WorldWideScience

Sample records for gene conversion literature

  1. Special Issue: Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Innan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. Several decades later than the discovery of crossing over, gene conversion was first recognized in fungi when non-Mendelian allelic distortion was observed. Gene conversion occurs when a double-strand break is repaired by using homologous sequences in the genome. In meiosis, there is a strong preference to use the orthologous region (allelic gene conversion, which causes non-Mendelian allelic distortion, but paralogous or duplicated regions can also be used for the repair (inter-locus gene conversion, also referred to as non-allelic and ectopic gene conversion. The focus of this special issue is the latter, interlocus gene conversion; the rate is lower than allelic gene conversion but it has more impact on phenotype because more drastic changes in DNA sequence are involved.

  2. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    here-between in contact with Tecnica Ital.26:65-71, Jan/Feb.1961. said second electrode. (U.S. Patent Off. Off. Gaz. 773:260, Dec.5,1961). In Italian...DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT. Mikrochim. Acta p.457-466, 3168 S 1951. Huber, H. and Bensimon, J. SUR LA CONVERSION DIRECTE DE CHALEUR EN (In English

  3. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

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    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  4. Gene conversion in human rearranged immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, John M; Stott, David I

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, many DNA sequences have been published suggesting that all or part of the V(H) segment of a rearranged immunoglobulin gene may be replaced in vivo. Two different mechanisms appear to be operating. One of these is very similar to primary V(D)J recombination, involving the RAG proteins acting upon recombination signal sequences, and this has recently been proven to occur. Other sequences, many of which show partial V(H) replacements with no addition of untemplated nucleotides at the V(H)-V(H) joint, have been proposed to occur by an unusual RAG-mediated recombination with the formation of hybrid (coding-to-signal) joints. These appear to occur in cells already undergoing somatic hypermutation in which, some authors are convinced, RAG genes are silenced. We recently proposed that the latter type of V(H) replacement might occur by homologous recombination initiated by the activity of AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), which is essential for somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. The latter has been observed in other species, but not in human Ig genes, so far. In this paper, we present a new analysis of sequences published as examples of the second type of rearrangement. This not only shows that AID recognition motifs occur in recombination regions but also that some sequences show replacement of central sections by a sequence from another gene, similar to gene conversion in the immunoglobulin genes of other species. These observations support the proposal that this type of rearrangement is likely to be AID-mediated rather than RAG-mediated and is consistent with gene conversion.

  5. Chromatin structure regulates gene conversion.

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    W Jason Cummings

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vlambda pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205, expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vlambda donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vlambda array, and altered the outcome of Vlambda diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences.

  6. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene families. In the rice genome, the large number of duplicated genes...... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...

  7. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  8. Conversational Analysis: A Review of the Literature from the Perspective of Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Reviews literature relating to conversational analysis, identifying two major approaches which exhibit chronological and methodological differentiations and focusing from a perspective of sequencing. (CB)

  9. Conversion of homothallic yeast to heterothallism trough HO gene disruption

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, WH

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple method was developed for the conversion of homothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeaststrains to heterothallism through HO gene disruption. An integrative ho:: neo disrupted allele was constructed by cloning a dominant selectable marker...

  10. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

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    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 × 10-4 and 5.1 × 10-5 per generation for the alternative models. Conclusions This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  11. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, M E

    2001-01-01

    Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs) exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 x 10(-4) and 5.1 x 10(-5) per generation for the alternative models. This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  12. Polarized gene conversion at the bz locus of maize.

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    Dooner, Hugo K; He, Limei

    2014-09-23

    Nucleotide diversity is greater in maize than in most organisms studied to date, so allelic pairs in a hybrid tend to be highly polymorphic. Most recombination events between such pairs of maize polymorphic alleles are crossovers. However, intragenic recombination events not associated with flanking marker exchange, corresponding to noncrossover gene conversions, predominate between alleles derived from the same progenitor. In these dimorphic heterozygotes, the two alleles differ only at the two mutant sites between which recombination is being measured. To investigate whether gene conversion at the bz locus is polarized, two large diallel crossing matrices involving mutant sites spread across the bz gene were performed and more than 2,500 intragenic recombinants were scored. In both diallels, around 90% of recombinants could be accounted for by gene conversion. Furthermore, conversion exhibited a striking polarity, with sites located within 150 bp of the start and stop codons converting more frequently than sites located in the middle of the gene. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent data from genome-wide studies in other plants.

  13. Evidence for gene conversion among immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes.

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    Clarke, S H; Rudikoff, S

    1984-03-01

    We have previously reported that the VH region amino acid sequence of a phosphocholine (PC)-binding hybridoma antibody of CBA/J origin, HP101 6G6 (6G6), differs extensively from the VH regions of other PC-binding antibodies. The sequence of 6G6 VH appears to be derived from a gene homologous to the BALB/c V11 gene, a member of the PC VH (T15 VH) gene family not normally used to encode PC-binding antibodies. The 6G6 VH sequence differs from the translated sequence of V11 by six amino acids, four of which occur at the same position in other members of this gene family. This coincidence led to the proposal that the 6G6 VH gene was derived by gene conversion involving three genes of the PC VH gene family. We report here the nucleic acid sequence of the rearranged VH gene of hybridoma 6G6. This sequence supports our previous suggestion of gene conversion by confirming those differences, relative to the BALB/c V11 gene sequence, that are encoded by other members of this gene family, and extends this correlation to include three silent base pair substitutions as well. In addition, 5' noncoding region sequence and Southern blot analysis using probes derived from the coding and 5' noncoding regions confirm that the 6G6 VH gene is likely to be derived from the V11 homologue in CBA/J mice, and suggest that all three genes believed to be involved in the generation of the 6G6 VH gene are present in the CBA/J genome, a prerequisite for their involvement in gene conversion.

  14. Gene conversion between red and defective green opsin gene in blue cone monochromacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyniers, E.; Van Thienen, M.N.; De Boulle, K.; Willems, P.J. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

    1995-09-20

    Blue cone monochromacy is an X-linked condition in which the function of both the red pigment gene (RCP) and the green pigment gene (GCP) is impaired. Blue cone monochromacy can be due to a red/green gene array rearrangement existing of a single red/green hybrid gene and an inactivating C203R point mutation in both RCP and GCP. The flanking sequences of the C230R mutation in exon 4 of RCP were characteristic for GCP, indicating that this mutation was transferred from GCP into RCP by gene conversion. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Signals of historical interlocus gene conversion in human segmental duplications.

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    Beth L Dumont

    Full Text Available Standard methods of DNA sequence analysis assume that sequences evolve independently, yet this assumption may not be appropriate for segmental duplications that exchange variants via interlocus gene conversion (IGC. Here, we use high quality multiple sequence alignments from well-annotated segmental duplications to systematically identify IGC signals in the human reference genome. Our analysis combines two complementary methods: (i a paralog quartet method that uses DNA sequence simulations to identify a statistical excess of sites consistent with inter-paralog exchange, and (ii the alignment-based method implemented in the GENECONV program. One-quarter (25.4% of the paralog families in our analysis harbor clear IGC signals by the quartet approach. Using GENECONV, we identify 1477 gene conversion tracks that cumulatively span 1.54 Mb of the genome. Our analyses confirm the previously reported high rates of IGC in subtelomeric regions and Y-chromosome palindromes, and identify multiple novel IGC hotspots, including the pregnancy specific glycoproteins and the neuroblastoma breakpoint gene families. Although the duplication history of a paralog family is described by a single tree, we show that IGC has introduced incredible site-to-site variation in the evolutionary relationships among paralogs in the human genome. Our findings indicate that IGC has left significant footprints in patterns of sequence diversity across segmental duplications in the human genome, out-pacing the contributions of single base mutation by orders of magnitude. Collectively, the IGC signals we report comprise a catalog that will provide a critical reference for interpreting observed patterns of DNA sequence variation across duplicated genomic regions, including targets of recent adaptive evolution in humans.

  16. Biomedical Information Extraction: Mining Disease Associated Genes from Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Disease associated gene discovery is a critical step to realize the future of personalized medicine. However empirical and clinical validation of disease associated genes are time consuming and expensive. In silico discovery of disease associated genes from literature is therefore becoming the first essential step for biomarker discovery to…

  17. Biomedical Information Extraction: Mining Disease Associated Genes from Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Disease associated gene discovery is a critical step to realize the future of personalized medicine. However empirical and clinical validation of disease associated genes are time consuming and expensive. In silico discovery of disease associated genes from literature is therefore becoming the first essential step for biomarker discovery to…

  18. Microhomology-mediated deletion and gene conversion in African trypanosomes.

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    Glover, Lucy; Jun, Junho; Horn, David

    2011-03-01

    Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes is induced by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In these protozoan parasites, DSB repair (DSBR) is dominated by homologous recombination (HR) and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), while non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) has not been reported. To facilitate the analysis of chromosomal end-joining, we established a system whereby inter-allelic repair by HR is lethal due to loss of an essential gene. Analysis of intrachromosomal end joining in individual DSBR survivors exclusively revealed MMEJ-based deletions but no NHEJ. A survey of microhomologies typically revealed sequences of between 5 and 20 bp in length with several mismatches tolerated in longer stretches. Mean deletions were of 54 bp on the side closest to the break and 284 bp in total. Break proximity, microhomology length and GC-content all favored repair and the pattern of MMEJ described above was similar at several different loci across the genome. We also identified interchromosomal gene conversion involving HR and MMEJ at different ends of a duplicated sequence. While MMEJ-based deletions were RAD51-independent, one-sided MMEJ was RAD51 dependent. Thus, we describe the features of MMEJ in Trypanosoma brucei, which is analogous to micro single-strand annealing; and RAD51 dependent, one-sided MMEJ. We discuss the contribution of MMEJ pathways to genome evolution, subtelomere recombination and antigenic variation.

  19. Neutral and Non-Neutral Evolution of Duplicated Genes with Gene Conversion

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    Jeffrey A. Fawcett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is one of the major mutational mechanisms involved in the DNA sequence evolution of duplicated genes. It contributes to create unique patters of DNA polymorphism within species and divergence between species. A typical pattern is so-called concerted evolution, in which the divergence between duplicates is maintained low for a long time because of frequent exchanges of DNA fragments. In addition, gene conversion affects the DNA evolution of duplicates in various ways especially when selection operates. Here, we review theoretical models to understand the evolution of duplicates in both neutral and non-neutral cases. We also explain how these theories contribute to interpreting real polymorphism and divergence data by using some intriguing examples.

  20. Gene conversions in the growth hormone gene family of primates: stronger homogenizing effects in the Hominidae lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronella, Nicholas; Drouin, Guy

    2011-09-01

    In humans, the growth hormone/chorionic somatomammotropin gene family is composed of five highly similar genes. We characterized the gene conversions that occurred between the growth hormone genes of 11 primate species. We detected 48 conversions using GENECONV and others were only detected using phylogenetic analyses. Gene conversions were detected in all species analyzed, their average size (±standard deviation) is 197.8±230.4 nucleotides, the size of the conversions is correlated with sequence similarity and converted regions are significantly more GC-rich than non-converted regions. Gene conversions have a stronger homogenizing effect in Hominidae genes than in other primate species. They are also less frequent in conserved gene regions and towards functionally important genes. This suggests that the high degree of sequence similarity observed between the growth hormone genes of primate species is a consequence of frequent gene conversions in gene regions which are under little selective constraints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million years

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    Scherer Stephen W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerted evolution occurs in multigene families and is characterized by stretches of homogeneity and higher sequence similarity between paralogues than between orthologues. Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence. Our strategy involved the identification of duplicated genes with greater similarity within a species than between species. These genes were required to be present in multiple mammalian genomes, suggesting duplication early in mammalian divergence. To eliminate genes that have been conserved due to strong purifying selection, our analysis also required at least one intron to have retained high sequence similarity between paralogues. Results We identified three human gene pairs undergoing concerted evolution (BMP8A/B, DDX19A/B, and TUBG1/2. Phylogenetic investigations reveal that in each case the duplication appears to have occurred prior to eutherian mammalian radiation, with exactly two paralogues present in all examined species. This indicates that all three gene duplication events were established over 100 million years ago. Conclusion The extended duration of concerted evolution in multiple distant lineages suggests that there has been prolonged homogenization of specific segments within these gene pairs. Although we speculate that selection for homogenization could have been utilized in order to maintain crucial homo- or hetero- binding domains, it remains unclear why gene conversion has persisted for such extended periods of time. Through these analyses, our results demonstrate additional examples of a process that plays a definite, although unspecified, role in molecular evolution.

  2. Review of Literature: Genes Related to Postaxial Polydactyly

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Prashant Kumar; El-Harouni, Ashraf A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is one of the commonest congenital malformations and usually is associated to several syndromes. There is no primary investigational strategy for PAP cases with single gene disorder in literature. PAP cases with single gene disorder can be classified according to common pathways and molecular basis. Molecular classification may help in diagnostic approach. Materials and Methods: All single gene disorders associated with PAP reported on PubMed and OMI...

  3. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE SOUZA, Grace; BRAGA, Roberto Ruggiero; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; LOPES, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. PMID:26398507

  4. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Grace; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used.

  5. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace DE SOUZA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractResin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used.

  6. Gene conversion-like events in the diversification of human rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences

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    Bhargavi eDuvvuri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (GCV as a mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification is well established in a few species. However, definitive evidence of GCV-like events in human immunoglobulin genes is scarce. GCV is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID. The lack of evidence of GCV in human rearranged immunoglobulin gene sequences is puzzling given the presence of highly similar germline donors and all the enzymatic machinery required for GCV. In this study, we undertook a computational analysis of rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences from common variable immunodeficiency (CVID patients and healthy individuals to survey ‘GCV-like’ activities. Our search identified strong evidence of GCV-like patterns. Germline VH sequences were identified as potential donors for clustered mutations in rearranged IGHV3-23*01 gene sequences. We identified minimum and maximum sequence identities between donor and recipient sequences that can serve as targets for GCV and our findings are consistent with those reported in literature. We observed that GCV-like tracts are flanked by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID hotspot motifs. Structural modeling of IGHV3-23*01 gene sequence revealed that hypermutable bases flanking GCV-like tracts, are in the single stranded DNA (ssDNA of stable stem-loop structures (SLSs. SsDNA is inherently fragile and also an optimal target for AID. We speculate that GCV could have been initiated by the targeting of hypermutable bases in ssDNA state in stable SLSs, plausibly by AID. We have observed that the frequency of GCV-like events is significantly higher in rearranged IGHV323-*01 sequences from healthy individuals compared to that of CVID patients. GCV, unlike SHM, can result in multiple base substitutions that can alter many amino acids. The extensive changes in antibody affinity by GCV-like events, as identified in this study would be instrumental in protecting humans against pathogens that diversify their genome by

  7. Deep genome-wide measurement of meiotic gene conversion using tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Yujin Sun

    Full Text Available Gene conversion, the non-reciprocal exchange of genetic information, is one of the potential products of meiotic recombination. It can shape genome structure by acting on repetitive DNA elements, influence allele frequencies at the population level, and is known to be implicated in human disease. But gene conversion is hard to detect directly except in organisms, like fungi, that group their gametes following meiosis. We have developed a novel visual assay that enables us to detect gene conversion events directly in the gametes of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this assay we measured gene conversion events across the genome of more than one million meioses and determined that the genome-wide average frequency is 3.5×10(-4 conversions per locus per meiosis. We also detected significant locus-to-locus variation in conversion frequency but no intra-locus variation. Significantly, we found one locus on the short arm of chromosome 4 that experienced 3-fold to 6-fold more gene conversions than the other loci tested. Finally, we demonstrated that we could modulate conversion frequency by varying experimental conditions.

  8. IDconverter and IDClight: Conversion and annotation of gene and protein IDs

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    Díaz-Uriarte Ramón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers involved in the annotation of large numbers of gene, clone or protein identifiers are usually required to perform a one-by-one conversion for each identifier. When the field of research is one such as microarray experiments, this number may be around 30,000. Results To help researchers map accession numbers and identifiers among clones, genes, proteins and chromosomal positions, we have designed and developed IDconverter and IDClight. They are two user-friendly, freely available web server applications that also provide additional functional information by mapping the identifiers on to pathways, Gene Ontology terms, and literature references. Both tools are high-throughput oriented and include identifiers for the most common genomic databases. These tools have been compared to other similar tools, showing that they are among the fastest and the most up-to-date. Conclusion These tools provide a fast and intuitive way of enriching the information coming out of high-throughput experiments like microarrays. They can be valuable both to wet-lab researchers and to bioinformaticians.

  9. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

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    Hao Weilong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants. Results In order to uncover the mechanistic details of plant-to-plant HGT, the extent and evolutionary fate of transfer was investigated between two groups: the parasitic genus Cuscuta and a small clade of Plantago species. A broad polymerase chain reaction (PCR survey of mitochondrial genes revealed that at least three genes (atp1, atp6 and matR were recently transferred from Cuscuta to Plantago. Quantitative PCR assays show that these three genes have a mitochondrial location in the one species line of Plantago examined. Patterns of sequence evolution suggest that these foreign genes degraded into pseudogenes shortly after transfer and reverse transcription (RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that none are detectably transcribed. Three cases of gene conversion were detected between native and foreign copies of the atp1 gene. The identical phylogenetic distribution of the three foreign genes within Plantago and the retention of cytidines at ancestral positions of RNA editing indicate that these genes were probably acquired via a single, DNA-mediated transfer event. However, samplings of multiple individuals from two of the three species in the recipient Plantago clade revealed complex and perplexing phylogenetic discrepancies and patterns of sequence divergence for all three of the foreign genes. Conclusions This study reports the best evidence to date that multiple mitochondrial genes can be transferred via a single HGT event and that transfer occurred via a strictly DNA-level intermediate. The discovery of gene conversion between co-resident foreign and native

  10. Evidence of gene conversion in genes encoding the Gal/GalNac lectin complex of Entamoeba.

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    Gareth D Weedall

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica, uses a lectin complex on its cell surface to bind to mucin and to ligands on the intestinal epithelia. Binding to mucin is necessary for colonisation and binding to intestinal epithelia for invasion, therefore blocking this binding may protect against amoebiasis. Acquired protective immunity raised against the lectin complex should create a selection pressure to change the amino acid sequence of lectin genes in order to avoid future detection. We present evidence that gene conversion has occurred in lineages leading to E. histolytica strain HM1:IMSS and E. dispar strain SAW760. This evolutionary mechanism generates diversity and could contribute to immune evasion by the parasites.

  11. Evidence of gene conversion in genes encoding the Gal/GalNac lectin complex of Entamoeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Weedall

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica, uses a lectin complex on its cell surface to bind to mucin and to ligands on the intestinal epithelia. Binding to mucin is necessary for colonisation and binding to intestinal epithelia for invasion, therefore blocking this binding may protect against amoebiasis. Acquired protective immunity raised against the lectin complex should create a selection pressure to change the amino acid sequence of lectin genes in order to avoid future detection. We present evidence that gene conversion has occurred in lineages leading to E. histolytica strain HM1:IMSS and E. dispar strain SAW760. This evolutionary mechanism generates diversity and could contribute to immune evasion by the parasites.

  12. Beegle: from literature mining to disease-gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShal, Sarah; Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Sifrim, Alejandro; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; Davis, Jesse; Moreau, Yves

    2016-01-29

    Disease-gene identification is a challenging process that has multiple applications within functional genomics and personalized medicine. Typically, this process involves both finding genes known to be associated with the disease (through literature search) and carrying out preliminary experiments or screens (e.g. linkage or association studies, copy number analyses, expression profiling) to determine a set of promising candidates for experimental validation. This requires extensive time and monetary resources. We describe Beegle, an online search and discovery engine that attempts to simplify this process by automating the typical approaches. It starts by mining the literature to quickly extract a set of genes known to be linked with a given query, then it integrates the learning methodology of Endeavour (a gene prioritization tool) to train a genomic model and rank a set of candidate genes to generate novel hypotheses. In a realistic evaluation setup, Beegle has an average recall of 84% in the top 100 returned genes as a search engine, which improves the discovery engine by 12.6% in the top 5% prioritized genes. Beegle is publicly available at http://beegle.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  13. OncoSearch: cancer gene search engine with literature evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jin; Dang, Tien Cuong; Lee, Hyunju; Park, Jong C

    2014-07-01

    In order to identify genes that are involved in oncogenesis and to understand how such genes affect cancers, abnormal gene expressions in cancers are actively studied. For an efficient access to the results of such studies that are reported in biomedical literature, the relevant information is accumulated via text-mining tools and made available through the Web. However, current Web tools are not yet tailored enough to allow queries that specify how a cancer changes along with the change in gene expression level, which is an important piece of information to understand an involved gene's role in cancer progression or regression. OncoSearch is a Web-based engine that searches Medline abstracts for sentences that mention gene expression changes in cancers, with queries that specify (i) whether a gene expression level is up-regulated or down-regulated, (ii) whether a certain type of cancer progresses or regresses along with such gene expression change and (iii) the expected role of the gene in the cancer. OncoSearch is available through http://oncosearch.biopathway.org.

  14. Ectopic Gene Conversions in the Genome of Ten Hemiascomycete Yeast Species

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    Robert T. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized ectopic gene conversions in the genome of ten hemiascomycete yeast species. Of the ten species, three diverged prior to the whole genome duplication (WGD event present in the yeast lineage and seven diverged after it. We analyzed gene conversions from three separate datasets: paralogs from the three pre-WGD species, paralogs from the seven post-WGD species, and common ohnologs from the seven post-WGD species. Gene conversions have similar lengths and frequency and occur between sequences having similar degrees of divergence, in paralogs from pre- and post-WGD species. However, the sequences of ohnologs are both more divergent and less frequently converted than those of paralogs. This likely reflects the fact that ohnologs are more often found on different chromosomes and are evolving under stronger selective pressures than paralogs. Our results also show that ectopic gene conversions tend to occur more frequently between closely linked genes. They also suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the loss of introns in S. cerevisiae are probably also involved in the gene 3'-end gene conversion bias observed between the paralogs of this species.

  15. Population-specific differences in gene conversion patterns between human SUZ12 and SUZ12P are indicative of the dynamic nature of interparalog gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussotter, Tanja; Bengesser, Kathrin; Högel, Josef; Cooper, David N; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2014-04-01

    Nonallelic homologous gene conversion (NAHGC) resulting from interparalog recombination without crossover represents an important influence on the evolution of duplicated sequences in the human genome. In 17q11.2, different paralogous sequences mediate large NF1 deletions by nonallelic homologous recombination with crossover (NAHR). Among these paralogs are SUZ12 and its pseudogene SUZ12P which harbour the breakpoints of type-2 (1.2-Mb) NF1 deletions. Such deletions are caused predominantly by mitotic NAHR since somatic mosaicism with normal cells is evident in most patients. Investigating whether SUZ12 and SUZ12P have also been involved in NAHGC, we observed gene conversion tracts between these paralogs in both Africans (AFR) and Europeans (EUR). Since germline type-2 NF1 deletions resulting from meiotic NAHR are very rare, the vast majority of the gene conversion tracts in SUZ12 and SUZ12P are likely to have resulted from mitotic recombination during premeiotic cell divisions of germ cells. A higher number of gene conversion tracts were noted within SUZ12 and SUZ12P in AFR as compared to EUR. Further, the distinctive signature of NAHGC (a high number of SNPs per paralog and a high number of shared SNPs between paralogs), a characteristic of many actively recombining paralogs, was observed in both SUZ12 and SUZ12P but only in AFR and not in EUR. A novel polymorphic 2.3-kb deletion in SUZ12P was identified which exhibited a high allele frequency in EUR. We postulate that this interparalog structural difference, together with low allelic recombination rates, could have caused a reduction in NAHGC between SUZ12 and SUZ12P during human evolution.

  16. Rate of Conversion from Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease to Alzheimer's Dementia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

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    Alex Ward

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to summarize published estimates for conversion from mild cognitive impairment or amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia. We carried out a systematic review of English language publications to identify cohort studies published since January 2006 that reported the risk or rate of conversion. Summary: Thirty-two cohort studies were identified, of which 14 reported annualized conversion rates (ACRs. Conversions over 1 year ranged from 10.2 to 33.6% (5 studies, median: 19.0%, and over 2 years from 9.8 to 36.3% (7 studies, median: 18.6%. ACRs ranged from 7.5 to 16.5% (7 studies, median: 11.0% per person-year for studies recruiting from clinics, and from 5.4 to 11.5% (7 studies, median: 7.1% for community samples. Key Message: Extensive variation was observed in conversion rates due to the population sampled, diagnostic criteria, and duration, and because many studies did not account for loss to follow-up.

  17. pGenN, a gene normalization tool for plant genes and proteins in scientific literature.

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    Ruoyao Ding

    Full Text Available Automatically detecting gene/protein names in the literature and connecting them to databases records, also known as gene normalization, provides a means to structure the information buried in free-text literature. Gene normalization is critical for improving the coverage of annotation in the databases, and is an essential component of many text mining systems and database curation pipelines.In this manuscript, we describe a gene normalization system specifically tailored for plant species, called pGenN (pivot-based Gene Normalization. The system consists of three steps: dictionary-based gene mention detection, species assignment, and intra species normalization. We have developed new heuristics to improve each of these phases.We evaluated the performance of pGenN on an in-house expertly annotated corpus consisting of 104 plant relevant abstracts. Our system achieved an F-value of 88.9% (Precision 90.9% and Recall 87.2% on this corpus, outperforming state-of-art systems presented in BioCreative III. We have processed over 440,000 plant-related Medline abstracts using pGenN. The gene normalization results are stored in a local database for direct query from the pGenN web interface (proteininformationresource.org/pgenn/. The annotated literature corpus is also publicly available through the PIR text mining portal (proteininformationresource.org/iprolink/.

  18. Frequent gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous chromosomal regions in primates

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    Hirai Hirohisa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sex-chromosomes originated from a pair of autosomes. A step-wise cessation of recombination is necessary for the proper maintenance of sex-determination and, consequently, generates a four strata structure on the X chromosome. Each stratum shows a specific per-site nucleotide sequence difference (p-distance between the X and Y chromosomes, depending on the time of recombination arrest. Stratum 4 covers the distal half of the human X chromosome short arm and the p-distance of the stratum is ~10%, on average. However, a 100-kb region, which includes KALX and VCX, in the middle of stratum 4 shows a significantly lower p-distance (1-5%, suggesting frequent sequence exchanges or gene conversions between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. To examine the evolutionary mechanism for this low p-distance region, sequences of a corresponding region including KALX/Y from seven species of non-human primates were analyzed. Results Phylogenetic analysis of this low p-distance region in humans and non-human primate species revealed that gene conversion like events have taken place at least ten times after the divergence of New World monkeys and Catarrhini (i.e., Old World monkeys and hominoids. A KALY-converted KALX allele in white-handed gibbons also suggests a possible recent gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes. In these primate sequences, the proximal boundary of this low p-distance region is located in a LINE element shared between the X and Y chromosomes, suggesting the involvement of this element in frequent gene conversions. Together with a palindrome on the Y chromosome, a segmental palindrome structure on the X chromosome at the distal boundary near VCX, in humans and chimpanzees, may mediate frequent sequence exchanges between X and Y chromosomes. Conclusion Gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous regions have been suggested, mainly in humans. Here, we found frequent gene conversions in the

  19. Conversion paralysis after cervical spine arthroplasty: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudissa, M; Castelain, J E; Boissière, L; Mariey, R; Pointillart, V; Vital, J M

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of conversion paralysis after cervical spine arthroplasty performed in a 45-year-old woman to treat cervico-brachial neuralgia due to a left-sided C6-C7 disc herniation. Upon awakening from the anaesthesia, she had left hemiplegia sparing the face, with normal sensory function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain ruled out a stroke. MRI of the spinal cord showed artefacts from the cobalt-chrome prosthesis that precluded confident elimination of mechanical spinal cord compression. Surgery performed on the same day to substitute a cage for the prosthesis ruled out spinal cord compression, while eliminating the source of MRI artefacts. Findings were normal from follow-up MRI scans 1 and 15days later, as well as from neurophysiological testing (electromyogram and motor evoked potentials). The deficit resolved fully within the next 4days. A psychological assessment revealed emotional distress related to an ongoing divorce. The most likely diagnosis was conversion paralysis. Surgeons should be aware that conversion disorder might develop after a procedure on the spine, although the risk of litigation requires re-operation. Familiarity with specific MRI sequences that minimise artefacts can be valuable. A preoperative psychological assessment might improve the detection of patients at high risk for conversion disorder.

  20. Toward a Definition of the ECB Process: A Conversation with the ECB Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdill, Stacey Hueftle; Baizerman, Michael; Compton, Donald W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a vocabulary of the evaluation capacity building (ECB) field and reviews the relatively small ECB literature and what it teaches for evaluation practice. Introduces the other chapters of this special issue on ECB. (SLD)

  1. Evolutionary Stasis in Cycad Plastomes and the First Case of Plastome GC-Biased Gene Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2015-06-27

    In angiosperms, gene conversion has been known to reduce the mutational load of plastid genomes (the plastomes). Particularly, more frequent gene conversions in inverted repeat (IR) than in single copy (SC) regions result in contrasting substitution rates between these two regions. However, little has been known about the effect of gene conversion in the evolution of gymnosperm plastomes. Cycads (Cycadophyta) are the second largest gymnosperm group. Evolutionary study of their plastomes is limited to the basal cycad genus, Cycas. In this study, we addressed three questions. 1) Do the plastomes of other cycad genera evolve slowly as previously observed in the plastome of Cycas taitungensis? 2) Do substitution rates differ between their SC and IR regions? And 3) Does gene conversion occur in the cycad plastomes? If yes, is it AT-biased or GC-biased? Plastomes of eight species from other eight genera of cycads were sequenced. These plastomes are highly conserved in genome organization. Excluding ginkgo, cycad plastomes have significantly lower synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates than other gymnosperms, reflecting their evolutionary stasis in nucleotide mutations. In the IRs of cycad plastomes, the reduced substitution rates and GC-biased mutations are associated with a GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) mechanism. Further investigations suggest that in cycads, gBGC is able to rectify plastome-wide mutations. Therefore, this study is the first to uncover the plastomic gBGC in seed plants. We also propose a gBGC model to interpret the dissimilar evolutionary patterns as well as the compositionally biased mutations in the SC and IR regions of cycad plastomes.

  2. DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits AID-induced antibody gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J L Cook

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-dependent hypermutation of Ig V(DJ rearrangements and Ig S regions, respectively, in activated B cells. AID deaminates deoxycytidine bases in Ig genes, converting them into deoxyuridines. In V(DJ regions, subsequent excision of the deaminated bases by uracil-DNA glycosylase, or by mismatch repair, leads to further point mutation or gene conversion, depending on the species. In Ig S regions, nicking at the abasic sites produced by AID and uracil-DNA glycosylases results in staggered double-strand breaks, whose repair by nonhomologous end joining mediates Ig class switching. We have tested whether nonhomologous end joining also plays a role in V(DJ hypermutation using chicken DT40 cells deficient for Ku70 or the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs. Inactivation of the Ku70 or DNA-PKcs genes in DT40 cells elevated the rate of AID-induced gene conversion as much as 5-fold. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs-deficiency appeared to reduce point mutation. The data provide strong evidence that double-strand DNA ends capable of recruiting the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex are important intermediates in Ig V gene conversion.

  3. Long- and short-patch gene conversions in Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M; Lefèvre, J C; Mostachfi, P; Gasc, A M; Méjean, V; Claverys, J P

    1985-01-01

    In pneumococcal transformation some point mutations are integrated by an excision-repair pathway which switches the heteroduplex DNA into homoduplex. This transfer of information is a gene conversion. We have reviewed some of the properties of this system especially those relating to heteroduplex specificity and given evidence that this extends over several kilobases of DNA. We then describe a new process of conversion in pneumococcal transformation which occurs over a very short distance (5 to 27 base-pairs) and is triggered by a single site mutation resulting from the transversion 5'-ATTCAT...to 5'...ATTAAT... Only one of the two heteroduplexes 5'...A...3'/3'...G...5', is converted.

