    1970-01-01

    Two unique cases of the syndrome of absent abdominal muscles with central nervous system involvement are presented. Microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar heterotopiae were present in both. In case 1 there was also absence of the corpus callosum and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. In case 2 a count of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the lower thoracic region. The pertinent literature is briefly discussed. The findings in the nervous system suggest that the syndrome is the result of defective embryogenesis during the first trimester. Images PMID:4250700

  7. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  8. MRI assessment of bronchial compression in absent pulmonary valve syndrome and review of the syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taragin, Benjamin H.; Berdon, Walter E. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Prinz, B. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Cardiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare cardiac malformation with massive pulmonary insufficiency that presents with short-term and long-term respiratory problems secondary to severe bronchial compression from enlarged central and hilar pulmonary arteries. Association with chromosome 22.Q11 deletions and DiGeorge syndrome is common. This historical review illustrates the airway disease with emphasis on assessment of the bronchial compression in patients with persistent respiratory difficulties post-valvular repair. Cases that had MRI for cardiac assessment are used to illustrate the pattern of airway disease. (orig.)

  9. Contributions from eye movement potentials to stimulus preceding negativity during anticipation of auditory stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engdahl, Lis; Bjerre, Vicky K; Christoffersen, Gert R J

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive anticipation of a stimulus has been associated with an ERP called "stimulus preceding negativity" (SPN). A new auditory delay task without stimulus-related motor activity demonstrated a prefrontal SPN, present during attentive anticipation of sounds with closed eyes, but absent during...

  10. Perinatal outcome of growth restricted fetus with absent end diastolic umbilical blood flow: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery is usually associated with poor perinatal outcome and high perinatal mortality rate. Case report. We present the case of a pregnant woman with absent end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery in the 27th week of pregnancy with initial restriction of fetal growth. All though it was more and more obvious that the fetal growth was hindered, the Doppler, cardiotocographic and biophysical parameters did not get any worse as the pregnancy developed. The full fetal maturation was reached after the intense monitoring of the fetal condition and the pregnancy was terminated in the 37lh week by elective Cesarean section. Conclusion. The basic purpose of prenatal fetal monitoring in the situation of hindered fetal growth with chronic hypoxia is to predict the phase of decompensation and to terminate pregnancy before it is developed. The major problem is in great individual variations at the moment of development of decompensation phase, so the major obstetric aim in the monitoring of the fetus hindered in growth is to determine the optimal time and way of delivery.

  11. Absent middle hepatic vein in a right liver graf t donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan; Yik Wong

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The middle hepatic vein (MHV) is normally in form of a large trunk lying within the midplane of the liver. An anomaly in form of two separate trunks, each draining segment Ⅴ/Ⅷ and segment Ⅳ, has been described by Couinaud but not been well documented in the literature. METHOD:We report a right liver donor in whom the MHV was absent and not encountered during liver transection along the midplane of the liver. RESULTS:On computed tomography (CT) scan and intraoperative ultrasonography, there was a large segmentⅧ hepatic vein mistaken as the MHV on preoperative assessment and a large segment Ⅳ hepatic vein close to the ligamentum venosum. CT volumetry based on either segment Ⅷ or Ⅳ hepatic vein led to major error in liver volume calculation. Transection of the liver guided by segmentⅧorⅣhepatic vein would lead to sacriifce of liver parenchyma unnecessarily or presence of necrotic liver in the graft. CONCLUSION:Absent MHV is a rare anomaly. It is revealed by careful study of the CT scan.

  12. Eye evolution and its functional basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Dan-E

    2013-03-01

    Eye evolution is driven by the evolution of visually guided behavior. Accumulation of gradually more demanding behaviors have continuously increased the performance requirements on the photoreceptor organs. Starting with nondirectional photoreception, I argue for an evolutionary sequence continuing with directional photoreception, low-resolution vision, and finally, high-resolution vision. Calculations of the physical requirements for these four sensory tasks show that they correlate with major innovations in eye evolution and thus work as a relevant classification for a functional analysis of eye evolution. Together with existing molecular and morphological data, the functional analysis suggests that urbilateria had a simple set of rhabdomeric and ciliary receptors used for directional photoreception, and that organ duplications, positional shifts and functional shifts account for the diverse patterns of eyes and photoreceptors seen in extant animals. The analysis also suggests that directional photoreception evolved independently at least twice before the last common ancestor of bilateria and proceeded several times independently to true vision in different bilaterian and cnidarian groups. This scenario is compatible with Pax-gene expression in eye development in the different animal groups. The whole process from the first opsin to high-resolution vision took about 170 million years and was largely completed by the onset of the Cambrian, about 530 million years ago. Evolution from shadow detectors to multiple directional photoreceptors has further led to secondary cases of eye evolution in bivalves, fan worms, and chitons.

  13. Personal identification by eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  14. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  15. Human eye colour and HERC2, OCA2 and MATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of human eye colour by forensic genetic methods is of great value in certain crime investigations. Strong associations between blue/brown eye colour and the SNP loci rs1129038 and rs12913832 in the HERC2 gene were recently described. Weaker associations between eye colour and other...... value of typing either the HERC2 SNPs rs1129038 and/or rs12913832 that are in strong linkage disequilibrium was observed when eye colour was divided into two groups, (1) blue, grey and green (light) and (2) brown and hazel (dark). Sequence variations in rs11636232 and rs7170852 in HERC2, rs1800407...... in OCA2 and rs16891982 in MATP showed additional association with eye colours in addition to the effect of HERC2 rs1129038. Diplotype analysis of three sequence variations in HERC2 and one sequence variation in OCA2 showed the best discrimination between light and dark eye colours with a likelihood ratio...

  16. Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Stock, David W; Jeffery, William R

    2004-10-14

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are responsible for critical signalling events during development but their evolutionary roles remain to be determined. Here we show that hh gene expression at the embryonic midline controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. We use the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, a single species with an eyed surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and many blind cave forms (cavefish), to study the evolution of eye degeneration. Small eye primordia are formed during cavefish embryogenesis, which later arrest in development, degenerate and sink into the orbits. Eye degeneration is caused by apoptosis of the embryonic lens, and transplanting a surface fish embryonic lens into a cavefish optic cup can restore a complete eye. Here we show that sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh) gene expression is expanded along the anterior embryonic midline in several different cavefish populations. The expansion of hh signalling results in hyperactivation of downstream genes, lens apoptosis and arrested eye growth and development. These features can be mimicked in surface fish by twhh and/or shh overexpression, supporting the role of hh signalling in the evolution of cavefish eye regression.

  17. Cephalopod eye evolution was modulated by the acquisition of Pax-6 splicing variants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Yura, Kei; Ogura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that the developmental processes of vertebrate eyes are controlled by four Pax-6 splicing variants, each modulating different downstream genes, whereas those of insect...

  18. Guillain-Barré Syndrome with Absent Brainstem Reflexes: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gordon Chaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man was admitted to an intensive care unit following respiratory arrest. One day prior to admission, he had complaints of nausea and pain involving lower limbs. On the night of admission he developed diplopia, dysphagia, and rapidly progressive quadriparesis. He developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical lung ventilation 24 hours later. On the fifth day of hospital stay the patient became comatose with absent brainstem reflexes and appeared to be brain dead. The cerebrospinal fluid showed albuminocytological dissociation. The electroencephalogram revealed an alpha rhythmical activity. The electrophysiological evaluation revealed an inexcitability of all nerves. Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected. With supportive treatment the patient had a remarkable recovery and now is able to independently conduct his daily activities.

  19. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Replacing an Absent Kidney in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas with rare occurrence in children specially in the retroperitoneum. We describe a young child who presented with an abdominal mass. Both ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a large right-sided abdominal mass in the anatomic place of right kidney, while no kidney or ureter was observed at that side. He underwent surgical resection of the tumor with a primary impression of Wilms tumor. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of retroperitoneal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and absent kidney. This case suggests the very rare probability of association of MPNSTs in children with genitourinary tract anomalies such as renal agenesis.

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... vision in the morning? Jun 12, 2017 Can lupus affect my vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping ... Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  1. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  2. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  4. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  5. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  9. What Is Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanomas. Melanomas develop from pigment-making cells called melanocytes . When melanoma develops in the eye, it is ... cells make the same kind of pigment as melanocytes in the skin, so it’s not surprising that ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  11. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may put you at high risk for eye injuries. Baseball Basketball Water Sports Boxing Hockey Paintball Racquetball Softball Squash Fencing Lacrosse Wrestling Football Golf Badminton Soccer Tennis Fishing Bicycling Gymnastics Track ...

  12. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  14. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye May 03, 2012 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  16. The ageing eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... With an increasing elderly population, age-related eye diseases are becoming the leading causes of ... and social health and overall quality of life. Enormous strides are ..... hip fractures, accidents and depression. Conclusion.

  17. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  19. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If your eye is cut or punctured : • ... CIO: CPWR, Suite 1000, 8484 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910. (Edward C. Sullivan is president of ...

  20. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  3. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects exposed to cat feces (cockroaches, flies, etc.). Immunocompromised ... rash. Eye symptoms vary, but may include blurred vision or floaters during active disease. The diagnosis can ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Health Information Frequently asked questions ...

  5. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  6. The genetics of eye colours in an Italian population measured with an objective method for eye colour quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, C.; Andersen, J.D.; Johansen, P.

    2013-01-01

    in pigmentary genes. High resolution digital images of the participants’ eyes were taken and the iris region was successfully extracted with the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT) from 218 of the 230 (95%) images. The software counted the numbers of blue and brown pixels...... in the iris region and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colours quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from _1 to 1 (brown to blue). We investigated the association of the PIE-scores extracted from the eye images with the genotypes of the 32 pigmentary SNPs. We observed......Brown and blue eye colours are primarily explained by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) HERC2 rs12913832. However, the genetics of eye colours that appear to be neither blue nor brown are not well understood. In this study, 230 unrelated Italian individuals were typed for 32 SNP loci...

  7. Modern sports eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.

  8. Double-outlet right ventricle with absent left ventricle and mitral atresia in a fetus with a deletion 22q12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'herminé-Coulomb, Aurore; Houyel, Lucille; Aboura, Azzedine; Audibert, François; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosomal region 22q12 are rare. We report the prenatal diagnosis of a de novo interstitial deletion 22q12. The fetus was karyotyped because of a complex cardiac anomaly. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics showed a female karyotype with a de novo pericentric inversion of one chromosome 22 associated with a deletion of the chromosomal region 22q12 leading to a partial monosomy 22q12. At autopsy, the fetus showed double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) with absent left ventricle and mitral atresia. This observation suggests that one or several genes for the early looping step of heart development may reside in chromosomal region 22q12. Further studies are needed to identify these genes, and to search microdeletions of 22q12 region in patients with DORV.

  9. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura Atsushi; Yoshida Masa-aki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Coleoid cephalopods (squids and octopuses) have evolved a camera eye, the structure of which is very similar to that found in vertebrates and which is considered a classic example of convergent evolution. Other molluscs, however, possess mirror, pin-hole, or compound eyes, all of which differ from the camera eye in the degree of complexity of the eye structures and neurons participating in the visual circuit. Therefore, genes expressed in the cephalopod eye after divergenc...

  10. Acute audiovestibular deficit with complete ocular tilt reaction and absent VEMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Ban, Yumiko; Tsutumi, Tomoko

    2011-07-01

    A patient presenting with vertical diplopia along with ocular tilt reaction (OTR) due to peripheral vestibular dysfunction is a rare occurrence. OTR is an eye-head postural reaction consisting of head tilt, skew deviation, conjugated eye cyclotorsion, and alteration of vertical perception, and is thought to occur with central lesions, mainly brainstem lesions. Here, we report a case of a patient who was suffering from left acute peripheral cochleovestibular loss. He had profound deafness and absence of caloric response on the left side. No central lesion was observed on magnetic resonance images. Neuro-ophthalmological examination showed OTR consisting of head tilt, skew deviation with left hypotropia, excyclotorsion, and tilt of the static visual vertical directed to the left side. Both utricular and saccular dysfunctions were identified by the absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) on the left side. Within a month, the OTR disappeared completely probably because of vestibular compensation. This is the first report to state that the peripheral otolith dysfunction causing reversible vertical diplopia was identified by objective examinations (VEMP).

  11. 77 FR 27784 - Announcement of National Eye Institute Participation in PA-11-347, “NINDS SBIR Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... and gene therapy, and cell and molecular biology related to eye health and eye disease treatments. For... NEI mission. Any project that fits within the NEI mission and relies on the use of an NIH...

  12. Proliferation of transformed somatotroph cells related to low or absent expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1A protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lania, Andrea G; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano; Pellegrini, Caterina; Bondioni, Sara; Peverelli, Erika; Braidotti, Paola; Locatelli, Marco; Zavanone, Mario L; Ferrante, Emanuela; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2004-12-15

    The two regulatory subunits (R1 and R2) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in cancer cell lines and exert diverse roles in growth control. Recently, mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit 1A gene (PRKAR1A) have been identified in patients with Carney complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the PKA regulatory subunits R1A, R2A, and R2B in a series of 30 pituitary adenomas and the effects of subunit activation on cell proliferation. In these tumors, neither mutation of PRKAR1A nor loss of heterozygosity was identified. By real-time PCR, mRNA of the three subunits was detected in all of the tumors, R1A being the most represented in the majority of samples. By contrast, immunohistochemistry documented low or absent R1A levels in all tumors, whereas R2A and R2B were highly expressed, thus resulting in an unbalanced R1/R2 ratio. The low levels of R1A were, at least in part, due to proteasome-mediated degradation. The effect of the R1/R2 ratio on proliferation was assessed in GH3 cells, which showed a similar unbalanced pattern of R subunits expression, and in growth hormone-secreting adenomas. The R2-selective cAMP analog 8-Cl cAMP and R1A RNA silencing, stimulated cell proliferation and increased Cyclin D1 expression, respectively, in human and rat adenomatous somatotrophs. These data show that a low R1/R2 ratio promoted proliferation of transformed somatotrophs and are consistent with the Carney complex model in which R1A inactivating mutations further unbalance this ratio in favor of R2 subunits. These results suggest that low expression of R1A protein may favor cAMP-dependent proliferation of transformed somatotrophs.