  4. A genome-wide MeSH-based literature mining system predicts implicit gene-to-gene relationships and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuoshuang; Qin, Tingting; Qin, Zhaohui S; He, Yongqun

    2013-10-16

    The large amount of literature in the post-genomics era enables the study of gene interactions and networks using all available articles published for a specific organism. MeSH is a controlled vocabulary of medical and scientific terms that is used by biomedical scientists to manually index articles in the PubMed literature database. We hypothesized that genome-wide gene-MeSH term associations from the PubMed literature database could be used to predict implicit gene-to-gene relationships and networks. While the gene-MeSH associations have been used to detect gene-gene interactions in some studies, different methods have not been well compared, and such a strategy has not been evaluated for a genome-wide literature analysis. Genome-wide literature mining of gene-to-gene interactions allows ranking of the best gene interactions and investigation of comprehensive biological networks at a genome level. The genome-wide GenoMesh literature mining algorithm was developed by sequentially generating a gene-article matrix, a normalized gene-MeSH term matrix, and a gene-gene matrix. The gene-gene matrix relies on the calculation of pairwise gene dissimilarities based on gene-MeSH relationships. An optimized dissimilarity score was identified from six well-studied functions based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Based on the studies with well-studied Escherichia coli and less-studied Brucella spp., GenoMesh was found to accurately identify gene functions using weighted MeSH terms, predict gene-gene interactions not reported in the literature, and cluster all the genes studied from an organism using the MeSH-based gene-gene matrix. A web-based GenoMesh literature mining program is also available at: http://genomesh.hegroup.org. GenoMesh also predicts gene interactions and networks among genes associated with specific MeSH terms or user-selected gene lists. The GenoMesh algorithm and web program provide the first genome-wide, MeSH-based literature mining

  5. Literature Mining and Ontology based Analysis of Host-Brucella Gene-Gene Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, İlknur; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun; Özgür, Arzucan

    2015-01-01

    results show that the introduced literature mining and ontology-based modeling approach are effective in retrieving and analyzing host-pathogen gene-gene interaction networks.

  6. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  7. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  8. Recombination dynamics of a human Y-chromosomal palindrome: rapid GC-biased gene conversion, multi-kilobase conversion tracts, and rare inversions.

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    Pille Hallast

    Full Text Available The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY includes eight large inverted repeats (palindromes in which arm-to-arm similarity exceeds 99.9%, due to gene conversion activity. Here, we studied one of these palindromes, P6, in order to illuminate the dynamics of the gene conversion process. We genotyped ten paralogous sequence variants (PSVs within the arms of P6 in 378 Y chromosomes whose evolutionary relationships within the SNP-defined Y phylogeny are known. This allowed the identification of 146 historical gene conversion events involving individual PSVs, occurring at a rate of 2.9-8.4×10(-4 events per generation. A consideration of the nature of nucleotide change and the ancestral state of each PSV showed that the conversion process was significantly biased towards the fixation of G or C nucleotides (GC-biased, and also towards the ancestral state. Determination of haplotypes by long-PCR allowed likely co-conversion of PSVs to be identified, and suggested that conversion tract lengths are large, with a mean of 2068 bp, and a maximum in excess of 9 kb. Despite the frequent formation of recombination intermediates implied by the rapid observed gene conversion activity, resolution via crossover is rare: only three inversions within P6 were detected in the sample. An analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla P6 orthologs showed that the ancestral state bias has existed in all three species, and comparison of human and chimpanzee sequences with the gorilla outgroup confirmed that GC bias of the conversion process has apparently been active in both the human and chimpanzee lineages.

  9. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  10. Gene conversion limits divergence of mammalian TLR1 and TLR6

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    Dunoyer-Geindre Sylvie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are important mediators of the innate immune system. TLR1 and TLR6 are paralogs and located in tandem on the same chromosome in mammals. They form heterodimers with TLR2 and bind lipopeptide components of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell walls. To identify conserved stretches in TLR1 and TLR6, that may be important for their function, we compared their protein sequences in nine mammalian species(Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Macaca mulatta, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus; Erinaceus europaeus, Bos Taurus, Sus scrofa and Canis familiaris. Results The N-terminal sequences of the orthologous proteins showed greater similarity than corresponding paralog sequences. However, we identified a region of 300 amino acids towards the C-terminus of TLR1 and TLR6, where paralogs had a greater degree of sequence identity than orthologs. Preservation of DNA sequence identity of paralogs in this region was observed in all nine mammalian species investigated, and is due to independent gene conversion events. The regions having undergone gene conversion in each species are almost identical and encode the leucine-rich repeat motifs 16 to 19, the C-terminal cap motif, the transmembrane domain and most of the intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. Conclusion Our results show that, for a specific conserved region, divergence of TLR1 and TLR6 is limited by gene conversion, most likely because of the need for co-evolution with multiple intracellular and extracellular binding partners. Thus, gene conversion provides a mechanism for limiting the divergence of functional regions of protein paralogs, while allowing other domains to evolve diversified functions.

  11. Gene conversion occurs within the mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans during sexual reproduction.

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    Sheng Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination of sex chromosomes is thought to be repressed in organisms with heterogametic sex determination (e.g. mammalian X/Y chromosomes, due to extensive divergence and chromosomal rearrangements between the two chromosomes. However, proper segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis requires crossing-over occurring within the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR. Recent studies reveal that recombination, in the form of gene conversion, is widely distributed within and may have played important roles in the evolution of some chromosomal regions within which recombination was thought to be repressed, such as the centromere cores of maize. Cryptococcus neoformans, a major human pathogenic fungus, has an unusually large mating-type locus (MAT, >100 kb, and the MAT alleles from the two opposite mating-types show extensive nucleotide sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements, mirroring characteristics of sex chromosomes. Meiotic recombination was assumed to be repressed within the C. neoformans MAT locus. A previous study identified recombination hot spots flanking the C. neoformans MAT, and these hot spots are associated with high GC content. Here, we investigated a GC-rich intergenic region located within the MAT locus of C. neoformans to establish if this region also exhibits unique recombination behavior during meiosis. Population genetics analysis of natural C. neoformans isolates revealed signals of homogenization spanning this GC-rich intergenic region within different C. neoformans lineages, consistent with a model in which gene conversion of this region during meiosis prevents it from diversifying within each lineage. By analyzing meiotic progeny from laboratory crosses, we found that meiotic recombination (gene conversion occurs around the GC-rich intergenic region at a frequency equal to or greater than the meiotic recombination frequency observed in other genomic regions. We discuss the implications of these findings with

  12. Sister chromatid gene conversion is a prominent double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Roger D.; Jasin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    In mammalian cells, repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occurs by both homologous and non-homologous mechanisms. By definition, homologous recombination requires a template with sufficient sequence identity to the damaged molecule in order to direct repair. We now show that the sister chromatid acts as a repair template in a substantial proportion of DSB repair events. The outcome of sister chromatid repair is primarily gene conversion unassociated with reciprocal exchange. This contras...

  13. Closely linked H2B genes in the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus indicate a recent gene duplication or gene conversion event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Cook, A; Wagner, M; Wells, D

    1992-01-01

    Two nonallelic histone gene clusters were characterized in the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. The DNA sequence of one of the clusters reveals six genes in the contiguous arrangement of H2B, H1, H3, H4, H2B and H2A. The order of genes within the second cluster is H3, H4, H2B and H2A. There is no evidence for the presence of an H1 gene in this cluster. Comparison of the three copepod H2B genes reveals a high degree of similarity between the 5' upstream regions and between the amino terminal halves of the two H2B genes found within the same cluster. From these data we infer that gene duplication and/or gene conversion events occurred within this cluster in the recent past.

  14. LITERARY LITERACY IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: CONVERSATION GROUPS ON AFRICAN LITERATURES OF PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE

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    Giselle Larizzatti Agazzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at pointing to the reaches of Distance Education in the democratization of the knowledge in general and, more specifically, in the promotion of the literary reader formation. Reflecting about the tool “forum” and the “Chat groups” on African Literature of Portuguese language, it is sought to evidence that the professors, when work as mediators in the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE, can promote the extension and the depth of the students’ literary experience, which guarantee to them “the right to literature”. The discussion of the theoretical framework aims at supporting the considerations about the range of the new technologies on the promotion of the literary experience in the academic environments, which has been gradually replaced by extra-literary studies that involve the work

  15. Leveraging Distant Relatedness to Quantify Human Mutation and Gene-Conversion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamara, Pier Francesco; Francioli, Laurent C; Wilton, Peter R; Genovese, Giulio; Gusev, Alexander; Finucane, Hilary K; Sankararaman, Sriram; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Wakeley, John; Pe'er, Itsik; Price, Alkes L

    2015-12-01

    The rate at which human genomes mutate is a central biological parameter that has many implications for our ability to understand demographic and evolutionary phenomena. We present a method for inferring mutation and gene-conversion rates by using the number of sequence differences observed in identical-by-descent (IBD) segments together with a reconstructed model of recent population-size history. This approach is robust to, and can quantify, the presence of substantial genotyping error, as validated in coalescent simulations. We applied the method to 498 trio-phased sequenced Dutch individuals and inferred a point mutation rate of 1.66 × 10(-8) per base per generation and a rate of 1.26 × 10(-9) for conversion as 5.99 × 10(-6). We found that recombination does not have observable mutagenic effects after gene conversion is accounted for and that local gene-conversion rates reflect recombination rates. We detected a strong enrichment of recent deleterious variation among mismatching variants found within IBD regions and observed summary statistics of local sharing of IBD segments to closely match previously proposed metrics of background selection; however, we found no significant effects of selection on our mutation-rate estimates. We detected no evidence of strong variation of mutation rates in a number of genomic annotations obtained from several recent studies. Our analysis suggests that a mutation-rate estimate higher than that reported by recent pedigree-based studies should be adopted in the context of DNA-based demographic reconstruction.

  16. Mammalian BEX, WEX and GASP genes: Coding and non-coding chimaerism sustained by gene conversion events

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    Ponting Chris P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of sequence innovations in the genomes of mammals facilitates understanding of human gene function, as well as sheds light on the molecular mechanisms which underlie these changes. Although gene duplication plays a major role in genome evolution, studies regarding concerted evolution events among gene family members have been limited in scope and restricted to protein-coding regions, where high sequence similarity is easily detectable. Results We describe a mammalian-specific expansion of more than 20 rapidly-evolving genes on human chromosome Xq22.1. Many of these are highly divergent in their protein-coding regions yet contain a conserved sequence motif in their 5' UTRs which appears to have been maintained by multiple events of concerted evolution. These events have led to the generation of chimaeric genes, each with a 5' UTR and a protein-coding region that possess independent evolutionary histories. We suggest that concerted evolution has occurred via gene conversion independently in different mammalian lineages, and these events have resulted in elevated G+C levels in the encompassing genomic regions. These concerted evolution events occurred within and between genes from three separate protein families ('brain-expressed X-linked' [BEX], WWbp5-like X-linked [WEX] and G-protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein [GASP], which often are expressed in mammalian brains and associated with receptor mediated signalling and apoptosis. Conclusion Despite high protein-coding divergence among mammalian-specific genes, we identified a DNA motif common to these genes' 5' UTR exons. The motif has undergone concerted evolution events independently of its neighbouring protein-coding regions, leading to formation of evolutionary chimaeric genes. These findings have implications for the identification of non protein-coding regulatory elements and their lineage-specific evolution in mammals.

  17. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  18. Complex signatures of locus-specific selective pressures and gene conversion on Human Growth Hormone/Chorionic Somatomammotropin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedman, Laura; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Kelgo, Piret; Laan, Maris

    2008-10-01

    Reduced birth weight and slow neonatal growth are risks correlated with the development of common diseases in adulthood. The Human Growth Hormone/Chorionic Somatomammotropin (hGH/CSH) gene cluster (48 kb) at 17q22-24, consisting of one pituitary-expressed postnatal (GH1) and four placental genes (GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1) may contribute to common variation in intrauterine and infant growth, and also to the regulation of feto-maternal and adult glucose metabolism. In contrast to GH1, there are limited genetic data on the hGH/CSH genes expressed in utero. We report the first survey of sequence variation encompassing all five hGH/CSH genes. Resequencing identified 113 SNPs/indels (ss86217675-ss86217787 in dbSNP) including 66 novel variants, and revealed remarkable differences in diversity patterns among the homologous duplicated genes as well as between the study populations of European (Estonians), Asian (Han Chinese), and African (Mandenkalu) ancestries. A dominant feature of the hGH/CSH region is hyperactive gene conversion, with the rate exceeding tens to hundreds of times the rate of reciprocal crossing-over and resulting in near absence of linkage disequilibrium. The initiation of gene conversion seems to be uniformly distributed because the data do not predict any recombination hotspots. Signatures of different selective constraints acting on each gene indicate functional specification of the hGH/CSH genes. Most strikingly, the GH2 coding for placental growth hormone shows strong intercontinental diversification (F(ST)=0.41-0.91; p<10(-6)) indicative of balancing selection, whereas the flanking CSH1 exhibits low population differentiation (F(ST)=0.03-0.09), low diversity (non-Africans, pi=8-9 x 10(-5); Africans, pi=8.2 x 10(-4)), and one dominant haplotype worldwide, consistent with purifying selection. The results imply that the success of an association study targeted to duplicated genes may be enhanced by prior resequencing of the study population in order

  19. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  20. TMEM231 Gene Conversion Associated with Joubert and Meckel-Gruber Syndromes in the Same Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglic, Dino; Stephen, Joshi; Malicdan, May Christine V; Guo, Jennifer; Fischer, Roxanne; Konzman, Daniel; Mullikin, James C; Gahl, William A; Vilboux, Thierry; Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2016-11-01

    Joubert and Meckel-Gruber syndromes (JS and MGS) are ciliopathies with overlapping features. JS patients manifest the "molar tooth sign" on brain imaging and variable eye, kidney, and liver disease. MGS presents with polycystic kidneys, occipital encephalocele, and polydactyly; it is typically perinatally fatal. Both syndromes are genetically heterogeneous; some genes cause either syndrome. Here, we report two brothers married to unrelated women. The first brother had three daughters with JS and a son with polycystic kidneys who died at birth. The second brother's wife had a fetal demise due to MGS. Whole exome sequencing identified TMEM231 NM_001077416.2: c.784G>A; p.(Asp262Asn) in all children and the wife of the first brother; the second brother's wife had a c.406T>G;p.(Trp136Gly) change. In-depth analysis uncovered a rare gene conversion event in TMEM231, leading to loss of exon 4, in all the affected children of first brother. We believe that the combination of this gene conversion with different missense mutations led to a spectrum of phenotypes that span JS and MGS. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. Bcl6 Is Required for Somatic Hypermutation and Gene Conversion in Chicken DT40 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Williams

    Full Text Available The activation induced cytosine deaminase (AID mediates diversification of B cell immunoglobulin genes by the three distinct yet related processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM, class switch recombination (CSR, and gene conversion (GCV. SHM occurs in germinal center B cells, and the transcription factor Bcl6 is a key regulator of the germinal center B cell gene expression program, including expression of AID. To test the hypothesis that Bcl6 function is important for the process of SHM, we compared WT chicken DT40 B cells, which constitutively perform SHM/GCV, to their Bcl6-deficient counterparts. We found that Bcl6-deficient DT40 cells were unable to perform SHM and GCV despite enforced high level expression of AID and substantial levels of AID in the nucleus of the cells. To gain mechanistic insight into the GCV/SHM dependency on Bcl6, transcriptional features of a highly expressed SHM target gene were analyzed in Bcl6-sufficient and -deficient DT40 cells. No defect was observed in the accumulation of single stranded DNA in the target gene as a result of Bcl6 deficiency. In contrast, association of Spt5, an RNA polymerase II (Pol II and AID binding factor, was strongly reduced at the target gene body relative to the transcription start site in Bcl6-deficient cells as compared to WT cells. However, partial reconstitution of Bcl6 function substantially reconstituted Spt5 association with the target gene body but did not restore detectable SHM. Our observations suggest that in the absence of Bcl6, Spt5 fails to associate efficiently with Pol II at SHM targets, perhaps precluding robust AID action on the SHM target DNA. Our data also suggest, however, that Spt5 binding is not sufficient for SHM of a target gene even in DT40 cells with strong expression of AID.

  2. Bcl6 Is Required for Somatic Hypermutation and Gene Conversion in Chicken DT40 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alan M.; Maman, Yaakov; Alinikula, Jukka; Schatz, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The activation induced cytosine deaminase (AID) mediates diversification of B cell immunoglobulin genes by the three distinct yet related processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR), and gene conversion (GCV). SHM occurs in germinal center B cells, and the transcription factor Bcl6 is a key regulator of the germinal center B cell gene expression program, including expression of AID. To test the hypothesis that Bcl6 function is important for the process of SHM, we compared WT chicken DT40 B cells, which constitutively perform SHM/GCV, to their Bcl6-deficient counterparts. We found that Bcl6-deficient DT40 cells were unable to perform SHM and GCV despite enforced high level expression of AID and substantial levels of AID in the nucleus of the cells. To gain mechanistic insight into the GCV/SHM dependency on Bcl6, transcriptional features of a highly expressed SHM target gene were analyzed in Bcl6-sufficient and -deficient DT40 cells. No defect was observed in the accumulation of single stranded DNA in the target gene as a result of Bcl6 deficiency. In contrast, association of Spt5, an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and AID binding factor, was strongly reduced at the target gene body relative to the transcription start site in Bcl6-deficient cells as compared to WT cells. However, partial reconstitution of Bcl6 function substantially reconstituted Spt5 association with the target gene body but did not restore detectable SHM. Our observations suggest that in the absence of Bcl6, Spt5 fails to associate efficiently with Pol II at SHM targets, perhaps precluding robust AID action on the SHM target DNA. Our data also suggest, however, that Spt5 binding is not sufficient for SHM of a target gene even in DT40 cells with strong expression of AID. PMID:26900682

  3. Automatic extraction of reference gene from literature in plants based on texting mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Shen, Gengyu; Li, Fei; Huang, Shuiqing

    2015-01-01

    Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in biological research. It is a key to the availability of qRT-PCR experiment to select a stable reference gene. However, selecting an appropriate reference gene usually requires strict biological experiment for verification with high cost in the process of selection. Scientific literatures have accumulated a lot of achievements on the selection of reference gene. Therefore, mining reference genes under specific experiment environments from literatures can provide quite reliable reference genes for similar qRT-PCR experiments with the advantages of reliability, economic and efficiency. An auxiliary reference gene discovery method from literature is proposed in this paper which integrated machine learning, natural language processing and text mining approaches. The validity tests showed that this new method has a better precision and recall on the extraction of reference genes and their environments.

  4. Disclosing ambiguous gene aliases by automatic literature profiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coimbra, Roney S; Vanderwall, Dana E; Oliveira, Guilherme C

    2010-01-01

    Retrieving pertinent information from biological scientific literature requires cutting-edge text mining methods which may be able to recognize the meaning of the very ambiguous names of biological entities...

  5. Sgs1 regulates gene conversion tract lengths and crossovers independently of its helicase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chen; Paffett, Kimberly S; Amit, Or; Clikeman, Jennifer A; Sterk, Rosa; Brenneman, Mark A; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2006-06-01

    RecQ helicases maintain genome stability and suppress tumors in higher eukaryotes through roles in replication and DNA repair. The yeast RecQ homolog Sgs1 interacts with Top3 topoisomerase and Rmi1. In vitro, Sgs1 binds to and branch migrates Holliday junctions (HJs) and the human RecQ homolog BLM, with Top3alpha, resolves synthetic double HJs in a noncrossover sense. Sgs1 suppresses crossovers during the homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Crossovers are associated with long gene conversion tracts, suggesting a model in which Sgs1 helicase catalyzes reverse branch migration and convergence of double HJs for noncrossover resolution by Top3. Consistent with this model, we show that allelic crossovers and gene conversion tract lengths are increased in sgs1Delta. However, crossover and tract length suppression was independent of Sgs1 helicase activity, which argues against helicase-dependent HJ convergence. HJs may converge passively by a "random walk," and Sgs1 may play a structural role in stimulating Top3-dependent resolution. In addition to the new helicase-independent functions for Sgs1 in crossover and tract length control, we define three new helicase-dependent functions, including the suppression of chromosome loss, chromosome missegregation, and synthetic lethality in srs2Delta. We propose that Sgs1 has helicase-dependent functions in replication and helicase-independent functions in DSB repair by HR.

  6. The surprising negative correlation of gene length and optimal codon use--disentangling translational selection from GC-biased gene conversion in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoletzki, Nina

    2011-04-11

    Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition--such as GC-biased gene conversion--contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position.

  7. Using Group Discussion with Taiwan's EFL College Students: A Comparison of Comprehension Instruction for Book Club, Literature Circles, and Instructional Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here involved a one-semester study; during this period of time, reading comprehension instruction representing three major discussion-centered approaches (Book Club, BC; Literature Circles, LC; Instructional Conversations, IC) was designed and implemented. The effectiveness of the three experimental approaches and one…

  8. Using Ontology Fingerprints to disambiguate gene name entities in the biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guocai; Zhao, Jieyi; Cohen, Trevor; Tao, Cui; Sun, Jingchun; Xu, Hua; Bernstam, Elmer V; Lawson, Andrew; Zeng, Jia; Johnson, Amber M; Holla, Vijaykumar; Bailey, Ann M; Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Litzenburger, Beate; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Jim Zheng, W

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguous gene names in the biomedical literature are a barrier to accurate information extraction. To overcome this hurdle, we generated Ontology Fingerprints for selected genes that are relevant for personalized cancer therapy. These Ontology Fingerprints were used to evaluate the association between genes and biomedical literature to disambiguate gene names. We obtained 93.6% precision for the test gene set and 80.4% for the area under a receiver-operating characteristics curve for gene and article association. The core algorithm was implemented using a graphics processing unit-based MapReduce framework to handle big data and to improve performance. We conclude that Ontology Fingerprints can help disambiguate gene names mentioned in text and analyse the association between genes and articles. Database URL: http://www.ontologyfingerprint.org © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. GC-biased gene conversion impacts ribosomal DNA evolution in vertebrates, angiosperms, and other eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Juan S; Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is one of the most conserved genes in eukaryotes. The multiples copies of rDNA in the genome evolve in a concerted manner, through unequal crossing over and/or gene conversion, two mechanisms related to homologous recombination. Recombination increases local GC content in several organisms through a process known as GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC). gBGC has been well characterized in mammals, birds, and grasses, but its phylogenetic distribution across the tree of life is poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that recombination affects the evolution of base composition in 18S rDNA and examine the reliability of this thoroughly studied molecule as a marker of gBGC in eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA in vertebrates and angiosperms reveal significant heterogeneity in the evolution of base composition across both groups. Mammals, birds, and grasses experience increases in the GC content of the 18S rDNA, consistent with previous genome-wide analyses. In addition, we observe increased GC contents in Ostariophysi ray-finned fishes and commelinid monocots (i.e., the clade including grasses), suggesting that the genomes of these two groups have been affected by gBGC. Polymorphism analyses in rDNA confirm that gBGC, not mutation bias, is the most plausible explanation for these patterns. We also find that helix and loop sites of the secondary structure of ribosomal RNA do not evolve at the same pace: loops evolve faster than helices, whereas helices are GC richer than loops. We extend analyses to major lineages of eukaryotes and suggest that gBGC might have also affected base composition in Giardia (Diplomonadina), nudibranch gastropods (Mollusca), and Asterozoa (Echinodermata).

  10. The roles of gene duplication, gene conversion and positive selection in rodent Esp and Mup pheromone gene families with comparison to the Abp family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Three proteinaceous pheromone families, the androgen-binding proteins (ABPs), the exocrine-gland secreting peptides (ESPs) and the major urinary proteins (MUPs) are encoded by large gene families in the genomes of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. We studied the evolutionary histories of the Mup and Esp genes and compared them with what is known about the Abp genes. Apparently gene conversion has played little if any role in the expansion of the mouse Class A and Class B Mup genes and pseudogenes, and the rat Mups. By contrast, we found evidence of extensive gene conversion in many Esp genes although not in all of them. Our studies of selection identified at least two amino acid sites in β-sheets as having evolved under positive selection in the mouse Class A and Class B MUPs and in rat MUPs. We show that selection may have acted on the ESPs by determining K(a)/K(s) for Exon 3 sequences with and without the converted sequence segment. While it appears that purifying selection acted on the ESP signal peptides, the secreted portions of the ESPs probably have undergone much more rapid evolution. When the inner gene converted fragment sequences were removed, eleven Esp paralogs were present in two or more pairs with K(a)/K(s) >1.0 and thus we propose that positive selection is detectable by this means in at least some mouse Esp paralogs. We compare and contrast the evolutionary histories of all three mouse pheromone gene families in light of their proposed functions in mouse communication.

  11. A Metagenomic Perspective on Changes to Nutrient-cycling Genes Following Forest-to-agriculture Conversion in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Womack, A. M.; Rodrigues, J.; Nüsslein, K.; Bohannan, B. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been shown to alter nutrient cycling and the community composition of soil microorganisms. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at how the abundance, composition, and diversity of microbial genes involved in nutrient cycling change with conversion. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to analyze soil from primary rainforest and converted cattle pasture sampled at the Fazenda Nova Vida in Rondônia, Brazil. The diversity, richness, and evenness of nutrient cycling genes were significantly higher in the pasture, and the composition of nutrient cycling communities differed significantly between land use types. These results largely mirror taxonomic shifts following Amazon rainforest conversion, which tends to increase diversity, richness, and evenness of soil microbial communities. The abundance of genes related to N cycling and methane flux differed between land use types. Methanotrophy genes decreased in abundance in the pasture, whereas methanogenesis genes were not significantly different between land use types. These changes could underlie the commonly observed shift from methane sink to source following forest-to-agriculture conversion. Multiple genes in the nitrogen cycle also differed with land use, including genes related to N-fixation and ammonification. Metagenomics provides a unique perspective on the consequences of land use change on microbial community structure and function.

  12. Codelivery of antitumor drug and gene by a pH-sensitive charge-conversion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiuwen; Li, Yanhui; Jiao, Zixue; Lin, Lin; Chen, Jie; Guo, Zhaopei; Tian, Huayu; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-02-11

    In the present study, a gene and drug codelivery system was developed by electrostatic binding of polyethylenimine-poly(l-lysine)-poly(l-glutamic acid) (PELG), polyethylenimine (PEI), cis-aconityl-doxorubicin (CAD), and DNA. Zeta potential and drug release analysis confirmed the pH-responsive charge conversion and acid-sensitive drug release functional properties of the PELG/PEI/(DNA+CAD) system. Gel retardation assay and transfection experiment showed the codelivery system had effective DNA binding ability and good transfection efficiency on HepG2 cells. The therapeutic gene p53 was further employed to study its combinational effects with CAD. Cytotoxicity assay showed the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the PELG/PEI/(p53+CAD) codelivery system was lower than that of the gene or the drug delivery system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that the drug and gene could be delivered into the cells simultaneously. A significant increase of p53 gene expression was achieved after HepG2 cells treated by PELG/PEI/(p53+CAD) codelivery system. The apoptosis experiment indicated clearly that the codelivery system could lead an effective apoptosis on tumor cells, which was beneficial for the treatment of cancer. The biodistribution and tumor accumulation of the codelivery system was explored via in vivo imaging in subcutaneous xenograft and in situ tumor models. The tumor and some major organs were excised and imaged, and the results showed that the codelivery system can accumulate efficiently in tumor for both tumor models. It can be suggested from the above results that the PELG/PEI/(DNA+CAD) codelivery system will have great potential applications in cancer therapy.

  13. The genomic landscape of meiotic crossovers and gene conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Velikkakam James, Geo; Ding, Jia; Becker, Frank; Klasen, Jonas R; Rawat, Vimal; Rowan, Beth A; de Jong, Daniël F; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Zapata, Luis; Huettel, Bruno; de Jong, Hans; Ossowski, Stephan; Weigel, Detlef; Koornneef, Maarten; Keurentjes, Joost JB; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact distribution of meiotic crossovers (COs) and gene conversions (GCs) is essential for understanding many aspects of population genetics and evolution, from haplotype structure and long-distance genetic linkage to the generation of new allelic variants of genes. To this end, we resequenced the four products of 13 meiotic tetrads along with 10 doubled haploids derived from Arabidopsis thaliana hybrids. GC detection through short reads has previously been confounded by genomic rearrangements. Rigid filtering for misaligned reads allowed GC identification at high accuracy and revealed an ∼80-kb transposition, which undergoes copy-number changes mediated by meiotic recombination. Non-crossover associated GCs were extremely rare most likely due to their short average length of ∼25–50 bp, which is significantly shorter than the length of CO-associated GCs. Overall, recombination preferentially targeted non-methylated nucleosome-free regions at gene promoters, which showed significant enrichment of two sequence motifs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01426.001 PMID:24347547

  14. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Literature-Based Discovery of IFN-γ and Vaccine-Mediated Gene Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzucan Özgür

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ regulates various immune responses that are often critical for vaccine-induced protection. In order to annotate the IFN-γ-related gene interaction network from a large amount of IFN-γ research reported in the literature, a literature-based discovery approach was applied with a combination of natural language processing (NLP and network centrality analysis. The interaction network of human IFN-γ (Gene symbol: IFNG and its vaccine-specific subnetwork were automatically extracted using abstracts from all articles in PubMed. Four network centrality metrics were further calculated to rank the genes in the constructed networks. The resulting generic IFNG network contains 1060 genes and 26313 interactions among these genes. The vaccine-specific subnetwork contains 102 genes and 154 interactions. Fifty six genes such as TNF, NFKB1, IL2, IL6, and MAPK8 were ranked among the top 25 by at least one of the centrality methods in one or both networks. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were classified in various immune mechanisms such as response to extracellular stimulus, lymphocyte activation, and regulation of apoptosis. Literature evidence was manually curated for the IFN-γ relatedness of 56 genes and vaccine development relatedness for 52 genes. This study also generated many new hypotheses worth further experimental studies.

  16. Combining evidence, biomedical literature and statistical dependence: new insights for functional annotation of gene sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgun Anita

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genomic studies based on transcriptome technologies provide clusters of genes that need to be functionally annotated. The Gene Ontology (GO implements a controlled vocabulary organised into three hierarchies: cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. This terminology allows a coherent and consistent description of the knowledge about gene functions. The GO terms related to genes come primarily from semi-automatic annotations made by trained biologists (annotation based on evidence or text-mining of the published scientific literature (literature profiling. Results We report an original functional annotation method based on a combination of evidence and literature that overcomes the weaknesses and the limitations of each approach. It relies on the Gene Ontology Annotation database (GOA Human and the PubGene biomedical literature index. We support these annotations with statistically associated GO terms and retrieve associative relations across the three GO hierarchies to emphasise the major pathways involved by a gene cluster. Both annotation methods and associative relations were quantitatively evaluated with a reference set of 7397 genes and a multi-cluster study of 14 clusters. We also validated the biological appropriateness of our hybrid method with the annotation of a single gene (cdc2 and that of a down-regulated cluster of 37 genes identified by a transcriptome study of an in vitro enterocyte differentiation model (CaCo-2 cells. Conclusion The combination of both approaches is more informative than either separate approach: literature mining can enrich an annotation based only on evidence. Text-mining of the literature can also find valuable associated MEDLINE references that confirm the relevance of the annotation. Eventually, GO terms networks can be built with associative relations in order to highlight cooperative and competitive pathways and their connected molecular functions.

  17. BeeSpace Navigator: exploratory analysis of gene function using semantic indexing of biological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Sarma, Moushumi; Arcoleo, David; Khetani, Radhika S; Chee, Brant; Ling, Xu; He, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zhai, ChengXiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid decrease in cost of genome sequencing, the classification of gene function is becoming a primary problem. Such classification has been performed by human curators who read biological literature to extract evidence. BeeSpace Navigator is a prototype software for exploratory analysis of gene function using biological literature. The software supports an automatic analogue of the curator process to extract functions, with a simple interface intended for all biologists. Since extraction is done on selected collections that are semantically indexed into conceptual spaces, the curation can be task specific. Biological literature containing references to gene lists from expression experiments can be analyzed to extract concepts that are computational equivalents of a classification such as Gene Ontology, yielding discriminating concepts that differentiate gene mentions from other mentions. The functions of individual genes can be summarized from sentences in biological literature, to produce results resembling a model organism database entry that is automatically computed. Statistical frequency analysis based on literature phrase extraction generates offline semantic indexes to support these gene function services. The website with BeeSpace Navigator is free and open to all; there is no login requirement at www.beespace.illinois.edu for version 4. Materials from the 2010 BeeSpace Software Training Workshop are available at www.beespace.illinois.edu/bstwmaterials.php.