  13. Fixational eye movements predict visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Chris; McGraw, Paul V; Nyström, Marcus; Roach, Neil W

    2015-10-22

    During steady fixation, observers make small fixational saccades at a rate of around 1-2 per second. Presentation of a visual stimulus triggers a biphasic modulation in fixational saccade rate-an initial inhibition followed by a period of elevated rate and a subsequent return to baseline. Here we show that, during passive viewing, this rate signature is highly sensitive to small changes in stimulus contrast. By training a linear support vector machine to classify trials in which a stimulus is either present or absent, we directly compared the contrast sensitivity of fixational eye movements with individuals' psychophysical judgements. Classification accuracy closely matched psychophysical performance, and predicted individuals' threshold estimates with less bias and overall error than those obtained using specific features of the signature. Performance of the classifier was robust to changes in the training set (novel subjects and/or contrasts) and good prediction accuracy was obtained with a practicable number of trials. Our results indicate a tight coupling between the sensitivity of visual perceptual judgements and fixational eye control mechanisms. This raises the possibility that fixational saccades could provide a novel and objective means of estimating visual contrast sensitivity without the need for observers to make any explicit judgement.

  14. Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Wakana; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomonao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2015-04-01

    Axillary shoot formation is a key determinant of plant architecture. Formation of the axillary shoot is regulated by initiation of the axillary meristem or outgrowth of the axillary bud. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) TILLERS ABSENT1 (TAB1; also known as Os WUS), an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, is required to initiate axillary meristem development. We found that formation of the axillary meristem in rice proceeds via a transient state, which we term the premeristem, characterized by the expression of OSH1, a marker of indeterminate cells in the shoot apical meristem. In the tab1-1 (wus-1) mutant, however, formation of the axillary meristem is arrested at various stages of the premeristem zone, and OSH1 expression is highly reduced. TAB1/WUS is expressed in the premeristem zone, where it shows a partially overlapping pattern with OSH1. It is likely, therefore, that TAB1 plays an important role in maintaining the premeristem zone and in promoting the formation of the axillary meristem by promoting OSH1 expression. Temporal expression patterns of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) indicate that WOX4 is likely to regulate meristem maintenance instead of TAB1 after establishment of the axillary meristem. Lastly, we show that the prophyll, the first leaf in the secondary axis, is formed from the premeristem zone and not from the axillary meristem. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Wakana; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomonao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Axillary shoot formation is a key determinant of plant architecture. Formation of the axillary shoot is regulated by initiation of the axillary meristem or outgrowth of the axillary bud. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) TILLERS ABSENT1 (TAB1; also known as Os WUS), an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, is required to initiate axillary meristem development. We found that formation of the axillary meristem in rice proceeds via a transient state, which we term the premeristem, characterized by the expression of OSH1, a marker of indeterminate cells in the shoot apical meristem. In the tab1-1 (wus-1) mutant, however, formation of the axillary meristem is arrested at various stages of the premeristem zone, and OSH1 expression is highly reduced. TAB1/WUS is expressed in the premeristem zone, where it shows a partially overlapping pattern with OSH1. It is likely, therefore, that TAB1 plays an important role in maintaining the premeristem zone and in promoting the formation of the axillary meristem by promoting OSH1 expression. Temporal expression patterns of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) indicate that WOX4 is likely to regulate meristem maintenance instead of TAB1 after establishment of the axillary meristem. Lastly, we show that the prophyll, the first leaf in the secondary axis, is formed from the premeristem zone and not from the axillary meristem. PMID:25841039

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  17. Eye development and photoreceptor differentiation in the cephalopod Doryteuthis pealeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kristen M; Sun, Peter; Meyer, Eli; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Photoreception is a ubiquitous sensory ability found across the Metazoa, and photoreceptive organs are intricate and diverse in their structure. Although the morphology of the compound eye in Drosophila and the single-chambered eye in vertebrates have elaborated independently, the amount of conservation within the 'eye' gene regulatory network remains controversial, with few taxa studied. To better understand the evolution of photoreceptive organs, we established the cephalopod Doryteuthis pealeii as a lophotrochozoan model for eye development. Utilizing histological, transcriptomic and molecular assays, we characterize eye formation in Doryteuthis pealeii Through lineage tracing and gene expression analyses, we demonstrate that cells expressing Pax and Six genes incorporate into the lens, cornea and iris, and the eye placode is the sole source of retinal tissue. Functional assays demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for photoreceptor cell differentiation and retinal organization. This comparative approach places the canon of eye research in traditional models into perspective, highlighting complexity as a result of both conserved and convergent mechanisms.

  18. Corticospinal Excitability in the Hand Muscles is Decreased During Eye Movement with Visual Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Yuta; Jono, Yasutomo; Tani, Keisuke; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles decreases during smooth pursuit eye movement. The present study tested a hypothesis that the decrease in corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles at rest during eye movement is not caused by visual feedback but caused by motor commands to the eye muscles. Healthy men (M age = 28.4 yr., SD = 5.2) moved their eyes to the right with visual occlusion (dark goggles) while their arms and hands remained at rest. The motor-evoked potential in the hand muscles was suppressed by 19% in the third quarter of the eye-movement period, supporting a view that motor commands to the eye muscles are the cause of the decrease in corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles. The amount of the suppression was not significantly different among the muscles, indicating that modulation of corticospinal excitability in one muscle induced by eye movement is not dependent on whether eye movement direction and the direction of finger movement when the muscle contracts are identical. Thus, the finding failed to support a hypothetical view that motor commands to the eye muscles concomittantly produce motor commands to the hand muscles. Moreover, the amount of the suppression was not significantly different between the forearm positions, indicating that the suppression was not affected by proprioception of the forearm muscles when visual feedback is absent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Taxa de absenteísmo da equipe de enfermagem como indicador de gestão de pessoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Sancinetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem é um problema complexo para as organizações de saúde, constituindo-se um indicador que necessita ser monitorado. Este estudo objetivou analisar a taxa de absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem em um hospital público de ensino. As ausências por absenteísmo foram coletadas a partir das escalas mensais, no período de janeiro a julho de 2008, e calculadas por meio de planilha eletrônica. Constatou-se um índice médio de absenteísmo de 5,6% para os enfermeiros e de 9,7% para técnicos/auxiliares de enfermagem. As ausências que mais contribuíram para esses índices referiram-se aos afastamentos por doença. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram o principal motivo de absenteísmo e sinalizam a necessidade de mudanças nas políticas de contratação dos profissionais de enfermagem, além da revisão dos processos de trabalho, visando favorecer melhores condições de saúde a esses profissionais.

  20. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  1. 1H-NMR metabolomic biomarkers of poor outcome after hemorrhagic shock are absent in hibernators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Bogren

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock (HS following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R, was used as a negative control.Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals' temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H-NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H-NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R.An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS

  2. Mismatch negativity of sad syllables is absent in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs. METHOD: This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. RESULTS: The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.

  3. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  4. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...

  5. The Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Tips Watch, Listen, and Learn Social Media ¡Ojo con su visión! ¡Ojo con su visión! Learn About Eye Disease Among Hispanics/Latinos ¡Ojo con su visión! Toolkits Resources Outreach Tools and ...

  6. An eye for inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Health (NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information ... and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed ...

  8. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  9. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  10. Eyes for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and ... carry visual messages from the retina to the brain. Retina (REH-tin-uh) is the light-sensitive ...

  12. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coleoid cephalopods (squids and octopuses have evolved a camera eye, the structure of which is very similar to that found in vertebrates and which is considered a classic example of convergent evolution. Other molluscs, however, possess mirror, pin-hole, or compound eyes, all of which differ from the camera eye in the degree of complexity of the eye structures and neurons participating in the visual circuit. Therefore, genes expressed in the cephalopod eye after divergence from the common molluscan ancestor could be involved in eye evolution through association with the acquisition of new structural components. To clarify the genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye, we applied comprehensive transcriptomic analysis and conducted developmental validation of candidate genes involved in coleoid cephalopod eye evolution. Results We compared gene expression in the eyes of 6 molluscan (3 cephalopod and 3 non-cephalopod species and selected 5,707 genes as cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes on the basis of homology searches against 3 molluscan species without camera eyes. First, we confirmed the expression of these 5,707 genes in the cephalopod camera eye formation processes by developmental array analysis. Second, using molecular evolutionary (dN/dS analysis to detect positive selection in the cephalopod lineage, we identified 156 of these genes in which functions appeared to have changed after the divergence of cephalopods from the molluscan ancestor and which contributed to structural and functional diversification. Third, we selected 1,571 genes, expressed in the camera eyes of both cephalopods and vertebrates, which could have independently acquired a function related to eye development at the expression level. Finally, as experimental validation, we identified three functionally novel cephalopod camera eye genes related to optic lobe formation in cephalopods by in situ

  13. Eye lens crystallins: a component of intraocular pseudoexfoliative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veromann, Siiri; Sünter, Alar; Juronen, Erkki; Tasa, Gunnar; Panov, Aleksei

    2004-01-01

    Feeding experimental animals (19 pigs) with surplus sucrose and salt (NaCl) caused cataractous changes in lens tissue and triggered the formation of pseudoexfoliative material on the lens capsule. In the control animals (15 pigs) pseudoexfoliative material was absent. The avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical method was applied to the pseudoexfoliative material obtained from 15 porcine experimental precataractous lenses and 1 spontaneously cataractous eye and revealed crystallins as a component of the intraocular pseudoexfoliative material. To prevent the development of both intraocular pseudoexfoliative material and crystallin-dependent glaucomatous changes in the trabecular meshwork of the eye, it is important to avoid any cataractogenic insult, including surplus sucrose and salt consumption, causing crystallin leakage from the lens. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Khairul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis.

  15. Chance and necessity in eye evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis "that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes.

  16. Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Pedersen, Anja; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-01-01

    Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. The blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. Recent work...... on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene HERC2, which likely regulates expression of the neighboring pigmentation gene OCA2. This raises the immediate question of whether blue eyes in lemurs might...... have a similar genetic basis. We addressed this by sequencing the homologous genetic region in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons; N = 4) and the closely-related black lemur (Eulemur macaco macaco; N = 4), which has brown eyes. We then compared a 166-bp segment corresponding...

  17. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  18. Molecular mechanism of male differentiation is conserved in the SRY-absent mammal, Tokudaia osimensis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The sex-determining gene SRY induces SOX9 expression in the testes of eutherian mammals via two pathways. SRY binds to testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TESCO) with SF1 to activate SOX9 transcription. SRY also up-regulates ER71 expression, and ER71 activates Sox9 transcription. After the initiation of testis differentiation, SOX9 enhances Amh expression by binding to its promoter with SF1. SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10, members of the SOXE gene family, also enhance the activities of the Amh promoter a...

  19. Reconstructing the ancestral butterfly eye: focus on the opsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Adriana D

    2008-06-01

    The eyes of butterflies are remarkable, because they are nearly as diverse as the colors of wings. Much of eye diversity can be traced to alterations in the number, spectral properties and spatial distribution of the visual pigments. Visual pigments are light-sensitive molecules composed of an opsin protein and a chromophore. Most butterflies have eyes that contain visual pigments with a wavelength of peak absorbance, lambda(max), in the ultraviolet (UV, 300-400 nm), blue (B, 400-500 nm) and long wavelength (LW, 500-600 nm) part of the visible light spectrum, respectively, encoded by distinct UV, B and LW opsin genes. In the compound eye of butterflies, each individual ommatidium is composed of nine photoreceptor cells (R1-9) that generally express only one opsin mRNA per cell, although in some butterfly eyes there are ommatidial subtypes in which two opsins are co-expressed in the same photoreceptor cell. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of opsin cDNAs from the five butterfly families, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, and comparative analysis of opsin gene expression patterns from four of the five families, I propose a model for the patterning of the ancestral butterfly eye that is most closely aligned with the nymphalid eye. The R1 and R2 cells of the main retina expressed UV-UV-, UV-B- or B-B-absorbing visual pigments while the R3-9 cells expressed a LW-absorbing visual pigment. Visual systems of existing butterflies then underwent an adaptive expansion based on lineage-specific B and LW opsin gene multiplications and on alterations in the spatial expression of opsins within the eye. Understanding the molecular sophistication of butterfly eye complexity is a challenge that, if met, has broad biological implications.

  20. Ventilation-perfusion-chest radiography match is less likely to represent pulmonary embolism if perfusion is decreased rather than absent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C K; Worsley, D F; Alavi, A

    2000-09-01

    The authors' goal was to determine whether the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with matching ventilation-perfusion (V-Q) defects and chest radiographic opacities differs depending on the degree of perfusion deficit (absent versus decreased). The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the data obtained from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. In 233 patients, angiograms were of diagnostic quality for 275 lung zones that showed matching V-Q defects and chest radiographic opacities (triple matches). Of these, V-Q scans and chest radiographs from 217 patients with triple matches in 255 lung zones were retrieved and reviewed. Areas corresponding to chest radiographic opacities were scored as having either decreased perfusion or absent perfusion by consensus. Information regarding the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism in corresponding lung zones was obtained from the PIOPED database. The overall prevalence of pulmonary embolism in all lung zones with triple matches was 27% (69 of 255). Of the 255 areas of triple matches, the perfusion was decreased in 153 (60%) and absent in 102 (40%). The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in areas of triple matches with decreased perfusion and triple matches with absent perfusion was 13% (20 of 153) and 48% (49 of 102), respectively (P = 0.0001 by the chi-square test). When these were divided further by lung zones, triple matches with decreased perfusion and triple matches with absent perfusion in the upper-middle lung zone were associated with a prevalence of 0% (O of 44), and 25% (9 of 36), respectively. The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in areas of triple matches with decreased perfusion and triple matches with absent perfusion in the lower lung zone was 18% (20 of 109), and 61% (40 of 66), respectively. A V-Q/chest radiographic match is less likely to represent pulmonary embolism if perfusion is decreased rather than absent. The overall prevalence of pulmonary

  1. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  2. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  3. A Novel Deletion Mutation of the TYR Gene in a Patient With Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by reduced or completely absent pigmentation in the hair, skin, and eyes. Case Presentation In the present study, in order to verify OCA type 1A in a patient with clinical symptoms, and to study the variations of the TYR gene for the first time in southwest Iran, this gene was entirely sequenced. Conclusions A novel homozygous mutation, the deletion of exons 1 - 5 on the TYR gene, was found on the molecular genetic testing of this patient. Exon 1 - 5 deletion on TYR causes a lack of the tyrosinase enzyme and disturbs the melanin biosynthesis process.

  4. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  5. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  6. Adaptive evolution of eye degeneration in the Mexican blind cavefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, W R

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms responsible for eye degeneration in cave-adapted animals have not been resolved. Opposing hypotheses invoking neural mutation or natural selection, each with certain genetic and developmental expectations, have been advanced to explain eye regression, although little or no experimental evidence has been presented to support or reject either theory. Here we review recent developmental and molecular studies in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, a single species consisting of a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and many blind cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), which shed new light on this problem. The manner of eye development and degeneration, the ability to experimentally restore eyes, gene expression patterns, and comparisons between different cavefish populations all provide important clues for understanding the evolutionary forces responsible for eye degeneration. A key discovery is that Hedgehog midline signaling is expanded and inhibits eye formation by inducing lens apoptosis in cavefish embryos. Accordingly, eyes could have been lost by default as a consequence of natural selection for constructive traits, such as feeding structures, which are positively regulated by Hh signaling. We conclude from these studies that eye degeneration in cavefish may be caused by adaptive evolution and pleiotropy.

  7. Seeing the future: using Xenopus to understand eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ai-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Studies of Xenopus eye development have contributed considerably to the understanding of vertebrate neurogenesis, including eye field specification, cell fate determination and identification of genes critical for eye formation. This knowledge has served as a solid foundation for cellular and molecular examinations of the robust regenerative capacity of the Xenopus eye. The retina, lens, and the optic nerve are capable of regeneration after injury in both larval and adult stages. Here, we discuss the current models for studying eye regeneration in Xenopus and their potential applications for providing insights into human eye diseases. As Xenopus has many of the same tools that are available for other regeneration models, we thus highlight the distinct strengths and versatility of this organism that make it especially suited for extrapolating and testing strategies aimed at promoting regeneration and repair in eye tissues. Furthermore, we outline a promising future for the use of new techniques and approaches to address outstanding questions in understanding eye regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tips for Buying Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  9. Checklist for Your Eye Doctor Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  10. Eye Symptom Questionnaire to Evaluate Anterior Eye Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Maria A; Valikodath, Nita G; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Niziol, Leslie M; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P

    2017-06-14

    Ophthalmologists assess eye complaints with a careful history and eye examination; however, other types of physicians have limited tools to evaluate anterior segment (AS) eye diseases. We identified the eye symptom questions that providers should ask to help determine the presence and urgency of AS eye diseases. Persons with and without AS disease completed a self-report eye symptom questionnaire (ESQ) based on the National Institutes of Health Toolbox symptom items in an academic center's corneal and comprehensive eye clinics. Gold standard ophthalmic examination determined the presence and urgency of AS disease. The association between reported symptom severity and the probability of AS disease, or urgent AS disease, was evaluated using logistic regression models, and sensitivity and specificity of the ESQ were also calculated. A total of 324 eyes of 162 subjects were included in the study. Of these, AS disease was present in 255 eyes (79%); of which, 111 eyes showed urgent disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (odds ratio [OR]=2.58; P<0.001), glare (OR=2.61; P=0.001), and blurry vision (OR=1.98; P<0.001) were associated with increased odds of AS disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (OR=2.02; P<0.001), eye redness (OR=1.69; P=0.02), and blurry vision (OR=1.41, P=0.01) were associated with increased odds of urgent AS disease. For the primary analysis with mild symptoms considered relevant, the sensitivity of the ESQ to detect AS disease was 83% and to detect urgent AS disease was 92%. Symptoms of eye pain, glare, redness, and blurry vision indicate the presence and urgency of AS disease.

  11. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  12. Pattern of blood vessels in eyes with coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choroidal coloboma, especially with optic disc involvement affects the blood vessel (BV pattern in the fundus. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the observations on the pattern of retinal BVs in eyes with fundus coloboma. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty four eyes of 19 patients with fundus coloboma and the disc involvement in the coloboma was classified according to a previous publication. Results: Four varieties of BVs were identified in the area of coloboma - BVs that were continuous with those arising from the optic disc; vessels emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery or its branches could be indirectly established; and those emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery could not be established. In addition, extraocular BVs were visible through the thinned sclera. The retinal BVs often traversed the coloboma to reach the normal retina. The disc itself was found to be small and had no physiological cup (if not colobomatous. Conclusions: One should be aware of the major BVs transgressing the coloboma while performing relaxing cuts in the intercalary membrane, during the surgery for retinal detachments in eyes with coloboma. Physiological cup is usually absent (when the disc is not colobomatous. Hence, any cupping in such eyes should be viewed with suspicion.

  13. "Eye Science" in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ge

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2011 is an opportune time for Yanke Xuebao (Eye Science) to launch its bilingual edition as a platform for cooperation between Chinese and international vision researchers.The yearly research output of Chinese investigators in all fields of science, but particularly biomedicine, has been growing recently by leaps and bounds.As an example, the American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), one of the most prestigious clinical journals in our field,received more submissions from East Asian authors (Japan, China and Korea alone)than they did from the United States in 2010.Chinese investigators ranked third on the list, climbing rapidly, only after the US and Japan.Top vision research centers in China, such as Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, where Eye Science is published, now rank alongside Moorfields and Johns Hopkins as among the most prolific institutions in the world, measured by articles appearing annually in peer-reviewed SCI journals.

  14. The Concept of the Absent Curriculum: The Case of the Muslim Contribution and the English National Curriculum for History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the "absent curriculum" on the premise that the study of curriculum has been prone to privileging curricular presence to the exclusion of curricular absence. In order to address this imbalance and to articulate a theory of absence in the curriculum, the paper applies ideas derived from the philosophy…

  15. The Concept of the Absent Curriculum: The Case of the Muslim Contribution and the English National Curriculum for History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the "absent curriculum" on the premise that the study of curriculum has been prone to privileging curricular presence to the exclusion of curricular absence. In order to address this imbalance and to articulate a theory of absence in the curriculum, the paper applies ideas derived from the philosophy…

  16. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  17. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  18. Lagophthalmos in enophthalmic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C-C; Gonzalez-Candial, M; Jain, A; Goldberg, R A; McCann, J D

    2005-06-01

    To report a case series of enophthalmic patients with lagophthalmos. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records at a tertiary health care centre of all patients with the diagnoses of "enophthalmos" and "lagophthalmos". Patients who had a history of diseases (such as Graves' orbitopathy), trauma or surgery of the orbit and eyelid were excluded. Enophthalmos was defined as exophthalmometric reading of 14 mm or less in both eyes. Seven patients (14 eyes) with bilateral enophthalmos were found to have concomitant lagophthalmos. All patients had deep superior sulci bilaterally. The upper eyelids were seen to be severely retro-placed behind the superior orbital rim. The extraocular motilities were full with no focal neurological deficit. The orbicularis oculi function was normal with no facial paralysis. The orbits were soft on retropulsion and no facial asymmetry was noted. The mean exophthalmolmetry reading measured 12.6 (SD 1.1) mm. The lagophthalmos varied from 1-5 mm. One patient (one eye) with 3 mm lagophthalmos developed a corneal ulcer and was treated with topical antibiotics and gold weight placement in the upper eyelid. Enophthalmic patients with deep superior sulci and retro-placed upper eyelids may present with lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy.

  19. SLURP1 is a late marker of epidermal differentiation and is absent in Mal de Meleda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre, Bertrand; Plantard, Laure; Aeschbach, Lorène

    2007-01-01

    SLURP1 is a secreted member of the LY6/PLAUR protein family. Mutations in the SLURP1 gene are the cause of Mal de Meleda (MDM), a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease, characterized by inflammatory palmoplantar keratoderma. In this study, we have analyzed the expression of SLURP1 in normal an...... mutation W15R located in the signal peptide. Thus, most MDM mutations in SLURP1 affect either the expression, integrity, or stability of the protein, suggesting that a simple immunologic test could be used as a rapid screening procedure....

  20. Mapping of the associated phenotype of an absent granular layer in ichthyosis vulgaris to the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, John G; DiGiovanna, John J; Johnston, Kay A; Fleckman, Philip; Bale, Sherri J

    2002-12-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is a mild to severe scaling disorder of uncertain etiology estimated to affect as many as 1 : 250 in the population. Family studies have shown that in many cases IV follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, but gene mapping studies have not been reported. To investigate the genetic basis for inherited IV, we have performed gene linkage studies in two multigenerational families where affected individuals have clinical features of IV but distinct histological features. The epidermis in this disorder characteristically displays non-specific orthohyperkeratosis. Notably, a subset of IV patients with a reduced or absent granular epidermal layer (AGL) have been reported, and decreased filaggrin levels have been described in others. The prominent role of profilaggrin in human keratohyalin suggests that defects in the gene for profilaggrin (FLG), its processing of profillagrin to filaggrin, or a gene involved in profilaggrin regulation may underlie or modify the pathology in IV. Family 1 had seven individuals with IV, severe heat intolerance and epidermis with 1-3 granular layers (consistent with normal epidermal histology). Ichthyosis vulgaris in this family did not segregate with FLG or other genes in the epidermal differentiation complex. In contrast, five of the six IV patients in Family 2, all siblings, had epidermis with no granular layer. Significant evidence was obtained for linkage of IV with the associated AGL phenotype to the epidermal differentiation complex (which includes FLG) assuming either a recessive (max Lod 3.4) or dominant (max Lod 3.6) inheritance model. Sequence analysis of FLG did not reveal a mutation in the amino or carboxyl terminal portions of the coding sequence adjacent to filaggrin repeats. The AGL may represent an endophenotype for IV, and the presence of a modifier of IV pathology at this locus is discussed.

  1. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  2. Roles of eyes, leg proprioceptors and statocysts in the compensatory eye movements of freely walking land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul; Barnes; Varju

    1998-12-01

    The compound eyes, the canal organs of the statocysts and proprioceptors in the legs all generate compensatory eye movements in the horizontal plane in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Frequency analyses of the compensatory eye reflexes elicited by each of these inputs show that visual (V) and proprioceptive (P) reflexes respond best below 0.1 Hz, while statocyst (S) reflexes only achieve a high gain above this frequency. They thus increase the range of frequencies over which compensation can occur. Eye and body movements were recorded in an arena under all possible combinations of crabs seeing or blind (V+ or V-), with or without statocysts (S+ or S-) and freely walking or passively transported on a trolley (P+ or P-). Intact crabs (V+S+P+) show good stabilisation of the eyes in space, the only movements with respect to external coordinates being saccadic resetting movements (fast phases of nystagmus). The eyes thus compensate well for body turns, but are unaffected by translatory movements of the body and turns that are not accompanied by a change in the orientation of the long axis of the body in space. In the absence of any one sense, compensation for rotation is significantly impaired, whether measured by the increase in the width of the histograms of changes in the angular positions of the eyes in space ( capdelta &phgr; E), by the mean angular velocity of the eyes (slope of regression line, mE) with respect to the angular velocity of the body (mB) or by response gain plotted against angular acceleration of body turn (a). The absence of two senses reduces the crab's ability to compensate still further, with the statocyst-only condition (V-S+P-) being little better than the condition when all three senses are absent (V-S-P-).Such multisensory control of eye compensation for body rotation is discussed both in terms of making use of every available cue for reducing retinal slip and in making available the information content of the optic flow field.

  3. Genetic eye research in Tasmania: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, David A

    2012-03-01

    Although considerable recent work on hereditary eye diseases in Tasmanian families has been published, much of this depended on a century of meticulous pedigree collection by earlier clinical researchers. This article reviews some of the historical papers and the importance they have played in gene discovery and understanding of ophthalmic genetics. Tasmanian families have contributed to the identification of genes for X-linked megalocornea, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, retinitis pigmentosa, congenital cataract, ptosis, keratoconus, glaucoma and myopia. The true value of the Tasmanian pedigrees will be realized with the translation of genetic discoveries into early diagnosis and treatment for these eye diseases.

  4. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  5. Through Einstein's Eyes

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; Altin, P A; Bennet, F H; Hush, M R; Searle, Antony C.; Savage, Craig M.; Altin, Paul A.; Bennet, Francis H.; Hush, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a relativistically-accurate computer graphics code and have used it to produce photo-realistic images and videos of scenes where special relativistic effects dominate, either in astrophysical contexts or in imaginary worlds where the speed of light is only a few metres per second. The videos have been integrated into our under-graduate teaching programme for several years. Recently we took the next step, encouraging undergraduate students to use the code to explore relativity, develop their own videos, and eventually package them together into Through Einstein's Eyes, a multimedia CD.