  18. Development and application of an interaction network ontology for literature mining of vaccine-associated gene-gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Özgür, Arzucan; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    Literature mining of gene-gene interactions has been enhanced by ontology-based name classifications. However, in biomedical literature mining, interaction keywords have not been carefully studied and used beyond a collection of keywords. In this study, we report the development of a new Interaction Network Ontology (INO) that classifies >800 interaction keywords and incorporates interaction terms from the PSI Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) and Gene Ontology (GO). Using INO-based literature mining results, a modified Fisher's exact test was established to analyze significantly over- and under-represented enriched gene-gene interaction types within a specific area. Such a strategy was applied to study the vaccine-mediated gene-gene interactions using all PubMed abstracts. The Vaccine Ontology (VO) and INO were used to support the retrieval of vaccine terms and interaction keywords from the literature. INO is aligned with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and imports terms from 10 other existing ontologies. Current INO includes 540 terms. In terms of interaction-related terms, INO imports and aligns PSI-MI and GO interaction terms and includes over 100 newly generated ontology terms with 'INO_' prefix. A new annotation property, 'has literature mining keywords', was generated to allow the listing of different keywords mapping to the interaction types in INO. Using all PubMed documents published as of 12/31/2013, approximately 266,000 vaccine-associated documents were identified, and a total of 6,116 gene-pairs were associated with at least one INO term. Out of 78 INO interaction terms associated with at least five gene-pairs of the vaccine-associated sub-network, 14 terms were significantly over-represented (i.e., more frequently used) and 17 under-represented based on our modified Fisher's exact test. These over-represented and under-represented terms share some common top-level terms but are distinct at the bottom levels of the INO hierarchy. The analysis of these

  19. Identifying Liver Cancer and Its Relations with Diseases, Drugs, and Genes: A Literature-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min

    2016-01-01

    In biomedicine, scientific literature is a valuable source for knowledge discovery. Mining knowledge from textual data has become an ever important task as the volume of scientific literature is growing unprecedentedly. In this paper, we propose a framework for examining a certain disease based on existing information provided by scientific literature. Disease-related entities that include diseases, drugs, and genes are systematically extracted and analyzed using a three-level network-based approach. A paper-entity network and an entity co-occurrence network (macro-level) are explored and used to construct six entity specific networks (meso-level). Important diseases, drugs, and genes as well as salient entity relations (micro-level) are identified from these networks. Results obtained from the literature-based literature mining can serve to assist clinical applications. PMID:27195695

  20. OrgConv: detection of gene conversion using consensus sequences and its application in plant mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ancestry of mitochondria and chloroplasts traces back to separate endosymbioses of once free-living bacteria. The highly reduced genomes of these two organelles therefore contain very distant homologs that only recently have been shown to recombine inside the mitochondrial genome. Detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs was previously impossible due to the lack of suitable computer programs. Recently, I developed a novel method and have, for the first time, discovered recurrent gene conversion between chloroplast mitochondrial genes. The method will further our understanding of plant organellar genome evolution and help identify and remove gene regions with incongruent phylogenetic signals for several genes widely used in plant systematics. Here, I implement such a method that is available in a user friendly web interface. Results OrgConv (Organellar Conversion is a computer package developed for detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologous genes. OrgConv is available in two forms; source code can be installed and run on a Linux platform and a web interface is available on multiple operating systems. The input files of the feature program are two multiple sequence alignments from different organellar compartments in FASTA format. The program compares every examined sequence against the consensus sequence of each sequence alignment rather than exhaustively examining every possible combination. Making use of consensus sequences significantly reduces the number of comparisons and therefore reduces overall computational time, which allows for analysis of very large datasets. Most importantly, with the significantly reduced number of comparisons, the statistical power remains high in the face of correction for multiple tests. Conclusions Both the source code and the web interface of OrgConv are available for free from the OrgConv website http

  1. Multi-label literature classification based on the Gene Ontology graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xinghua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology is a controlled vocabulary for representing knowledge related to genes and proteins in a computable form. The current effort of manually annotating proteins with the Gene Ontology is outpaced by the rate of accumulation of biomedical knowledge in literature, which urges the development of text mining approaches to facilitate the process by automatically extracting the Gene Ontology annotation from literature. The task is usually cast as a text classification problem, and contemporary methods are confronted with unbalanced training data and the difficulties associated with multi-label classification. Results In this research, we investigated the methods of enhancing automatic multi-label classification of biomedical literature by utilizing the structure of the Gene Ontology graph. We have studied three graph-based multi-label classification algorithms, including a novel stochastic algorithm and two top-down hierarchical classification methods for multi-label literature classification. We systematically evaluated and compared these graph-based classification algorithms to a conventional flat multi-label algorithm. The results indicate that, through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods can significantly improve predictions of the Gene Ontology terms implied by the analyzed text. Furthermore, the graph-based multi-label classifiers are capable of suggesting Gene Ontology annotations (to curators that are closely related to the true annotations even if they fail to predict the true ones directly. A software package implementing the studied algorithms is available for the research community. Conclusion Through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods have better potential than the conventional flat multi-label classification approach to facilitate

  2. Ontology-based literature mining of E. coli vaccine-associated gene interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Özgür, Arzucan; He, Yongqun

    2017-03-14

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infections cause various diseases in humans and many animal species. However, with extensive E. coli vaccine research, we are still unable to fully protect ourselves against E. coli infections. To more rational development of effective and safe E. coli vaccine, it is important to better understand E. coli vaccine-associated gene interaction networks. In this study, we first extended the Vaccine Ontology (VO) to semantically represent various E. coli vaccines and genes used in the vaccine development. We also normalized E. coli gene names compiled from the annotations of various E. coli strains using a pan-genome-based annotation strategy. The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) includes a hierarchy of various interaction-related keywords useful for literature mining. Using VO, INO, and normalized E. coli gene names, we applied an ontology-based SciMiner literature mining strategy to mine all PubMed abstracts and retrieve E. coli vaccine-associated E. coli gene interactions. Four centrality metrics (i.e., degree, eigenvector, closeness, and betweenness) were calculated for identifying highly ranked genes and interaction types. Using vaccine-related PubMed abstracts, our study identified 11,350 sentences that contain 88 unique INO interactions types and 1,781 unique E. coli genes. Each sentence contained at least one interaction type and two unique E. coli genes. An E. coli gene interaction network of genes and INO interaction types was created. From this big network, a sub-network consisting of 5 E. coli vaccine genes, including carA, carB, fimH, fepA, and vat, and 62 other E. coli genes, and 25 INO interaction types was identified. While many interaction types represent direct interactions between two indicated genes, our study has also shown that many of these retrieved interaction types are indirect in that the two genes participated in the specified interaction process in a required but indirect process. Our centrality analysis of

  3. Identification of Candidate Genes and Biosynthesis Pathways Related to Fertility Conversion by Wheat KTM3315A Transcriptome Profiling

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    Lingli Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Aegilops kotschyi thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (K-TCMS system may facilitate hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed multiplication and production. The K-TCMS line is completely male sterile during the normal wheat-growing season, whereas its fertility can be restored in a high-temperature environment. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for male sterility/fertility conversion and candidate genes involved with pollen development in K-TCMS, we employed RNA-seq to sequence the transcriptomes of anthers from K-TCMS line KTM3315A during development under sterile and fertile conditions. We identified 16840 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in different stages including15157 known genes (15135 nuclear genes and 22 plasmagenes and 1683 novel genes. Bioinformatics analysis identified possible metabolic pathways involved with fertility based on KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs expressed in fertile and sterile plants. We found that most of the genes encoding key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were significant upregulated in uninucleate, binuclate or trinucleate stage, which both interact with MYB transcription factors, and that link between all play essential roles in fertility conversion. The relevant DEGs were verified by quantitative RT-PCR. Thus, we suggested that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and jasmonate biosynthesis pathways were involved in fertility conversion of K-TCMS wheat. This will provide a new perspective and an effective foundation for the research of molecular mechanisms of fertility conversion of CMS wheat. Fertility conversion mechanism in thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterile/fertile wheat involves the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, jasmonate biosynthesis pathway, and MYB transcription factors.

  4. The Process of Building the Gene Smith Tibetology Literature Center at the Southwest University for Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIXI Lamu; LIU Yong; BENG Jia

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center ( TBRC) founded by Gene Smith , is a non-profit organization which concentrates on collec-ting, sorting, and digitizing Tibetan literature . Most of the documents comes from Gene Smith ’ s personal collection , and the content covers reli-gion, philosophy, medicine, arts, psychology, as-trology, poetics, and history, etc.The digitali-zation of Tibetan literature and putting them on line is the key project of the institute .The purpose of the Ethnic Literature Center in the Southwest Uni-versity for Nationalities ( SWUN) is to rescue and preserve the ancient manuscripts of the ethnic groups , and there is a Tibetan Literature Section in the center .

  5. Gene genealogies indicates abundant gene conversions and independent evolutionary histories of the mating-type chromosomes in the evolutionary history of Neurospora tetrasperma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittle Carrie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The self-fertile filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma contains a large (~7 Mbp and young (mat chromosomes. The objective of the present study is to reveal the evolutionary history, including key genomic events, associated with the various regions of the mat chromosomes among ten strains representing all the nine known species (lineages contained within the N. tetrasperma species complex. Results Comparative analysis of sequence divergence among alleles of 24 mat-linked genes (mat A and mat a indicates that a large region of suppressed recombination exists within the mat chromosome for each of nine lineages of N. tetrasperma sensu latu. The recombinationally suppressed region varies in size and gene composition among lineages, and is flanked on both ends by normally recombining regions. Genealogical analyses among lineages reveals that eight gene conversion events have occurred between homologous mat A and mat a-linked alleles of genes located within the region of restricted recombination during the evolutionary history of N. tetrasperma. Conclusions We conclude that the region of suppressed recombination in the mat chromosomes has likely been subjected to independent contraction and/or expansion during the evolutionary history of the N. tetrasperma species complex. Furthermore, we infer that gene conversion events are likely a common phenomenon within this recombinationally suppressed genomic region. We argue that gene conversions might provide an efficient mechanism of adaptive editing of functional genes, including the removal of deleterious mutations, within the young recombinationally suppressed region of the mat chromosomes.

  6. Automatic assignment of prokaryotic genes to functional categories using literature profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Torrieri

    Full Text Available In the last years, there was an exponential increase in the number of publicly available genomes. Once finished, most genome projects lack financial support to review annotations. A few of these gene annotations are based on a combination of bioinformatics evidence, however, in most cases, annotations are based solely on sequence similarity to a previously known gene, which was most probably annotated in the same way. As a result, a large number of predicted genes remain unassigned to any functional category despite the fact that there is enough evidence in the literature to predict their function. We developed a classifier trained with term-frequency vectors automatically disclosed from text corpora of an ensemble of genes representative of each functional category of the J. Craig Venter Institute Comprehensive Microbial Resource (JCVI-CMR ontology. The classifier achieved up to 84% precision with 68% recall (for confidence≥0.4, F-measure 0.76 (recall and precision equally weighted in an independent set of 2,220 genes, from 13 bacterial species, previously classified by JCVI-CMR into unambiguous categories of its ontology. Finally, the classifier assigned (confidence≥0.7 to functional categories a total of 5,235 out of the ∼24 thousand genes previously in categories "Unknown function" or "Unclassified" for which there is literature in MEDLINE. Two biologists reviewed the literature of 100 of these genes, randomly picket, and assigned them to the same functional categories predicted by the automatic classifier. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to confidently assign genes of a real world repository to functional categories, based exclusively on the automatic profiling of its associated literature. The LitProf--Gene Classifier web server is accessible at: www.cebio.org/litprofGC.

  7. Identifying overrepresented concepts in gene lists from literature: a statistical approach based on Poisson mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Chengxiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genomic studies often identify large gene lists, for example, the genes sharing the same expression patterns. The interpretation of these gene lists is generally achieved by extracting concepts overrepresented in the gene lists. This analysis often depends on manual annotation of genes based on controlled vocabularies, in particular, Gene Ontology (GO. However, the annotation of genes is a labor-intensive process; and the vocabularies are generally incomplete, leaving some important biological domains inadequately covered. Results We propose a statistical method that uses the primary literature, i.e. free-text, as the source to perform overrepresentation analysis. The method is based on a statistical framework of mixture model and addresses the methodological flaws in several existing programs. We implemented this method within a literature mining system, BeeSpace, taking advantage of its analysis environment and added features that facilitate the interactive analysis of gene sets. Through experimentation with several datasets, we showed that our program can effectively summarize the important conceptual themes of large gene sets, even when traditional GO-based analysis does not yield informative results. Conclusions We conclude that the current work will provide biologists with a tool that effectively complements the existing ones for overrepresentation analysis from genomic experiments. Our program, Genelist Analyzer, is freely available at: http://workerbee.igb.uiuc.edu:8080/BeeSpace/Search.jsp

  8. A literature search tool for intelligent extraction of disease-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Yoon; DeLuca, Todd F; Nelson, Tristan H; Wall, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    To extract disorder-associated genes from the scientific literature in PubMed with greater sensitivity for literature-based support than existing methods. We developed a PubMed query to retrieve disorder-related, original research articles. Then we applied a rule-based text-mining algorithm with keyword matching to extract target disorders, genes with significant results, and the type of study described by the article. We compared our resulting candidate disorder genes and supporting references with existing databases. We demonstrated that our candidate gene set covers nearly all genes in manually curated databases, and that the references supporting the disorder-gene link are more extensive and accurate than other general purpose gene-to-disorder association databases. We implemented a novel publication search tool to find target articles, specifically focused on links between disorders and genotypes. Through comparison against gold-standard manually updated gene-disorder databases and comparison with automated databases of similar functionality we show that our tool can search through the entirety of PubMed to extract the main gene findings for human diseases rapidly and accurately.

  9. Identification of fever and vaccine-associated gene interaction networks using ontology-based literature mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Ozgür, Arzucan; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-12-20

    Fever is one of the most common adverse events of vaccines. The detailed mechanisms of fever and vaccine-associated gene interaction networks are not fully understood. In the present study, we employed a genome-wide, Centrality and Ontology-based Network Discovery using Literature data (CONDL) approach to analyse the genes and gene interaction networks associated with fever or vaccine-related fever responses. Over 170,000 fever-related articles from PubMed abstracts and titles were retrieved and analysed at the sentence level using natural language processing techniques to identify genes and vaccines (including 186 Vaccine Ontology terms) as well as their interactions. This resulted in a generic fever network consisting of 403 genes and 577 gene interactions. A vaccine-specific fever sub-network consisting of 29 genes and 28 gene interactions was extracted from articles that are related to both fever and vaccines. In addition, gene-vaccine interactions were identified. Vaccines (including 4 specific vaccine names) were found to directly interact with 26 genes. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed using the genes in the generated interaction networks. Moreover, the genes in these networks were prioritized using network centrality metrics. Making scientific discoveries and generating new hypotheses were possible by using network centrality and gene set enrichment analyses. For example, our study found that the genes in the generic fever network were more enriched in cell death and responses to wounding, and the vaccine sub-network had more gene enrichment in leukocyte activation and phosphorylation regulation. The most central genes in the vaccine-specific fever network are predicted to be highly relevant to vaccine-induced fever, whereas genes that are central only in the generic fever network are likely to be highly relevant to generic fever responses. Interestingly, no Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were found in the gene-vaccine interaction network. Since

  10. Enzymes and microorganisms in food industry waste processing and conversion to useful products: a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroad, P.A.; Wilke, C.R.

    1976-12-01

    Bioconversion of food processing wastes is receiving increased attention with the realization that waste components represent an available and utilizable resource for conversion to useful products. Liquid wastes are characterized as dilute streams containing sugars, starches, proteins, and fats. Solid wastes are generally cellulosic, but may contain other biopolymers. The greatest potential for economic bioconversion is represented by processes to convert cellulose to glucose, glucose to alcohol and protein, starch to invert sugar, and dilute waste streams to methane by anaerobic digestion. Microbial or enzymatic processes to accomplish these conversions are described.

  11. Gene Electrotransfer to Skin; Review of Existing Literature and Clinical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A.; Gehl, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer, which designates the combination of gene transfer and electroporation, is a non-viral means for transfecting genes into cells and tissues. It is a safe and efficient method and reports regarding the use of this technique in a variety of animal models and organs have been...... to now more than 40 papers have been published in which gene electrotransfer was the technique used for gene transfection to skin in vivo. The aim of this review is to summarize which plasmids were injected and the electrical parameters applied. Furthermore an overview of the clinical perspectives...... published in the literature. We find that gene electrotransfer to skin is of particular interest; not only due to the easy accessibility of this organ, which renders both treatment and evaluation feasible, but also the capability of the skin to produce transgenes and elicit immunological responses. Up...

  12. Gene Electrotransfer to Skin; Review of Existing Literature and Clinical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, A.; Gehl, Julie

    2010-01-01

    to now more than 40 papers have been published in which gene electrotransfer was the technique used for gene transfection to skin in vivo. The aim of this review is to summarize which plasmids were injected and the electrical parameters applied. Furthermore an overview of the clinical perspectives......Gene electrotransfer, which designates the combination of gene transfer and electroporation, is a non-viral means for transfecting genes into cells and tissues. It is a safe and efficient method and reports regarding the use of this technique in a variety of animal models and organs have been...... published in the literature. We find that gene electrotransfer to skin is of particular interest; not only due to the easy accessibility of this organ, which renders both treatment and evaluation feasible, but also the capability of the skin to produce transgenes and elicit immunological responses. Up...

  13. Biased gene conversion and GC-content evolution in the coding sequences of reptiles and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2014-12-19

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins.

  14. Role of Double-Strand Break End-Tethering during Gene Conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is critical for maintaining genome stability. Whereas gene conversion (GC-mediated repair is mostly error-free, repair by break-induced replication (BIR is associated with non-reciprocal translocations and loss of heterozygosity. We have previously shown that a Recombination Execution Checkpoint (REC mediates this competition by preventing the BIR pathway from acting on DSBs that can be repaired by GC. Here, we asked if the REC can also determine whether the ends that are engaged in a GC-compatible configuration belong to the same break, since repair involving ends from different breaks will produce potentially deleterious translocations. We report that the kinetics of repair are markedly delayed when the two DSB ends that participate in GC belong to different DSBs (termed Trans compared to the case when both DSB ends come from the same break (Cis. However, repair in Trans still occurs by GC rather than BIR, and the overall efficiency of repair is comparable. Hence, the REC is not sensitive to the "origin" of the DSB ends. When the homologous ends for GC are in Trans, the delay in repair appears to reflect their tethering to sequences on the other side of the DSB that themselves recombine with other genomic locations with which they share sequence homology. These data support previous observations that the two ends of a DSB are usually tethered to each other and that this tethering facilitates both ends encountering the same donor sequence. We also found that the presence of homeologous/repetitive sequences in the vicinity of a DSB can distract the DSB end from finding its bona fide homologous donor, and that inhibition of GC by such homeologous sequences is markedly increased upon deleting Sgs1 but not Msh6.

  15. Role of Double-Strand Break End-Tethering during Gene Conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is critical for maintaining genome stability. Whereas gene conversion (GC-mediated repair is mostly error-free, repair by break-induced replication (BIR is associated with non-reciprocal translocations and loss of heterozygosity. We have previously shown that a Recombination Execution Checkpoint (REC mediates this competition by preventing the BIR pathway from acting on DSBs that can be repaired by GC. Here, we asked if the REC can also determine whether the ends that are engaged in a GC-compatible configuration belong to the same break, since repair involving ends from different breaks will produce potentially deleterious translocations. We report that the kinetics of repair are markedly delayed when the two DSB ends that participate in GC belong to different DSBs (termed Trans compared to the case when both DSB ends come from the same break (Cis. However, repair in Trans still occurs by GC rather than BIR, and the overall efficiency of repair is comparable. Hence, the REC is not sensitive to the "origin" of the DSB ends. When the homologous ends for GC are in Trans, the delay in repair appears to reflect their tethering to sequences on the other side of the DSB that themselves recombine with other genomic locations with which they share sequence homology. These data support previous observations that the two ends of a DSB are usually tethered to each other and that this tethering facilitates both ends encountering the same donor sequence. We also found that the presence of homeologous/repetitive sequences in the vicinity of a DSB can distract the DSB end from finding its bona fide homologous donor, and that inhibition of GC by such homeologous sequences is markedly increased upon deleting Sgs1 but not Msh6.

  16. New insight into genes in association with asthma: literature-based mining and network centrality analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Rui; WANG Lei; WANG Gang

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established.Until now no studies have been undertaken to systemically explore the network of asthma-related genes using an internally developed literature-based discovery approach.This study was to explore asthma-related genes by using literaturebased mining and network centrality analysis.Methods Literature involving asthma-related genes were searched in PubMed from 2001 to 2011.Integration of natural language processing with network centrality analysis was used to identify asthma susceptibility genes and their interaction network.Asthma susceptibility genes were classified into three functional groups by gene ontology (GO) analysis and the key genes were confirmed by establishing asthma-related networks and pathways.Results Three hundred and twenty-six genes related with asthma such as IGHE (IgE),interleukin (IL)-4,5,6,10,13,17A,and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were identified.GO analysis indicated some biological processes (developmental processes,signal transduction,death,etc.),cellular components (non-structural extracellular,plasma membrane and extracellular matrix),and molecular functions (signal transduction activity) that were involved in asthma.Furthermore,22 asthma-related pathways such as the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway,hematopoietic cell lineage,JAK-STAT signaling pathway,chemokine signaling pathway,and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction,and 17 hub genes,such as JAK3,CCR1-3,CCR5-7,CCR8,were found.Conclusions Our study provides a remarkably detailed and comprehensive picture of asthma susceptibility genes and their interacting network.Further identification of these genes and molecular pathways may play a prominent role in establishing rational therapeutic approaches for asthma.

  17. Transduction of Oct6 or Oct9 gene concomitant with Myc family gene induced osteoblast-like phenotypic conversion in normal human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoshiri, N. [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kishida, T. [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Dental Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shirai, T.; Terauchi, R.; Tsuchida, S. [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mori, Y. [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Ejima, A. [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Y. [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Dental Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Arai, Y.; Fujiwara, H. [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T.; Kanamura, N. [Department of Dental Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mazda, O., E-mail: mazda@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kubo, T. [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Introduction: Osteoblasts play essential roles in bone formation and regeneration, while they have low proliferation potential. Recently we established a procedure to directly convert human fibroblasts into osteoblasts (dOBs). Transduction of Runx2 (R), Osterix (X), Oct3/4 (O) and L-myc (L) genes followed by culturing under osteogenic conditions induced normal human fibroblasts to express osteoblast-specific genes and produce calcified bone matrix both in vitro and in vivo Intriguingly, a combination of only two factors, Oct3/4 and L-myc, significantly induced osteoblast-like phenotype in fibroblasts, but the mechanisms underlying the direct conversion remains to be unveiled. Materials and Methods: We examined which Oct family genes and Myc family genes are capable of inducing osteoblast-like phenotypic conversion. Results: As result Oct3/4, Oct6 and Oct9, among other Oct family members, had the capability, while N-myc was the most effective Myc family gene. The Oct9 plus N-myc was the best combination to induce direct conversion of human fibroblasts into osteoblast-like cells. Discussion: The present findings may greatly contribute to the elucidation of the roles of the Oct and Myc proteins in osteoblast direct reprogramming. The results may also lead to establishment of novel regenerative therapy for various bone resorption diseases. - Highlights: • Introducing L-myc in a combination with either Oct3/4, Oct6 or Oct9 enables the conversion of fibroblasts to osteoblasts. • A combination of L-myc with Oct3/4 or Oct9 can induce the cells to a phenotype closer to normal osteoblasts. • N-myc was considered the most appropriate Myc family gene for induction of osteoblast-like phenotype in fibroblasts. • The combination of Oct9 plus N-myc has the strongest capability of inducing osteoblast-like phenotype.

  18. Analysis of crossover breakpoints yields new insights into the nature of the gene conversion events associated with large NF1 deletions mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengesser, Kathrin; Vogt, Julia; Mussotter, Tanja; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Messiaen, Ludwine; Cooper, David N; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2014-02-01

    Large NF1 deletions are mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). An in-depth analysis of gene conversion operating in the breakpoint-flanking regions of large NF1 deletions was performed to investigate whether the rate of discontinuous gene conversion during NAHR with crossover is increased, as has been previously noted in NAHR-mediated rearrangements. All 20 germline type-1 NF1 deletions analyzed were mediated by NAHR associated with continuous gene conversion within the breakpoint-flanking regions. Continuous gene conversion was also observed in 31/32 type-2 NF1 deletions investigated. In contrast to the meiotic type-1 NF1 deletions, type-2 NF1 deletions are predominantly of post-zygotic origin. Our findings therefore imply that the mitotic as well as the meiotic NAHR intermediates of large NF1 deletions are processed by long-patch mismatch repair (MMR), thereby ensuring gene conversion tract continuity instead of the discontinuous gene conversion that is characteristic of short-patch repair. However, the single type-2 NF1 deletion not exhibiting continuous gene conversion was processed without MMR, yielding two different deletion-bearing chromosomes, which were distinguishable in terms of their breakpoint positions. Our findings indicate that MMR failure during NAHR, followed by post-meiotic/mitotic segregation, has the potential to give rise to somatic mosaicism in human genomic rearrangements by generating breakpoint heterogeneity.

  19. Literature mining for the discovery of hidden connections between drugs, genes and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Raoul; van Vugt, Marianne; Smeets, Ruben; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

    2010-09-23

    The scientific literature represents a rich source for retrieval of knowledge on associations between biomedical concepts such as genes, diseases and cellular processes. A commonly used method to establish relationships between biomedical concepts from literature is co-occurrence. Apart from its use in knowledge retrieval, the co-occurrence method is also well-suited to discover new, hidden relationships between biomedical concepts following a simple ABC-principle, in which A and C have no direct relationship, but are connected via shared B-intermediates. In this paper we describe CoPub Discovery, a tool that mines the literature for new relationships between biomedical concepts. Statistical analysis using ROC curves showed that CoPub Discovery performed well over a wide range of settings and keyword thesauri. We subsequently used CoPub Discovery to search for new relationships between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases. Several of the newly found relationships were validated using independent literature sources. In addition, new predicted relationships between compounds and cell proliferation were validated and confirmed experimentally in an in vitro cell proliferation assay. The results show that CoPub Discovery is able to identify novel associations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases that have a high probability of being biologically valid. This makes CoPub Discovery a useful tool to unravel the mechanisms behind disease, to find novel drug targets, or to find novel applications for existing drugs.

  20. Systematic association of genes to phenotypes by genome and literature mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O Korbel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of functional genomics is to unravel the connection between genotype and phenotype. So far no global analysis has attempted to explore those connections in the light of the large phenotypic variability seen in nature. Here, we use an unsupervised, systematic approach for associating genes and phenotypic characteristics that combines literature mining with comparative genome analysis. We first mine the MEDLINE literature database for terms that reflect phenotypic similarities of species. Subsequently we predict the likely genomic determinants: genes specifically present in the respective genomes. In a global analysis involving 92 prokaryotic genomes we retrieve 323 clusters containing a total of 2,700 significant gene-phenotype associations. Some clusters contain mostly known relationships, such as genes involved in motility or plant degradation, often with additional hypothetical proteins associated with those phenotypes. Other clusters comprise unexpected associations; for example, a group of terms related to food and spoilage is linked to genes predicted to be involved in bacterial food poisoning. Among the clusters, we observe an enrichment of pathogenicity-related associations, suggesting that the approach reveals many novel genes likely to play a role in infectious diseases.

  1. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of vaccine-gene interaction networks. As a test case, we have examined vaccines for Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis in humans and animals. Results The VO-based SciMiner (VO-SciMiner) was developed to incorporate a total of 67 Brucella vaccine terms. A set of rules for term expansion of VO terms were learned from training data, consisting of 90 biomedical articles related to Brucella vaccine terms. VO-SciMiner demonstrated high recall (91%) and precision (99%) from testing a separate set of 100 manually selected biomedical articles. VO-SciMiner indexing exhibited superior performance in retrieving Brucella vaccine-related papers over that obtained with MeSH-based PubMed literature search. For example, a VO-SciMiner search of "live attenuated Brucella vaccine" returned 922 hits as of April 20, 2011, while a PubMed search of the same query resulted in only 74 hits. Using the abstracts of 14,947 Brucella-related papers, VO-SciMiner identified 140 Brucella genes associated with Brucella vaccines. These genes included known protective antigens, virulence factors, and genes closely related to Brucella vaccines. These VO-interacting Brucella genes were significantly over-represented in biological functional categories, including metabolite transport and metabolism, replication and repair, cell wall biogenesis, intracellular trafficking and secretion, posttranslational modification, and chaperones. Furthermore, a comprehensive interaction network of Brucella vaccines and genes were

  2. Low-temperature affected LC-PUFA conversion and associated gene transcript level in Nannochloropsis oculata CS-179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Li, Si; Yang, Guanpin

    2011-09-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata CS-179, a marine eukaryotic unicellular microalga, is rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Culture temperature affected cell growth and the composition of LC-PUFAs. At an initial cell density of 1.5 × 106 cell mL-1, the highest growth was observed at 25°C and the cell density reached 3 × 107 cell mL-1 at the beginning of logarithmic phase. The content of LC-PUFAs varied with culture temperature. The highest content of LC-PUFAs (43.96%) and EPA (36.6%) was gained at 20°C. Real-time PCR showed that the abundance of Δ6-desaturase gene transcripts was significantly different among 5 culture temperatures and the highest transcript level (15°C) of Nanoc-D6D took off at cycle 21.45. The gene transcript of C20-elongase gene was higher at lower temperatures (10, 15, and 20°C), and the highest transcript level (20°C) of Nanoc-E took off at cycle 21.18. The highest conversion rate (39.3%) of Δ6-desaturase was also gained at 20°C. But the conversion rate of Nanoc-E was not detected. The higher content of LC-PUFAs was a result of higher gene transcript level and higher enzyme activity. Compared with C20-elongase gene, Δ6-desaturase gene transcript and enzyme activity varied significantly with temperature. It will be useful to study the mechanism of how the content of LC-PUFAs is affected by temperature.

  3. Transcription of a donor enhances its use during double-strand break-induced gene conversion in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkraut, Ezra; Miller, Cheryl A; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2006-04-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates accurate repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) but carries the risk of large-scale genetic change, including loss of heterozygosity, deletions, inversions, and translocations. Nearly one-third of the human genome consists of repetitive sequences, and DSB repair by HR often requires choices among several homologous repair templates, including homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, and linked or unlinked repeats. Donor preference during DSB-induced gene conversion was analyzed by using several HR substrates with three copies of neo targeted to a human chromosome. Repair of I-SceI nuclease-induced DSBs in one neo (the recipient) required a choice between two donor neo genes. When both donors were downstream, there was no significant bias for proximal or distal donors. When donors flanked the recipient, we observed a marked (85%) preference for the downstream donor. Reversing the HR substrate in the chromosome eliminated this preference, indicating that donor choice is influenced by factors extrinsic to the HR substrate. Prior indirect evidence suggested that transcription might increase donor use. We tested this question directly and found that increased transcription of a donor enhances its use during gene conversion. A preference for transcribed donors would minimize the use of nontranscribed (i.e., pseudogene) templates during repair and thus help maintain genome stability.

  4. Evidence for somatic gene conversion and deletion in bipolar disorder, Crohn's disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, type-1 diabetes, and type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2011-02-03

    During gene conversion, genetic information is transferred unidirectionally between highly homologous but non-allelic regions of DNA. While germ-line gene conversion has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some diseases, somatic gene conversion has remained technically difficult to investigate on a large scale. A novel analysis technique is proposed for detecting the signature of somatic gene conversion from SNP microarray data. The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium has gathered SNP microarray data for two control populations and cohorts for bipolar disorder (BD), cardiovascular disease (CAD), Crohn's disease (CD), hypertension (HT), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type-1 diabetes (T1D) and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Using the new analysis technique, the seven disease cohorts are analyzed to identify cohort-specific SNPs at which conversion is predicted. The quality of the predictions is assessed by identifying known disease associations for genes in the homologous duplicons, and comparing the frequency of such associations with background rates. Of 28 disease/locus pairs meeting stringent conditions, 22 show various degrees of disease association, compared with only 8 of 70 in a mock study designed to measure the background association rate (P conversion could be a significant causative factor in each of the seven diseases. The specific genes provide potential insights about disease mechanisms, and are strong candidates for further study.

  5. Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Myriam; Živković, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic Polymorphisms of Mc4R and IGF2 Gene Association with Feed Conversion Efficiency Traits in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-hua Du§, Cui Chen§, Zheng-rong Yuan, Li-min Zhang, Xiao-jie Chen, Yan-hui Wang, Xue Gao, Lu-pei Zhang, Hui-jiang Gao, Jun-ya Li and Shang-zhong Xu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R gene is part of the central melanocortin pathway located in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain in which appetite is regulated. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 gene plays a role in muscle growth, myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Thus, they are candidate genes for feed conversion efficiency (FCE. The study was to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MC4R and IGF2 gene on FCE traits including residual feed intake (RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR and average daily gain (ADG. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the two genes in 118 Simmental bulls by DNA-pool sequencing and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. C1069G locus of MC4R and four SNPs (C2209T, G18587C, A22950T and G26920T of IGF2 were identified in the population. The χ2 test showed that only MC4R-C1069G, IGF2-C2209T and IGF2-G18587C loci fitted with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05. General linear model (GLM was used to analyze differences between genotypes. The results showed that only IGF2-G18587C locus has a significant effect on ADG (P0.05. CC and GG genotypes were the dominant genotypes; individual with CC or GG genotype had a larger ADG than GC (P<0.05.