  6. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  7. Non-toxic retention of nanoceria in murine eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have shown that cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), with unique characteristics and catalytic activities, are retained in the retina for more than 1 year after a single intravitreal injection and can be potentially used for the treatment of a variety of eye diseases. The objective of this study is to determine whether the retention of nanoceria in the eye causes inflammation or adverse side effects. Methods Wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice at P30 were intravitreally injected with several concentrations of nanoceria. The health of the photoreceptors was assessed by analyzing the expression of photoreceptor-specific genes, and the retinal structure and function. The effect of nanoceria was investigated by analyzing of the vascular system, the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and cellular infiltration into the eye. Results Our data showed that there were no changes in the retinal structure or function, or cytokine gene expression following a single intravitreal injection of nanoceria. Conclusions Nanoceria, at doses ranging from 17.2 ng to 1720 ng per eye, do not cause any damage to the retinal structure and function by 30 days post injection. No cellular infiltration and no increases in inflammatory responses were found in the eyes. Our data indicate that nanoceria are safe to use for treatment of a variety of eye diseases. PMID:27746672

  8. The plight of absent fathers caused by migrant work: Its traumatic impact on adolescent male children in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias K. Nyanjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.

  9. L'absentéisme dans les entreprises publiques Le cas des collectivités territoriales

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Antoine

    2010-01-01

    La finalité de ce travail de recherche est de déterminer les perspectives de lutte contre le phénomène de l'absentéisme au sein des collectivités territoriales, après avoir analysé ce dernier en détails. La méthodologie utilisée pour déterminer la façon optimale de lutter contre le phénomène de l'absentéisme dans les collectivités territoriales prend la forme d'une étude documentaire poussée, accompagnée de différentes méthodes de recueil des données, comme l'observation participante et des e...

  10. Absent or Ambivalent Mothers and Avoidant Children – An Evolutionary Reading of Zhang Kangkang’s Motherhood Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Xu

    2014-03-01

    Zhang’s texts also describe insecurely attached infants and children who sink into a nonchalant and avoidant state after experiencing distress, terror, or resentment due to insensitive and unpredictable mothering. Absent and ambivalent mothers are generally harassed by the feeling of guilt, resulting from conditional maternal commitment, mother-child conflicts, and the high expectations of the motherhood myth. Children’s counterstrategies also regulate and enhance maternal or alloparental care.

  11. A Seeing-eye Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范图雨

    2000-01-01

    A seeing-eye dog is a special(特殊的) dog. It helps blind people walk along the streets and do many other things. We call these dogs ""seeing-eye"" dogs because the dogs are the ""eyes"" of the blind man and they help him to ""see"". These dogs go to special schools for several years to learn to help blind people.

  12. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  13. Eye in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations of corneal sensitivity and thickness, decreased tolerance to contact lenses, decreased intraocular pressure, hemeralopia and refractive errors. Possible posterior segment changes include worsening of diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, increased risk of peripheral vitreochorioretinal dystrophies and retinal detachment. Thus, it should be kept in mind that the presence of any ocular symptoms in a pregnant woman requires ophthalmologic examination and further management. Knowledge of these ocular changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes from ocular manifestation of systemic disease and diseases pertaining to the eye in a pregnant woman. This article explains the effects of ocular changes in pregnancy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 16-20

  14. PACSIN 1 interacts with huntingtin and is absent from synaptic varicosities in presymptomatic Huntington's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modregger, Jan; DiProspero, Nicholas A; Charles, Vinod; Tagle, Danilo A; Plomann, Markus

    2002-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a pathological expansion of a CAG repeat in the first exon of the gene coding for huntingtin, resulting in an abnormally long polyglutamine stretch. Despite its widespread expression, mutant huntingtin leads to selective neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Here we report that the neurospecific phosphoprotein PACSIN 1, which has been implicated as playing a central role in synaptic vesicle recycling, interacts with huntingtin via its C-terminal SH3 domain. Moreover, two other isoforms, PACSIN 2 and 3, which show a wider tissue distribution including the brain, do not interact with huntingtin despite a highly conserved SH3 domain. Furthermore, this interaction is repeat-length-dependent and is enhanced with mutant huntingtin, possibly causing the sequestration of PACSIN 1. Normally, PACSIN 1 is located along neurites and within synaptic boutons, but in HD patient neurons, there is a progressive loss of PACSIN 1 immunostaining in synaptic varicosities, beginning in presymptomatic and early-stage HD. Further, PACSIN 1 immunostaining of HD patient tissue reveals a more cytoplasmic distribution of the protein, with particular concentration in the perinuclear region coincident with mutant huntingtin. Thus, the specific interaction of huntingtin with the neuronal PACSIN isoform, PACSIN 1, and its altered intracellular distribution in pathological tissue, together with the observed differences in the binding behavior, suggest a role for PACSIN 1 during early stages of the selective neuropathology of HD.

  15. TAR (THROMBOCYTOPENIA WITH ABSENT RADIUS SYNDROME WITH CONGENITAL ACYANOTIC HEART DISEASE: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the absence of the radius bone in the forearm and a dramatically reduced platelet count. This syndrome may occur as a part of the 1q21.1 deletion syndrome. Symptoms of thrombocytopenia or a lowered platelet count leads to bruising and potentially life-threatening haemorrhage. Affected children who survive this period and do not have damaging haemorrhages in the brain usually have a normal life expectancy and normal intellectual development. Other common links between with TAR seem to include heart problems, kidney problems, knee joint problems, frequently lactose intolerance and often thumb hypoplasia. The incidence is 0.5-1 per 100,000 live births. Mutations in the RBM8A gene cause TAR syndrome. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This disorder is to be differentiated from Holt-Oram syndrome, which has similar presentation. Prevention of bleeding with physiotherapy and occupational therapy are mainstay of management. With this case report we try to discuss the complexity of the condition and its management in the neonatal period.

  16. Conotruncal malformations and absent thymus due to a deleterious NKX2-6 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta-Shma, Asaf; El-lahham, Nael; Edvardson, Simon; Stepensky, Polina; Nir, Amiram; Perles, Zeev; Gavri, Sagui; Golender, Julius; Yaakobi-Simhayoff, Nurit; Shaag, Avraham; Rein, Azaria J J T; Elpeleg, Orly

    2014-04-01

    Truncus arteriosus (TA) accounts for ~1% of congenital heart defects. The aetiology of isolated TA is largely unknown but when occurring as part of a syndrome, it is mostly associated with chromosome 22q11 deletion. Vice versa, the most common congenital heart defects associated with chromosome 22q11 deletion are conotruncal malformations. In this study we investigated the cause of multiple conotruncal malformations accompanied by athymia in a consanguineous family. Whole exome analysis revealed a homozygous deleterious mutation in the NKX2-6 gene. NKX2-6 encodes a homeobox-containing protein which is expressed in mouse embryo at E8.0-E9.5 at the caudal pharyngeal arches and the outflow tract. A single missense mutation was previously implicated in the aetiology of familial isolated TA; however, null mice are entirely normal. The clear phenotype associated with a homozygous deleterious mutation in the present report, falls well within the spectrum of the cardiac defects seen in DiGeorge syndrome, is in agreement with NKX2-6 downstream location in the TBX1 signalling pathway and confirms NKX2-6 role in human cardiogenesis.

  17. Loss of the six3/6 controlling pathways might have resulted in pinhole-eye evolution in Nautilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moritaki, Takeya; Okuda, Yuki; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Sousounis, Konstantinos; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods have an elaborate camera eye whereas nautiloids have primitive pinhole eye without lens and cornea. The Nautilus pinhole eye provides a unique example to explore the module of lens formation and its evolutionary mechanism. Here, we conducted an RNA-seq study of developing eyes of Nautilus and pygmy squid. First, we found that evolutionary distances from the common ancestor to Nautilus or squid are almost the same. Although most upstream eye development controlling genes were expressed in both species, six3/6 that are required for lens formation in vertebrates was not expressed in Nautilus. Furthermore, many downstream target genes of six3/6 including crystallin genes and other lens protein related genes were not expressed in Nautilus. As six3/6 and its controlling pathways are widely conserved among molluscs other than Nautilus, the present data suggest that deregulation of the six3/6 pathway led to the pinhole eye evolution in Nautilus.

  18. Amblyopia: What Is the Cause of Lazy Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: What Is the Cause of Lazy Eye? Leer ...

  19. Changes in the Eye Microbiota Associated with Contact Lens Wearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hakdong; Price, Kenneth; Albert, Luong; Dodick, Jack; Park, Lisa; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria

    2016-03-22

    Wearing contact lenses has been identified as a risk factor for the development of eye conditions such as giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis. We hypothesized that wearing contact lenses is associated with changes in the ocular microbiota. We compared the bacterial communities of the conjunctiva and skin under the eye from 58 subjects and analyzed samples from 20 subjects (9 lens wearers and 11 non-lens wearers) taken at 3 time points using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing technique (V4 region; Illumina MiSeq). We found that using anesthetic eye drops before sampling decreases the detected ocular microbiota diversity. Compared to those from non-lens wearers, dry conjunctival swabs from lens wearers had more variable and skin-like bacterial community structures (UniFrac;P value = 3.0). The results indicate that wearing contact lenses alters the microbial structure of the ocular conjunctiva, making it more similar to that of the skin microbiota. Further research is needed to determine whether the microbiome structure provides less protection from ocular infections. As in other body sites (i.e., the gut, skin, and mouth), the eye has a normal community of bacteria which are expected to confer resistance that provides protection from invaders. However, the eye microbiome has been largely neglected and is relevant to eye health and understanding eye diseases and to discovery of its functions. This report of a baseline study shows differences in the eye microbiome of contact lens wearers in relation to those of non-lens wearers and has the potential to help future studies explore novel insights into a possible role of the microbiome in the increased risk for eye infections in contact lens wearers. Copyright © 2016 Shin et al.

  20. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases , eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  1. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases , eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  2. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases, eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  3. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...... of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause...

  4. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  5. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fix...

  6. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a fever. More serious preseptal or orbital cellulitis infections can cause decreased vision, an inability to move the eye, and the appearance of the eye being pushed forward. What to do: Both forms of cellulitis are serious conditions that require urgent medical attention. ...

  7. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Adriaan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  8. Eye tracking for visual marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.

    2008-01-01

    We provide the theory of visual attention and eye-movements that serves as a basis for evaluating eye-tracking research and for discussing salient and emerging issues in visual marketing. Motivated from its rising importance in marketing practice and its potential for theoretical contribution, we

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  10. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... recién nacidos Newborns with symptoms of conjunctivitis (pink eye) should see a doctor right away. Neonatal ...

  11. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  12. Digital quantification of human eye color highlights genetic association of three new loci.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Liu (Fan); A. Wollstein (Andreas); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); G.A. Ankra-Badu (Georgina); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.J. Park (Daniel); G. Zhu; M. Larsson (Mats); D.L. Duffy (David); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.A. Mackey (David); S. Walsh (Susan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have successfully identified genetic variants in several genes associated with human iris (eye) color; however, they all used simplified categorical trait information. Here, we quantified continuous eye color variation into hue and saturation values using high-resolution

  13. Advances in the genetics of eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie; Freund, Paul R; MacDonald, Ian

    2013-12-01

    An update on heritable eye disease will allow informed patient counseling and improved patient care. New loci and genes have been associated with identifiable heritable ocular traits. Molecular genetic analysis is available for many of these genes either as part of research or for clinical testing. The advent of gene array technologies has enabled screening of samples for known mutations in genes linked to various disorders. Exomic sequencing has proven to be particularly successful in research protocols in identifying the genetic causation of rare genetic traits by pooling patient resources and discovering new genes. Further, genetic analysis has led improvement in patient care and counselling, as exemplified by the continued advances in our treatment of retinoblastoma. Patients and families are commonly eager to participate in either research or clinical testing to improve their understanding of the cause and heritability of an ocular condition. Many patients hope that testing will then lead to appropriate treatments or cures. The success of gene therapy in the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis has provided a brilliant example of this hope; that a similar trial may become available to other patients and families burdened by genetic disease.

  14. Frontal eye fields involved in shifting frame of reference within working memory for scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Burgess, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Working memory (WM) evoked by linguistic cues for allocentric spatial and egocentric spatial aspects of a visual scene was investigated by correlating fMRI BOLD signal (or "activation") with performance on a spatial-relations task. Subjects indicated the relative positions of a person or object...... response during recall involving allocentric compared to egocentric spatial reference frames, and that this difference was larger in good performers than in poor performers as measured by the first behavioural principal component. The frontal eye fields may be used when subjects move their internal gaze...... during shifting reference frames in representational space. Analysis of actual eye movements in 3 subjects revealed no difference between egocentric and allocentric recall tasks where visual stimuli were also absent. Thus, the FEF machinery for directing eye movements may also be involved in changing...

  15. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  16. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  18. Chance and necessity in eye evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    ...." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types...

  19. Absenteísmo do pessoal de enfermagem: decisões e ações de enfermeiros gerentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kurcgant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Mensurar o absenteísmo dos enfermeiros técnicos/auxiliares de enfermagem em três instituições hospitalares e conhecer possíveis decisões gerenciais de enfermeiros gerentes frente a este evento. Método Quantiqualitativo, sendo que, na etapa quantitativa mediu as taxas mensais, média anual e taxa geral de absenteísmo dos enfermeiros e técnicos/auxiliares de enfermagem de 12 unidades de serviço dos hospitais, durante 12 meses, segundo a equação proposta pelo NAGEH. Na etapa qualitativa foram realizadas entrevistas com as 12 enfermeiras gerentes das 12 unidades. Resultados A etapa quantitativa mostra diferenças importantes em cada instituição e entre instituições com diversas taxas mensais acima da taxa mensal máxima preconizada pelo COFEN de 6,7%. Na etapa qualitativa foram resgatadas as decisões de impacto positivo, por elas tomadas, considerando o relacionamento com chefia, o diálogo, e o atendimento das demandas de ordem física e emocional dos profissionais como fatores importantes. Conclusão O absenteísmo mostrou-se como um evento presente no cotidiano do gerenciamento do pessoal de enfermagem, pois apresentou variações nos diferentes meses do ano e nas diferentes unidades de serviço sendo possível classificá-las frente à maior ou menor problemática, além disso, mostrou o adoecimento do trabalhador, insatisfação com as condições institucionais e o relacionamento interpessoal inadequado, o que orienta para decisões gerenciais próprias a realidade.

  20. Absenteísmo-doença segundo autorrelato de servidores públicos municipais em Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste de Souza Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar o perfil de um conjunto de servidores públicos municipais que relataram, por ocasião de um inquérito, absenteísmo-doença nos últimos 12 meses. Em 2009 obteve-se uma amostra de 5.646 (14% do universo de 38.304 servidores municipais de Belo Horizonte. Um questionário foi disponibilizado em sítio da Internet, cuja entrada dependia do consentimento do respondente. Regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para determinar os fatores associados. A prevalência do absenteísmo-doença foi maior entre os servidores do sexo feminino (RP 1,12 e diminuiu com o aumento das faixas etárias: 30-39 anos (RP 0,79; 40-49 anos (RP 0,72; e 50 anos ou mais (RP 0,68. Absenteísmo-doença mostrou-se associado às atividades ligadas aos grupos de fiscalização e vigilância (RP 1,46, serviços gerais (RP 1,22, informação, educação e cultura (RP 1,50 e saúde (RP 1,50. As comorbidades mais presentes foram LER/Dort (RP 1,19, lombalgia (RP 1,16, depressão/ ansiedade (RP 1,20 e percepção de cansaço mental (RP 1,12. O relato de uso de medicação para depressão/ansiedade se mostrou fator protetor (RP 0,82. Maior probabilidade de transtorno mental (RP 1,23 segundo o SRQ20, insatisfação com a capacidade de trabalho (RP 1,08, condições razoáveis (RP 1,21 e condições precárias de trabalho (RP 1,19 foram associadas ao desfecho. Programas de promoção da saúde no trabalho visando a prevenção de comorbidades musculoesqueléticas e queixas psicossociais atenuariam as situações que provavelmente estão na origem do absenteísmo-doença.

  1. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  2. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  3. Eye colour as a genetic marker for fertility and fecundity of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Herton Helder Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye colour of Triatoma infestans is controlled at a single autosomal locus, with black-eye as the dominant gene and red-eye as the recessive. Inheritance of these characters follows a classical Mendelian system, enabling eye colour to be used as a marker for studies of mating frequency. We found no significant differences in oviposition rates and egg hatching rates irrespective of parental phenotypes. Different mating schedules between red-eye and black-eye parents showed that eye colour did not affect mating competence. Females mated with a single male or with different males together or in succession produced similar numbers of fertile eggs, with the eye colour of the offspring reflecting exposure to the different males. We conclude that although a single mating can provide sufficient sperm for the whole reproductive life of the female, multiple matings can result in balanced assortative sperm usage from the spermatheca.

  4. Dermal, Eye, and Oral Toxicological Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    produced no corneal opacity, iritis , hyperemia, chemosis, or discharge throughout the 72 hour observation period. This sample is non-irritating to...resolved in one eye by day 7 and in the other eye by day 14. Iritis was observed in all three eyes at 24 hours which resolved in one eye by 48 hours...other eye by day 7. Only one eye displayed iritis at 24 hours which resolved by the 72 hour observation period. Hyperemia, chemosis and discharge were

  5. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain W Lapan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis.

  6. DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynerson, James M; Perry, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS). Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient’s life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of biofilm presence. Dry eye now becomes a very easy disease to understand. We feel that dry eye should be treated and prevented by early and routine biofilm removal through electromechanical lid margin debridement. PMID

  7. Cephalopod eye evolution was modulated by the acquisition of Pax-6 splicing variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Yura, Kei; Ogura, Atsushi

    2014-03-05

    Previous studies have reported that the developmental processes of vertebrate eyes are controlled by four Pax-6 splicing variants, each modulating different downstream genes, whereas those of insect eyes are controlled by duplicated Pax-6 genes. Cephalopods belong to the Protostomes but possess a camera-type eye similar to those in vertebrates. We examined Pax-6 variations in the squid and found five types of Pax-6 splicing variants but no duplication of the Pax-6 gene. In the five splicing variants, the splicing patterns were produced by the combination of two additional exons to the ortholog and one jettisoned exon containing most of the Homeobox domain (HD). These five variants show spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression during development in the squid. Our study suggests that cephalopods acquired Pax-6 splicing variants independent of those in vertebrates and that these variants were similarly utilized in the development of the squid eye.

  8. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are.

  9. Absenteísmo por transtornos mentais em trabalhadores de saúde em um hospital no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni de Lima Santana

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o perfil de adoecimento por transtornos mentais e comportamentais em trabalhadores de saúde de um hospital de ensino no sul do Brasil. Métodos pesquisa quantitativa, epidemiológica transversal retrospectiva cuja coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de documentos institucionais utilizados para alimentar o Sistema de Monitoramento da Saúde do Trabalhador de Enfermagem e envolveu todos os afastamentos ocorridos em 2011. Resultados Foram contabilizados 55 registros de afastamentos por Transtornos Mentais e Comportamentais que totalizaram 317 dias de absenteísmo. Os Técnicos de Enfermagem foram os profissionais mais afastados com o equivalente a 29,09% dos registros. As Unidades de Terapia Intensiva representaram os setores com o maior número de dias de absenteísmo, totalizando 81% e os Episódios depressivos obtiveram a frequência mais significativa, 52,72% dos transtornos mentais. Conclusão Os resultados evidenciaram que os transtornos mentais em trabalhadores de saúde constituem uma realidade preocupante que necessitam urgentemente de intervenções.

  10. Social Aspects of “Absent Presence” in the Use of Mobile Phones in Public Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Katić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how, in the context of the increasing mediated permeability of the boundaries between the realms of home, privacy, in public, work and leisure, people use mobile phones to communicate with absent others whilst in public urban spaces, near others who are physically present, that is, how people negotiate place and presence when “on the phone”. Our ethnographic research of quotidian practices employed by mobile phone users in public spaces in Zagreb, Croatia, confirms that the critique put forward by some media scholars that media technologies create a homogenous, placeless world, is rather exaggerated. Place is reconstituted through a variety of ethnomethodological, and culturally specific practices which we refer to as manoeuvres of spatial juggling, practices which allow people to integrate their presence in the physical and in the virtual worlds. We identify a number of such practices, and also highlight which moral, cognitive and ritual components of micro interactions in public are challenged during mobile phone use. We conclude that, though significantly contingent and fluid, mobile phone interactions do not annihilate place but transform it into an “absent presence”.

  11. Absent or compressed basal cisterns on first CT scan: ominous predictors of outcome in severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutant, S M; Klauber, M R; Marshall, L F; Toole, B M; Bowers, S A; Seelig, J M; Varnell, J B

    1984-10-01

    The relationship of outcome to the appearance of the basal cisterns as seen on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning was assessed in 218 consecutive severely head-injured patients entered into the second phase of the National Pilot Traumatic Coma Data Bank. Outcome could be directly related to the status of the basal cisterns on the initial CT scan. The mortality rates were 77%, 39%, and 22% among those with absent, compressed, and normal basal cisterns, respectively. This association between cisterns and outcome was shown to be strong after adjusting for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p less than 0.001). The state of the cisterns was more important for those with higher GCS scores (scores 6 to 8) than for those with lower scores (scores 3 to 5). Patients with GCS scores of 6 to 8, with cisterns absent or not visualized, suffered nearly a fourfold additional risk of poor outcome, compared to those with normal cisterns. This indicates that the status of the cisterns can be used as an early noninvasive method of identifying patients at high risk of death or severe disability, in whom the initial neurological examination would potentially suggest otherwise.

  12. Wartime open globe eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Zuljan, Igor; Lakos, Venera; Miljak, Snjezana; Markovic, Irena; Ivanisevic, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Open globe injuries are the most serious eye injuries in war as in peace time. The purpose of this study is to analyze wartime open globe eye injuries in 72 patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Hospital of Split from July 1991 to April 1993, during the intensive war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to evaluate crucial factors responsible for the functional success of the treatment. Wartime open globe eye injuries were retrospectively analyzed in 72 patients (80 eyes) hospitalized at Clinical Hospital of Split, Department of Ophthalmology, between July 1991 and April 1993. The causes and ways of wounding, localization of wounds and presence, nature and localization of the foreign body, as well as admission time, microsurgical management and other factors contributing to poor visual outcome were studied. Standard international classification of ocular traumas (the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology and the International Ocular Trauma Classification) was used for the classified and graded injuries. Open globe eye injuries amounted to 52.65% of all war injuries to the eyes. Bilateral injuries were found in eight patients (11.11%). The most frequent cause of the injures were fragments of explosive devices (more than two-thirds). Most of the patients were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of the injury. Using current microsurgical techniques, the attempt was made to achieve not only anatomical but also functional recovery already in the primary treatment. In 30 eyes (37.50%) final visual acuity amounted to more than 0.1, and in 22 eyes (27.50%) it reached 0.5. There was a statistically significant correlation between admission within the first 12 hours and postoperative improved visual acuity (chi(2) = 4.53; p = 0.033). Statistically significantly better visual acuity was found in patients with lesions limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Primary enucleation or evisceration was performed only exceptionally: one enucleation

  13. The eyes of LITENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  14. Eyes of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Deniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency, a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV, i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  15. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  16. The capybara eye: clinical tests, anatomic and biometric features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Truppel, Jesse; Tramontin, Mariana H; Vilani, Ricardo G D'Octaviano; Lange, Rogério R

    2008-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive investigation of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) eye and to perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 22 healthy, capybaras were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Ages varied from 2 to 4 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test, tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach, Model 200P +), axial globe length and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Capybara's normal ocular features include: dorsal and ventral puncta, vestigial third eyelid, true cilia only at the upper eyelid margins. The bulbar conjunctiva is noticeably densely pigmented with a brown to bronze color. The capybara's pupil is oval in shape and vertical in position No tapetum lucidum is present in this species and the retinal blood vessels are almost absent. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated were: Intraocular pressure: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; Schirmer tear test: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; Central corneal thickness: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm; Axial globe length: 22.20 +/- 1.71 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctiva, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capybara eye. The corneal epithelium of the capybara possesses a thin and discrete Bowman's layer. Results and parameters obtained in this investigation exposed unique anatomic features of the capybara eye and will help veterinary ophthalmologists to more accurately diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capybara eye. Furthermore, corneal thickness and axial length of the capybara are similar to that of human beings

  17. Eye Absence Does Not Regulate Planarian Stem Cells during Eye Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2017-02-27

    Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Myosin Heavy Chain 2B isoform is expressed in specialized eye muscles but not in trunk and limb muscles of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Maccatrozzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC of adult skeletal muscles are codified by four genes named: slow, or type 1, and fast types 2A, 2X and 2B. The slow, 2A and 2X isoforms have been found expressed in all mammalian species studied so far whereas there is a large inter-species variability in the expression of MHC-2B. In this study histochemistry (m- ATPase, immunohistochemistry with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies and RT-PCR were combined together to assess whether the MHC-2B gene is expressed in bovine muscles. ATPase staining and RT-PCR experiments showed that three MHC isoforms (1, 2A, 2X were expressed in trunk and limb muscles. Slow or type 1 expression was confirmed using a specific antibody (BA-F8 whereas the detection of fast MHC isoforms were validate by means of BF-35 antibody although not by the SC-71 antibody. MHC-2B was absent in limb and trunk muscles, but was present in specialized eye muscles (rectus lateralis and retractor bulbi as consistently showed by RT-PCR and reactivity with a specific antibody (BF-F3. Interestingly, a cardiac isoform, MHC-a- cardiac was found to be expressed not only in extraocular muscles but also in masticatory muscles as masseter.

  19. Eye and vision defects in under-five-year-old children in Oman: A public health intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Khandekar

    2010-01-01

    Result : Among 1,520 examined children, three children had absent eyeball bilaterally and three had unilaterally absent eyeball. Strabismus and nystagmus were detected in 44 (2.9% and 18 (1.2% children respectively. ′Hiding Heidi′ test was normal in 530/537 (87% of children. Distant vision reading was ≥0.32 in 386/448 (86.2% eyes. Preferential looking test suggested that half of the children had defective vision (>2cpcm. Screening at ′1-2 year′ and ′3-4 years′ age group could significantly predict eye problems ( P≤0.001. Conclusion : Eye and vision screening of under-five kids helped in detection of eye problems in early stages. Instead of universal screening, high risk population or children of ′3 to 4′ years for vision and ′1 to 2′ years for ocular abnormalities is proposed The existing health services could not detect some children with eye problems and they were identified during such screening.

  20. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt J

    2013-09-01

    Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder

  1. Changes in the Eye Microbiota Associated with Contact Lens Wearing

    OpenAIRE

    Hakdong Shin; Kenneth Price; Luong Albert; Jack Dodick; Lisa Park; Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wearing contact lenses has been identified as a risk factor for the development of eye conditions such as giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis. We hypothesized that wearing contact lenses is associated with changes in the ocular microbiota. We compared the bacterial communities of the conjunctiva and skin under the eye from 58 subjects and analyzed samples from 20 subjects (9 lens wearers and 11 non-lens wearers) taken at 3 time points using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing t...