  7. Role of Ectopic Gene Conversion in the Evolution of a Candida krusei Pleiotropic Drug Resistance Transporter Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamping, Erwin; Zhu, Jing-yi; Niimi, Masakazu; Cannon, Richard David

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplications enable the evolution of novel gene function, but strong positive selection is required to preserve advantageous mutations in a population. This is because frequent ectopic gene conversions (EGCs) between highly similar, tandem-duplicated, sequences, can rapidly remove fate-determining mutations by replacing them with the neighboring parent gene sequences. Unfortunately, the high sequence similarities between tandem-duplicated genes severely hamper empirical studies of this important evolutionary process, because deciphering their correct sequences is challenging. In this study, we employed the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to clone and functionally characterize all 30 alleles of an important pair of tandem-duplicated multidrug efflux pump genes, ABC1 and ABC11, from seven strains of the diploid pathogenic yeast Candida krusei. Discovery and functional characterization of their closest ancestor, C. krusei ABC12, helped elucidate the evolutionary history of the entire gene family. Our data support the proposal that the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters Abc1p and Abc11p have evolved by concerted evolution for ∼134 MY. While >90% of their sequences remained identical, very strong purifying selection protected six short DNA patches encoding just 18 core amino acid (aa) differences in particular trans membrane span (TMS) regions causing two distinct efflux pump functions. A proline-kink change at the bottom of Abc11p TMS3 was possibly fate determining. Our data also enabled the first empirical estimates for key parameters of eukaryotic gene evolution, they provided rare examples of intron loss, and PDR transporter phylogeny confirmed that C. krusei belongs to a novel, yet unnamed, third major Saccharomycotina lineage. PMID:28159755

  8. TSGene 2.0: an updated literature-based knowledgebase for tumor suppressor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Kim, Pora; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Zhao, Junfei; Zhao, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are a major type of gatekeeper genes in the cell growth. A knowledgebase with the systematic collection and curation of TSGs in multiple cancer types is critically important for further studying their biological functions as well as for developing therapeutic strategies. Since its development in 2012, the Tumor Suppressor Gene database (TSGene), has become a popular resource in the cancer research community. Here, we reported the TSGene version 2.0, which has substantial updates of contents (e.g. up-to-date literature and pan-cancer genomic data collection and curation), data types (noncoding RNAs and protein-coding genes) and content accessibility. Specifically, the current TSGene 2.0 contains 1217 human TSGs (1018 protein-coding and 199 non-coding genes) curated from over 9000 articles. Additionally, TSGene 2.0 provides thousands of expression and mutation patterns derived from pan-cancer data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. A new web interface is available at http://bioinfo.mc.vanderbilt.edu/TSGene/. Systematic analyses of 199 non-coding TSGs provide numerous cancer-specific non-coding mutational events for further screening and clinical use. Intriguingly, we identified 49 protein-coding TSGs that were consistently down-regulated in 11 cancer types. In summary, TSGene 2.0, which is the only available database for TSGs, provides the most updated TSGs and their features in pan-cancer.

  9. The Wnt-target gene Dlk-1 is regulated by the Prmt5-associated factor Copr5 during adipogenic conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conception Paul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyl transferase 5 (Prmt5 regulates various differentiation processes, including adipogenesis. Here, we investigated adipogenic conversion in cells and mice in which Copr5, a Prmt5- and histone-binding protein, was genetically invalidated. Compared to control littermates, the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT of Copr5 KO mice was slightly but significantly reduced between 8 and 16 week/old and contained fewer and larger adipocytes. Moreover, the adipogenic conversion of Copr5 KO embryoid bodies (EB and of primary embryo fibroblasts (Mefs was markedly delayed. Differential transcriptomic analysis identified Copr5 as a negative regulator of the Dlk-1 gene, a Wnt target gene involved in the control of adipocyte progenitors cell fate. Dlk-1 expression was upregulated in Copr5 KO Mefs and the Vascular Stromal Fraction (VSF of Copr5 KO WAT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP show that the ablation of Copr5 has impaired both the recruitment of Prmt5 and β-catenin at the Dlk-1 promoter. Overall, our data suggest that Copr5 is involved in the transcriptional control exerted by the Wnt pathway on early steps of adipogenesis.

  10. A heuristic Bayesian method for segmenting DNA sequence alignments and detecting evidence for recombination and gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Anna; Husmeier, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    We propose a heuristic approach to the detection of evidence for recombination and gene conversion in multiple DNA sequence alignments. The proposed method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a sliding window is moved along the DNA sequence alignment, and phylogenetic trees are sampled from the conditional posterior distribution with MCMC. To reduce the noise intrinsic to inference from the limited amount of data available in the typically short sliding window, a clustering algorithm based on the Robinson-Foulds distance is applied to the trees thus sampled, and the posterior distribution over tree clusters is obtained for each window position. While changes in this posterior distribution are indicative of recombination or gene conversion events, it is difficult to decide when such a change is statistically significant. This problem is addressed in the second stage of the proposed algorithm, where the distributions obtained in the first stage are post-processed with a Bayesian hidden Markov model (HMM). The emission states of the HMM are associated with posterior distributions over phylogenetic tree topology clusters. The hidden states of the HMM indicate putative recombinant segments. Inference is done in a Bayesian sense, sampling parameters from the posterior distribution with MCMC. Of particular interest is the determination of the number of hidden states as an indication of the number of putative recombinant regions. To this end, we apply reversible jump MCMC, and sample the number of hidden states from the respective posterior distribution.

  11. Coalescent Times and Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Species with Facultative Sex: Effects of Gene Conversion, Population Structure, and Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, Matthew; Wright, Stephen I; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2016-01-01

    Many diploid organisms undergo facultative sexual reproduction. However, little is currently known concerning the distribution of neutral genetic variation among facultative sexual organisms except in very simple cases. Understanding this distribution is important when making inferences about rates of sexual reproduction, effective population size, and demographic history. Here we extend coalescent theory in diploids with facultative sex to consider gene conversion, selfing, population subdivision, and temporal and spatial heterogeneity in rates of sex. In addition to analytical results for two-sample coalescent times, we outline a coalescent algorithm that accommodates the complexities arising from partial sex; this algorithm can be used to generate multisample coalescent distributions. A key result is that when sex is rare, gene conversion becomes a significant force in reducing diversity within individuals. This can reduce genomic signatures of infrequent sex (i.e., elevated within-individual allelic sequence divergence) or entirely reverse the predicted patterns. These models offer improved methods for assessing null patterns of molecular variation in facultative sexual organisms.

  12. Homology Requirements and Competition between Gene Conversion and Break-Induced Replication during Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anuja; Beach, Annette; Haber, James E

    2017-02-02

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type switching is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) at MATa, leaving one cut end perfectly homologous to the HMLα donor, while the second end must be processed to remove a non-homologous tail before completing repair by gene conversion (GC). When homology at the matched end is ≤150 bp, efficient repair depends on the recombination enhancer, which tethers HMLα near the DSB. Thus, homology shorter than an apparent minimum efficient processing segment can be rescued by tethering the donor near the break. When homology at the second end is ≤150 bp, second-end capture becomes inefficient and repair shifts from GC to break-induced replication (BIR). But when pol32 or pif1 mutants block BIR, GC increases 3-fold, indicating that the steps blocked by these mutations are reversible. With short second-end homology, absence of the RecQ helicase Sgs1 promotes gene conversion, whereas deletion of the FANCM-related Mph1 helicase promotes BIR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of the Gene-Environment Interaction Literature in Cancer: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Naoko I; Ghazarian, Armen A; Pimentel, Camilla B; Schully, Sheri D; Ellison, Gary L; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Mechanic, Leah E

    2016-07-01

    Risk of cancer is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Although the study of gene-environment interactions (G×E) has been an active area of research, little is reported about the known findings in the literature. To examine the state of the science in G×E research in cancer, we performed a systematic review of published literature using gene-environment or pharmacogenomic flags from two curated databases of genetic association studies, the Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) literature finder and Cancer Genome-Wide Association and Meta Analyses Database (CancerGAMAdb), from January 1, 2001, to January 31, 2011. A supplemental search using HuGE was conducted for articles published from February 1, 2011, to April 11, 2013. A 25% sample of the supplemental publications was reviewed. A total of 3,019 articles were identified in the original search. From these articles, 243 articles were determined to be relevant based on inclusion criteria (more than 3,500 interactions). From the supplemental search (1,400 articles identified), 29 additional relevant articles (1,370 interactions) were included. The majority of publications in both searches examined G×E in colon, rectal, or colorectal; breast; or lung cancer. Specific interactions examined most frequently included environmental factors categorized as energy balance (e.g., body mass index, diet), exogenous (e.g., oral contraceptives) and endogenous hormones (e.g., menopausal status), chemical environment (e.g., grilled meats), and lifestyle (e.g., smoking, alcohol intake). In both searches, the majority of interactions examined were using loci from candidate genes studies and none of the studies were genome-wide interaction studies (GEWIS). The most commonly reported measure was the interaction P-value, of which a sizable number of P-values were considered statistically significant (i.e., article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. GenCLiP: a software program for clustering gene lists by literature profiling and constructing gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi-Bo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical researchers often want to explore pathogenesis and pathways regulated by abnormally expressed genes, such as those identified by microarray analyses. Literature mining is an important way to assist in this task. Many literature mining tools are now available. However, few of them allows the user to make manual adjustments to zero in on what he/she wants to know in particular. Results We present our software program, GenCLiP (Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, which is based on the methods presented by Chaussabel and Sher (Genome Biol 2002, 3(10:RESEARCH0055 that search gene lists to identify functional clusters of genes based on up-to-date literature profiling. Four features were added to this previously described method: the ability to 1 manually curate keywords extracted from the literature, 2 search genes and gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords, 3 compare analyzed gene results with negative and positive controls generated by GenCLiP, and 4 calculate probabilities that the resulting genes and gene networks are randomly related. In this paper, we show with a set of differentially expressed genes between keloids and normal control, how implementation of functions in GenCLiP successfully identified keywords related to the pathogenesis of keloids and unknown gene pathways involved in the pathogenesis of keloids. Conclusion With regard to the identification of disease-susceptibility genes, GenCLiP allows one to quickly acquire a primary pathogenesis profile and identify pathways involving abnormally expressed genes not previously associated with the disease.

  15. Molecular analysis of the androgen receptor gene in Kennedy's disease. Report of two families and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbroso, S; Lobaccaro, J M; Vial, C; Sassolas, G; Ollagnon, B; Belon, C; Pouget, J; Sultan, C

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a molecular analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two families with suspected Kennedy's disease (spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, SBMA) with the aim of making a firm diagnosis of the disease. The 2 patients studied were sporadic cases. Both presented clinical signs compatible with the diagnosis of SBMA: limb and facial muscular weakness of adult onset progressing toward muscular atrophy. Clinical signs of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome usually observed in SBMA were present only in patient 2. Enzymatic amplification of the CAG repeat region of exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was performed on genomic DNA. PCR products were submitted to agarose or acrylamide electrophoresis for size evaluation. Precise determination of the CAG number was performed by direct sequencing of purified amplification products. Androgen receptor gene analysis was also performed in 2 sisters of patient 1 and in the mother, sisters and daughter of patient 2. Androgen receptor-binding activity was also determined on cultured genital skin fibroblasts of patient 1. Analysis of PCR products showed in both patients a single band that was much larger in size than the control. The expansion of the CAG repeat number was confirmed by direct sequencing: the exact number of CAG was 47 in patient 1 and 42 in patient 2 (n = 12-32). The 2 studied sisters of patient 1 did not present the abnormal fragment, demonstrating they are not carriers for the disease. Conversely, the mother, sisters and daughter of patient 2 presented both normal and mutated alleles. The migration of the labelled PCR products on a sequencing gel revealed a meiotic instability of expanded CAG repeat in family 2. Moreover, patient 1 had a decreased androgen-binding capacity on cultured genital skin fibroblasts. In both families, analysis of the androgen receptor gene permitted us to diagnose SBMA in the patients and to establish the carrier status in siblings. These results correspond to the

  16. Interleukin gene polymorphisms and breast cancer: a case control study and systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross SS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukins and cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs identified in cytokine genes are thought to influence the expression or function of these proteins and many have been evaluated for their role in inflammatory disease and cancer predisposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate any role of specific SNPs in the interleukin genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6 and IL10 in predisposition to breast cancer susceptibility and severity. Methods Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in key cytokine genes were genotyped in breast cancer patients and in appropriate healthy volunteers who were similar in age, race and sex. Genotyping was performed using a high throughput allelic discrimination method. Data on clinico-pathological details and survival were collected. A systematic review of Medline English literature was done to retrieve previous studies of these polymorphisms in breast cancer. Results None of the polymorphisms studied showed any overall predisposition to breast cancer susceptibility, severity or to time to death or occurrence of distant metastases. The results of the systematic review are summarised. Conclusion Polymorphisms within key interleukin genes (IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6 and IL10 do not appear to play a significant overall role in breast cancer susceptibility or severity.

  17. Literature review, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing......Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing...

  18. Gene conversion-like events cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F.; Kimura, A.; Iwanaga, T.; Shimozawa, K.; Yata, J.; Sasazuki,T.

    1987-11-01

    Genomic DNAs from twelve Japanese patients with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization. A 3.7-kilobase (kb) Taq I and a 1.7-kb Pvu II restriction endonuclease fragment that correspond to a 21-OHase B gene were absent from the DNA of two unrelated patients with the salt-wasting form of the disease. However, a 10.5-kb Bgl II fragment corresponding to the region encompassing the 21-OHase B gene was still present in these two patients. The genes encoding 21-OHase were cloned from one of these two patients, who was homozygous by descent for HLA-A26;B39;C4A3;C4B1;DR4. Restriction endonuclease mapping as well as partial nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed that the 21-OHase B gene of the patient has been converted to the pseudogene, 21-OHase A, as far as the critical 0.5-kb sequence was concerned. Thus, the defect was due to both chromosomes each carrying two copies of 21-OHase A pseudogene and lacking functional 21-OHase B gene.

  19. Severe case and literature review of primary erythromelalgia: novel SCN9A gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeik, Nedaa; Rooke, Thom W; Davis, Mark Denis P; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Kalsi, Henna; Kurth, Ingo; Richardson, Randal C

    2012-02-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by intermittent heat, redness, swelling and pain more commonly affecting the lower extremities. Symptoms are mostly aggravated by warmth and are eased by a cold temperature. In some cases, symptoms can be very severe and disabling. Erythromelalgia can be classified as either familial or sporadic, with the familial form inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently, there has been a lot of progress in studying Na(v)1.7 sodium channels (expressed mostly in the sympathetic and nociceptive small-diameter sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion) and different mutations affecting the encoding SCN9A gene that leads to channelopathies responsible for some disorders, including primary erythromelalgia. We present a severe case of progressive primary erythromelalgia caused by a new de novo heterozygous missense mutation (c.2623C>G) of the SCN9A gene which substitutes glutamine 875 by glutamic acid (p.Q875E). To our knowledge, this mutation has not been previously reported in the literature. We also provided a short literature review about erythromelalgia and Na(v) sodium channelopathies.

  20. Increased conversion of phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol phosphate in Dictyostelium cells expressing a mutated ras gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaay, Jeroen van der; Draijer, Richard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells that overexpress a ras gene with a Gly12 → Thr12 mutation (Dd-ras-Thr12) have an altered phenotype. These cells were labeled with [3H]inositol and the incorporation of radioactivity into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] was analyzed and found to be higher th

  1. Conversion of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum magna to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist by gene disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Ranson, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hygromycin-resistant transformants of the cucurbit pathogen Colletotrichum magna (teleomorph: Glomerella magna) were generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. A rapid pathogenicity assay involving watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was developed and 14,400 REMI transformants were screened and assessed for their ability to cause disease, colonize plant tissues, and confer disease resistance against wild-type C. magna. A total of 176 nonpathogenic REMI mutants capable of colonizing cucurbit plants were isolated and assigned to three groups based on their ability to confer disease resistance: phenotype A, 80 to 100% disease protection; phenotype B, 10 to 65% disease protection; and phenotype C, 0 to 4% disease protection. Molecular and genetic analyses of one REMI mutant (R1) indicated that the nonpathogenic phenotype A resulted from a single-site integration. R1 showed a 1:1 segregation of hygromycin resistance and nonpathogenicity and all hygromycin-resistant progeny were nonpathogenic. The integrated vector and 5.5 kb of flanking fungal genomic DNA were isolated from R1 and designated pGMR1. To verify that pGMR1 contained pathogenicity gene sequences, a wild-type isolate of C. magna was transformed with pGMR1 to induce gene disruptions by homologous integration. Approximately 47% of the pGMR1 transformants expressed phenotype A, indicating homologous integration and gene disruption.

  2. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-12-01

    in a bed of needed and should be placed in more zirconia chips to heat a molybdenum emitter extensive attack rate experiments to to 1500*C. The...of America, Semiconductor and Materials Division, Somerville, N.J. S374 hII(IC-CAPACITY MAGNESIUM BATTERIES, Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Corona , Calif

  3. Todai Scientific Information Retrieval (TSIR-1) System. II. Generation of a Scientific Literature Data Base in a Center-Oriented Format by a Tape-to-Tape Conversion of CAS SDF Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Yammoto, Takeo

    1972-01-01

    Conversion of the Chemical Abstract Service scientific literature data base from Standard Distribution Format to a center-oriented file format, STF, is described. A tape file format is described in which variable length logical records, possibly longer than the blocksize, may be stored safely. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  4. Drug repurposing by integrated literature mining and drug-gene-disease triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Guo, Jiong; Winnenburg, Rainer; Baumbach, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Drug design is expensive, time-consuming and becoming increasingly complicated. Computational approaches for inferring potentially new purposes of existing drugs, referred to as drug repositioning, play an increasingly important part in current pharmaceutical studies. Here, we first summarize recent developments in computational drug repositioning and introduce the utilized data sources. Afterwards, we introduce a new data fusion model based on n-cluster editing as a novel multi-source triangulation strategy, which was further combined with semantic literature mining. Our evaluation suggests that utilizing drug-gene-disease triangulation coupled to sophisticated text analysis is a robust approach for identifying new drug candidates for repurposing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interlocus gene conversion explains at least 2.7% of single nucleotide variants in human segmental duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2015-06-16

    Interlocus gene conversion (IGC) is a recombination-based mechanism that results in the unidirectional transfer of short stretches of sequence between paralogous loci. Although IGC is a well-established mechanism of human disease, the extent to which this mutagenic process has shaped overall patterns of segregating variation in multi-copy regions of the human genome remains unknown. One expected manifestation of IGC in population genomic data is the presence of one-to-one paralogous SNPs that segregate identical alleles. Here, I use SNP genotype calls from the low-coverage phase 3 release of the 1000 Genomes Project to identify 15,790 parallel, shared SNPs in duplicated regions of the human genome. My approach for identifying these sites accounts for the potential redundancy of short read mapping in multi-copy genomic regions, thereby effectively eliminating false positive SNP calls arising from paralogous sequence variation. I demonstrate that independent mutation events to identical nucleotides at paralogous sites are not a significant source of shared polymorphisms in the human genome, consistent with the interpretation that these sites are the outcome of historical IGC events. These putative signals of IGC are enriched in genomic contexts previously associated with non-allelic homologous recombination, including clear signals in gene families that form tandem intra-chromosomal clusters. Taken together, my analyses implicate IGC, not point mutation, as the mechanism generating at least 2.7% of single nucleotide variants in duplicated regions of the human genome.

  6. Reporter system for the detection of in vivo gene conversion: changing colors from blue to green using GFP variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jeffrey R; Alderson, Jon; Laible, Goetz; Petters, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    We have devised a system for the study of in vivo gene correction based on the detection of color variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The intensity and spectra of the fluorescence emitted by the blue (BFP) and red-shifted (EGFP) variants of GFP differ from each other. We modified one nucleotide from an EGFP expression vector that we predicted would yield a blue variant (TAC-CAC, Tyr(66)-His(66)). Cells that were either transiently or stably transfected with the reporter system were used to test the functionality and feasibility of the detection of in vivo gene correction. A thio-protected single-stranded oligonucleotide designed to convert the genotype of the blue variant to that of the EGFP variant by the correction of a single base pair was delivered to the reporter cells using a variety of methodologies and strategies.Conversion events were easily observed using fluorescent microscopy because of the enhanced emission intensity and different spectra of the EGFP variant.

  7. CvManGO, a method for leveraging computational predictions to improve literature-based Gene Ontology annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie; Costanzo, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Rama; Cherry, J Michael; Hong, Eurie L

    2012-01-01

    The set of annotations at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) that classifies the cellular function of S. cerevisiae gene products using Gene Ontology (GO) terms has become an important resource for facilitating experimental analysis. In addition to capturing and summarizing experimental results, the structured nature of GO annotations allows for functional comparison across organisms as well as propagation of functional predictions between related gene products. Due to their relevance to many areas of research, ensuring the accuracy and quality of these annotations is a priority at SGD. GO annotations are assigned either manually, by biocurators extracting experimental evidence from the scientific literature, or through automated methods that leverage computational algorithms to predict functional information. Here, we discuss the relationship between literature-based and computationally predicted GO annotations in SGD and extend a strategy whereby comparison of these two types of annotation identifies genes whose annotations need review. Our method, CvManGO (Computational versus Manual GO annotations), pairs literature-based GO annotations with computational GO predictions and evaluates the relationship of the two terms within GO, looking for instances of discrepancy. We found that this method will identify genes that require annotation updates, taking an important step towards finding ways to prioritize literature review. Additionally, we explored factors that may influence the effectiveness of CvManGO in identifying relevant gene targets to find in particular those genes that are missing literature-supported annotations, but our survey found that there are no immediately identifiable criteria by which one could enrich for these under-annotated genes. Finally, we discuss possible ways to improve this strategy, and the applicability of this method to other projects that use the GO for curation. DATABASE URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org.

  8. Mutations of SCN4A gene cause different diseases: 2 case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Huang, Xiao-jun; Luan, Xing-hua; Zhou, Hai-yan; Wang, Tian; Wang, Jing-yi; Chen, Sheng-di; Tang, Hui-dong; Cao, Li

    2015-01-01

    SCN4A encodes the Nav1.4 channel and mutations in SCN4A lead to different ionic channelopathies. In this study, one sporadic individual of periodic paralysis, one paramyotonia family and 200 normal healthy controls are enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, followed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of candidate genes, including SCN4A and CACNA1S. As a result, heterozygous mutations c.2024G>A (R675Q) and c.1333G>A (V445M) of gene SCN4A were identified in the hypokalemic periodic paralysis patient and the paramyotonia congenita family respectively. Both mutations were not detected in healthy controls. Compared with reported cases, patients with mutation R675Q usually do not present hypokalemic periodic paralysis but hyperkalemic or normokalemic periodic paralysis. The mutation V445M was first reported in Chinese patients with nondystrophic myotonias. In addition, we carried out literature review by summarizing clinical features of the 2 mutations and establish the genotype-phenotype correlations to provide guidance for diagnosis.

  9. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamurias, Andre; Clarke, Luka A; Couto, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel.

  10. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Luka A.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel. PMID:28263989

  11. Gene array analysis of neural crest cells identifies transcription factors necessary for direct conversion of embryonic fibroblasts into neural crest cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Motohashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NC cells are multipotent cells that emerge from the edge of the neural folds and migrate throughout the developing embryo. Although the gene regulatory network for generation of NC cells has been elucidated in detail, it has not been revealed which of the factors in the network are pivotal to directing NC identity. In this study we analyzed the gene expression profile of a pure NC subpopulation isolated from Sox10-IRES-Venus mice and investigated whether these genes played a key role in the direct conversion of Sox10-IRES-Venus mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs into NC cells. The comparative molecular profiles of NC cells and neural tube cells in 9.5-day embryos revealed genes including transcription factors selectively expressed in developing trunk NC cells. Among 25 NC cell-specific transcription factor genes tested, SOX10 and SOX9 were capable of converting MEFs into SOX10-positive (SOX10+ cells. The SOX10+ cells were then shown to differentiate into neurons, glial cells, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes and osteoblasts. These SOX10+ cells also showed limited self-renewal ability, suggesting that SOX10 and SOX9 directly converted MEFs into NC cells. Conversely, the remaining transcription factors, including well-known NC cell specifiers, were unable to convert MEFs into SOX10+ NC cells. These results suggest that SOX10 and SOX9 are the key factors necessary for the direct conversion of MEFs into NC cells.

  12. Two genes, rif15 and rif16, of the rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Amycolatopsis mediterranei likely encode a transketolase and a P450 monooxygenase,respectively, both essential for the conversion of rifamycin SV into B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yuan; Wei Zhao; Yi Zhong; Jin Wang; Zhongiun Qin; Xiaoming Ding; Guo-Ping Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Amycolatopsis mediterranei produces an important antibiotic rifamycin,the biosynthesis of which involves many unusual modifications.Previous work suggested a putative P450 enzyme encoded by rif16 within the rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster (rif) was required for the conversion of the intermediate rifamycin SV into the end product rifamycin B.In this study,we genetically proved that a putative transketolase encoded by rif15 is another essential enzyme for this conversion.Expression of merely rif15 and rif16 in a rif cluster null mutant ofA.mediterranei U32 was able to convert rifamycin SV into B.However,this Rifl5- and Rifl6-mediated conversion was only detected in intact cells of A.meidterranei,but not in Streptomyce coelicolor or Mycobacterium smegmatis,suggesting that yet-characterized gene(s) in A.mediterranei other than those encoded by the rif cluster should be involved in this process.

  13. Recombination Rate Variation Modulates Gene Sequence Evolution Mainly via GC-Biased Gene Conversion, Not Hill-Robertson Interference, in an Avian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Paulina; Mugal, Carina F; Nater, Alexander; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) is often used to measure the strength of natural selection. However, ω may be influenced by linkage among different targets of selection, that is, Hill-Robertson interference (HRI), which reduces the efficacy of selection. Recombination modulates the extent of HRI but may also affect ω by means of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a process leading to a preferential fixation of G:C ("strong," S) over A:T ("weak," W) alleles. As HRI and gBGC can have opposing effects on ω, it is essential to understand their relative impact to make proper inferences of ω. We used a model that separately estimated S-to-S, S-to-W, W-to-S, and W-to-W substitution rates in 8,423 avian genes in the Ficedula flycatcher lineage. We found that the W-to-S substitution rate was positively, and the S-to-W rate negatively, correlated with recombination rate, in accordance with gBGC but not predicted by HRI. The W-to-S rate further showed the strongest impact on both dN and dS. However, since the effects were stronger at 4-fold than at 0-fold degenerated sites, likely because the GC content of these sites is farther away from its equilibrium, ω slightly decreases with increasing recombination rate, which could falsely be interpreted as a consequence of HRI. We corroborated this hypothesis analytically and demonstrate that under particular conditions, ω can decrease with increasing recombination rate. Analyses of the site-frequency spectrum showed that W-to-S mutations were skewed toward high, and S-to-W mutations toward low, frequencies, consistent with a prevalent gBGC-driven fixation bias.

  14. A model-based analysis of GC-biased gene conversion in the human and chimpanzee genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Capra

    Full Text Available GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC is a recombination-associated process that favors the fixation of G/C alleles over A/T alleles. In mammals, gBGC is hypothesized to contribute to variation in GC content, rapidly evolving sequences, and the fixation of deleterious mutations, but its prevalence and general functional consequences remain poorly understood. gBGC is difficult to incorporate into models of molecular evolution and so far has primarily been studied using summary statistics from genomic comparisons. Here, we introduce a new probabilistic model that captures the joint effects of natural selection and gBGC on nucleotide substitution patterns, while allowing for correlations along the genome in these effects. We implemented our model in a computer program, called phastBias, that can accurately detect gBGC tracts about 1 kilobase or longer in simulated sequence alignments. When applied to real primate genome sequences, phastBias predicts gBGC tracts that cover roughly 0.3% of the human and chimpanzee genomes and account for 1.2% of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences. These tracts fall in clusters, particularly in subtelomeric regions; they are enriched for recombination hotspots and fast-evolving sequences; and they display an ongoing fixation preference for G and C alleles. They are also significantly enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms, suggesting that they contribute to the fixation of deleterious alleles. The gBGC tracts provide a unique window into historical recombination processes along the human and chimpanzee lineages. They supply additional evidence of long-term conservation of megabase-scale recombination rates accompanied by rapid turnover of hotspots. Together, these findings shed new light on the evolutionary, functional, and disease implications of gBGC. The phastBias program and our predicted tracts are freely available.

  15. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenifumbo, Jill C; Zhou, Qian; Benowitz, Neal L; Sellers, Edward M; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2010-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is a human enzyme best known for metabolizing nicotine and nitrosamine precarcinogens. Our aim was to discover and characterize new CYP2A6 alleles in a population of Black African descent. We used cloning, sequencing and genotyping of genomic DNA to discover new variants, and in vivo nicotine pharmacokinetic phenotyping to characterize the functional effect of the new alleles. Four new CYP2A6 alleles, CYP2A6*4G, *4H, *1B4 and *1L, were discovered and characterized in a population of Black African descent. The two new deletion alleles, CYP2A6*4G and *4H, are distinguished by different crossover junctions at 7.9 and 7.8 kb downstream of the CYP2A6 +1ATG start site, respectively; their combined allele frequency is 1.6%. The new gene conversion alleles, CYP2A6*1B4 and CYP2A6*1L, contain 27 and 10 bp of CYP2A7 sequence in the CYP2A6 3 -flanking region, respectively; their combined allele frequency is 7.3%. CYP2A6*4 appears to associate with lower CYP2A6 activity in vivo, while CYP2A6*1L does not; however, CYP2A6*1L confounds genotyping assays that use the 2A6R3 and 2A6R4 primers. As new variants are discovered, the relationships between CYP2A6 genotype, nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviors and tobacco-related cancer risk will be further clarified.

  16. Conversion to Sirolimus Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Nephropathy in the Rat: Focus on Serum, Urine, Gene, and Protein Renal Expression Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sereno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols of conversion from cyclosporin A (CsA to sirolimus (SRL have been widely used in immunotherapy after transplantation to prevent CsA-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these protocols remain nuclear. This study aimed to identify the molecular pathways and putative biomarkers of CsA-to-SRL conversion in a rat model. Four animal groups (n=6 were tested during 9 weeks: control, CsA, SRL, and conversion (CsA for 3 weeks followed by SRL for 6 weeks. Classical and emergent serum, urinary, and kidney tissue (gene and protein expression markers were assessed. Renal lesions were analyzed in hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson’s trichrome stains. SRL-treated rats presented proteinuria and NGAL (serum and urinary as the best markers of renal impairment. Short CsA treatment presented slight or even absent kidney lesions and TGF-β, NF-κβ, mTOR, PCNA, TP53, KIM-1, and CTGF as relevant gene and protein changes. Prolonged CsA exposure aggravated renal damage, without clear changes on the traditional markers, but with changes in serums TGF-β and IL-7, TBARs clearance, and kidney TGF-β and mTOR. Conversion to SRL prevented CsA-induced renal damage evolution (absent/mild grade lesions, while NGAL (serum versus urine seems to be a feasible biomarker of CsA replacement to SRL.

  17. Conversion to Sirolimus Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Nephropathy in the Rat: Focus on Serum, Urine, Gene, and Protein Renal Expression Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, José; Nunes, Sara; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, João; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    Protocols of conversion from cyclosporin A (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) have been widely used in immunotherapy after transplantation to prevent CsA-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these protocols remain nuclear. This study aimed to identify the molecular pathways and putative biomarkers of CsA-to-SRL conversion in a rat model. Four animal groups (n = 6) were tested during 9 weeks: control, CsA, SRL, and conversion (CsA for 3 weeks followed by SRL for 6 weeks). Classical and emergent serum, urinary, and kidney tissue (gene and protein expression) markers were assessed. Renal lesions were analyzed in hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome stains. SRL-treated rats presented proteinuria and NGAL (serum and urinary) as the best markers of renal impairment. Short CsA treatment presented slight or even absent kidney lesions and TGF-β, NF-κ β, mTOR, PCNA, TP53, KIM-1, and CTGF as relevant gene and protein changes. Prolonged CsA exposure aggravated renal damage, without clear changes on the traditional markers, but with changes in serums TGF-β and IL-7, TBARs clearance, and kidney TGF-β and mTOR. Conversion to SRL prevented CsA-induced renal damage evolution (absent/mild grade lesions), while NGAL (serum versus urine) seems to be a feasible biomarker of CsA replacement to SRL. PMID:24971338

  18. miRSel: Automated extraction of associations between microRNAs and genes from the biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer Ralf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs have been discovered as important regulators of gene expression. To identify the target genes of microRNAs, several databases and prediction algorithms have been developed. Only few experimentally confirmed microRNA targets are available in databases. Many of the microRNA targets stored in databases were derived from large-scale experiments that are considered not very reliable. We propose to use text mining of publication abstracts for extracting microRNA-gene associations including microRNA-target relations to complement current repositories. Results The microRNA-gene association database miRSel combines text-mining results with existing databases and computational predictions. Text mining enables the reliable extraction of microRNA, gene and protein occurrences as well as their relationships from texts. Thereby, we increased the number of human, mouse and rat miRNA-gene associations by at least three-fold as compared to e.g. TarBase, a resource for miRNA-gene associations. Conclusions Our database miRSel offers the currently largest collection of literature derived miRNA-gene associations. Comprehensive collections of miRNA-gene associations are important for the development of miRNA target prediction tools and the analysis of regulatory networks. miRSel is updated daily and can be queried using a web-based interface via microRNA identifiers, gene and protein names, PubMed queries as well as gene ontology (GO terms. miRSel is freely available online at http://services.bio.ifi.lmu.de/mirsel.