  2. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  3. Applications of lobster eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  4. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  5. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  6. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  7. Head and eye Echoencephalogram (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to test for abnormalities in the eye. The ultrasound helps evaluate the farthest part of the eyeball when there are cataracts. The test may help diagnose retinal detachment or other disorders and evaluate orbital lesions and intraocular lesions.

  8. Absent menstrual periods - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. ... of puberty. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. ...

  9. Absent pulmonary valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 428. ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 430. ...

  10. A Note on Eye Movement

    CERN Document Server

    Bolina, O; Bolina, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    In a simplified fashion, the motion of the eyeball in its orbit consists of rotations around a fixed point. Therefore, this motion can be described in terms of the Euler's angles of rigid body dynamics. However, there is a physiological constraint in the motion of the eye which reduces to two its degrees of freedom. This paper reviews the basic features of the kinematics of the eye and the laws governing its motion.

  11. Talking with eye injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an eye injury are usually in pain and very frightened. They need a gentle, reassuring approach. Your first task is to assess the general state of your patient. If they are alert and orientated and their general health is good, you can continue to examine them in the eye department. If their immediate general health is at risk, you will have to address this first.

  12. Eye casualty services in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  13. Dimensão do absenteísmo entre trabalhadores de enfermagem do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Caren de Oliveira Riboldi

    2008-01-01

    Estudo transversal, documental contemporâneo, com abordagem quantitativa. O objetivo consistiu em caracterizar o absenteísmo dos trabalhadores de enfermagem do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, apresentando características profissionais, motivos de ausências, taxas de absenteísmo e associações entre os Serviços de Enfermagem. A amostra abrangeu 1535 cartões-ponto, referentes aos trabalhadores vinculados ao Grupo de Enfermagem e que apresentaram taxa de absenteísmo maior que zero, no perío...

  14. Eye Health in Sports and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer ... protection. High-Risk Sports For all age groups, sports-related eye injuries occur most frequently in baseball, basketball and racquet ...

  15. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  16. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  17. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  18. Absent cervical spine pedicle and associated congenital spinal abnormalities - a diagnostic trap in a setting of acute trauma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildermuth Simon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital spinal abnormalities can easily be misdiagnosed on plain radiographs. Additional imaging is warranted in doubtful cases, especially in a setting of acute trauma. Case Presentation This patient presented at the emergency unit of our university hospital after a motor vehicle accident and was sent to our radiology department for imaging of the cervical spine. Initial clinical examination and plain radiographs of the cervical spine were performed but not conclusive. Additional CT of the neck helped establish the right diagnosis. Conclusion CT as a three-dimensional imaging modality with the possibility of multiplanar reconstructions allows for the exact diagnosis and exclusion of acute traumatic lesions of the cervical spine, especially in cases of doubtful plain radiographs and when congenital spinal abnormalities like absent cervical spine pedicle with associated spina bifida may insinuate severe trauma.

  19. Absent cervical spine pedicle and associated congenital spinal abnormalities - a diagnostic trap in a setting of acute trauma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Scheffel, Hans; Wildermuth, Simon; Leschka, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul

    2010-11-09

    Congenital spinal abnormalities can easily be misdiagnosed on plain radiographs. Additional imaging is warranted in doubtful cases, especially in a setting of acute trauma. This patient presented at the emergency unit of our university hospital after a motor vehicle accident and was sent to our radiology department for imaging of the cervical spine. Initial clinical examination and plain radiographs of the cervical spine were performed but not conclusive. Additional CT of the neck helped establish the right diagnosis. CT as a three-dimensional imaging modality with the possibility of multiplanar reconstructions allows for the exact diagnosis and exclusion of acute traumatic lesions of the cervical spine, especially in cases of doubtful plain radiographs and when congenital spinal abnormalities like absent cervical spine pedicle with associated spina bifida may insinuate severe trauma.

  20. La progression de l’absentéisme : nouveaux comportements des salariés ou nouvelles contraintes organisationnelles ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    A partir des données de la CNAM, nous constatons une progression de l’absentéisme en France, mesuré par le nombre d’indemnités journalières maladie, depuis la fin des années 1990. Faut-il y voir le signe d’un développement des comportements de retrait des salariés français ou bien l’interpréter comme étant la conséquence de l’émergence de nouvelles contraintes organisationnelles ? Pour répondre à cette question de recherche, nous réaliserons une analyse quantitative à partir des données de l’...

  1. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondheimer, H.M. (Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY); Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  2. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  3. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  4. Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Kleisner; Lenka Priplatova; Peter Frost; Jaroslav Flegr

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the eff...

  5. De la gestion de l'absentéisme à la gestion de la santé dans une entreprise de cosmétiques

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Marc

    2005-01-01

    L'absentéisme au travail constitue un phénomène social complexe et est considéré comme un problème crucial par les employeurs.L'audit de l'absentéisme maladie conduit par des chercheurs a été réalisé auprès d'une entreprise industrielle confrontée à une augmentation régulière de l'absentéisme maladie au cours des trois dernières années.L'audit a permis de dégager des causes à l'augmentation de l'absentéisme. Après analyse cette première étape a permis de proposer des remèdes et actions favori...

  6. Eye formation in rotating convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruba, L.; Davidson, P. A.; Dormy, E.

    2017-02-01

    We consider rotating convection in a shallow, cylindrical domain. We examine the conditions under which the resulting vortex develops an eye at its core; that is, a region where the poloidal flow reverses and the angular momentum is low. For simplicity, we restrict ourselves to steady, axisymmetric flows in a Boussinesq fluid. Our numerical experiments show that, in such systems, an eye forms as a passive response to the development of a so-called eyewall, a conical annulus of intense, negative azimuthal vorticity that can form near the axis and separates the eye from the primary vortex. We also observe that the vorticity in the eyewall comes from the lower boundary layer, and relies on the fact the poloidal flow strips negative vorticity out of the boundary layer and carries it up into the fluid above as it turns upward near the axis. This process is effective only if the Reynolds number is sufficiently high for the advection of vorticity to dominate over diffusion. Finally we observe that, in the vicinity of the eye and the eyewall, the buoyancy and Coriolis forces are negligible, and so although these forces are crucial to driving and shaping the primary vortex, they play no direct role in eye formation in a Boussinesq fluid.

  7. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  8. Best practice eye care models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  9. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Savitha; Velusamy, Nithya; Lalitha, Prajna; Kar, Sarita; Sharma, Savitri; Arakere, Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India. Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type. The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST)772, positive for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%). Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%), 5 (3%), 72 (6%), 88 (3%), 121 (3%), and 672 (3%). This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India. Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were detected. Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 (ST22) is a major ST found in health care as well as community settings in non-eye infections in India, but only one methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate belonging to ST22 was detected. Predominantly ST772, along with a few other STs, caused the 33 eye infections

  10. Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes by sister chromatid cohesion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheri A Schaaf

    Full Text Available The cohesin protein complex was first recognized for holding sister chromatids together and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Cohesin also regulates gene expression, but the mechanisms are unknown. Cohesin associates preferentially with active genes, and is generally absent from regions in which histone H3 is methylated by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z] Polycomb group silencing protein. Here we show that transcription is hypersensitive to cohesin levels in two exceptional cases where cohesin and the E(z-mediated histone methylation simultaneously coat the entire Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes in cells derived from Drosophila central nervous system. These gene complexes are modestly transcribed, and produce seven of the twelve transcripts that increase the most with cohesin knockdown genome-wide. Cohesin mutations alter eye development in the same manner as increased Enhancer of split activity, suggesting that similar regulation occurs in vivo. We propose that cohesin helps restrain transcription of these gene complexes, and that deregulation of similarly cohesin-hypersensitive genes may underlie developmental deficits in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

  11. Genomic analysis of a sexually-selected character: EST sequencing and microarray analysis of eye-antennal imaginal discs in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni (Diopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xianhui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae possess highly-exaggerated, sexually dimorphic eye-stalks that play an important role in the mating system of these flies. Eye-stalks are increasingly being used as a model system for studying sexual selection, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms producing variation in these ornamental traits. Therefore, we constructed an EST database of genes expressed in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc of the highly dimorphic species Teleopsis dalmanni. We used this set of genes to construct microarray slides and compare patterns of gene expression between lines of flies with divergent eyespan. Results We generated 33,229 high-quality ESTs from three non-normalized libraries made from the developing eye-stalk tissue at different developmental stages. EST assembly and annotation produced a total of 7,066 clusters comprising 3,424 unique genes with significant sequence similarity to a protein in either Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae. Comparisons of the transcript profiles at different stages reveal a developmental shift in relative expression from genes involved in anatomical structure formation, transcription, and cell proliferation at the larval stage to genes involved in neurological processes and cuticle production during the pupal stages. Based on alignments of the EST fragments to homologous sequences in Drosophila and Anopheles, we identified 20 putative gene duplication events in T. dalmanni and numerous genes undergoing significantly faster rates of evolution in T. dalmanni relative to the other Dipteran species. Microarray experiments identified over 350 genes with significant differential expression between flies from lines selected for high and low relative eyespan but did not reveal any primary biological process or pathway that is driving the expression differences. Conclusion The catalogue of genes identified in the EST database provides a valuable

  12. ten-a overexpression causes abnormal pattern in the Drosophila compound eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LERTLUK NGERNSIRI; NORA FASCETTI; SUPPALUK ROMRATANAPAN; STEFAN BAUMGARTNER

    2006-01-01

    Ten-a is one of the two Drosophila proteins that belong to the Ten M protein family. This protein is a type Ⅱ transmembrane protein and is expressed mainly in the embryonic CNS, in the larval eye imaginal disc and in the compound eye of the pupa. Here,we investigate the role of ten-a during development of the compound eye by using the Gal4/UAS system to induce ten-a overexpression in the developing eye. We found that overexpression of ten-a can perturb eye development during all stages examined. In an early stage, overexpression of ten-a in eye primordial cells caused small and rough eyes and interfered with photoreceptor cell recruitment, resulting in some ommatidia having fewer or extra photoreceptor cells. Conversely, ten-a overexpression during ommatidial formation caused severe eye defects due to absence of many cellular components. Interestingly,overexpression of ten-a in the late stage developing ommatidial cluster affected the number of pigment cells, caused cone cells proliferation in many ommatidia, and caused some photoreceptor cell defects. These results suggest that ten-a may be a novel gene required for normal eye morphogenesis.

  13. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  14. Phantom pain after eye amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie L R; Prause, Jan U; Toft, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the quality of phantom pain, its intensity and frequency following eye amputation. Possible triggers and relievers of phantom pain are investigated. Methods: The hospital database was searched using surgery codes for patients who received ocular evisceration, enucleation,...... appears to be similar to the phantom pain suffered by limb amputees. Patients should be informed about this potential complication before surgery.......Purpose: To characterize the quality of phantom pain, its intensity and frequency following eye amputation. Possible triggers and relievers of phantom pain are investigated. Methods: The hospital database was searched using surgery codes for patients who received ocular evisceration, enucleation...... was conducted by a trained interviewer. Results: Of the 173 patients in the study, 39 experienced phantom pain. The median age of patients who had experienced phantom pain was 45 years (range: 19–88). Follow-up time from eye amputation to participation in the investigation was 4 years (range: 2–46). Phantom...

  15. The sixth sense in mammalian forerunners: Variability of the parietal foramen and the evolution of the pineal eye in South African Permo-Triassic eutheriodont therapsids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some extant ectotherms, the third eye (or pineal eye is a photosensitive organ located in the parietal foramen on the midline of the skull roof. The pineal eye sends information regarding exposure to sunlight to the pineal complex, a region of the brain devoted to the regulation of body temperature, reproductive synchrony, and biological rhythms. The parietal foramen is absent in mammals but present in most of the closest extinct relatives of mammals, the Therapsida. A broad ranging survey of the occurrence and size of the parietal foramen in different South African therapsid taxa demonstrates that through time the parietal foramen tends, in a convergent manner, to become smaller and is absent more frequently in eutherocephalians (Akidnognathiidae, Whaitsiidae, and Baurioidea and non-mammaliaform eucynodonts. Among the latter, the Probainognathia, the lineage leading to mammaliaforms, are the only one to achieve the complete loss of the parietal foramen. These results suggest a gradual and convergent loss of the photoreceptive function of the pineal organ and degeneration of the third eye. Given the role of the pineal organ to achieve fine-tuned thermoregulation in ectotherms (i.e., “cold-blooded” vertebrates, the gradual loss of the parietal foramen through time in the Karoo stratigraphic succession may be correlated with the transition from a mesothermic metabolism to a high metabolic rate (endothermy in mammalian ancestry. The appearance in the eye of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells replacing the photoreceptive role of the pineal eye could also have accompanied its loss.

  16. The sightless eyes of reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    There is a gap between the aims of school geometry in terms of the teaching of spatial abilities to young children, and the dominance of a school geometry rooted in Euclid’s axioms and abstractions. Such gap is not to be explained in terms of a “misimplementation” of the curricular intentions. Ra...... geometry curriculum. We argue that school geometry fabricates the scientific minds of the future by training students to see not with the eyes of their bodies, but with the eyes of reason and logic...

  17. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  18. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology

  19. Homeotic Gene teashirt (tsh has a neuroprotective function in amyloid-beta 42 mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Moran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a debilitating age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognition, and eventual death of the affected individual. One of the major causes of AD is the accumulation of Amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42 polypeptides formed by the improper cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP in the brain. These plaques disrupt normal cellular processes through oxidative stress and aberrant signaling resulting in the loss of synaptic activity and death of the neurons. However, the detailed genetic mechanism(s responsible for this neurodegeneration still remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We have generated a transgenic Drosophila eye model where high levels of human Aβ42 is misexpressed in the differentiating photoreceptor neurons of the developing eye, which phenocopy Alzheimer's like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have utilized this model for a gain of function screen using members of various signaling pathways involved in the development of the fly eye to identify downstream targets or modifiers of Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. We have identified the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh as a suppressor of the Aβ42 mediated neurodegenerative phenotype. Targeted misexpression of tsh with Aβ42 in the differentiating retina can significantly rescue neurodegeneration by blocking cell death. We found that Tsh protein is absent/ downregulated in the neural retina at this stage. The structure function analysis revealed that the PLDLS domain of Tsh acts as an inhibitor of the neuroprotective function of tsh in the Drosophila eye model. Lastly, we found that the tsh paralog, tiptop (tio can also rescue Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified tsh and tio as new genetic modifiers of Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. Our studies demonstrate a novel neuroprotective function of tsh and its paralog tio in Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. The

  20. Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamaneck Yale J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm

  1. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  2. The Accordion Maneuver: A Noninvasive Strategy for Absent or Delayed Callus Formation in Cases of Limb Lengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim M. Makhdom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distraction osteogenesis (DO technique has been used worldwide to treat many orthopaedic conditions. Although successful, absent or delayed callus formation in the distraction gap can lead to significant morbidities. An alternate cycle of distraction-compression (accordion maneuver is one approach to accelerate bone regeneration. The primary aim of our study is to report our experience with the accordion maneuver during DO and to provide a detailed description of this technique, as performed in our center. The secondary aim is to present a review of the literature regarding the use of accordion maneuver. We reviewed the database of all patients undergoing limb lengthening from the year of 1997 to 2012. Four patients (6.15% out of 65 showed poor bone regenerate in their tibiae and therefore accordion maneuver was applied for a mean of 6.75 weeks. Of these, three patients have had successful outcome with this technique. The literature showed that this technique is successful approach to trigger bone healing. However, details of how and when to apply this combination of distraction-compression forces were lacking. In conclusion, the accordion technique is safe noninvasive approach to promote bone formation, thus avoiding more invasive surgical procedures in cases of poor callus formation in limb lengthening.

  3. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation.

  4. NotifEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Vetek, Akos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of interactive eyewear in public. We introduce NotifEye, an application that allows a person to receive social network notifications on interactive glasses while walking on a busy street. The prototype uses a minimalistic user interface (UI) for interactive glasses...

  5. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  6. Preventing eye injuries in quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wormald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye injuries often occur in the workplace in low and middle-income countries, particularly in the construction, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing industries. Even if there are safety regulations in these industries, their enforcement is often unsatisfactory, and owners are not required to provide safety equipment.

  7. Silence, an Eye of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the conspicuous features of the twentieth-century West was silence. This idea could be supported by examining reflections of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Fritz Mauthner, John Cage, Samuel Beckett, Ihab Hassan, Franz Kafka, Wassily Kandinsky, Jean-Paul Sartre, Virginia Woolf, Wolfgang Iser, Jacques Derrida, and Pierre Macherey. To me, silence is not a mere theory, but rather a phenomenon from which we can get practical benefits. I believe silence is an eye, eye of knowledge. We can broaden our knowledge of the world through silence. To convey the idea that silence is an eye, I have concocted the word slence, where  has replaced the letter i and stands for the eye. This means knowledge can enable us to see, thereby acquiring knowledge of, what used to be invisible, and accordingly unknowable. In other words, through silence, we can achieve a certain type of literacy. I substantiate this claim by exploring the Horus myth, Ojo de Dios, John Cage’s 4' 33", the nature of Expressionist paintings, Hinduism, thoughts of Hermes Trismegistus and Ibn al-Arabi, and practices of Mohammad, the prophet of Islam.

  8. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  9. Improving eye care in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin; Rosewall, Thomas; Mackenzie, Graeme; Rehnborg, Gweneth; Hannema, Sjoerd; Presente, Max; Noe, Piet; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Nkurikiye, John; Habiyaremye, Francois; Dushime, Theophile

    2015-06-01

    Visual impairment affects nearly 285 million people worldwide. Although there has been much progress in combating the burden of visual impairment through initiatives such as VISION 2020, barriers to progress, especially in African countries, remain high. The Rwandan Ministry of Health has formed partnerships with several nongovernmental organizations and has worked to integrate their efforts to prevent and treat visual impairment, including presbyopia. Rwanda, an eastern African country of approximately 11 million people. The Rwandan Ministry of Health developed a single national plan that allows key partners in vision care to coordinate more effectively in measuring eye disease, developing eye care infrastructure, building capacity, controlling disease, and delivering and evaluating services. Collaboration between stakeholders under a single national plan has ensured that resources and efforts are complementary, optimizing the ability to provide eye care. Improved access to primary eye care and insurance coverage has increased demand for services at secondary and tertiary levels. A comprehensive strategy that includes prevention as well as a supply chain for glasses and lenses is needed.

  10. Eye surgery in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raczyńska D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Raczyńska, Leopold Glasner, Ewelina Serkies-Minuth, Magdalena A Wujtewicz, Kamila Mitrosz Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Abstract: Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. Keywords: eye surgery, eye aging, anesthesiology in ophthalmology, cataract, glaucoma, vitrectomy, age-related macular degeneration

  11. Building the eye care team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj Ravilla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eye care services are people intensive. They require the right people (competence, in the right numbers (capacity, in the right mix (team with the right resources and processes (enabling conditions to ensure effective and sustainable delivery of patient care.

  12. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Congkak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Chong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Congkak is a traditional Malaysian board game involving two players taking turns to pick up marbles from a series of holes on the board. We used this game as a model to explore the role of anticipatory eye movements during natural actions (in this case serially picking up/putting marbles as novices learnt the game. Prior work on eye and hand movements in natural behaviour shows that much of the demand on the visual system is computed at the moment it is needed and doesn't depend on information acquired from previous fixations. Vision is driven by the task demands. However, anticipatory fixations to upcoming targets of manipulation have recently been shown to confer spatial accuracy and influence the eye-hand latency. We find that experience with the game also influences the deployment of these anticipatory “look-ahead” fixations, and that their influence on eye-hand latency varies with experience. Results suggest that as our experience in Congkak grows, so does our knowledge of the space relationships necessary for task success.

  13. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global

  14. Genetic determinants of hair and eye colours in the Scottish and Danish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Wong, Terence H; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eye and hair colour is highly variable in the European population, and is largely genetically determined. Both linkage and association studies have previously been used to identify candidate genes underlying this variation. Many of the genes found were previously known as underlying....... Cluster analysis of this data defined two groups, with overlapping borders, which corresponded to visually assessed dark versus red/light hair colour. The Danish population was assigned into categorical hair colour groups. Both cohorts were also assessed for eye colour. DNA from the Scottish group...... was genotyped at SNPs in 33 candidate genes, using 384 SNPs identified by HapMap as representatives of each gene. Associations found between SNPs and colorimetric hair data and eye colour categories were replicated in a cohort of the Danish population. The Danish population was also genotyped with SNPs in 4...

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects ...

  16. Eye Care: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of you for 20 seconds. Eye Tests and Exams Everyone needs to have their eyesight tested to ... an eye examination before entering nursing homes. Article: Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative ...

  17. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  18. A male with unilateral microphthalmia reveals a role for TMX3 in eye development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Ryan; Nevin, Linda; Agarwal, Pooja;

    2010-01-01

    of the deleted genes, TMX3, was expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium and lens epithelium in the developing murine eye. We re-sequenced TMX3 in 162 patients with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and found two missense substitutions in unrelated patients: c.116G>A, predicting p.Arg39Gln, in a male...... with unilateral microphthalmia and retinal coloboma, and c.322G>A, predicting p.Asp108Asn, in a female with unilateral microphthalmia and severe micrognathia. We used two antisense morpholinos targeted against the zebrafish TMX3 orthologue, zgc:110025, to examine the effects of reduced gene expression in eye...... development. We noted that the morphant larvae resulting from both morpholinos had significantly smaller eye sizes and reduced labeling with islet-1 antibody directed against retinal ganglion cells at 2 days post fertilization. Co-injection of human wild type TMX3 mRNA rescued the small eye phenotype obtained...

  19. Scleral micro-RNA signatures in adult and fetal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlapally, Ravikanth; Gonzalez, Pedro; Hawthorne, Felicia A; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Wildsoet, Christine F; Young, Terri L

    2013-01-01

    In human eyes, ocular enlargement/growth reflects active extracellular matrix remodeling of the outer scleral shell. Micro-RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by base pairing with target sequences. They serve as nodes of signaling networks. We hypothesized that the sclera, like most tissues, expresses micro-RNAs, some of which modulate genes regulating ocular growth. In this study, the scleral micro-RNA expression profile of rapidly growing human fetal eyes was compared with that of stable adult donor eyes using high-throughput microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Scleral samples from normal human fetal (24 wk) and normal adult donor eyes were obtained (n=4 to 6, each group), and RNA extracted. Genome-wide micro-RNA profiling was performed using the Agilent micro-RNA microarray platform. Micro-RNA target predictions were obtained using Microcosm, TargetScan and PicTar algorithms. TaqMan® micro-RNA assays targeting micro-RNAs showing either highest significance, detection, or fold differences, and collagen specificity, were applied to scleral samples from posterior and peripheral ocular regions (n=7, each group). Microarray data were analyzed using R, and quantitative PCR data with 2^-deltaCt methods. Human sclera was found to express micro-RNAs, and comparison of microarray results for adult and fetal samples revealed many to be differentially expressed (pmicro-RNA expression has been catalogued in human sclera. Some micro-RNAs show age-related differential regulation, higher in the sclera of rapidly growing fetal eyes, consistent with a role in ocular growth regulation. Thus micro-RNAs represent potential targets for ocular growth manipulation, related to myopia and/or other disorders such as scleral ectasia.

  20. Intralimb Coordination Patterns in Absent, Mild, and Severe Stages of Diabetic Neuropathy: Looking Beyond Kinematic Analysis of Gait Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiao Yi

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus progressively leads to impairments in stability and joint motion and might affect coordination patterns, mainly due to neuropathy. This study aims to describe changes in intralimb joint coordination in healthy individuals and patients with absent, mild and, severe stages of neuropathy.Forty-seven diabetic patients were classified into three groups of neuropathic severity by a fuzzy model: 18 without neuropathy (DIAB, 7 with mild neuropathy (MILD, and 22 with moderate to severe neuropathy (SVRE. Thirteen healthy subjects were included as controls (CTRL. Continuous relative phase (CRP was calculated at each instant of the gait cycle for each pair of lower limb joints. Analysis of Variance compared each frame of the CRP time series and its standard deviation among groups (α = 5%.For the ankle-hip CRP, the SVRE group presented increased variability at the propulsion phase and a distinct pattern at the propulsion and initial swing phases compared to the DIAB and CTRL groups. For the ankle-knee CRP, the 3 diabetic groups presented more anti-phase ratios than the CTRL group at the midstance, propulsion, and terminal swing phases, with decreased variability at the early stance phase. For the knee-hip CRP, the MILD group showed more in-phase ratio at the early stance and terminal swing phases and lower variability compared to all other groups. All diabetic groups were more in-phase at early the midstance phase (with lower variability than the control group.The low variability and coordination differences of the MILD group showed that gait coordination might be altered not only when frank evidence of neuropathy is present, but also when neuropathy is still incipient. The ankle-knee CRP at the initial swing phase showed distinct patterns for groups from all degrees of neuropathic severity and CTRLs. The ankle-hip CRP pattern distinguished the SVRE patients from other diabetic groups, particularly in the transitional phase from stance to

  1. Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of absent pulmonary valve syndrome: contemporary single-center experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertaschnigg, D; Jaeggi, M; Chitayat, D; Shannon, P; Ryan, G; Thompson, M; Yoo, S J; Jaeggi, E

    2013-02-01

    To review the anomaly spectrum of prenatally detected absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) and the outcome after diagnosis. Previous fetal studies reported survival rates of ≤ 25% for patients with intended postnatal care. Clinical data and echocardiograms of 12 cases with a fetal diagnosis of APVS between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed in this retrospective single-center study. Collected parameters included: gestational age at referral, associated fetal abnormalities, cardiothoracic ratio, maximum diameters of pulmonary annulus and main and branch pulmonary arteries, ventricular dimensions and function as well as ventricular Doppler flows. Karyotyping included fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for microdeletion 22q11.2. Median gestational age at diagnosis was 24 weeks. Three subtypes of APVS were observed: (1) with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and no arterial duct (n = 10; 83%); (2) isolated, with a large arterial duct (n = 1; 8%); and (3) with tricuspid atresia, right ventricular dysplasia and a restricted duct (n = 1; 8%). The cardiothoracic ratio and pulmonary artery dimensions were increased in all cases. The karyotype was abnormal in 70% of fetuses with TOF and their mortality rate was significantly higher due to pregnancy termination (n = 3) or perinatal demise (n = 2) (hazard ratio, 5; 95% CI, 0.87-28.9; P = 0.015). Of seven live births with active postnatal care, six children (86%) were alive without residual respiratory symptoms at a median follow-up of 4.7 (range, 2.1-10.6) years. Outcome after fetal diagnosis of APVS was significantly better in this study compared with those of previous fetal series, with a low mortality rate for actively managed patients. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports.