  19. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  20. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  1. CoCiter: an efficient tool to infer gene function by assessing the significance of literature co-citation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Qiao

    Full Text Available A routine approach to inferring functions for a gene set is by using function enrichment analysis based on GO, KEGG or other curated terms and pathways. However, such analysis requires the existence of overlapping genes between the query gene set and those annotated by GO/KEGG. Furthermore, GO/KEGG databases only maintain a very restricted vocabulary. Here, we have developed a tool called "CoCiter" based on literature co-citations to address the limitations in conventional function enrichment analysis. Co-citation analysis is widely used in ranking articles and predicting protein-protein interactions (PPIs. Our algorithm can further assess the co-citation significance of a gene set with any other user-defined gene sets, or with free terms. We show that compared with the traditional approaches, CoCiter is a more accurate and flexible function enrichment analysis method. CoCiter is freely available at www.picb.ac.cn/hanlab/cociter/.

  2. Structuring osteosarcoma knowledge: an osteosarcoma-gene association database based on literature mining and manual annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Kathrin; Smida, Jan; Nathrath, Michaela; Maugg, Doris; Baumhoer, Daniel; Neumann, Anna; Korsching, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer exhibiting high genomic instability. This genomic instability affects multiple genes and microRNAs to a varying extent depending on patient and tumor subtype. Massive research is ongoing to identify genes including their gene products and microRNAs that correlate with disease progression and might be used as biomarkers for OS. However, the genomic complexity hampers the identification of reliable biomarkers. Up to now, clinico-pathological factors are the key determinants to guide prognosis and therapeutic treatments. Each day, new studies about OS are published and complicate the acquisition of information to support biomarker discovery and therapeutic improvements. Thus, it is necessary to provide a structured and annotated view on the current OS knowledge that is quick and easily accessible to researchers of the field. Therefore, we developed a publicly available database and Web interface that serves as resource for OS-associated genes and microRNAs. Genes and microRNAs were collected using an automated dictionary-based gene recognition procedure followed by manual review and annotation by experts of the field. In total, 911 genes and 81 microRNAs related to 1331 PubMed abstracts were collected (last update: 29 October 2013). Users can evaluate genes and microRNAs according to their potential prognostic and therapeutic impact, the experimental procedures, the sample types, the biological contexts and microRNA target gene interactions. Additionally, a pathway enrichment analysis of the collected genes highlights different aspects of OS progression. OS requires pathways commonly deregulated in cancer but also features OS-specific alterations like deregulated osteoclast differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first effort of an OS database containing manual reviewed and annotated up-to-date OS knowledge. It might be a useful resource especially for the bone tumor research community, as specific

  3. Structuring osteosarcoma knowledge: an osteosarcoma-gene association database based on literature mining and manual annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Kathrin; Smida, Jan; Nathrath, Michaela; Maugg, Doris; Baumhoer, Daniel; Neumann, Anna; Korsching, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer exhibiting high genomic instability. This genomic instability affects multiple genes and microRNAs to a varying extent depending on patient and tumor subtype. Massive research is ongoing to identify genes including their gene products and microRNAs that correlate with disease progression and might be used as biomarkers for OS. However, the genomic complexity hampers the identification of reliable biomarkers. Up to now, clinico-pathological factors are the key determinants to guide prognosis and therapeutic treatments. Each day, new studies about OS are published and complicate the acquisition of information to support biomarker discovery and therapeutic improvements. Thus, it is necessary to provide a structured and annotated view on the current OS knowledge that is quick and easily accessible to researchers of the field. Therefore, we developed a publicly available database and Web interface that serves as resource for OS-associated genes and microRNAs. Genes and microRNAs were collected using an automated dictionary-based gene recognition procedure followed by manual review and annotation by experts of the field. In total, 911 genes and 81 microRNAs related to 1331 PubMed abstracts were collected (last update: 29 October 2013). Users can evaluate genes and microRNAs according to their potential prognostic and therapeutic impact, the experimental procedures, the sample types, the biological contexts and microRNA target gene interactions. Additionally, a pathway enrichment analysis of the collected genes highlights different aspects of OS progression. OS requires pathways commonly deregulated in cancer but also features OS-specific alterations like deregulated osteoclast differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first effort of an OS database containing manual reviewed and annotated up-to-date OS knowledge. It might be a useful resource especially for the bone tumor research community, as specific

  4. Mutation analysis of CACNA1A gene in Iranian migrainous and review literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are contrary results about the role of CACNA1A gene in the causation of common migraine in different populations. However, migraine may be genetically heterogeneous and more studies in different families and populations are required for a definite conclusion. The aim of this study was to surveyed leukocyte genomic DNA mutation of CACNA1A in Iranian migraine patients with [MA] and without aura [MO] who has family history of migraine and we performed a narrative review of all studies that evaluated CACNA1A gene, non-hemiplegic migraine [MA and MO] and FHM [familial hemiplegic migraine]. Materials and Methods: The 30 patients with family history of migraine were selected for mutations analysis for CACNA1A gene by PCR method. For review, we searched MEDLINE-PUBMED, ISI, Scopus and Cochrane databases up to December 2012. Results: Mutation analysis of the 4 exons of the CACNA1A gene in these patients revealed no mutations in this gene. Direct sequencing revealed a polymorphism previously reported G to A transition in the exon 16 [nt2369, G®A] in 9 patients. In review, the correlation of FHM loci [CACNA1A gene] with MA and MO has been showed in different population and only small population from Caucasians presented this correlation. Conclusion : CACNA1A is most likely not a major susceptibility gene for common migraine in Iranian maigrainous. It′s essential to study more on larger series and covering all 47 exons of the CACNA1A gene to confirm this hypothesis.

  5. Gene therapy in the management of oral cancer: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón Barbellido, Sonia; Campo Trapero, Julián; Cano Sánchez, Jorge; Perea García, Miguel A; Escudero Castaño, Nayra; Bascones Martínez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy essentially consists of introducing specific genetic material into target cells without producing toxic effects on surrounding tissue. Advances over recent decades in the surgical, radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of oral cancer patients have not produced a significant improvement in patient survival. Increasing interest is being shown in developing novel therapies to reverse oral epithelial dysplastic lesions. This review provides an update on transfer techniques, therapeutic strategies, and the clinical applications and limitations of gene therapy in the management of oral cancer and precancer. We highlight the combination of gene therapy with chemotherapy (e.g., 5-Fluoracil) and immunotherapy, given the promising results obtained in the use of adenovirus to act at altered gene level (e.g., p53). Other techniques such as suicide gene therapy, use of oncolytic viruses or the use of antisense RNA have shown positive although very preliminary results. Therefore, further research into these promising gene therapy techniques is required to assess their true efficacy and safety in the management of these lesions.

  6. Gene conversion is strongly induced in human cells by double-strand breaks and is modulated by the expression of BCL-XL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Pierce, Andrew J.; Gauny, Stacey S.; Jasin, Maria; Kronenberg, Amy

    2001-09-25

    Homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a well-established mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability in rodent cells, and it has been assumed that HDR is of similar importance in the repair of DSBs in human cells. However, in addition to promoting genomic stability, some outcomes of homologous recombination can be deleterious, suggesting that factors exist to regulate HDR. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of BCL-2 or BCL-xL enhanced the frequency of x-ray-induced mutations involving the TK1 locus, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events presumed to arise by mitotic recombination. The present study was designed to test whether HDR is a prominent DSB repair pathway in human cells, and to directly determine whether ectopic expression of BCL-xL affects HDR. We used the B-lymphoblastoid cell line TK6, which expresses wild-type TP53 and resembles normal lymphocytes in undergoing apoptosis following! genotoxic stress. U sing isogenic derivatives of TK6 cells (TK6-neo, TK6-bcl-xL), we find that a DSB in an integrated HDR reporter stimulates gene conversion 40-50-fold in TK6-neo cells, demonstrating that a DSB can be efficiently repaired by gene conversion in human cells. Significantly, DSB-induced gene conversion events are 3- to 4-fold more frequent in BCL-xL overexpressing cells. The results demonstrate that HDR plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity in human cells and that ectopic expression of BCL-xL enhances HDR of DSBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight a function for BCL-xL in modulating DSB repair in human cells.

  7. [PCDH19 gene mutations lead to epilepsy with mental retardation limited to females in 2 cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Arafat, Ahmed; Peng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Ma, Yuping; Yin, Fei

    2017-06-28

    Epilepsy with mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a syndrome characterized by early onset heat-sensitive epilepsy of infancy or early childhood and generally limited to females, which previously reported that the cadherin gene superfamily subtype protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene is its pathogenic gene. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 2 cases of EFMR patients with PCDH19 mutation diagnosed by Department of Pediatric Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2015. Literature on PubMed, OMIM and HGMD relevant to this syndrome was reviewed, and the clinical characteristics were summarized accordingly. The 2 cases are consistent with the typical clinical manifestations of EFMR caused by PCDH19 mutations. Their seizures are heat sensitive, with or without screaming, and expressed in various forms. Cognitive impairment or autism-like performance were often identified in these patients, hematuria metabolic diseases screening was normal, no abnormal MRI imaging of the head, and de novo PCDH19 gene mutations were found in their epilepsy gene chip sequencing. It is noteworthy that this disease is very similar to the clinical manifestations of the Dravet syndrome due to the mutations of the neurotype sodium channel α1 subunit SCN1A. Therefore, in female patients whose clinical manifestations resemble to Dravet syndrome but SCN1A gene test were negative, EFMR with PCDH19 mutation should be taken into consideration. Early PCDH19 gene testingis of great significance because it not only helps clinicians to understand and analyze the prognosis of this disease, but also offers genetic counseling to the parents.

  8. Homologous and homeologous intermolecular gene conversion are not differentially affected by mutations in the DNA damage or the mismatch repair genes RAD1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, PMS1 and MSH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.; Westmoreland, J.; Priebe, S. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) genes or genes involved in both DNA damage repair and homologous recombination might affect homeologous vs. homologous recombination differentially. Spontaneous mitotic gene conversion between a chromosome and a homologous or homeologous donor sequence (14% diverged) on a single copy plasmid was examined in wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and in MMR or DNA damage repair mutants. Homologous recombination in rad51, rad52 and rad54 mutants was considerably reduced, while there was little effect of rad1, rad50, pms1 and msh2 null mutations. DNA divergence resulted in no differential effect on recombination rates in the wild type or the mutants; there was only a five- to 10-fold reduction in homeologous relative to homologous recombination regardless of background. Since DNA divergence is known to affect recombination in some systems, we propose that differences in the role of MMR depends on the mode of recombination and/or the level of divergence. Based on analysis of the recombination breakpoints, there is a minimum of three homologous bases required at a recombination junction. A comparison of Rad{sup +} vs. rad52 strains revealed that while all conversion tracts are continuous, elimination of RAD52 leads to the appearance of a novel class of very short conversion tracts. 67 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Linking genes to literature: text mining, information extraction, and retrieval applications for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krallinger, Martin; Valencia, Alfonso; Hirschman, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    Efficient access to information contained in online scientific literature collections is essential for life science research, playing a crucial role from the initial stage of experiment planning to the final interpretation and communication of the results. The biological literature also constitutes the main information source for manual literature curation used by expert-curated databases. Following the increasing popularity of web-based applications for analyzing biological data, new text-mining and information extraction strategies are being implemented. These systems exploit existing regularities in natural language to extract biologically relevant information from electronic texts automatically. The aim of the BioCreative challenge is to promote the development of such tools and to provide insight into their performance. This review presents a general introduction to the main characteristics and applications of currently available text-mining systems for life sciences in terms of the following: the type of biological information demands being addressed; the level of information granularity of both user queries and results; and the features and methods commonly exploited by these applications. The current trend in biomedical text mining points toward an increasing diversification in terms of application types and techniques, together with integration of domain-specific resources such as ontologies. Additional descriptions of some of the systems discussed here are available on the internet http://zope.bioinfo.cnio.es/bionlp_tools/.

  10. Text mining effectively scores and ranks the literature for improving chemical-gene-disease curation at the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C; Johnson, Robin J; Lay, Jean M; Lennon-Hopkins, Kelley; Saraceni-Richards, Cynthia; Sciaky, Daniela; Murphy, Cynthia Grondin; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2013-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) is a public resource that curates interactions between environmental chemicals and gene products, and their relationships to diseases, as a means of understanding the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD provides a triad of core information in the form of chemical-gene, chemical-disease, and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from scientific articles. To increase the efficiency, productivity, and data coverage of manual curation, we have leveraged text mining to help rank and prioritize the triaged literature. Here, we describe our text-mining process that computes and assigns each article a document relevancy score (DRS), wherein a high DRS suggests that an article is more likely to be relevant for curation at CTD. We evaluated our process by first text mining a corpus of 14,904 articles triaged for seven heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, and nickel). Based upon initial analysis, a representative subset corpus of 3,583 articles was then selected from the 14,094 articles and sent to five CTD biocurators for review. The resulting curation of these 3,583 articles was analyzed for a variety of parameters, including article relevancy, novel data content, interaction yield rate, mean average precision, and biological and toxicological interpretability. We show that for all measured parameters, the DRS is an effective indicator for scoring and improving the ranking of literature for the curation of chemical-gene-disease information at CTD. Here, we demonstrate how fully incorporating text mining-based DRS scoring into our curation pipeline enhances manual curation by prioritizing more relevant articles, thereby increasing data content, productivity, and efficiency.

  11. Text mining effectively scores and ranks the literature for improving chemical-gene-disease curation at the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Peter Davis

    Full Text Available The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/ is a public resource that curates interactions between environmental chemicals and gene products, and their relationships to diseases, as a means of understanding the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD provides a triad of core information in the form of chemical-gene, chemical-disease, and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from scientific articles. To increase the efficiency, productivity, and data coverage of manual curation, we have leveraged text mining to help rank and prioritize the triaged literature. Here, we describe our text-mining process that computes and assigns each article a document relevancy score (DRS, wherein a high DRS suggests that an article is more likely to be relevant for curation at CTD. We evaluated our process by first text mining a corpus of 14,904 articles triaged for seven heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, and nickel. Based upon initial analysis, a representative subset corpus of 3,583 articles was then selected from the 14,094 articles and sent to five CTD biocurators for review. The resulting curation of these 3,583 articles was analyzed for a variety of parameters, including article relevancy, novel data content, interaction yield rate, mean average precision, and biological and toxicological interpretability. We show that for all measured parameters, the DRS is an effective indicator for scoring and improving the ranking of literature for the curation of chemical-gene-disease information at CTD. Here, we demonstrate how fully incorporating text mining-based DRS scoring into our curation pipeline enhances manual curation by prioritizing more relevant articles, thereby increasing data content, productivity, and efficiency.

  12. Independent stratum formation on the avian sex chromosomes reveals inter-chromosomal gene conversion and predominance of purifying selection on the W chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

    2014-11-01

    We used a comparative approach spanning three species and 90 million years to study the evolutionary history of the avian sex chromosomes. Using whole transcriptomes, we assembled the largest cross-species dataset of W-linked coding content to date. Our results show that recombination suppression in large portions of the avian sex chromosomes has evolved independently, and that long-term sex chromosome divergence is consistent with repeated and independent inversions spreading progressively to restrict recombination. In contrast, over short-term periods we observe heterogeneous and locus-specific divergence. We also uncover four instances of gene conversion between both highly diverged and recently evolved gametologs, suggesting a complex mosaic of recombination suppression across the sex chromosomes. Lastly, evidence from 16 gametologs reveal that the W chromosome is evolving with a significant contribution of purifying selection, consistent with previous findings that W-linked genes play an important role in encoding sex-specific fitness.

  13. Gene conversion in the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS is associated with, but does not cause, the syndrome of corticosterone methyloxidase II deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardella, C.E.; Hum, D.W.; Rodriguez, H. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c11AS (aldosterone synthase) has 11{beta}hydroxylase, 18-hydroxylase, and 18-oxidase activities and is expressed solely in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Corticosterone methyloxidase II (CMOII) deficiency denotes a rare disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis in which only the 18-oxidase activity of P450c11AS is disrupted, while the 11{beta}-hydroxylase and 18-hydroxylase activities persist. Such patients have elevated serum concentrations of corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone and very low or unmeasurable concentrations of aldosterone, often resulting in a clinical salt-losing crisis in infancy. We have sought mutations causing CMOII deficiency in outbred populations. In three of four unrelated P450c11AS alleles from two unrelated patients with CMOII deficiency, we found a gene conversion event in which exons 3 and 4 of the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS were changed to the sequence of the nearby CYP11B1 gene, which encodes the related enzyme P450c11{beta}. This conversion resulted in a mutant P450c11AS protein carrying three changes. We built seven vectors expressing P450c11AS carrying each mutation singly, each of the three possible pairs of mutations, and the triple mutation as found in the proband. The activities in steroidogenic MA-10 and JEG-3 cells were 10- to 20-fold higher. In these systems all of the mutants retained normal 18-oxidase activity, indicating that the detected gene conversion event is associated with but does not cause CMOII deficiency. None of the four CPY11B2 alleles in these two patients bore other identifiable mutations. These patients might have mutations in the promoters or other noncoding regions, or mutations in genes other than CYP11B2 may cause the syndrome of CMOII deficiency. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Gene cloning of an efficiency oleate hydratase from Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens for polyunsaturated fatty acids and its application in the conversion of plant oils to 10-hydroxy fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo-Ri; Seo, Min-Ju; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Park, Jin-Byung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are used as precursors of lactones and dicarboxylic acids, as starting materials of polymers, and as additives in coatings and paintings. Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens efficiently converts cis-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to 10-hydroxy fatty acids. However, gene encoding enzyme involved in this conversion has not been identified to date. We purified a putative fatty acid double-bond hydratase from S. nitritireducens by ultrafiltration and HiPrep DEAE FF and Resource Q ion exchange chromatographies. Peptide sequences of the purified enzyme were obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sequence of the partial gene encoding this putative fatty acid double-bond hydratase was determined by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the peptide sequences. The remaining gene sequence was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends using cDNA of S. nitritireducens as a template, and the full-length gene was cloned subsequently. The expressed enzyme was identified as an oleate hydratase by determining its kinetic parameters toward unsaturated fatty acids. S. nitritireducens oleate hydratase showed higher activity toward PUFAs compared with other available oleate hydratases. This suggested that the enzyme could be used effectively to convert plant oils to 10-hydroxy fatty acids because these oils contained unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid and/or γ-linolenic acid. The enzyme converted soybean oil and perilla seed oil hydrolyzates containing 10 mM total unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, LA, and ALA, to 8.87 and 8.70 mM total 10-hydroxy fatty acids, respectively, in 240 min. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the biotechnological conversion of PUFA-containing oils to hydroxy fatty acids. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 74-82. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the CellFinder literature curation pipeline for gene expression in kidney cells and anatomical parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana; Damaschun, Alexander; Mah, Nancy; Lekschas, Fritz; Seltmann, Stefanie; Stachelscheid, Harald; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Kurtz, Andreas; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical literature curation is the process of automatically and/or manually deriving knowledge from scientific publications and recording it into specialized databases for structured delivery to users. It is a slow, error-prone, complex, costly and, yet, highly important task. Previous experiences have proven that text mining can assist in its many phases, especially, in triage of relevant documents and extraction of named entities and biological events. Here, we present the curation pipeline of the CellFinder database, a repository of cell research, which includes data derived from literature curation and microarrays to identify cell types, cell lines, organs and so forth, and especially patterns in gene expression. The curation pipeline is based on freely available tools in all text mining steps, as well as the manual validation of extracted data. Preliminary results are presented for a data set of 2376 full texts from which >4500 gene expression events in cell or anatomical part have been extracted. Validation of half of this data resulted in a precision of ~50% of the extracted data, which indicates that we are on the right track with our pipeline for the proposed task. However, evaluation of the methods shows that there is still room for improvement in the named-entity recognition and that a larger and more robust corpus is needed to achieve a better performance for event extraction. Database URL: http://www.cellfinder.org/

  16. Gene polymorphisms and male infertility--a meta-analysis and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüttelmann, Frank; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    (OR 1.81, 1.46-2.24 CI, PT (OR 1.39, 1.15-2.69 95% CI, P=0.0006) but not for POLG, DAZL, USP26 or FSHR. The influence of CAG repeat length in AR remains open and debated. Genes encoding nuclear proteins (PRM1/2, TNP1/2) and ER1 are possible candidates for further examination, while the role of TAF7L...

  17. EPILEPSY CAUSED BY PCDH19 GENE MUTATION: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THE AUTHORS’ OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutation in the PCDH19 gene was first described by L.M. Dibbens et al. in 2008. Mutations in this gene are associated with epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females. The clinical manifestations that are observed in some patients with PCDH19 mutation and Dravet syndrome that is caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene include the onset of febrile and afebrile seizures in infancy, serial seizures during fever, and regression in development after the onset of seizures. Due to the fact that the two diseases have common clinical signs, it is best to test for PCDH19 mutation in patients with the clinical picture of Dravet syndrome and a negative test for SCN1A. In general, the number of scientific papers devoted to analysis and recommendations for the choice of therapy in patients with rare genetic pathology is small now. We analyzed the specific features of clinical signs and therapy in our two observed female patients aged 4 and 11 years with verified PCDH19 mutation. Both patients were noted to have severe epilepsy with febrile convulsions with the development of status epilepticus and to be unresponsive to antiepileptic therapy. The use of different antiepileptic drugs (valproate, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, levetiracetam at different combinations failed to control the course of epilepsy in the 4-year-old patient whereas the 11-year-old patient who took a combination of valproic acid and benzodiazepines achieved a positive effect.

  18. Paralogous gene conversion, allelic divergence of attacin genes and its expression profile in response to BmNPV infection in silkworm Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lekha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The genomic organization, structure and polymorphism of attacin gene within the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori strains have been analyzed. Genomic contig (AADK01007556 of B. mori attacin gene contains locus with two transcribed basic attacin genes, which were designated as attacin I and attacin II. Survey of the naturally occurring genetic variation in different strains of silkworm B. mori at the promoter and coding regions of two attacin genes revealed high levels of silent nucleotide variations (1- 4 % per nucleotide heterozygosity without polymorphism at the amino acid level (nonSynonymous substitution. We also investigated variations in gene expression of attacin I and attacin II in silkworm B. mori infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV. Two B. mori strains, Sarupat, CSR-2 which were resistant and susceptible to BmNPV infection respectively were used in this study. Expression profiles of B. mori genes were analyzed using microarray technique and results revealed that the immune response genes including attacin were selectively up regulated in virus invaded midguts of both races. Microarray data and real-time qPCR results revealed that attacin I gene was significantly up-regulated in the midgut of Sarupat following BmNPV infection, indicating its specific role in the anti-viral response. Our results imply that these up-regulated attacin genes were not only involved in anti-bacterial mechanism, but are also involved in B. mori immune response against BmNPV infection.

  19. Targeted delivery of Bcl-2 conversion gene by MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA cationic copolymer to combat therapeutic resistant cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zibiao; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Xiaohong; Chua, Ming Xuan; Wu, Yun-Long

    2017-07-01

    Deregulation of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 protein expression was a key feature in human cancers with therapeutic resistance. Nuclear receptor Nur77 could induce the conformation change of Bcl-2 protein and converted it into an apoptosis inducer by "enemy to friend" strategy. However, the safe and effective delivery of this gene to combat therapeutic resistant cancer remained largely unexplored. In this report, we designed an amphiphilic cationic MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymer, comprising biocompatible and hydrophilic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG), biodegradable and hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), cationic poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) segments, and folic acid (FA) as targeting group, as a high efficient Nur77 gene carrier to folate receptor (FR) highly expressed and therapeutic resistant HeLa/Bcl-2 cancer cells. Interestingly, due to the incorporation of PCL and PEG segments, this MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymer showed less toxicity but better gene transfection efficiency than non-viral gene carrier gold standard PEI (25kDa). This might be due to the formation of micelles to stabilize polyplex for enhanced gene transfection ability. More importantly, MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymer exhibited excellent growth inhibition ability on therapeutic resistant HeLa/Bcl-2 cancer cells, which was FR overexpressed HeLa cervical cancer cells with high expression of Bcl-2 protein, thanks to its FA induced targeting ability, high gene transfection efficiency, and low cytotoxicity. This work signifies the first time that cationic amphiphilic MPEG-PCL-PEI-FA copolymers could be utilized for the gene delivery to therapeutic resistant cancer cells with high expression of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 protein and the positive results are encouraging for the further design of polymeric platforms for combating drug resistant tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The genes coding for the conversion of carbazole to catechol are flanked by IS6100 elements in Sphingomonas sp. strain XLDN2-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Gai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbazole is a recalcitrant compound with a dioxin-like structure and possesses mutagenic and toxic activities. Bacteria respond to a xenobiotic by recruiting exogenous genes to establish a pathway to degrade the xenobiotic, which is necessary for their adaptation and survival. Usually, this process is mediated by mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and insertion sequences. FINDINGS: The genes encoding the enzymes responsible for the degradation of carbazole to catechol via anthranilate were cloned, sequenced, and characterized from a carbazole-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain XLDN2-5. The car gene cluster (carRAaBaBbCAc and fdr gene were accompanied on both sides by two copies of IS6100 elements, and organized as IS6100::ISSsp1-ORF1-carRAaBaBbCAc-ORF8-IS6100-fdr-IS6100. Carbazole was converted by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO, CarAaAcFdr, meta-cleavage enzyme (CarBaBb, and hydrolase (CarC to anthranilate and 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. The fdr gene encoded a novel ferredoxin reductase whose absence resulted in lower transformation activity of carbazole by CarAa and CarAc. The ant gene cluster (antRAcAdAbAa which was involved in the conversion of anthranilate to catechol was also sandwiched between two IS6100 elements as IS6100-antRAcAdAbAa-IS6100. Anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase (ANTDO was composed of a reductase (AntAa, a ferredoxin (AntAb, and a two-subunit terminal oxygenase (AntAcAd. Reverse transcription-PCR results suggested that carAaBaBbCAc gene cluster, fdr, and antRAcAdAbAa gene cluster were induced when strain XLDN2-5 was exposed to carbazole. Expression of both CARDO and ANTDO in Escherichia coli required the presence of the natural reductases for full enzymatic activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We predict that IS6100 might play an important role in the establishment of carbazole-degrading pathway, which endows the host to adapt to novel compounds in the environment. The organization of the car

  1. A novel SLC12A3 gene homozygous mutation of Gitelman syndrome in an Asian pedigree and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Q; Zhang, Y; Song, C; An, Z; Wei, S; Huang, J; Huang, L; Tang, L; Tong, N

    2016-03-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria which is caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene. In this study, we reported a case of GS pedigree and reviewed pertinent literature so as to explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and genotype meanwhile provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of GS. This is a pedigree-based genetic study of GS and 11 members from one family were included. We summarized their clinical features, analyzed laboratory parameters related to GS and SLC12A3 gene. The proband experienced intermittent severe symptoms of weakness accompanied by significant hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria in laboratory test with poor treatments. His mother had more slight symptoms of weakness than him with mild hypokalemia and hypocalciuria. Mild hypomagnesemia was also observed in his sister with occasional weakness. All other pedigree members had normal laboratory test with no GS-related symptoms. A homozygous mutation of SLC12A3 gene (c.488C > T) was detected by genetic testing in three members, and six were carriers of this mutation. Genotype and phenotype vary significantly among GS patients. Male patients tend to experience more severe symptoms and poor treatment effect. Further large-scale population, animal, and molecular biology experiments are required to investigate the complexity of GS and to find a better treatment regimen for this disease.

  2. Improving named entity recognition accuracy for gene and protein in biomedical text literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Hossein; Ibrahim, Hamidah; Murad, Masrah Azrifah Azmi

    2014-01-01

    The task of recognising biomedical named entities in natural language documents called biomedical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the focus of many researchers due to complex nature of such texts. This complexity includes the issues of character-level, word-level and word order variations. In this study, an approach for recognising gene and protein names that handles the above issues is proposed. Similar to the previous related works, our approach is based on the assumption that a named entity occurs within a noun group. The strength of our proposed approach lies on a Statistical Character-based Syntax Similarity (SCSS) algorithm which measures similarity between the extracted candidates and the well-known biomedical named entities from the GENIA V3.0 corpus. The proposed approach is evaluated and results are satisfied. For recognitions of both gene and protein names, we achieved 97.2% for precision (P), 95.2% for recall (R), and 96.1 for F-measure. While for protein names recognition we gained 98.1% for P, 97.5% for R and 97.7 for F-measure.

  3. Automated Extraction Of Associations Between Methylated Genes and Diseases From Biomedical Literature

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Res, Arwa A.

    2012-12-01

    Associations between methylated genes and diseases have been investigated in several studies, and it is critical to have such information available for better understanding of diseases and clinical decisions. However, such information is scattered in a large number of electronic publications and it is difficult to manually search for it. Therefore, the goal of the project is to develop a machine learning model that can efficiently extract such information. Twelve machine learning algorithms were applied and compared in application to this problem based on three approaches that involve: document-term frequency matrices, position weight matrices, and a hybrid approach that uses the combination of the previous two. The best results we obtained by the hybrid approach with a random forest model that, in a 10-fold cross-validation, achieved F-score and accuracy of nearly 85% and 84%, respectively. On a completely separate testing set, F-score and accuracy of 89% and 88%, respectively, were obtained. Based on this model, we developed a tool that automates extraction of associations between methylated genes and diseases from electronic text. Our study contributed an efficient method for extracting specific types of associations from free text and the methodology developed here can be extended to other similar association extraction problems.

  4. Conversational Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  5. Contentious Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  6. Direct conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into functional keratinocytes through transient expression of pluripotency-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, Demetris; Rizki, Gizem; Lapathitis, Georgios; Strati, Katerina

    2016-07-29

    The insufficient ability of specialized cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes, and epidermal cells to regenerate after tissue damage poses a great challenge to treat devastating injuries and ailments. Recent studies demonstrated that a diverse array of cell types can be directly derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), or somatic cells by combinations of specific factors. The use of iPSCs and direct somatic cell fate conversion, or transdifferentiation, holds great promise for regenerative medicine as these techniques may circumvent obstacles related to immunological rejection and ethical considerations. However, producing iPSC-derived keratinocytes requires a lengthy two-step process of initially generating iPSCs and subsequently differentiating into skin cells, thereby elevating the risk of cellular damage accumulation and tumor formation. In this study, we describe the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into functional keratinocytes via the transient expression of pluripotency factors coupled with directed differentiation. The isolation of an iPSC intermediate is dispensable when using this method. Cells derived with this approach, termed induced keratinocytes (iKCs), morphologically resemble primary keratinocytes. Furthermore they express keratinocyte-specific markers, downregulate mesenchymal markers as well as the pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, and they show important functional characteristics of primary keratinocytes. iKCs can be further differentiated by high calcium administration in vitro and are capable of regenerating a fully stratified epidermis in vivo. Efficient conversion of somatic cells into keratinocytes could have important implications for studying genetic skin diseases and designing regenerative therapies to ameliorate devastating skin conditions.

  7. High Throughput Sequencing of Entamoeba 27nt Small RNA Population Reveals Role in Permanent Gene Silencing But No Effect on Regulating Gene Expression Changes during Stage Conversion, Oxidative, or Heat Shock Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Dipak; Hall, Neil; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    The human parasite Entamoeba histolytica has an active RNA interference (RNAi) pathway with an extensive repertoire of 27nt small RNAs that silence genes. However the role of this pathway in regulating amebic biology remains unknown. In this study, we address whether silencing via 27nt small RNAs may be a mechanism for controlling gene expression changes during conversion between the trophozoite and cyst stages of the parasite. We sequenced small RNA libraries generated from trophozoites, early cysts, mature cysts, and excysting cells and mapped them to the E. invadens genome. Our results show that, as in E. histolytica, small RNAs in E. invadens are largely ~27nt in length, have an unusual 5'-polyphosphate structure and mediate gene silencing. However, when comparing the libraries from each developmental time-point we found few changes in the composition of the small RNA populations. Furthermore, genes targeted by small RNAs were permanently silenced with no changes in transcript abundance during development. Thus, the E. invadens 27nt small RNA population does not mediate gene expression changes during development. In order to assess the generalizability of our observations, we examined whether small RNAs may be regulating gene expression changes during stress response in E. histolytica. Comparison of the 27nt small RNA populations from E. histolytica trophozoites from basal conditions, or after heat shock or exposure to oxidative stress showed few differences. Similar to data in E. invadens development, genes targeted by small RNAs were consistently silenced and did not change expression under tested stress conditions. Thus, the biological roles of the 27nt small RNA population in Entamoeba remain elusive. However, as the first characterization of the RNAi pathway in E. invadens these data serve as a useful resource for the study of Entamoeba development and open the door to the development of RNAi-based gene silencing tools in E. invadens. PMID:26248204

  8. High Throughput Sequencing of Entamoeba 27nt Small RNA Population Reveals Role in Permanent Gene Silencing But No Effect on Regulating Gene Expression Changes during Stage Conversion, Oxidative, or Heat Shock Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbang; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Manna, Dipak; Hall, Neil; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    The human parasite Entamoeba histolytica has an active RNA interference (RNAi) pathway with an extensive repertoire of 27nt small RNAs that silence genes. However the role of this pathway in regulating amebic biology remains unknown. In this study, we address whether silencing via 27nt small RNAs may be a mechanism for controlling gene expression changes during conversion between the trophozoite and cyst stages of the parasite. We sequenced small RNA libraries generated from trophozoites, early cysts, mature cysts, and excysting cells and mapped them to the E. invadens genome. Our results show that, as in E. histolytica, small RNAs in E. invadens are largely ~27nt in length, have an unusual 5'-polyphosphate structure and mediate gene silencing. However, when comparing the libraries from each developmental time-point we found few changes in the composition of the small RNA populations. Furthermore, genes targeted by small RNAs were permanently silenced with no changes in transcript abundance during development. Thus, the E. invadens 27nt small RNA population does not mediate gene expression changes during development. In order to assess the generalizability of our observations, we examined whether small RNAs may be regulating gene expression changes during stress response in E. histolytica. Comparison of the 27nt small RNA populations from E. histolytica trophozoites from basal conditions, or after heat shock or exposure to oxidative stress showed few differences. Similar to data in E. invadens development, genes targeted by small RNAs were consistently silenced and did not change expression under tested stress conditions. Thus, the biological roles of the 27nt small RNA population in Entamoeba remain elusive. However, as the first characterization of the RNAi pathway in E. invadens these data serve as a useful resource for the study of Entamoeba development and open the door to the development of RNAi-based gene silencing tools in E. invadens.

  9. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  10. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  11. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  12. The B cell transcription program mediates hypomethylation and overexpression of key genes in Epstein-Barr virus-associated proliferative conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Henar; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Islam, Abul B; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C; Javierre, Biola M; Mangas, Cristina; Fernández, Agustín F; Parra, Maribel; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Esteller, Manel; López-Granados, Eduardo; Fraga, Mario F; López-Bigas, Nuria; Ballestar, Esteban

    2013-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a well characterized etiopathogenic factor for a variety of immune-related conditions, including lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases. EBV-mediated transformation of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblastoid cells occurs in early stages of infection and is an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms associated with acquisition of unlimited growth. We investigated the effects of experimental EBV infection of B cells on DNA methylation profiles by using high-throughput analysis. Remarkably, we observed hypomethylation of around 250 genes, but no hypermethylation. Hypomethylation did not occur at repetitive sequences, consistent with the absence of genomic instability in lymphoproliferative cells. Changes in methylation only occurred after cell divisions started, without the participation of the active demethylation machinery, and were concomitant with acquisition by B cells of the ability to proliferate. Gene Ontology analysis, expression profiling, and high-throughput analysis of the presence of transcription factor binding motifs and occupancy revealed that most genes undergoing hypomethylation are active and display the presence of NF-κB p65 and other B cell-specific transcription factors. Promoter hypomethylation was associated with upregulation of genes relevant for the phenotype of proliferating lymphoblasts. Interestingly, pharmacologically induced demethylation increased the efficiency of transformation of resting B cells to lymphoblastoid cells, consistent with productive cooperation between hypomethylation and lymphocyte proliferation. Our data provide novel clues on the role of the B cell transcription program leading to DNA methylation changes, which we find to be key to the EBV-associated conversion of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblasts.

  13. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  14. [A childhood-onset rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism family with ATP1A3 gene mutation and literatures review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C L; Yin, F; He, F; Gai, N; Shi, Z Q; Peng, J

    2017-04-02

    Objective: To explore clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of a family with childhood-onset rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) caused by ATP1A3 gene mutation and review literatures. Method: The clinical data of a RDP child, his brother and mother had been analyzed retrospectively. This family was admitted to Xiangya Hospital in January 2016. DNA samples were analyzed by the next-generation sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Related literature from PubMed, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), CNKI and Wanfang databases to date (up to October 2016) with"Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism"RDP"DYT12" as key words was reviewed. Result: The proband boy was three years and four months old (April 2015) when he had the first attack of the disease. After a febricity, he suddenly acquired acute aphasia and limb movement disorder. Rehabilitation therapy and supportive treatment made his speech gradually recovered but still slurred. However, his abnormal walking posture still existed. Nine months later (January 2016, 4 years and one months old), symptoms including aphasia, dysphagia, and weakness with rostrocaudal gradient reoccured after fever. The disease progressed to the critical condition within 24 hours. He"seizured" four times with tonic spasms of limbs but without loss of consciousness. Family history showed his grandparents were consanguineous marriage. His mother and brother also developed abnormal gait and dysarthria after an infection before primary school age. Their symptoms improved gradually without relapsing. However, they did not recover entirely with mild intellectual disability. His mother had a healthy brother and sister. This proband had no other siblings but the brother. Heterozygous missense mutation p. R756H in ATP1A3 gene was detected in this proband, his mother and his brother. This mutation had been reported pathogenically related to RDP, and it located in highly conserved gene region. Benzodiazepine was used for

  15. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  16. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter-Containing Retroviral Promoter Conversion Vectors for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy are Functional in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Klein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT is an approach for sensitization of tumor cells to an enzymatically activated, otherwise nontoxic, prodrug. Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1 metabolizes the prodrugs cyclophosphamide (CPA and ifosfamide (IFA to produce the cytotoxic substances phosphoramide mustard and isophosphoramide mustard as well as the byproduct acrolein. We have constructed a retroviral promoter conversion (ProCon vector for breast cancer GDEPT. The vector allows expression of CYP2B1 from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter known to be active in the mammary glands of transgenic animals. It is anticipated to be used for the generation of encapsulated viral vector producing cells which, when placed inside or close to a tumor, will act as suppliers of the therapeutic CYP2B1 protein as well as of the therapeutic vector itself. The generated vector was effectively packaged by virus producing cells and allowed the production of high levels of enzymatically active CYP2B1 in infected cells which sensitized them to killing upon treatment with both IFA and CPA. Determination of the respective IC50 values demonstrated that the effective IFA dose was reduced by sixteen folds. Infection efficiencies in vivo were determined using a reporter gene-bearing vector in a mammary cancer cell-derived xenograft tumor mouse model.

  17. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Messina; Anna Maria Fogliani

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  18. The Role of Conversation in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…

  19. Two Lycopene β-Cyclases Genes from Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Encode Enzymes With Different Functional Efifciency During the Conversion of Lycopene-to-Provitamin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; ZHOU Wen-jing; XU Qiang; TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; GUO Fei; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2013-01-01

    Citrus fruits are rich in carotenoids. In the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb, EC:1.14.-.-) is a key regulatory enzyme in the catalysis of lycopene to β-carotene, an important dietary precursor of vitamin A for human nutrition. Two closely related lycopeneβ-cyclase cDNAs, designated CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2, were isolated from the pulp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis). The expression level of CsLCYb genes is lower in the lfavedo and juice sacs of a lycopene-accumulating genotype Cara Cara than that in common genotype Washington, and this might be correlated with lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara fruit. The CsLCYb1 efifciently converted lycopene into the bicyclicβ-carotene in an Escherichia coli expression system, but the CsLCYb2 exhibited a lower enzyme activity and converted lycopene into theβ-carotene and the monocyclic γ-carotene. In tomato transformation studies, expression of CsLCYb1 under the control of the caulilfower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S constitutive promoter resulted in a virtually complete conversion of lycopene intoβ-carotene, and the ripe fruits displayed a bright orange colour. However, the CsLCYb2 transgenic tomato plants did not show an altered fruit colour during development and maturation. In fruits of the CsLCYb1 transgenic plants, most of the lycopene was converted intoβ-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching about 700 µg g-1 DW. Unexpectedly, most transgenic tomatoes showed a reduction in total carotenoid accumulation, and this is consistent with the decrease in expression of endogenous carotenogenic genes in transgenic fruits. Collectively, these results suggested that the cloned CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2 genes encoded two functional lycopene β-cyclases with different catalytic efifciency, and they may have potential for metabolite engineering toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of food crops.

  20. Conversational Telugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  1. Conversion Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Robert S; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Barry, John J

    2006-01-01

    ... to proceed after establishing a diagnosis of conversion disorder. Case Presentation "Ms. A," a 53-year-old left-handed woman, was admitted to our epilepsy monitoring unit for evaluation of a 4-month history of tremors, head bobbing, and episodic loss of awareness. The onset of these symptoms was 1 week after she had visited an emergency department...

  2. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  3. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  4. Phase Ⅰ/Ⅱ enzyme gene polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk: A meta-analysis of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Xia Yang; Keitaro Matsuo; Zhi-Ming Wang; Ka-zuo Tajima

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Phase Ⅰ/Ⅱ enzymes metabolize environmental carcinogens and several functional polymorphisms have been reported in their encoding genes. Although their significance with regard to esophageal carcinogenicity has been examined epidemiologically, it remains controversial. The present systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify associations.METHODS: Eligible studies were case-control or cohort studies published until September 2004 that were written in any language. From PubMed and a manual review of reference lists in relevant review articles, we obtained 16 studies related to the CYP1A1 Ile-Val substitution in exon 7, CYP1A1MspI polymorphisms, CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphisms,GSTM1 null type, GSTT1 null type and GSTP1 Ile104Val.All were of case-control design. Summary statistics were odds ratios (ORs) comparing heterozygous-, homozygousnon-wild type or these two in combination with the homozygous wild type, or the null type with the non-null type for GSTM1 and GSTT1. A random effect model was used to estimate the summary ORs. A meta-regression analysis was applied to explore sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Individuals with the Ile-Val substitution in CYP1A1 exon 7 had increased esophageal cancer risk,with ORs (95%CI) compared with Ile/Ile of 1.37 (1.09-1.71),2.52 (1.62-3.91) and 1.44 (1.17-1.78) for Ile-Val, Val/Val genotype and the combined group. No significant association was found between esophageal cancer risk and the other genetic parameters.CONCLUSION: A significant association exists between the CYP1A1 Ile-Val polymorphism and risk of esophageal cancer. Polymorphisms that increase the internal exposure to activated carcinogens may increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

  5. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  6. BRCA1 gene variant p.P142H associated with male breast cancer: a two-generation genealogic study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Claudio; Strambi, Silvia; Piccini, Lorenzo; Rossi, Leonardo; Aretini, Paolo; Caligo, Adelaide

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer occurs rarely in male patient. BRCA1 gene mutation seems to be related to male breast cancer, but its role is not clearly defined. We have identified in a male patient affected by breast cancer the BRCA1 gene variant p.P142H. We performed a literature research using the keywords "male breast cancer", "male breast cancer mutations" and "BRCA" and we reviewed the cases. We found ew other studies regarding BRCA1 variant p.P142H, about female subjects. At the moment, BRCA1 gene variant p.P142H is not certainly classified as neutral or deleterious. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 and PALB2 mutation gene has been performed on our patient. Segregation analysis for this p.P142H BRCA1 variant has been extended to the second generation of the family. Genetic tests revealed a clear inheritance regarding the BRCA1 gene p. P142H variant. Of the eight patients with this specific genetic mutation, four presented breast cancer (bilateral in one case), two female and two male. None of the subjects in the family without the BRCA1 gene variant p. P142H presented breast cancer or other BRCA1 gene mutation-related cancers. Our analysis suggests that the BRCA1 gene variant p.P142H mutation is related with male breast cancer. Starting from these data, it can be inferred that more studies on MBC and its relation with the BRCA1 gene mutation P142H variant must be undertaken to improve prognostic and therapeutic strategies.

  7. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  8. Evolution of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Gene Conversion: Coevolution Between a Phage and a Restriction-Modification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahara, Koji; Horie, Ryota; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Sasaki, Akira

    2007-01-01

    The necessity to repair genome damage has been considered to be an immediate factor responsible for the origin of sex. Indeed, attack by a cellular restriction enzyme of invading DNA from several bacteriophages initiates recombinational repair by gene conversion if there is homologous DNA. In this work, we modeled the interaction between a bacteriophage and a bacterium carrying a restriction enzyme as antagonistic coevolution. We assume a locus on the bacteriophage genome has either a restriction-sensitive or a restriction-resistant allele, and another locus determines whether it is recombination/repair proficient or defective. A restriction break can be repaired by a co-infecting phage genome if one of them is recombination/repair proficient. We define the fitness of phage (resistant/sensitive and repair-positive/-negative) genotypes and bacterial (restriction-positive/-negative) genotypes by assuming random encounter of the genotypes, with given probabilities of single and double infections, and the costs of resistance, repair, and restriction. Our results show the evolution of the repair allele depends on \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}b_{1}/b_{0},\\end{equation*}\\end{document} the ratio of the burst size \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}b_{1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} under damage to host cell physiology induced by an unrepaired double-strand break to the default burst size \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage

  9. Mining literature for a comprehensive pathway analysis: A case study for retrieval of homocysteine related genes for genetic and epigenetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Anubha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is also known to be associated with a variety of complex disorders. While there are a large number of independent studies implicating homocysteine in isolated pathways, the mechanism of homocysteine induced adverse effects are not clear. Homocysteine-induced modulation of gene expression through alteration of methylation status or by hitherto unknown mechanisms is predicted to lead to several pathological conditions either directly or indirectly. In the present manuscript, using literature mining approach, we have identified the genes that are modulated directly or indirectly by an elevated level of homocysteine. These genes were then placed in appropriate pathways in an attempt to understand the molecular basis of homocysteine induced complex disorders and to provide a resource for selection of genes for polymorphism screening and analysis of mutations as well as epigenetic modifications in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia. We have identified 135 genes in 1137 abstracts that either modulate the levels of homocysteine or are modulated by elevated levels of homocysteine. Mapping the genes to their respective pathways revealed that an elevated level of homocysteine leads to the atherosclerosis either by directly affecting lipid metabolism and transport or via oxidative stress and/or Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER stress. Elevated levels of homocysteine also decreases the bioavailability of nitric oxide and modulates the levels of other metabolites including S-adenosyl methionine and S-adenosyl homocysteine which may result in cardiovascular or neurological disorders. The ER stress emerges as the common pathway that relates to apoptosis, atherosclerosis and neurological disorders and is modulated by levels of homocysteine. The comprehensive network collated has lead to the identification of genes that are modulated by homocysteine indicating that homocysteine exerts its

  10. A case study: semantic integration of gene-disease associations for type 2 diabetes mellitus from literature and biomedical data resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Grabmüller, Christoph; Kavaliauskas, Silvestras; Croset, Samuel; Woollard, Peter; Backofen, Rolf; Filsell, Wendy; Clark, Dominic

    2014-07-01

    In the Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) project, researchers from academia and from life science and publishing companies collaborated in a pre-competitive way to integrate and share information for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. This case study exposes benefits from semantic interoperability after integrating the scientific literature with biomedical data resources, such as UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) and the Gene Expression Atlas (GXA). We annotated scientific documents in a standardized way, by applying public terminological resources for diseases and proteins, and other text-mining approaches. Eventually, we compared the genetic causes of T2DM across the data resources to demonstrate the benefits from the SESL triple store. Our solution enables publishers to distribute their content with little overhead into remote data infrastructures, such as into any Virtual Knowledge Broker.

  11. ChimerDB 3.0: an enhanced database for fusion genes from cancer transcriptome and literature data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myunggyo; Lee, Kyubum; Yu, Namhee; Jang, Insu; Choi, Ikjung; Kim, Pora; Jang, Ye Eun; Kim, Byounggun; Kim, Sunkyu; Lee, Byungwook; Kang, Jaewoo; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2017-01-01

    Fusion gene is an important class of therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in cancer. ChimerDB is a comprehensive database of fusion genes encompassing analysis of deep sequencing data and manual curations. In this update, the database coverage was enhanced considerably by adding two new modules of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq analysis and PubMed abstract mining. ChimerDB 3.0 is composed of three modules of ChimerKB, ChimerPub and ChimerSeq. ChimerKB represents a knowledgebase including 1066 fusion genes with manual curation that were compiled from public resources of fusion genes with experimental evidences. ChimerPub includes 2767 fusion genes obtained from text mining of PubMed abstracts. ChimerSeq module is designed to archive the fusion candidates from deep sequencing data. Importantly, we have analyzed RNA-Seq data of the TCGA project covering 4569 patients in 23 cancer types using two reliable programs of FusionScan and TopHat-Fusion. The new user interface supports diverse search options and graphic representation of fusion gene structure. ChimerDB 3.0 is available at http://ercsb.ewha.ac.kr/fusiongene/. PMID:27899563

  12. FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, M; Jeppesen, E M; Skovby, F

    2010-01-01

    developed acanthosis nigricans. The report of a K650Q mutation in the FGFR3 gene in a similar case prompted us to conduct a point mutation analysis. The K650Q mutation was confirmed, but in contrast to the previous case, we additionally report findings of hyperinsulinemia. In the recent literature...... keratoses and epidermal nevi, but also other benign skin tumors and a single case of a squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, an overview of the FGFR3 point mutations in relation to each cutaneous element is given. Based on the current knowledge, it seems likely that these cutaneous lesions have a common......Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene mutations in the germline are well-known causes of skeletal syndromes. Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements. We present a 14-year-old girl with mild hypochondroplasia who...

  13. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  14. Successful living donor kidney transplantation in a patient with prothrombin gene mutation: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with known prothrombin gene mutation and a history of prior vascular events, who underwent living donor kidney transplantation. Given the presumed elevated risk of complication from known prothrombin mutation, clinical management was directed towards optimizing living donor allograft function.

  15. Lineage switch in relapse of acute leukemia with rearrangement of MLL gene (KMT2A. literature review and case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zerkalenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lineage switch is a rare phenomenon in which a transition from lymphoid to myeloid was observed in relapse of acute leukemia, or vice versa. This paper presents the four clinical case reports of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with MLL gene rearrangement (KMT2A with myeloid phenotype in relapse.

  16. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahluwalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3 that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain.

  17. Religious Conversion, Models and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Boz, Tuba

    2012-01-01

    This papers examines the experiences of converts to Islam among Australian women in the milieu of polemic views and debates such as ‘Islam versus the west', which is most visible in the image of the ‘eastern' ‘oppressed' Muslim woman. Employing the experiences of Australian Muslim women converts in Melbourne, issues concerning identity politics, and the individuals and social dimensions of conversion are investigated. While there is an array of literature about Muslim women from various disci...

  18. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  19. Text Mining for Precision Medicine: Bringing Structure to EHRs and Biomedical Literature to Understand Genes and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael; Singhal, Ayush; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The key question of precision medicine is whether it is possible to find clinically actionable granularity in diagnosing disease and classifying patient risk. The advent of next-generation sequencing and the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have provided clinicians and researchers a wealth of data and made possible the precise characterization of individual patient genotypes and phenotypes. Unstructured text-found in biomedical publications and clinical notes-is an important component of genotype and phenotype knowledge. Publications in the biomedical literature provide essential information for interpreting genetic data. Likewise, clinical notes contain the richest source of phenotype information in EHRs. Text mining can render these texts computationally accessible and support information extraction and hypothesis generation. This chapter reviews the mechanics of text mining in precision medicine and discusses several specific use cases, including database curation for personalized cancer medicine, patient outcome prediction from EHR-derived cohorts, and pharmacogenomic research. Taken as a whole, these use cases demonstrate how text mining enables effective utilization of existing knowledge sources and thus promotes increased value for patients and healthcare systems. Text mining is an indispensable tool for translating genotype-phenotype data into effective clinical care that will undoubtedly play an important role in the eventual realization of precision medicine.

  20. The crtS gene of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encodes a novel cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into astaxanthin and other xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Godio, Ramiro P; Martín, Juan F; Barredo, José Luis

    2006-04-01

    The conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls is a subject of great scientific and industrial interest. We cloned the crtS gene involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis from two astaxanthin producing strains of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous: VKPM Y2410, an astaxanthin overproducing strain, and the wild type ATCC 24203. In both cases, the ORF has a length of 3166 bp, including 17 introns, and codes for a protein of 62.6 kDa with similarity to cytochrome-P450 hydroxylases. crtS gene sequences from strains VKPM Y2410, ATCC 24203, ATCC 96594, and ATCC 96815 show several nucleotide changes, but none of them causes any amino acid substitution, except a G2268 insertion in the 13th exon of ATCC 96815 which causes a change in the reading frame. A G1470 --> A change in the 5' splicing region of intron 8 was also found in ATCC 96815. Both point mutations explain astaxanthin idiotrophy and beta-carotene accumulation in ATCC 96815. Mutants accumulating precursors of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway were selected from the parental strain VKPM Y2410 (red) showing different colors depending on the compound accumulated. Two of them were blocked in the biosynthesis of astaxanthin, M6 (orange; 1% astaxanthin, 71 times more beta-carotene) and M7 (orange; 1% astaxanthin, 58 times more beta-carotene, 135% canthaxanthin), whereas the rest produced lower levels of astaxanthin (5-66%) than the parental strain. When the crtS gene was expressed in M7, canthaxanthin accumulation disappeared and astaxanthin production was partially restored. Moreover, astaxanthin biosynthesis was restored when X. dendrorhous ATCC 96815 was transformed with the crtS gene. The crtS gene was heterologously expressed in Mucor circinelloides conferring to this fungus an improved capacity to synthesize beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, two hydroxylated compounds from beta-carotene. These results show that the crtS gene is involved in the conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls, being potentially useful to

  1. Diversity of cystathionine ß-synthase haplotypes bearing the most common homocystinuria mutation c.833T>C: a possible role for gene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyletal, P; Sokolová, J; Cooper, DN;

    2007-01-01

    Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for the c.833T>C transition (p.I278 T) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene represents the most common cause of pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria in Western Eurasians. However, the frequency of the pathogenic c.833C allele, as observed in healthy...

  2. De novo intrachromosomal gene conversion from OPN1MW to OPN1LW in the male germline results in Blue Cone Monochromacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buena-Atienza, Elena; Ruether, Klaus; Baumann, Britta; Bergholz, Richard; Birch, David; De Baere, Elfride; Dollfus, Helene; Greally, Marie T.; Gustavsson, Peter; Hamel, Christian P.; Heckenlively, John R.; Leroy, Bart P.; Plomp, Astrid S.; Pott, Jan Willem R.; Rose, Katherine; Rosenberg, Thomas; Stark, Zornitza; Verheij, Joke B. G. M.; Weleber, Richard; Zobor, Ditta; Weisschuh, Nicole; Kohl, Susanne; Wissinger, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    X-linked cone dysfunction disorders such as Blue Cone Monochromacy and X-linked Cone Dystrophy are characterized by complete loss (of) or reduced L-and M-cone function due to defects in the OPN1LW/OPN1MW gene cluster. Here we investigated 24 affected males from 16 families with either a structurally

  3. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  4. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  5. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  6. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  7. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  8. NGL data conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  9. Uranium conversion; Conversion de l`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the activities of the Comurhex company, created in 1971 and which became a 100% Cogema`s daughter company in 1992. The Comurhex company is in charge of the conversion of natural uranium into gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The two steps of the conversion operation are performed in the Malvesi and Pierrelatte (France) industrial sites and represent 31% (14000 t/year) of the uranium conversion capacity of western countries. The refining and UF{sub 4} production (Malvesi) and the UF{sub 6} fabrication (Pierrelatte) processes are described. Comurhex is also one of the few companies in the world which produces UF{sub 6} from the uranium of spent fuels. (J.S.)

  10. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...... corporate communication managers a concrete tool for evaluating the quality of their online communications and for identifying those areas of their online communication that need improvement....

  11. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  12. CONTEMPORARYFOREIGN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence Bue; Marshall Brown; Alfred Hornung; James Phelan; Elizabeth Schultz; David Attwell

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Foreign Literature ( CFL,CN32-1087/I,ISSN 1001-1757 ),originated in 1980,is a journal of articles and reviews on contemporary literature except that of China.Peer-reviewed and published quarterly,in January,April,July and October,by the Institute of Foreign Literature,Nanjing University and the Yilin Press,CFL is indexed in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI).

  13. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  14. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  15. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  16. Content for Conversation Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  17. Canning Canned Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P.; Daigaku, Sanyo

    Ways to improve the role-playing conversations found in most second language textbooks are outlined. It is argued that the conversations are often restrictive, dull, and repetitive, and students respond to them in kind. The teacher can make the target language used more interesting by creating new characters, situations, settings, or objectives.…

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  19. Predictability of conversation partners

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, Song et al. (2010) found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one's conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one's next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between close sensor nodes. We find t...

  20. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  1. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  4. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  5. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  6. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  8. Managing social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  9. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  10. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  11. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  12. [Conversion Disorder in Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula Andrea; Vásquez, Rafael; Cote, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Conversion disorder is diagnosed late, by exclusion and with a high risk of complications. There is a wide experience in adults that is not extrapolated to paediatric patients. According to the literature, the prognosis is better in children, but this changes when other variables such are included, such as comorbidities, late diagnosis and a very convincing social image of the neurological disease. To review the medical literature on the clinical features, diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment of this disorder. A literature research was performed on Medline and Pubmed, the terms used were "conversion disorder", pseudoseizures, treatment, clinic, children ("conversion disorder" OR hysteria OR hysterical) (child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR paediatric). The most relevant material found is included in this review. Conversion disorder is often an imprecise diagnosis in high complexity paediatric services. No consensus was found in the literature search on how to treat patients after the initial diagnosis. The evidence that it becomes chronic is not strong enough, just as the evidence is not convincing enough to argue that comorbidity factors are those maintained over time. Clearly, there is no medical experience of the natural history of this disorder in children and adolescents. It is only known is that it is a complex condition, on which there is experience only in the diagnosis and treatment of the acute state, but not so in the long-term care. It is proposed that each patient is studied in detail in order to define the psychiatric diagnosis and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Francophone Cameroon literature: A conversation with Ambroise Kom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... But since the postcolonial leaders didn't take over the project of construct- ..... thing you can work on is find something to eat, a place to sleep, find ... life for the last month or so, and as petroleum prices are dropping, the wealth ...

  14. Anglophone Cameroon literature: A conversation with Bole Butake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... Arts and Cinematography but we don't have students. What we ... Back then, a woman would go to the market to buy, say, a piece of cloth but before ..... Let's build on what you've said about the decades after independence by ...

  15. Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWei; QinJiguang

    2005-01-01

    A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.

  16. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of a Religious Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Radulescu, Anca; Bains, Anjuman; Aleem, Sheema

    2017-08-03

    Religious conversion is an important phenomenon in contemporary religious climate, but existing psychology research work is mostly based on quantitative methods. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study proposes a qualitative exploration of religious conversion. The in-depth interview of a French woman is examined in order to investigate her experience of religious conversion, 40 years prior. The interview was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, with the purpose of revealing how the participant experienced the process of religious conversion, what was its impact on her life, identity and personality and how she coped with this impact. The four emerging themes were: conflicted relationship with Judaism, the pursuit of a spiritual quest, changes after conversion and life after conversion. These themes painted the image of a powerful spiritual transformation, a profound and dynamic lifelong process, integrating concepts and practices, life changes and developments. The findings are explained with the help of available literature.

  17. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies...... that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry......, the prevalence of psychotic depression, the prevalence of chronic depression, and severity of depression. It was not possible to identify risk factors that were consistently or mainly confirmed to predict conversion across studies. CONCLUSIONS: The conversion rate from unipolar to bipolar disorder decreases...

  18. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  19. Literature Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  20. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  1. Literature Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  2. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  3. Direct conversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  4. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    on - and support “positive deviants” (Pascal, Sternin and Sternin) – courageous individuals and groups (inmates as well as staff) who transform conversations into new actions and behavioral traits that become beckons of an improved future. In the following we explore concrete examples of efforts at improving......Some would say this article is an impossibility - the authors being a project manager from the Department of Prisons an (ex) inmate and a Designer doing an industrial PhD in the prisons. We hope that others may see this article as an embodiment of how taking part in new conversations...... and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...

  5. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  6. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).

  7. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  8. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  9. Gender Differences in Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Men and women applied language distinct from each other in many ways. The thesis gives an illustration of gender dif-ferences in conversation and different interpretive frames within which the discourse between men and women take place. More profoundly, it tries to explain them from perspective of socialization.

  10. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  11. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  12. Solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  13. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  14. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  15. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  16. Paralympics and conversion disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Anthony S

    ...' for whose disorders are the most stigmatised. Psychiatry has a strong claim on this with mental illness generally regarded as among the most feared and least understood. 1 And within psychiatry there is a similar hierarchy such that patients with 'hysteria' or conversion disorder (CD) are those found to be least satisfying to treat and are least like...

  17. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  18. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  19. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  20. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  1. Literature review :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  2. Conversion of large heterologies in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, F; Lefèvre, J C; Guillot, E; Sicard, A M

    1991-04-01

    In genetic transformation, long deletions dramatically increase the frequency of wild-type recombinants in 2-point crosses. In 3-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between 2 point mutations we demonstrated that this hyper-recombination was the result of genetic conversion extending over several scores of bases outside the deletion. As this conversion did not require an active DNA polymerase A gene, it was proposed that the mechanism of conversion involves breakage and ligation between DNA molecules. A similar hyper-recombination was observed when donor DNA carried an insertion. These results suggest that long heterologies participated in recombination so that surrounding homologous regions are almost completely paired and that these long heterologies are converted. It appears that it is a process that evolved to correct errors of replication which lead to long deletions and which are not eliminated by other systems.

  3. 瘢痕疙瘩相关基因的生物信息学分析%Literature Mining and Bioinformatic Analysis of Dysregulated Genes in Keloid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边曦; 黄琛; 李博仑; 秦泽莲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the pathogenesis of keloid by comparing the gene expression in keloid and normal skin tissues, so that to seek new therapeutic approaches for keloid. Methods The differentially expressed genes between keloid and normal skin were obtained by mining PubMed. The dysregulated genes in keloid were analyzed by bioinformatics methods, including protein-protein interaction networks, biological pathways, gene ontology and functional annotation clustering analysis. Results Eight differential gene eipression datasets and 922 articles were obtained. A total of 94 dysregulated genes in keloid were identified (71 up-regulated genes and 23 down-regulated genes). Eighty-six genes were found to encode proteins with interaction network, including TGFB1, FN1, COL1A1, MMP9, VEGFA, TP53, IL6 and MMP2 as the central nodes for this network. The dysregulated genes in keloid were involved in a variety of biological pathways, including signal transduction and tumor formation. Furthermore, the dysregulated genes in keloid played important roles in biological processes of apoptosis and cell motility. Additionally, some of the dysregulated genes participated in cellular components expression, forming such as cell membrane structure, extracellular matrix and collagen components. Conclusions Key genes including TGFB1, FN1, COL1A1, MMP9, VEGFA, TP53, IL6, and MMP2, along with TGF- β signal transduction, cell proliferation and apoptosis, tumor formation may play important roles in the development of keloid.%目的 比较瘢痕疙瘩与正常皮肤的基因表达差异,从分子水平探讨瘢痕疙瘩的发病机制,为临床治疗提供新思路. 方法 用PubMed数据库文献检索瘢痕疙瘩与正常皮肤的差异表达基因,对与瘢痕疙瘩相关的基因进行蛋白-蛋白相互作用网络、生物学通路、基因本体( gene ontology,GO)和功能注释聚类的生物信息学分析. 结果 获得差异表达基因谱8个和文献922篇,

  4. [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with concomitant c-MYC and BCL6 gene rearrangements with primary skin involvement: A case report and a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabeeva, N G; Koroleva, D A; Belyaeva, A V; Chernova, N G; Kuzmina, L A; Sudarikov, A B; Obukhova, T N; Kovrigina, A M; Zvonkov, E E; Savchenko, V G

    2017-01-01

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is a rare aggressive B-cell lymphoma with concomitant c-MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 gene rearrangements, which is characterized by the high frequency of extranodal lesions and by resistance to chemotherapy. The median survival does not exceed 18 months in patients with this disease. The majority of DHL is represented by с-MYC/BCL2 cases. The combination of c-MYC/BCL6 occurs rarely (5-8%). The paper describes a case of DHL with concomitant c-MYC and BCL6 gene rearrangements, which mimics diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

  5. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  6. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Koval

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL, enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS, which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of AS, which have not only molecular genetic, but also differential diagnostic and therapeutic significance for secondary forms of arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity (AO, metabolic syndrome (MS, adrenal pathology and other endocrine disorders. AL is a steroid (mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex, which is synthesized from cholesterol (CH, mainly in the glomerular zone of the adrenal glands, is released under the action of angiotensin II (A II and potassium ions (K+. AL acti­vity is mediated through the corresponding mineralocorticoid receptors (MKR. The particular importance in AH and MS development belongs to AL activation and MKR density in adipocytes, this phenomenon is accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin, an adipogenic effect, and the inhibition of MCR activity is accompanied by increased production of adiponectin, which is more pronounced in patients with AH. Aldosterone synthase, a mitochondrial human enzyme encoded by the CYP11B2 gene (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 is located on the 8th chromosome. AS belongs to the superfamily of cytochrome P450 and regulates the synthesis of AL hormone. The CYP11B2 gene encodes the key enzyme for the synthesis of AL 18-hydroxylase. In scientific papers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of AS gene is often studied, such as 5312T, Intron 2, Lys-173/Arg; T-344C, 3097 C/A. 227 SNP of the AS gene were identified in different

  7. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and relationships may allow us to transcend the barriers of our formal positions. To us it is a testimony of the struggles and the good times we have shared while attempting to improve life in prisons. Also, this is an occasion for reflection on what we have learned from the process. The User Driven Innovation (in...... for guards. It has turned the focus of the organization towards the importance of relationship-building. In 2011 the Director General and the Prison Governors stated that building positive relations is the most important future task for Danish prisons both in regards to improving prison environments...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  8. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  9. Les conversions de cens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  10. Comparison of restriction enzyme pattern analysis and full gene sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for Nocardia species identification, the first report of Nocardia transvalensis isolated of sputum from Iran, and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi-Bafghi, Mehdi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Rasouli-Nasab, Masoumeh; Habibnia, Shadi; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdorazagh; Eshraghi, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Nocardial infections occur in different organs of the body and are common in immune disorder diseases of individuals. The aim of this study was to assess Nocardia species identification by phenotypic tests and molecular techniques applied to nocardiosis in Iranian patients. In the current study, various clinical samples were collected and cultured on conventional media and using the paraffin baiting method. Various phenotypic tests were performed. For accurate identification at the species level, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes and full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used. Twenty-seven Nocardia spp. were isolated and analysis of phenotypic tests results showed Nocardia asteroides complex, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia spp. New RFLP patterns of Nocardia strains with hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes were obtained. Full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, N. otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, and N. nova. Nocardia infections are rarely reported and this genus is the cause of various illnesses. Accurate identification of Nocardia spp. is important for epidemiology studies and treatment. It should also be noted that some species may have similar RFLP patterns; therefore, full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is necessary for confirmation.