  3. TESS line: a laboratory line of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora), triple-homozygous for the curly hair (ch), cream coat-color (cr) and red-eyed dilution (rd) genes and segregating the sucrase deficients (suc/suc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, T; Oda, S; Namikawa, T

    1994-01-01

    The TESS line, the first tester line of the Suncus has been developed. The TESS shrews are homozygous for three morphological mutant genes, ch, cr and rd. The gene (suc) for sucrase activity deficiency in intestinal brush-border membranes also exists in the line, and its frequency was 34.3%. The deficients could easily be identified by the drastic body-weight losing up to more than 15% of the initial weight, that aroused two days after replacement of the drinking water for its 10%-sucrose solution. The TESS shrews have been maintained as a closed-colony consisting of more than 30 individuals, and will be utilized in linkage analysis with the four loci (ch, cr, rd and suc).

  4. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadig S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Savitha Nadig1, Nithya Velusamy2, Prajna Lalitha2, Sarita Kar3, Savitri Sharma3, Gayathri Arakere11Society for Innovation and Development, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 2Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, 3LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, IndiaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India.Methods: Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type.Results: The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST772, positive for the Panton–Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%. Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%, 5 (3%, 72 (6%, 88 (3%, 121 (3%, and 672 (3%. This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India.Conclusion: Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were

  5. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  6. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  7. Clinical light damage to the eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  8. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  9. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  10. Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

  11. A Model of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

  12. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  13. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  14. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

  15. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  16. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi Akbar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  17. Optomotor-blind negatively regulates Drosophila eye development by blocking Jak/STAT signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Tsai

    Full Text Available Organ formation requires a delicate balance of positive and negative regulators. In Drosophila eye development, wingless (wg is expressed at the lateral margins of the eye disc and serves to block retinal development. The T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb is expressed in a similar pattern and is regulated by Wg. Omb mediates part of Wg activity in blocking eye development. Omb exerts its function primarily by blocking cell proliferation. These effects occur predominantly in the ventral margin. Our results suggest that the primary effect of Omb is the blocking of Jak/STAT signaling by repressing transcription of upd which encodes the Jak receptor ligand Unpaired.

  18. Optomotor-blind negatively regulates Drosophila eye development by blocking Jak/STAT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Chen; Grimm, Stefan; Chao, Ju-Lan; Wang, Shih-Chin; Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Shen, Jie; Eichinger, Fred; Michalopoulou, Theoni; Yao, Chi-Kuang; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Lin, Shih-Han; Sun, Y Henry; Pflugfelder, Gert O

    2015-01-01

    Organ formation requires a delicate balance of positive and negative regulators. In Drosophila eye development, wingless (wg) is expressed at the lateral margins of the eye disc and serves to block retinal development. The T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb) is expressed in a similar pattern and is regulated by Wg. Omb mediates part of Wg activity in blocking eye development. Omb exerts its function primarily by blocking cell proliferation. These effects occur predominantly in the ventral margin. Our results suggest that the primary effect of Omb is the blocking of Jak/STAT signaling by repressing transcription of upd which encodes the Jak receptor ligand Unpaired.

  19. In the Eye of the Beholder-  A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzner Hansen, Dan; Ji, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Despite active research and significant progress in the last 30 years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have numerous applications...

  20. Les jeunes et l’absentéisme au travail ou la rupture inter-générationnelle dans l’implication au travail

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    Lorsqu’il est question de relier l’âge à l’absentéisme, la relation positive entre ces deux variables apparaît comme évidente : plus le salarié avance dans l’âge, plus son état de santé se dégrade et donc son taux d’absentéisme est élevé. Et pourtant, le signe de la relation entre ces deux variables semble plus complexe. En effet, on peut légitimement s’interroger : les jeunes salariés ont-ils réellement un taux d’absentéisme plus faible que celui des anciens, du fait de leur bon état de sant...

  1. Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Fic

    Full Text Available The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey. Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.

  2. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jusiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a highly tractable genetic model system for the study of animal development, and many genes that regulate Drosophila eye formation have homologs implicated in human development and disease. Among these is the homeobox gene sine oculis (so, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor (TF that is both necessary for eye development and sufficient to reprogram a subset of cells outside the normal eye field toward an eye fate. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of So binding to DNA prepared from developing Drosophila eye tissue in order to identify candidate direct targets of So-mediated transcriptional regulation, as described in our recent article [20]. The data are available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO with the accession number GSE52943. Here we describe the methods, data analysis, and quality control of our So ChIP-seq dataset.

  3. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  4. Ten Ways to Prevent Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  5. How Often Should I Have an Eye Exam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  6. Fatores de risco para absenteísmo com licença médica em trabalhadores da indústria de petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Nágila Soares Xavier Oenning; Fernando Martins Carvalho; Veronica Maria Cadena Lima

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO : Identificar fatores de risco para o absenteísmo com licença médica em trabalhadores de empresa de petróleo. MÉTODOS : Estudo caso-controle (120 casos e 656 controles) aninhado a um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com todos os trabalhadores de uma empresa de petróleo na Região Norte-Nordeste do Brasil entre 2007 e 2009. A variável resposta utilizada para representar o absenteísmo com licença médica foi a incidência mé...

  7. Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-11-01

    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy.

  8. Influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Ruifeng

    2017-06-22

    This study employed an eye-tracking technique to investigate the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. A total of 20 male subjects performed visual search tasks in a 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) × 2 (task complexity: complex vs. simple) × 2 (social presence: alone vs. a human audience) within-subject experiment. Results indicated that the presence of an audience could evoke a social facilitation effect on response time in visual search tasks. Compared with working alone, the participants made fewer and shorter fixations, larger saccades and shorter scan path in simple search tasks and more and longer fixations, smaller saccades and longer scan path in complex search tasks when working with an audience. The saccade velocity and pupil diameter in the audience-present condition were larger than those in the working-alone condition. No significant change in target fixation number was observed between two social presence conditions. Practitioner Summary: This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. Results clarified the variation mechanism and characteristics of oculomotor scanning induced by social presence in visual search.

  9. Tromsø eye study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To determine the prevalence of visual impairment, retinopathy and macular oedema, and assess risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes. Methods:  The present study included 514 participants with diabetes aged 46-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a sub-study of the population......-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Visual acuity was measured using an auto-refractor. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy and macular oedema. We collected data on risk factor exposure from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews....... Regression models assessed the cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and diabetic retinopathy. Results:  The prevalence of visual impairment (corrected Snellen visual acuity...

  10. Management of thyroid eye disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalena, Luigi; Tanda, Maria Laura [Department of Endocrinology, University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Viale Borri, 57, 21100 Varese (Italy); Marcocci, Claudio; Pinchera, Aldo [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2002-08-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The choice of treatment relies on the assessment of both TED severity and activity. Removal of controllable risk factors, especially cigarette smoking, is important to improve the course and the therapeutic outcome. A coordinated approach to the treatment of hyperthyroidism and TED is also required. Novel promising treatments, to be verified in large series of patients, include somatostatin analogues and cytokine antagonists. (orig.)

  11. Flavonoid intake and eye health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often poorly designed studies. Ample laboratory evidence exists from in vitro and in vivo studies that provide plausible mechanistic evidence for flavonoid interactions relevant to visual function. Lacking are large randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies in older subjects who have early signs of vision impairment. These studies could link flavonoid intake and bioavailability to efficacy in prevention of age related vision disorders that develop over decades. Support for clinical trials remains to be found before a full "recommendation" can be made regarding the value of diets high in flavonoids for eye health.

  12. Transcriptome-Wide Differential Gene Expression in Bicyclus anynana Butterflies: Female Vision-Related Genes Are More Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Smith, Gilbert; Monteiro, Antónia; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2016-01-01

    Vision is energetically costly to maintain. Consequently, over time many cave-adapted species downregulate the expression of vision genes or even lose their eyes and associated eye genes entirely. Alternatively, organisms that live in fluctuating environments, with different requirements for vision at different times, may evolve phenotypic plasticity for expression of vision genes. Here, we use a global transcriptomic and candidate gene approach to compare gene expression in the heads of a polyphenic butterfly. Bicyclus anynana have two seasonal forms that display sexual dimorphism and plasticity in eye morphology, and female-specific plasticity in opsin gene expression. Nonchoosy dry season females downregulate opsin expression, consistent with the high physiological cost of vision. To identify other genes associated with sexually dimorphic and seasonally plastic differences in vision, we analyzed RNA-sequencing data from whole head tissues. We identified two eye development genes (klarsicht and warts homologs) and an eye pigment biosynthesis gene (henna) differentially expressed between seasonal forms. By comparing sex-specific expression across seasonal forms, we found that klarsicht, warts, henna, and another eye development gene (domeless) were plastic in a female-specific manner. In a male-only analysis, white (w) was differentially expressed between seasonal forms. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that warts and white are expressed in eyes only, whereas klarsicht, henna and domeless are expressed in both eyes and brain. We find that differential expression of eye development and eye pigment genes is associated with divergent eye phenotypes in B. anynana seasonal forms, and that there is a larger effect of season on female vision-related genes.

  13. Effect of different fixative solutions on eyes with experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Khaled; Lüke, Julia; Lüke, Matthias; Kamal, Mahmoud; Soliman, Mahmoud M; Grisanti, Salvatore; Grisanti, Swaantje

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of different fixatives on the reliability of histopathological changes in a rabbit model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Twenty eyes from 10 rabbits were divided into four groups. The right eyes were used in two experimental groups (each n = 5), and the left, in two control groups (each n = 5). Using a newly developed scleral incision marker, an oblique scleral incision was standardized in the experimental groups, followed by intravitreal injection of 0.4 ml autologous blood and the left for wound repair for four weeks. Eyes were enucleated at four weeks. The groups differed in the type of used fixative solution (formaldehyde 4% vs. 1% buffered formaldehyde and 1.25% glutaraldehyde). The eyes were evaluated for the development of fibrosis, retinal detachment (RD), and processed for histopathology. Fibrous ingrowth of a variable degree was present in the experimental groups originating from the trauma site. Experimental eyes fixed with formaldehyde 4% had RD extension that was greater than that fixed in formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde mixture; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.15). This difference was not fully explained by the fibrosis which developed. In addition, in control groups, formaldehyde 4% induced a fixative-dependent retinal separation that was absent in eyes fixed with formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde mixture (P = 0.03). In conclusion, a mixture of buffered formaldehyde 1% and glutaraldehyde 1.25% combined with standardized scleral incision resulted in consistent pathological changes. A reliable PVR model is a condition sine qua non to evaluate antifibrotic treatment strategies.

  14. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos

    2010-11-01

    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Eye Formation in Rotating Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Oruba, L; Dormy, E

    2016-01-01

    We consider rotating convection in a shallow, cylindrical domain. We examine the conditions under which the resulting vortex develops an eye at its core; that is, a region where the poloidal flow reverses and the angular momentum is low. For simplicity, we restrict ourselves to steady, axisymmetric flows in a Boussinesq fluid. Our numerical experiments show that, in such systems, an eye forms as a passive response to the development of a so-called eyewall, a conical annulus of intense, negative azimuthal vorticity that can form near the axis and separates the eye from the primary vortex. We also observe that the vorticity in the eyewall comes from the lower boundary layer, and relies on the fact the poloidal flow strips negative vorticity out of the boundary layer and carries it up into the fluid above as it turns upward near the axis. This process is effective only if the Reynolds number is sufficiently high for the advection of vorticity to dominate over diffusion. Finally we observe that, in the vicinity o...

  16. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  17. Eye tracking disturbances in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the frequency of different types of eye tracking disturbances in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were studied by electro-oculography (EOG in 22 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 criteria and 15 age and sex-matched controls. The studied parameters included average pursuit gain, number of saccades, the frequency of different types of saccades (catch-up, back-up, anticipatory saccades, and disturbances during fixation. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The average pursuit gain was significantly affected in patients for target velocity of 30°/sec (p=0.007. The catch-up and back-up saccades were more common in cases than controls but the difference was not significant (p=0.39 and 0.36 respectively. The anticipatory saccades were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (p<0.0001 for both 15°/sec and 30°/sec target velocities. This was also correlated with the duration of illness. Conclusion: Anticipatory saccades are significantly more frequent during eye tracking in schizophrenia and appear to be an objective marker for the disease.

  18. Eye movements and information geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database.

  19. Materials for occupational eye protectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    The selection of lens materials for non-prescription personal protective equipment has been a relatively simple process and has its origins in many studies around the 1970s. The viable materials available at that time were tempered glass, hard resin (n = 1.50) and polycarbonate. The modern spectacle non-prescription eye protector of choice is inevitably hard coated polycarbonate, which has exemplary impact resistant properties. In the prescription lens area, there is a bewildering array of materials of various refractive indices with a variety of coatings. The selection of an ophthalmic lens has optical and cosmetic considerations ahead of impact resistance. In complying with the Australian/New Zealand standard on prescription eye protection, adequate impact resistance must rate as the foremost requirement, with optical and cosmetic considerations as important but lesser considerations. In this review, the evidence on impact resistance of the available materials is presented, the standards set for testing impact resistance are detailed and some guidance is provided for the selection of prescription eye protection materials.

  20. Mitochondrial disorders and the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill EC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicole J Van Bergen, Rahul Chakrabarti, Evelyn C O'Neill, Jonathan G Crowston, Ian A TrounceCentre for Eye Research Australia, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: The clinical significance of disturbed mitochondrial function in the eye has emerged since mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutation was described in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. The spectrum of mitochondrial dysfunction has become apparent through increased understanding of the contribution of nuclear and somatic mtDNA mutations to mitochondrial dynamics and function. Common ophthalmic manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction include optic atrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, and ophthalmoplegia. The majority of patients with ocular manifestations of mitochondrial disease also have variable central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been associated with age-related retinal disease including macular degeneration and glaucoma. Therefore, therapeutic targets directed at promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function offer a potential to both preserve retinal function and attenuate neurodegenerative processes.Keywords: mitochondria, disease, retina, eye, aging, neuroprotection