  11. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  12. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  13. FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, M; Jeppesen, E M; Skovby, F

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene mutations in the germline are well-known causes of skeletal syndromes. Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements. We present a 14-year-old girl with mild hypochondroplasia who dev...

  14. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  15. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This chapter presents an overview of ocean energy conversion in respect of its significance as the renewable energy resources. It deals with the thermodynamic principles relating to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Besides, it provides an in...

  16. Association of a novel in-frame deletion mutation of the MYH9 gene with end-stage renal failure: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mami; Mori, Yasukiyo; Ota, Noriyoshi; Inaba, Toru; Kunishima, Shinji

    2013-09-01

    MYH9 disorders are autosomal dominant diseases characterized by giant platelets, thrombocytopenia, and granulocyte inclusion bodies. These diseases are caused by mutations in the MYH9 gene that encodes nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA. We describe the case of a 27-year-old male who presented with macrothrombocytopenia and leukocyte inclusion bodies. Chronic kidney disease, probably due to progressive glomerulosclerosis, and high-tone sensorineural deafness were evident. Although deterioration of renal function necessitated renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis, we reconsidered the etiology of the kidney disease due to the patient's clinical history. We identified an in-frame deletion mutation in exon 24 of the MYH9 gene that resulted in the removal of 21 nucleotides. The patient was diagnosed with an MYH9 disorder. We report this novel abnormality of the nucleotide sequence and compare it with previous cases and their associated phenotypes.

  17. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

  18. Temsirolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion proteins: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Brown

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCCs are a rare family of tumors newly recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2004. These tumors result in the fusion of partner genes to the TFE3 gene located on Xp11.2. They are most common in the pediatric population, but have been recently implicated in adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC presenting at an early age. TFE3-mediated direct transcriptional upregulation of the Met tyrosine kinase receptor triggers dramatic activation of downstream signaling pathways including the protein kinase B (Akt/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways. Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR kinase, a component of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the growth and proliferation of malignant cells. Here we present a case of a 22-year old female who has been treated with temsirolimus for her Xp11.2/TFE3 gene fusion RCC.

  19. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  20. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  1. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  2. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  3. The Application of Conversational Implicature in Doctor-Patient Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-patient conversation is the major way of communication between doctors and patients. A good conversa-tion helps to construct a harmonious doctor-patient relationship. This paper attempts to analyze the doctor-patient conversation by applying the Theory of Conversational Implicature. The theory is accepted as the cooperative principle consisting of four max-ims:quantity, quality, relation, manner. This paper will analyse how the four maxims work and the violating of the maxims in the doctor-patient conversation. Through linguistic study of the conversation, we try to find out the problems in the doctor-patient conversation and to provide some directive linguistic suggestions to doctors and patients.

  4. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  5. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  6. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin;

    that ensures phase matching over a broad spectral range in the BBO crystal. Since the tuning mechanism relies on all-passive components with extremely short response times the proposed method is well suited for short pulse, broad bandwidth laser sources like mode-locked lasers or super-continuum sources......We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    . The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  8. Analysis of NAB2-STAT6 Gene Fusion in 17 Cases of Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumor/Hemangiopericytoma: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Sayaka; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Lei; Tsuda, Masumi; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a mesenchymal tumor that can affect virtually any region of the body. SFT/HPC of the thoracic cavity and soft tissue has been histologically considered a single biological entity termed SFT; in fact, NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion was recently identified in both diseases. In contrast, meningeal SFT and HPC still need to be investigated in detail with regard to gene fusion variants. The aim of this study was to verify the frequency of NAB2-STAT6 fusion and the relationship between fusion variants and clinicopathologic findings of SFT/HPC, especially meningeal SFT/HPC. We examined the NAB2-STAT6 fusion by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with 4 cases of meningeal SFT and 13 cases of meningeal HPC. NAB2-STAT6 fusion transcripts were identified in 12 of 17 cases, including NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17 (4/17, 24%), NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16 and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 (3/17, 18%, respectively), and NAB2ex5-STAT6ex16 (2/17, 12%). Three cases showed a pseudopapillary pattern, and 2 of them carried NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17. In addition, our meta-analysis revealed that the major fusion variant in meningeal SFT/HPC was NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17 (29/54, 54%), which was also common in soft tissue and intraperitoneum/retroperitoneum but rare in thoracic SFT. Fusion variant significantly correlated with age and histologic diagnosis in meningeal SFT/HPC but not with prognosis. Our results represented that meningeal SFT and HPC were in a single biological spectrum with NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion as was nonmeningeal SFT and further confirmed the organ-specific tumorigenic process and morphologic differences on the basis of fusion variants in meningeal SFT/HPC.

  9. On Speech Act Theory in Conversations of the Holy Bible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hongya

    2014-01-01

    Speech act theory is an important theory in current pragmatics, which is originated with the Oxford philosopher John Langshaw Austin. Speech act theory is started from research on daily language’s function. There are few papers using speech act theory to analyze literature works. The holy bible is a literature treasure in human history, so this paper tries to use speech act theory to analyze conversations of Bible and provide some enlightenment for readers.

  10. Literatura Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se volta para as vicissitudes do informante nativo como figura na representação literária. A autora trabalha "com uma oposição binária relativamente antiquada entre filosofia e literatura, segundo a qual a primeira concatena argumentos e a segunda concebe o impossível. Para ambas o informante nativo parece inevitável". Ela examina a posição desse informante à luz do que chama de "axiomática do imperialismo" em Jane Eyre, de Brontë, Wide Sargasso Sea, de Rhys, e Frankenstein, de Shelley, para concluir com uma leitura de "Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha", de Mahasweta Devi.This text picks at the vicissitudes of the native informant as figure in literary representation. Its author works "with rather an old-fashioned binary opposition between philosophy and literature; that the first concatenates arguments and the second figures the impossible. For both the native informant seems unavoidable". She examines the position of such informant, in the light of what she calls the "axiomatics of imperialism" in Brontë's Jane Eyre, in Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea, and in Shelley's Frankenstein, to end up with a reading of Mahasweta Devi's "Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha".

  11. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  12. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  13. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  14. Equipment for gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    Equipment is proposed for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv), possibly in a mixture with air, in order to produce an inorganic gas, which chiefly consists of H2 and COx. It consists of a reaction pipe made of an inorganic refractory ceramic and equipped along the wall circumference with heaters. The reaction pipe is filled with a combined, multilayer catalyst (Kt) carrier, made of gamma-A1203 which in the transverse cross section has a multipore reticular or fibrous structure. Replacement of the traditional steel (St) materials for the walls of the reaction pipe with ceramic materials reduces the output of the hydrocarbon which contaminates the surface (Pv) of the catalyst; the use of a multilayer carrier for the catalyst made of gamma-A1203 with a porous reticular or fibrous structure reduces the pressure losses in the reactor and facilitates the replacement of the spent catalyst. The equipment is designed for vapor conversion of natural gas, C3H8, and vapors of kerosene, naphtha and so on.

  15. La conversion de Paul, regards croisés Paul’s conversion. Cross perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Cuvillier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Au plan historique, les traditions relatives à la conversion de Paul, chutant de son cheval sur le chemin de Damas, confrontent l’exégète à trois problèmes importants : y avait-il un cheval, cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas et était-ce bien une conversion ? Entendues avec l’humour et la distance critique nécessaires, ces trois questions constituent les trois chapitres de cet article. Le premier « Y avait-il un cheval ? » s’intéresse à l’histoire de la réception de l’épisode de la conversion de Paul, en particulier dans la peinture et la littérature. Le second « Cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas ? » est consacrée au récit que l’auteur du livre des Actes propose de la conversion de Paul, récit qui constitue, bien souvent, la porte d’entrée exclusive pour aborder le thème. Le troisième « Etait-ce bien une conversion ? » analyse les témoignages de l’apôtre lui-même à travers deux passages clés de ses épîtres authentiques.Historically speaking, the traditions concerning the conversion of Paul, falling from his horse on the road to Damascus, confront the exegete with three important problems : was there a horse, did it happen on the road to Damacus and was it really a conversion ? These three questions, considered with humor and critical distance, constitute the three sections of this article. The first part « Was there a horse ? » considers the history of the reception of the episode of the conversion of Paul, particularly in art and literature. The second one « Did it happen on the road to Damascus ? » is devoted to the story of the conversion of Paul proposed by the author of the book of Acts, which is very often the exclusive entrance to the discussion of this theme. The third section « Was it really a conversion ? » analyzes the account given by the apostle himself in two key passages of his authentic epistles.

  16. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  17. Atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation in Rag1 gene in a girl who presented with pyoderma gangrenosum: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; Gilmour, Kimberly; Ozdemir, M Akif; Bibi, Shahnaz; Henriquez, Frances; Burns, Siobhan O; Unal, Ekrem

    2014-10-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects involving the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. We report a female with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation at cDNA position 2290 (c.2290C > T) in exon 2 of the RAG1 gene. The patient presented with bronchopneumonia, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), pancytopenia and splenomegaly. She presented to us with pancytopenia and splenomegaly at the age of 11. Her condition was complicated by PG on left lower ankle at the age of 12. She experienced bronchopneumonia at the age of 15. She was diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency at the age of 16. Her immunological presentation included leucopenia and diminished number of B cells.

  18. Lysinuric protein intolerance in a family of Mexican ancestry with a novel SLC7A7 gene deletion. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carpentieri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 located on the chromosome 14q11.2. LPI is most prevalent in Finland (1:50,000, Northern Japan (1:60,000 and Italy. Cases have also been reported in Spain and the United States. Here we report two siblings of Mexican descent. The older child was diagnosed at the age of three with severe chronic respiratory insufficiency leading to her demise. In contrast, the younger child was diagnosed soon after birth and dietary therapy has led to a stable life. Genetic analysis revealed a previously unreported deletion in the SLC7A7 gene. Additional research is needed to clarify the role of lysine in the pathophysiology of pulmonary proteinosis and herpes infections.

  19. An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Diana Z.

    By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

  20. Thoughts on the Literature Review and GT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoughts on the Literature Review and GT

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about epistemic questions always reminds me of Socrates’ cave allegory. In Plato’s most famous book,The Republic, Socrates talks to a young follower named Glaucon. I would like to include here a short excerpt of their conversation and discuss how this relates to my thoughts about preceding a classic GT study with a thorough literature review.

  1. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  2. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  3. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  4. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference.Conversation with Meir Sternberg.Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  5. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  6. The Practice and Ethics of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, despite declassification of homosexuality as mental illness, efforts to sexually reorient lesbians and gay men continue. Examines construct of sexual orientation. Reviews literature in psychotherapeutic and religious conversion therapies, finding no evidence that such treatments are effective in their intended purpose. Establishes need…

  7. Sacred Conversation: A Spiritual Response to Unavoidable Suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferch, Shann R.; Ramsey, Marleen I.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that spiritual questions can be explored in the therapeutic context in order to help the client gain a sense of meaning in their suffering, as well as a measure of peace in their lives. The authors' approach, entitled Sacred Conversation, uses Victor Frankl's work as well as literature on empathy, forgiveness, and spirituality as its…

  8. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  10. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  11. Sporadic Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an Egyptian Infant with c.617G > A Mutation in ACVR1 Gene: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Haggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP is an autosomal dominant severe musculoskeletal disease characterized by extensive new bone formation within soft connective tissues and unique skeletal malformations of the big toes which represent a birth hallmark for the disease. Most of the isolated classic cases of FOP showed heterozygous mutation in the ACVR1 gene on chromosome 2q23 that encodes a bone morphogenetic protein BMP (ALK2. The most common mutation is (c.617G > A leading to the amino acid substitution of arginine by histidine (p.Arg206His. We currently report on an Egyptian infant with a sporadic classic FOP in whom c.617G > A mutation had been documented. The patient presented with the unique congenital malformation of big toe and radiological evidence of heterotopic ossification in the back muscles. The triggering trauma was related to the infant's head, however; neither neck region nor sites of routine intramuscular vaccination given during the first year showed any ossifications. Characterization of the big toe malformation is detailed to serve as an early diagnostic marker for this rare disabling disease.

  12. Review on Telephone Conversations Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咏梅

    2014-01-01

    Telephone conversation, one of the most common uses of human communication, has been a hot topic in linguistic field in modern times. This essay aims at reviewing the main theories and findings in telephone conversation analysis and provid-ing some insights of this aspect which can often be overlooked in our daily life. It is also hoped that this essay can help to pave a foundation for further in-depth study in telephone conversations.

  13. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  14. Literature Lab: a method of automated literature interrogation to infer biology from microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegmaier Kimberly

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biomedical literature is a rich source of associative information but too vast for complete manual review. We have developed an automated method of literature interrogation called "Literature Lab" that identifies and ranks associations existing in the literature between gene sets, such as those derived from microarray experiments, and curated sets of key terms (i.e. pathway names, medical subject heading (MeSH terms, etc. Results Literature Lab was developed using differentially expressed gene sets from three previously published cancer experiments and tested on a fourth, novel gene set. When applied to the genesets from the published data including an in vitro experiment, an in vivo mouse experiment, and an experiment with human tumor samples, Literature Lab correctly identified known biological processes occurring within each experiment. When applied to a novel set of genes differentially expressed between locally invasive and metastatic prostate cancer, Literature Lab identified a strong association between the pathway term "FOSB" and genes with increased expression in metastatic prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry subsequently confirmed increased nuclear FOSB staining in metastatic compared to locally invasive prostate cancers. Conclusion This work demonstrates that Literature Lab can discover key biological processes by identifying meritorious associations between experimentally derived gene sets and key terms within the biomedical literature.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    oxidation of ethanol to form acetyl compounds. The steam reforming has been covered by a literature study of the research work done so far giving an introduction to the use of ethanol as a feedstock. The partial oxidation of ethanol has been studied experimentally using gold and vanadium based heterogeneous...... catalysts, and two different experimental methods, namely, a batch system and a continuous flow system. In the batch reaction the process was carried out in the liquid phase using a gold catalyst and atmospheric air as the oxidant. Experiments were conducted at moderate pressures and temperatures (90-200 °C...

  16. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanneke van Asselen

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability, mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification. Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have

  17. Methylation of miRNA genes and oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, V I; Rykov, S V; Fridman, M V; Braga, E A

    2015-02-01

    Interaction between microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA of target genes at the posttranscriptional level provides fine-tuned dynamic regulation of cell signaling pathways. Each miRNA can be involved in regulating hundreds of protein-coding genes, and, conversely, a number of different miRNAs usually target a structural gene. Epigenetic gene inactivation associated with methylation of promoter CpG-islands is common to both protein-coding genes and miRNA genes. Here, data on functions of miRNAs in development of tumor-cell phenotype are reviewed. Genomic organization of promoter CpG-islands of the miRNA genes located in inter- and intragenic areas is discussed. The literature and our own results on frequency of CpG-island methylation in miRNA genes from tumors are summarized, and data regarding a link between such modification and changed activity of miRNA genes and, consequently, protein-coding target genes are presented. Moreover, the impact of miRNA gene methylation on key oncogenetic processes as well as affected signaling pathways is discussed.

  18. Endometrial tumour BRAF mutations and MLH1 promoter methylation as predictors of germline mismatch repair gene mutation status: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Alexander M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) that displays high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) can be caused by either germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, or non-inherited transcriptional silencing of the MLH1 promoter. A correlation between MLH1 promoter methylation, specifically the 'C' region, and BRAF V600E status has been reported in CRC studies. Germline MMR mutations also greatly increase risk of endometrial cancer (EC), but no systematic review has been undertaken to determine if these tumour markers may be useful predictors of MMR mutation status in EC patients. Endometrial cancer cohorts meeting review inclusion criteria encompassed 2675 tumours from 20 studies for BRAF V600E, and 447 tumours from 11 studies for MLH1 methylation testing. BRAF V600E mutations were reported in 4/2675 (0.1%) endometrial tumours of unknown MMR mutation status, and there were 7/823 (0.9%) total sequence variants in exon 11 and 27/1012 (2.7%) in exon 15. Promoter MLH1 methylation was not observed in tumours from 32 MLH1 mutation carriers, or for 13 MSH2 or MSH6 mutation carriers. MMR mutation-negative individuals with tumour MLH1 and PMS2 IHC loss displayed MLH1 methylation in 48/51 (94%) of tumours. We have also detailed specific examples that show the importance of MLH1 promoter region, assay design, and quantification of methylation. This review shows that BRAF mutations occurs so infrequently in endometrial tumours they can be discounted as a useful marker for predicting MMR-negative mutation status, and further studies of endometrial cohorts with known MMR mutation status are necessary to quantify the utility of tumour MLH1 promoter methylation as a marker of negative germline MMR mutation status in EC patients.

  19. Enzymatic Upgrading of Heavy Crudes via Partial Oxidation or Conversion of PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A P; Davison, B H; Kuritz, T

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate new enzyme-based technologies for upgrading of heavy oils. Enzymes were selected for screening from those capable of conversion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reported in the literature. Oxidative reactions of PAHs using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant with conversion to partially oxidized products were used. The enzymes (lignin peroxidase, cytochrome c) were tested in various organic solvents and found to loose activity in pure organic solvents. A thermodynamic analysis revealed lack of effective interaction between the substrate and enzyme as the cause for low activity. The protein cytochrome c was modified to work in organic media by chemical hydrophobic group attachment. Two different modifications were made: attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and alkyl groups. Alkyl groups, being small could be attached at interior locations within the core of the enzyme and possibly near the active site. Increase in the threshold solvent concentration where maximum enzyme activity occurred indicated potential of this strategy for effective enzyme-substrate interaction. Further improvements in enzyme activity called for other diverse methods due to the unavailability of sufficient chemical modification sites. Genetic techniques were therefore explored for further improvements. These experiments focused on cloning of a gene for the fungal enzyme lignin peroxidase (lip) into yeast Pichia pastoris, which would allow easy manipulation of the gene. However, differences in the fungal and yeast cellular machinery impeded significant expression of the fungal enzyme. Several strategies were explored to allow higher-level expression of the enzyme, which was required for enzyme improvement. The strategies used in this investigation are described in the report. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. review of the research results was carried out on a regular basis (bimonthly reports and annual

  20. Culture and conversion disorder: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria and related features of conversion disorder are under revision for DSM-5, including the requirement that psychological factors accompany the symptoms or deficits in question (Criterion B) and whether conversion disorder should be re-labeled as a dissociative, rather than a somatoform, condition. We examined the cross-cultural evidence on the prevalence, characteristics, and associated features of pseudoneurological symptoms more generally, and conversion disorder in particular, in order to inform the ongoing re-evaluation of the conversion disorder category. We also examined the relationship between these constructs and dissociative symptoms and disorders across cultural groups. Searches were conducted of the mental health literature, particularly since 1994, regarding culture, race, or ethnicity factors related to conversion disorder. Many proposed DSM-5 revisions were supported, such as the elimination of Criterion B. We also found cross-cultural variability in predominant symptoms, disorder prevalence, and relationship with cultural syndromes. Additional information that may contribute to DSM-5 includes the elevated rates across cultures of traumatic exposure and psychiatric comorbidity in conversion disorder. Cross-culturally, conversion disorder is associated strongly with both dissociative and somatoform presentations, revealing no clear basis on which to locate the disorder in DSM-5. Careful consideration should be given to the possible alternatives.

  1. Prognostic value of MET gene copy number and protein expression in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of published literatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of the copy number (GCN and protein expression of the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET gene for survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains controversial. This study aims to comprehensively and quantitatively asses the suitability of MET GCN and protein expression to predict patients' survival. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched for articles comparing overall survival in patients with high MET GCN or protein expression with those with low level. Pooled hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the random and the fixed-effects models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS: Eighteen eligible studies enrolling 5,516 patients were identified. Pooled analyses revealed that high MET GCN or protein expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS (GCN: HR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.35-2.68, p<0.001; protein expression: HR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.08-2.15, p = 0.017. In Asian populations (GCN: HR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.46-3.38, p<0.001; protein expression: HR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.34-2.68, p<0.001, but not in the non-Asian subset. For adenocarcinoma, high MET GCN or protein expression indicated decreased OS (GCN: HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.10, p = 0.025; protein expression: HR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.31-2.19, p<0.001. Results were similar for multivariate analysis (GCN: HR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.15-2.25, p = 0.005; protein expression: HR = 2.18, 95% CI 1.60-2.97, p<0.001. The results of the sensitivity analysis were not materially altered and did not draw different conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Increased MET GCN or protein expression was significantly associated with poorer survival in patients with surgically resected NSCLC; this information could potentially further stratify patients in clinical treatment.

  2. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  3. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  4. "I Was Kind of Teaching Myself": Teachers' Conversations about Social Justice and Teaching for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Anne; Collier, Diane R.

    2017-01-01

    This article shares teachers' conversations within teacher inquiry groups and considers how this reflective approach has potential for transforming teachers' practices. Conversations took place at the early stages of a longer teacher inquiry project and centred on the critical interrogation of social justice-oriented children's literature. These…

  5. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  6. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  7. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  8. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  9. Civil Conversations Using Primary Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Laurel; Pereira, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Primary source documents can be a key element in conversation and deliberation. They lend authenticity to student consideration of issues facing people's democracy and stimulate student interest. In addition, conversation about a primary document leads to a much deeper understanding of that document and can raise authentic questions for further…

  10. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  11. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  12. Cosmopolitanism - Conversation with Stuart Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Forty minute conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner, filmed and edited by Haim Bresheeth. Synopsis by Sarah Harrison. Conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner on the theme of Cosmopolitanism (to be shown at the Association of Social Anthropologists Silver Jubilee conference in 2006), in March 2006

  13. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  14. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  15. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  16. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  17. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  18. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  19. Extra nuchal-type fibroma associated with elastosis, traumatic neuroma, a rare APC gene missense mutation, and a very rare MUTYH gene polymorphism: a case report and review of the literature*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Konstantinos; Sedivcová, Monika; Cerna, Katerina; Sima, Radek; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Nazeer, Tipu; Glazyrin, Alexey; Valerian, Brian T; Carlson, J Andrew

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of an extra nuchal-type fibroma in a 51-year-old male suspected to have attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (Gardner's syndrome), who presented with a longstanding buttock mass excised due to enlargement and pain. Histopathologically, lobules of haphazard, hypocellular, hyalinized collagen bundles replaced the dermis and subcutis and entrapped nerve bundles, mimicking Morton neuroma. Ramifying nerve twigs found around larger nerve fascicles showed the co-existence of traumatic neuroma. Elastic tissue stain revealed elastosis characterized by large, arborizing fibers lying between and within the hyalinized collagen bundles. Modified Masson's trichrome stain showed light blue staining of collagen bundles producing the hyalinized nodules with irregular, light red staining of collagen bundles at their periphery and within tumor collagen. Compression and/or degeneration of collagen and secondary elastosis with later entrapment by tumor collagen could explain this microscopic phenotype. By immunohistochemistry, tumor spindle cells expressed nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D1, mostly within regions of fibrosis implicating activation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-Wnt pathway. Genetic analysis showed a missense mutation in APC gene (c.7504G>A, p.G2502S in exon 15) and a functional homozygous polymorphism in the MUTYH gene (c.36+325G>C, (IVS1+5G/C)). Nuchal-type fibroma has been associated with Gardner's syndrome and trauma. In this patient, genetic predisposition coupled with repetitive, localized trauma and collagen degeneration may have provided the stimulus for the development of extra nuchal-type fibroma.

  20. Conversion of deletions during recombination in pneumococcal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Mostachfi, P; Gasc, A M; Guillot, E; Pasta, F; Sicard, M

    1989-11-01

    Genetic analysis of 16 deletions obtained in the amiA locus of pneumococcus is described. When present on donor DNA, all deletions increased drastically the frequency of wild-type recombinants in two-point crosses. This effect was maximal for deletions longer than 200 bases. It was reduced for heterologies shorter than 76 bases and did not exist for very short deletions. In three-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between two point mutations, we demonstrated that this excess of wild-type recombinants was the result of a genetic conversion. This conversion extended over several scores of bases outside the deletion. Conversion takes place during the heteroduplex stage of recombination. Therefore, in pneumococcal transformation, long heterologies participated in this heteroduplex configuration. As this conversion did not require an active DNA polymerase A gene it is proposed that the mechanism of conversion is not a DNA repair synthesis but involves breakage and ligation between DNA molecules. Conversion of deletions did not require the Hex system of correction of mismatched bases. It differs also from localized conversion. It appears that it is a process that evolved to correct errors of replication which lead to long heterologies and which are not eliminated by other systems.

  1. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  2. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  3. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  4. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  5. Literature Teaching in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To show the importance of literature teaching in English language teaching (ELT),this paper explores the relations between language, culture and literature,examines the present problems in literature teaching and possible solutions are suggested as well.

  6. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-01-01

    In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974) examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the author...

  7. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  8. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  9. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  10. Duchenne肌营养不良15例临床及基因分析并文献复习%Analysis of clinical and gene mutation on Duchenne muscular dystrophy:15 cases report with ;literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳军; 郭虎; 何燕; 黄子欢; 陈静; 郑帼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) detection of clinical features and gene deletion, and provide a reliable method for further prenatal gene diagnosis. Methods Samples of 15 DMD patients were collected with informed consent. All subjects were obtained from the department of neurology, Nanjing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from 2011 to 2013(male, age 2-14 years old, average 8.1 years old). Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was applied to detect DMD patients. the related clinical data and gene deletion results gene diagnosis were analyzed retrospectively with review of the literature. Results Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients are generally boys who exhibit symptoms of abnormal gait, muscle weakness, muscle atrophy,calf muscle pseudohypertrophy and the characteristic Gowers' sign. Abnormal increase of serum kinase in children is often associated with abnormal liver function, some patients had abnormal electrocardiogram changes and abnormal ultrasound changes. muscle lesions were observed by electromyography. 15 patients underwent MLPA examination, including 9 cases of detection for exon deletion, gene deletion mutant children accounted for 66.7%, The deletion region is concentrated in 43-55 exons. Conclusion The clinical features of DMD is helpful to improve the clinical diagnosis of the disease, gene analysis provides a reliable basis for clinical diagnosis of DMD, has a high value of diagnosis and genetic counseling.%目的:探讨假肥大型肌营养不良(DMD)的临床特征及基因缺失检测方法,为进一步产前基因诊断提供可靠方法。方法选择2011~2013年在南京儿童医院神经科就诊的15例临床诊断DMD患者(均为男性,就诊年龄2~14岁,平均8.1岁),应用多重连接依赖式探针扩增(MLPA)对患儿进行基因诊断,对经基因确诊的患者的临床相关资料及基因缺失结果进行回顾性分析

  11. Correlation between the Polymorphism of PepT1 Gene and Feed Conversion Rate in Chongren Spotty Chicken%崇仁麻鸡PepT1基因多态性与饲料转化率的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖金华; 何余湧; 侯冠彧; 谢金防; 武艳平; 陆伟; 刘林秀; 霍俊宏; 季华员; 康昭风; 谢明贵; 唐维国

    2013-01-01

    In this study 60-120 d Chongren spotty chickens were used as the test material and primers were designed according to the sequence of PepT1 gene. Then the single nucleotide polymorphisms of PepT1 gene were detected by PCR direct sequencing and its genotype was analyzed by read-through of DNA sequence along with the identification of its peak chart, which aimed to explore the relationship between PepT1 gene polymorphism and feed conversion rate in Chongren spotty chickens. Three SNP loci were found and they were completely silent mutations. A single base was transformed( G→A) on the 95st spot of exon 4 in PepT1, leading to three genotypes: AA, AB and BB. And another two mutations, which were proved identical, were detected on the 64st spot and the 70st spot of exon 6 of PepT1 gene ( C→G and A→G, respectively) , leading to two genotypes; AA and AB. By analyzing PepT1 gene polymorphism with POPGENE 32 software, PV1 ' s polymorphic locus was moderate and that of PV2 was low, although they were in Hardy - Weinberg equilibrium. Correlation analysis between SNPs genotype of PepT1 gene and feed conversion rate was carried out through SPSS 17.0 and showed that three genotypes in PV1 and two genotypes in PV2 of PepTl. gene were not significantly correlated with feed conversion rate (P>0.05).%试验以60 ~120日龄崇仁麻鸡为试验材料,根据鸡PepT1基因序列设计引物,采用PCR产物直接测序方法检测PepT1基因单核苷酸多态性,并通过对序列碱基的通读以及峰图的鉴定进行基因型分析,探讨PepT1基因多态性与崇仁麻鸡饲料转化率之间的关系.结果共检测到3个SNP位点,且均为沉默突变.其中在PepT1基因外显子4第95处发生了单碱基的改变(G→A),这个突变产生3种基因型(AA,AB和BB),在PepT1基因外显子6第64处和第70处上发现两处突变(分别是由C→G和A→G),且这两处突变具有同一性,这两个突变产生2种基因型(AA,AB).用POPGENE 32软件分析PepT1

  12. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  13. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Kurt C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Discussion Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. Summary The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of

  14. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  15. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  16. Feature conversion for concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Feature conversion for concurrent engineering integrates two modern product development paradigms. Concurrent engineering is a product development paradigm in which multiple engineering disciplines participate. It optimizes a product with respect to available resources and product quality, for which

  17. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  18. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  19. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  20. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  1. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  2. Conversational implicature in business negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀云

    2008-01-01

    Conversational implicature is a feature of language in use. This paper is trying to explore the conversational implicature phenomenonin business negotiation. From pragmatics view, it analyses the potential meaning of break off the Negotiation and carry on the negotiation in business negotiation. Through carefully selected examples, it manages to show how to behave politely in business negotiation. It's hoped that this paper can help those who are in such field to achieve successful negotiation.

  3. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Siegal; Luca Surian; Ayumi Matsuo; Alessandra Geraci; Laura Iozzi; Yuko Okumura; Shoji Itakura

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be...

  4. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  5. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  6. Bengal Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  7. Literature with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Monroe D., Ed.

    Articles concerning the teaching of literature to children are presented. "Providing Balanced Contacts with Literature for Children" covers the potential of literature in the curriculum. In "The Classics in Children's Literature," a classic is defined as a book or story or poem that usually has long outlived its author. "Fostering Lifetime Reading…

  8. Mathematics and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2016-01-01

    In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.

  9. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  10. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2015-01-01

    Impedance networks cover the entire of electric power conversion from dc (converter, rectifier), ac (inverter), to phase and frequency conversion (ac-ac) in a wide range of applications. Various converter topologies have been reported in the literature to overcome the limitations and problems...... of the traditional voltage source, current source as well as various classical buck-boost, unidirectional, and bidirectional converter topologies. Proper implementation of the impedance-source network with appropriate switching configurations and topologies reduces the number of power conversion stages in the system...... power chain, which may improve the reliability and performance of the power system. The first part of this paper provides a comprehensive review of the various impedance-source-networks-based power converters and discusses the main topologies from an application point of view. This review paper...

  11. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  13. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  14. Polarity of localised conversion in Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostachfi, P; Sicard, A M

    1987-06-01

    Localised conversion in pneumococcal transformation is a process that spans a few nucleotides when the 5'-ATTAAT/3'-TAAGTA configuration occurs at the pairing step. It was first observed in two-point crosses between an amiA mutation (amiA36) carrying this sequence and other closely linked mutants of the locus. The yield of the amiA resistance allele conversion to wild type is 20%. In order to characterize this process, which differs from long-patch conversion by the length of DNA repair, gene requirements and sequence specificity, we devised experiments to detect the reciprocal conversion, AmiA+ to AmiAr. For this purpose we examined the suppressibility by a pneumococcal informational suppressor of several nonsense mutations at the locus. Amber (UAG) and ochre (UAA) mutations are suppressed whereas UGA is not suppressed. In this genetic background, where amiA36 is partly suppressed, it was possible to select for double mutants in a cross between amiA36 and a closely linked non-suppressible marker. Direct isolation of such double mutants was also performed without any screening in crosses between amiA36 and the same linked marker in cloned DNA. The frequency of double mutants was very low (1/175) suggesting that there is no conversion of wild-type to mutant alleles. Thus conversion is a polarized process changing specifically A to C.

  15. Sequential mutations in the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor beta-subunit genes are necessary for the complete conversion to growth autonomy mediated by a truncated beta C subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, J; Hara, T; Kawai, M; Miyajima, A; Ostertag, W; Stocking, C

    1995-05-01

    An amino-terminally truncated beta C receptor (beta C-R) subunit of the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor complex mediates factor-independent and tumorigenic growth in two spontaneous mutants of a promyelocytic cell line. The constitutive activation of the JAK2 protein kinase in these mutants confirms that signaling occurs through the truncated receptor protein. Noteworthily, in addition to a 10-kb deletion in the beta C-R subunit gene encoding the truncated receptor, several secondary and independent mutations that result in the deletion or functional inactivation of the allelic beta C-R subunit and the closely related beta IL3-R subunit genes were observed in both mutants, suggesting that such mutations are necessary for the full oncogenic penetrance of the truncated beta C-R subunit. Reversion of these mutations by the expression of the wild-type beta C-R in the two mutants resulted in a fivefold decrease in cloning efficiency of the mutants in the absence of IL3, confirming a functional interaction between the wild-type and truncated proteins. Furthermore, expression of the truncated beta C-R subunit in factor-dependent myeloid cells did not immediately render the cells autonomous but increased the spontaneous frequency to factor-independent growth by 4 orders of magnitude. Implications for both leukemogenic progression and receptor-subunit interaction and signaling are discussed.

  16. Concerted evolution of duplicated protein-coding genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, D A; Bally-Cuif, L; Abukashawa, S; Payant, V; Benkel, B F

    1991-03-01

    Very rapid rates of gene conversion were observed between duplicated alpha-amylase-coding sequences in Drosophila melanogaster. This gene conversion process was also seen in the related species Drosophila erecta. Specifically, there is virtual sequence identity between the coding regions of the two genes within each species, while the sequence divergence between species is close to that expected based on their phylogenetic relationship. The flanking, noncoding regions are much more highly diverged and do not appear to be subject to gene conversion. Comparison of amylase sequences between the two species provides a clear demonstration that recurrent gene conversion does indeed lead to the concerted evolution of the gene pair.

  17. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  18. Frequency conversion of structured light

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent frequency conversion of structured light, optical beams in which the phase varies in each point of the transverse plane, from the near infrared (803nm) to the visible (527nm). The frequency conversion process makes use of sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (ppLN) crystal with the help of a 1540-nm Gaussian pump beam. We perform far-field intensity measurements of the frequency-converted field, and verify the sought-after transformation of the characteristic intensity and phase profiles for various input modes. The coherence of the frequency-conversion process is confirmed using a mode-projection technique with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. The presented results could be of great relevance to novel applications in high-resolution microscopy and quantum information processing.

  19. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer.

  1. La Conversation par le theatre (Conversation through Theater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoff, Marie-Jose

    1986-01-01

    A successful advanced college-level French conversation course using French theater as a basis for students to learn oral skills has six phases: an overview of the history of French theater, reading, adaptation of the text, rehearsal-readings, final rehearsals, and performance. (MSE)

  2. Movember: Twitter Conversations of a Hairy Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Jacobson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Movember is an annual “month-long celebration of the moustache” where men grow a mustache and raise money in the largest philanthropic endeavor for men’s health. Movember is predominantly an online campaign, and consequently, participants have actively embraced social media; this is evidenced in the 1,879,994 tweets collected during Movember 2012 in this research project. This article presents an analysis of Movember that examines how individuals use the numerous syntactical features of Twitter to engage in conversation and share information in order to develop a nuanced understanding of how people are utilizing social media as part of the social movement. While Movember has been successful in gaining traction on social media, the Twitter data point to surprising conclusions that have implications for understanding non-profits and social movements online. The following study provides two main contributions to existing sociotechnical social movement literature using a mixed-methods approach. First, the findings suggest that there is limited true conversation taking place although the stated purpose of the campaign is to facilitate conversation. Second, the findings identify that participants are more engaged with Movember as a branded movement than engaged in health promotion. While the tweets are conversational in form, they are largely not conversational in function, which points to Twitter being used as a broadcast tool in this context. These findings have broad implications for understanding how social media is used to engage individuals in social campaigns and engage with each other and share information.

  3. Organizational Knowledge Conversion and Creation Processes in a Chaotic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ștefan NESTIAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is an explorative and conceptual paper, based on the analysis and comparison of relevant literature. the purpose of the article is to clarify the differences between knowledge creating processes and knowledge conversion processes, by analysing them when confronted with a chaotic environment. the way the knowledge conversion and creation processes are presented by Ikujiro Nonaka and his co-workers suggests the necessary existence of a Ba in order to generate the spiral of knowledge creation. this implies the acceptance of a relationship between the environment and the knowledge conversion process, in which the environment influences the knowledge creation. the article is based on the hypothesis that a chaotic environment, characterized by unpredictability, non-linearity and crisis, will lead to specific ways of functioning of the knowledge creation and conversion process that highlight the relations between the two different types of processes. Starting from the general concept of resilience, herein one proposes and explains the concept of resilience of the knowledge conversion system. the role of the attractors from the chaotic environment in the creation of new knowledge is identified and explained

  4. Wavelength conversion devices and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke;

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks are currently subject to an immense interest because of the extra capacity and flexibility they provide together with the possibilities for graceful system upgrades. For full network flexibility it is very attractive to be able to translate the chann...... wavelengths in an easy way and preferably without opto-electronic conversion. Here, we will first briefly look at advantages of employing optical wavelength converters in WDM networks and next review the optical wavelength conversion devices with emphasis on recent developments....

  5. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klose Holger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354 isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications.

  6. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  7. Gene sequencing study of one patient with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis and review of literature%肺泡微石症患者1例基因测序及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪冰; 丁勇; 张亚同; 杨重庆; 孙铁英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the gene mutation sequence related to pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by the diagnosis of one patient with PAM and the sequencing analysis of SLC34A2 gene, and to review the relevant literatures. Methods A male patient from a consanguineous family was suspectedly diagnosed as PAM by clinical and imaging examinations, and was pathologically confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. Peripheral blood was taken for genetic testing, and gene SLC34A2 exons were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. Results Exon 2~13 of SLC34A2 was successfully amplified. DNA sequencing showed that two homozygous SNP were found, one was C/T in intron 2 named rs4697597, and the other was A/T in exon 8 (c. A910T). rs4697597 function analysis showed that there was no relationship with transcription and translation of SLC34A2. Exon 8 mutation made codon AAA transcribing lysine change into stop codon TAA, which might result in disfunction of SLC34A2. Conclusions This patient is a descendant of consanguineous marriage, and the mutation in exon 8 of SLC34A2 maybe the reason of the PAM occurance.%目的 通过对1例肺泡微石症(PAM)患者的诊断,并对其SLC34A2基因测序分析,查找可能导致该病发生的基因突变序列,并查阅相关文献进行复习.方法 患者男性,其父母为近亲结婚,慢性病程,经临床、影像学检查疑诊PAM,经支气管镜肺活检病理确诊.提取外周血作基因检测,对基因SLC34A2外显子进行扩增、测序和分析.结果 成功扩增2~13号外显子,DNA测序结果显示2个纯合子突变SNP:内含子2中纯合突变rs4697597和外显子8纯合突变(c.A910T).rs4697597功能分析未发现与SLC34A2的转录和翻译相关.外显子8纯合突变导致转录赖氨酸的密码子AAA突变为终止密码子TAA,可能导致SLC34A2功能缺失.结论 该患者为近亲结婚后裔,位于外显子8的SNP纯合突变可能是致使患者发生PAM的变异位点.

  8. Conversation with Marcia Baxter Magolda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Gideon L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the reconstruction of conversations and e-mail correspondences with Dr. Marcia Baxter Magolda regarding students'"ways of knowing." Dr. Baxter Magolda reveals various ways in which students beginning college learn, offers examples of effective teaching, and exemplifies principles for promoting learning. (VWC)

  9. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  10. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  11. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  12. Teachers' Conversation with Partial Autobiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    Reports a teachers' conversation group that was part of a course in a Japanese as a second language teacher education program. Explains the rationale for using this format and quotes part of a story one student wrote and two stories told by other students on a theme in the written story. Relates these two stories to histories of students'…

  13. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  14. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  15. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  16. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  17. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  18. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up a turn at a transition relevance place the turn holder will normally continue. In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up

  19. Literature and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robert

    The differences, similarities, and common goals of film and literature, as well as the ways in which each form and its associated criticism is able to illuminate the other, are discussed in this book. Individual chapters are "Literature and Film,""Literary Origins and Backgrounds of the Film,""Griffith and Eisenstein: The Uses of Literature in…

  20. Applying Literature to ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟悦

    2007-01-01

    Literature is no longer a frightening word to English language learner. Interactive teaching methods and attractive activities can help motivating Chinese university English learners. This essay will first elaborate the reasons to use literature in ELT ( English Language Teaching) class and how to apply literature to ELT class.

  1. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  2. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  3. DNA sequences required to induce localized conversion in Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P; Gasc, A M; Kyriakidis, X; Baty, D; Sicard, M

    1988-11-01

    In pneumococcal transformation a particular point mutation belonging to the amiA locus is able markedly to enhance recombination frequency when crossed with any other markers of this gene. This results from a polarized conversion of the mutation towards the wild-type sequence. In this report, by site-directed oligonucleotide mutagenesis, we have generated a series of mutants showing various degrees of conversion. We have found that the substitution 5'-ATTCAT----5'-ATTAAT is a sufficient signal for localized conversion. Changing individual bases within this sequence results in decreased conversion frequencies to levels that depend on the mutation, suggesting that there is a family to related sequences which may act as a substrate for a conversion system. Moreover, the length over which this conversion occurs has been estimated to be 12 base pairs on the average.

  4. Localized conversion in Streptococcus pneumoniae recombination: heteroduplex preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M; Lefevre, J C; Mostachfi, P; Gasc, A M; Sarda, C

    1985-08-01

    In pneumococcal transformation the frequency of recombinants between point mutations is generally proportional to distance. We have recently described an aberrant marker in the amiA locus that appeared to enhance recombination frequency when crossed with any other allele of this gene. The hyperrecombination that we have observed in two-point crosses could be explained by two hypotheses: the aberrant marker induces frequent crossovers in its vicinity or the mutant is converted to wild type. In this report we present evidence showing that, in suitable three-point crosses, this hyperrecombination does not modify the recombination frequency between outside markers, suggesting that a conversion occurs at the site of this mutation. To estimate the length over which this event occurs, we isolated very closely linked markers and used them in two-point crosses. It appears that the conversion system removes only a few base pairs (from three to 27) around the aberrant marker. This conversion process is quite different from the mismatch-repair system controlled by hex genes in pneumococcus, which involves several thousand base pairs. Moreover, we have constructed artificial heteroduplexes using separated DNA strands. It appears that only one of the two heteroduplexes is specifically converted. The conversion system acts upon 5'..ATTAAT..3'/3'.. TAAGTA..5'. A possible role of the palindrome resulting from the mutation is discussed.

  5. Reverse Conversion Schemes for Signed-Digit Number Systems: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Madhu Sudan

    2016-12-01

    Although signed-digit number systems have received a considerable attention, the transformation of signed-digit numbers back into the conventional forms, known as reverse conversion, is still a performance bottleneck of signed-digit arithmetic. In this paper, a literature survey of reverse conversion schemes for signed-digit number systems is performed on the basis of the articles published from recognized platforms for the past few decades. The survey reveals some specific problems of this field, which need further investigations.

  6. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  7. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  8. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  9. Catalytic conversions of methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezdin, S.Yu.; Dokuchaeva, T.G.; Sibarov, D.A.; Panfilova, N.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1987-07-10

    Catalysts with various amounts (from 2.0 to 6.0 mass %) of the active component were tested for estimation of the hydrogenating and dehydrogenating properties of palladium on alumina. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 5.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MPA. The yield of 4-MPA under the optical conditions found is 60-61% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 3.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MHHPA. Under the optimal conditions found the yield of 4-MHHPA is 75-80% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion.

  10. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  11. Caring, conversing, and realizing values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Bert; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Martin, James E.

    2012-01-01

    of this issue, though, is the role of conversations in humans caring for each other and the ecosystems of which they are a part. Emergency medical care, parents and children playing, and students learning a second language, are among the contexts of caring considered. Also considered are ways in which symbol......Language serves many functions for humans, but three of the most important are coordination, learning, and friendship. All of those functions were well served by the conversations from which this special issue emerged, a conference, ‘‘Grounding language in perception and (inter) action’’, held...... at Gordon College in June 2009. The conference brought together researchers primarily from three research traditions, dynamical systems theory, distributed language, and ecological psychology, and each of these perspectives is reviewed and illustrated in this special issue. The particular focus...

  12. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  13. The effect of familiarity of conversation partners on conversation turns contributed by augmented and typical speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this current research was to determine the effect of familiarity of conversation partners on contributed conversation turns to dyadic conversation between individuals who use AAC and typically speaking conversation partners. Three groups (G1-G3) participated in this study. Each group contained seven participants, including an individual who used a speech-generating device (SGD) and familiar and unfamiliar conversation partners. Each 20-min dyadic conversation was video-recorded for analysis of contributed conversation turns. The findings of the current study showed that the asymmetries of contributed conversation turns exist in both familiar and unfamiliar dyadic conversation between AAC users and typically speaking conversation partners. In addition, the asymmetry in the familiar dyadic conversation did not differ from that in the unfamiliar dyadic conversation.

  14. A Conversation with Adam Heller

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, A.; Cairns, EJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. ...

  15. Explicit Polymorphism and CPS Conversion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    programming language design , the concepts of polymorphism [14, 28, 39] and continuation-passing [38, 41, 43] are of particular interest. The use of...Principles of Programming Languages, January 1991. [9] Matthias Felleisen . The Calculi of X.-CS Conversion: A Syntactic Theory of Control and State in...Imperative Higher-Order Programming Languages. PhD thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1987. 18 [10] Matthias Felleisen and Daniel Friedman

  16. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  17. From Overlooked to Looking Over: Lesbians in Children's and Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, June

    2015-01-01

    This introduction focuses on the relative absence of lesbians in scholarly and intellectual conversations about homosexuality in children's and young adult literature. It also discusses the various articles in this special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies.

  18. Polymerization contraction and conversion of light-curing BisGMA-based methacrylate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhoven, B A; de Gee, A J; Davidson, C L

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymerization contraction and the conversion of light-curing methacrylate resins based on bisphenol-A bis(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate (BisGMA) diluted with triethylene glycol dimethyacrylate (TEGDMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) or (+/-)-2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA). The contraction measurements were carried out with a linometer, a simple device to determine true linear polymerization contraction of liquid monomers at ambient temperature. The contraction increased with the amount of diluting monomer. The estimated conversion of the BisGMA-TEGDMA, calculated using the contraction, is consistent with literature values. The BisGMA-HPMA mixtures showed high conversions at moderate contraction.

  19. Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N. J.; Brown, Penelope; Englert, Christina; Hayashi, Makoto; Heinemann, Trine; Hoymann, Gertie; Rossano, Federico; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Yoon, Kyung-Eun; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Informal verbal interaction is the core matrix for human social life. A mechanism for coordinating this basic mode of interaction is a system of turn-taking that regulates who is to speak and when. Yet relatively little is known about how this system varies across cultures. The anthropological literature reports significant cultural differences in the timing of turn-taking in ordinary conversation. We test these claims and show that in fact there are striking universals in the underlying pattern of response latency in conversation. Using a worldwide sample of 10 languages drawn from traditional indigenous communities to major world languages, we show that all of the languages tested provide clear evidence for a general avoidance of overlapping talk and a minimization of silence between conversational turns. In addition, all of the languages show the same factors explaining within-language variation in speed of response. We do, however, find differences across the languages in the average gap between turns, within a range of 250 ms from the cross-language mean. We believe that a natural sensitivity to these tempo differences leads to a subjective perception of dramatic or even fundamental differences as offered in ethnographic reports of conversational style. Our empirical evidence suggests robust human universals in this domain, where local variations are quantitative only, pointing to a single shared infrastructure for language use with likely ethological foundations. PMID:19553212

  20. More than Book Talks: Preservice Teacher Dialogue after Reading Gay and Lesbian Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author looks at how she attempted to teach her students--preservice teachers--to engage in dialogic conversation about gay and lesbian identity using children's literature with gay and lesbian characters as a jumping off point. Through her analysis, the author has identified two requirements for dialogic conversation among…

  1. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  2. Frequency Conversion Activation on the Mercury Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A J; Beach, R J; Bibeau, C; Campbell, R; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Kent, R; Van Lue, D; Liao, Z; Landron, T; Payne, S A; Schaffers, K I; Sutton, S; Fei, Y; Chai, B

    2004-09-24

    High efficiency frequency conversion while operating at average power is critical for the Mercury laser. We will demonstrate average power frequency conversion of face-cooled DKDP and YCOB crystals using a sapphire heat spreader approach.

  3. Approximating the Practice of Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to join the conversation about doctoral preparation that has been a persistent but intermittent topic of interest in educational journals. Previous articles have focused on the format of the dissertation, the purpose of the literature review, and approaches to supporting doctoral students in acquiring professional…

  4. Modern Family: Adoption and Foster Care in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often have no preparation for handling the questions and conversations that arise in the classroom when discussing literature having adoption or foster care themes. Instead of relying on personal experiences or stereotypes portrayed through the media, teachers are advised to understand the developmental tasks of children from families…

  5. Approximating the Practice of Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to join the conversation about doctoral preparation that has been a persistent but intermittent topic of interest in educational journals. Previous articles have focused on the format of the dissertation, the purpose of the literature review, and approaches to supporting doctoral students in acquiring professional…

  6. Thermal conversion of biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam Johansen, K.; Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, P.A.; Weigang, L.; Nygaard Knudsen, J.

    2003-11-01

    The main goals of the project were: 1. To improve our understanding of emissions from grate combustion of straw with special focus on sulphur dioxide, 2. To evaluate how to avoid corrosion in straw-fired boilers, 3. To initiate a mapping of the reactions of volatile metals (i.e. K, Zn and Pb) in waste incineration. The goals are achieved by means of: 1. A literature study of emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and NO{sub x} from annual biomass, 2. A detailed evaluation of K, Cl and S transformations during previous full-scale experiments, 3. An experimental investigation of the transformation of sulphur during pyrolysis and combustion of straw, sulphur and chlorine retention on a char matrix, reliability of SO{sub 2} measurements, and NO{sub x} formation from thermal conversion of straw, 4. An experimental investigation on a large scale of the formation of ash and deposit in waste incineration plants and low-temperature deposit formation and corrosion. (BA)

  7. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nguyen H; Kannangara, G S Kamali

    2013-12-21

    Presently there is a glut of glycerol as the by-product of biofuel production and it will grow as production increases. The conundrum is how we can consume this material and convert it into a more useful product. One potential route is to reform glycerol to hydrogen rich gas including synthesis gas (CO + H2) and hydrogen. However, there is recent literature on various reforming techniques which may have a bearing on the efficiency of such a process. Hence in this review reforming of glycerol at room temperature (normally photo-catalytic), catalysis at moderate and high temperature and a non-catalytic pyrolysis process are presented. The high temperature processes allow the generation of synthesis gas with the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios being suitable for synthesis of dimethyl ether, methanol and for the Fischer-Tropsch process using established catalysts. Efficient conversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen involves additional catalysts that assist the water gas shift reaction, or involves in situ capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Reforming at reduced temperatures including photo-reforming offers the opportunity of producing synthesis gas or hydrogen using single catalysts. Together, these processes will assist in overcoming the worldwide glut of glycerol, increasing the competitiveness of the biofuel production and reducing our dependency on the fossil based, hydrogen rich gas.

  8. 31 CFR 800.205 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversion. 800.205 Section 800.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.205 Conversion. The term conversion means the exercise of a right...

  9. Alkaline Hydrolysis Conversion of Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The conversion of 1,125,000 pounds of bone-dry nitrocellulose fines into a liquid fertilizer was documented. Alkaline hydrolysis was the conversion... fertilizer . Fertilizer nutrient value was 1.3% nitrogen (N), 8.0% potassium (K2O) and 0.9% phosphorus (P2O5). Conversion met all applicable federal and state safety and environmental regulations.

  10. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    . The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  11. Conversational Knowledge Process for Social Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Toyoaki

    The conversational knowledge process is a collective activity for knowledge creation, management, and application where conversational communications are used as a primary means of interaction among participating actors. In this article, I survey a suite of communication tools that augment the conversational knowledge process in order to accelerate social problem solving.

  12. Impact of a near-death experience and religious conversion on the mental health of a criminal: case report and literature review Impacto de uma experiência de quase-morte e conversão religiosa sobre a saúde mental de um criminoso: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla C. Braghetta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Near-death experiences have been defined as profound psychological events that may occur to a person while close to death or in a situation of extreme physical or emotional distress. These experiences seem to have an important effect on the patients’ mental health and may occur in several situations despite their cultural and religious beliefs. CASE DESCRIPTION: The present case report describes the positive impact of a near-death experience (Greyson scale > 7 followed by religious conversion on the mental health of a former prisoner. COMMENTS: Investigation of the role of near-death experiences by the scientific community could shed light on the coping mechanisms and moral/ethical transformations that take place in these individuals.OBJETIVO: As experiências de quase-morte são definidas como eventos psicológicos profundos, que podem ocorrer quando uma pessoa está em morte iminente ou em situação de intensa crise física ou emocional. Essas experiências parecem ter efeito importante sobre a saúde mental desses pacientes e ocorrem em diversas situações, a despeito de culturas e crenças religiosas. RELATO DE CASO: O presente relato de caso descreve a influência positiva de uma experiência de quase-morte (escala de Greyson > 7 seguida de conversão religiosa sobre a saúde mental de um ex-detento. COMENTÁRIO: A investigação do papel de experiências de quase-morte em âmbito científico poderia ajudar a elucidar os mecanismos de coping e transformações éticas e morais que ocorrem nesses indivíduos.

  13. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  14. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  15. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  16. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  17. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  18. Theology and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A collection of essays published in the journal Literature and Theology based on selected papers from the 2012 international conference of the International Society of Religion, Literature and Culture: Cultures of Transition: Presence, Absence, Memory, held at the Faculty of Theology in Copenhagen...

  19. Semiosis, art, and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heusden, B.P.

    2007-01-01

    The 'state of literature' in a visual culture is analyzed against the background of a theoretical semiotic framework based upon the distinction between three types of signs: one-place images, two-place symbols, and three-place structures. It is argued that literature is linguistic mimetic

  20. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis ident...

  1. Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  2. Semiosis, art, and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heusden, B.P.

    2007-01-01

    The 'state of literature' in a visual culture is analyzed against the background of a theoretical semiotic framework based upon the distinction between three types of signs: one-place images, two-place symbols, and three-place structures. It is argued that literature is linguistic mimetic meta-repre

  3. Teaching Literature to Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Richard W.; Appleman, Deborah; Hynds, Susan; Wilhelm, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This text for pre-service and in-service English education courses presents current methods of teaching literature to middle and high school students. The methods are based on social constructivist/socio-cultural theories of literacy learning, and incorporate research on literary response conducted by the authors. "Teaching Literature to…

  4. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  5. Education for Responsible Citizenship: Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on citizenship education. This essay is an attempt to show how deliberation is used in university classroom pedagogy, to engender in students a commitment to becoming responsible citizens of a post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, I show that controversy can be attended to through deliberation, with specific…

  6. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  8. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  9. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  10. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  11. Photochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago.

  12. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  13. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  14. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  16. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  17. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  18. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes.

  19. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  20. Polyamines and WOX genes in the recalcitrance to plant conversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raul Valle

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... apparent that the induction of the embryogenic pathway ... 1.5 atm for 15 min. Once the seeds .... vacuoles, mitochondria and chloroplasts (Slocum, 1991). Borrell et al. ..... Shoot architecture in higher plants is highly dependent.

  1. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-01-01

    RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are. Abstract Backgrou...

  2. Conversion of homothallic yeast to heterothallism through to gene disruption

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, WH

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available ). DNA content. The cellular DNA of stationary-phase cells (5 x 109 cells per sample) was extracted with perchloric acid and the DNA content determined in duplicate according to the diphenylamine method described by Stewart (1975). Herring sperm DNA... few viable spores, it should be possible to enrich for such spores by ether treatment (Rockmill et al. 1991) prior to selection for G418 resis- tance. Acknowledgements. We thank Dr. James R. Broach at Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., USA...

  3. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss...... in opposite directions towards the fulfillment of desire at one end of experience and a world of fear and despair at the other, and in relation to its notion of a better society, what interests literature is a society of contented families joined through the marriage of their adult children....

  4. Why read literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hillis Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay in question is the translation of the fourth chapter of J. Hillis Miller’s book, On literature (2002, in which he circles around questions elemental yet convoluted for literary criticism. Miller reminds us about (as ancient as archetypal dilemmas concerning the role of literature in society (e.g. Plato’s putdown of poetry and Aristotle’s defense of it and discloses contemporary judgments covertly rooted in them. The fundamental issue is why Western culture has granted literature such great authority. His argument reposes on an assumption that literary works give us access to virtual realities that are not otherwise knowable.

  5. Interview with Jill Freedman: A Conversation about Having Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbaum, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Jill Freedman is director of Evanston Family Therapy Center and a faculty member of the Chicago Center for Family Health. She has coauthored (with Gene Combs) more than 25 articles on narrative therapy and three books. The first two books are "Symbol, Story, and Ceremony: Using Metaphor in Individual and Family Therapy and Narrative Therapy:…

  6. Interview with Jill Freedman: A Conversation about Having Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbaum, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Jill Freedman is director of Evanston Family Therapy Center and a faculty member of the Chicago Center for Family Health. She has coauthored (with Gene Combs) more than 25 articles on narrative therapy and three books. The first two books are "Symbol, Story, and Ceremony: Using Metaphor in Individual and Family Therapy and Narrative Therapy: The…

  7. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  8. A Wikipedia Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Owen S

    2011-01-01

    This paper was originally designed as a literature review for a doctoral dissertation focusing on Wikipedia. This exposition gives the structure of Wikipedia and the latest trends in Wikipedia research.

  9. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment. Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  10. Literature and Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Olher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Literature and Institution. The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts and beliefs about what is understood by “literature”. Based, at first, on post-modern views of some literary critics and philosophers such as: Terry Eagleton and Jacques Derrida, this work does not intend to define literature precisely, but, mainly, put in doubt or raise questions which are highly relevant to the reflection of the professionals who work with Brazilian and Foreign Literature, as well as for the theoreticians and literary critics, who contribute to the continuity of prescriptive and pre-conceived thoughts and, at the same time, restrain the thinking of a different and more critical view of institutionalized, established values. Keywords: literature; literary text; values; institution.

  11. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  12. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  13. Video Format Conversion Chip Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of an IC, which is capable of cross-converting between various DTV standards, up to the HDTV resolution. A multi-phase FIR-based filtering algorithm is developed to perform the video scaling tasks. A dedicated fast SDRAM interface is designed in the system, providing an economical high-density storage for frame buffer. Meanwhile, film material pre-processing and frame/field rate up-conversion are also implemented in the memory control block. Finally, all the programmable parameters, such as the filter properties, can be set dynamically at run-time through an I2C interface, making the IC a very flexible system.This design has been verified through an FPGA emulation system. Subjective test of the output images indicates that the IC is a suitable and high quality solution to consumer applications.

  14. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    for identity work was introduced. The empirical starting point was progressive performativity and constructionistic process consultation with the intention to engage with a practical context, a company. The empirical study was based on a) individual interviews with three middle managers in a project......-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...... project work and professional development, and the role of Department Heads. Theoretically, the study contributes to discussions on the need for legitimizing different mixtures of bureaucratic and post bureaucratic ideals. Methodological reflections are made in the discussion as well....

  15. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  16. Representing Conversations for Scalable Overhearing

    CERN Document Server

    Gutnik, G; 10.1613/jair.1829

    2011-01-01

    Open distributed multi-agent systems are gaining interest in the academic community and in industry. In such open settings, agents are often coordinated using standardized agent conversation protocols. The representation of such protocols (for analysis, validation, monitoring, etc) is an important aspect of multi-agent applications. Recently, Petri nets have been shown to be an interesting approach to such representation, and radically different approaches using Petri nets have been proposed. However, their relative strengths and weaknesses have not been examined. Moreover, their scalability and suitability for different tasks have not been addressed. This paper addresses both these challenges. First, we analyze existing Petri net representations in terms of their scalability and appropriateness for overhearing, an important task in monitoring open multi-agent systems. Then, building on the insights gained, we introduce a novel representation using Colored Petri nets that explicitly represent legal joint conv...

  17. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  18. Nouvelles conversations avec Jacques Fontanille

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cette interview réalisée de février à mai 2014 aborde les développements les plus récents de l’œuvre de Jacques Fontanille, sémioticien français qui est une des figures phares de la sémiotique européenne. Ici le sémioticien fait le point sur la sémiotique des pratiques et sur le concept de formes de vie, sujet de son dernier ouvrage encore inédit. Au cours de ces conversations, qui prolongent celles réalisées en 2006 (PORTELA, 2006), Fontanille parle de la situation actuelle de la ...

  19. Bridging Literature and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two majors linguistics and literature in the schools of letters both in the state and private universities throughout Indonesia are commonly separated sharply. Courses of literature in the Department of Linguistics are offered minimally, such that the students of linguistics are not given a conducive atmosphere to express their literary appreciation. Likewise, courses of linguistics in the Department of Literature are very restricted, so that the students of literature are unable to analyze literary works from the points of linguistic view. This paper tries to bridge linguistics and literature. The attempt to bridge linguistics and literature is based on three postulates: (I literature consists of linguistic objects designed with an artistic end, (2 linguistic objects are formal objects, and (3 a formal account of linguistic object designed with an artistic end approximates a formal account of that artistic design. Two major directions in the approaches and emphases will be presented in the paper exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous approach tries to search for adequate description of (1 poetic language as contrasted with ordinary language, (2 language of a particular author contrasted with that of other authors, and (3 a particular literary work contrasted with other works of the same author. This part touches upon three areas of exogenous approach isolation, description, and characterization. Endogenous, on the hand, is based upon an assumption that a writer exhibits, probably without realizing it, certain systematic preferences for particular aspects of linguistic patterns. Planning a bridge between linguistics and literature is by no means without problems. Therefore, this paper also presents some possible solutions.

  20. Bridging Literature and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two majors linguistics and literature in the schools of letters both in the state and private universities throughout Indonesia are commonly separated sharply. Courses of literature in the Department of Linguistics are offered minimally, such that the students of linguistics are not given a conducive atmosphere to express their literary appreciation. Likewise, courses of linguistics in the Department of Literature are very restricted, so that the students of literature are unable to analyze literary works from the points of linguistic view. This paper tries to bridge linguistics and literature. The attempt to bridge linguistics and literature is based on three postulates: (1 literature consists of linguistic objects designed with an artistic end, (2 linguistic objects are formal objects, and (3 a formal account of linguistic object designed with an artistic end approximates a formal account of that artistic design. Two major directions in the approaches and emphases will be presented in the paper exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous approach tries to search for adequate description of (1 poetic language as contrasted with ordinary language, (2 language of a particular author contrasted with that of other authors, and (3 a particular literary work contrasted with other works of the same author. This part touches upon three areas of exogenous approach isolation, description, and characterization. Endogenous, on the hand, is based upon an assumption that a writer exhibits, probably without realizing it, certain systematic preferences for particular aspects of linguistic patterns. Planning a bridge between linguistics and literature is by no means without problems. Therefore, this paper also presents some possible solutions.

  1. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  2. Conversation and Theory of Mind: Do Children Talk Their Way to Socio-Cognitive Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosnay, Marc; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a selective review of the literature addressing the influence of young children's conversational environments and interactions on their psychological understanding of persons. Our dual purposes are to reveal some consensus on the current state of knowledge and to foster a programmatic approach to future research. The initial…

  3. Efficiency of a gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical wave energy to electrical energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Darula, Radoslav; Gravesen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical ocean wave energy to electrical energy. Two models of the device derived from standard engineering mechanics from the literature are analysed, and a model is derived from analytical mechanics considerations. From...

  4. The Journey of Organizational Unlearning: A Conversation with William H. Starbuck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of the concept "organizational unlearning" and its development since it was first introduced to the management literature and presents a useful perspective that can help to advance the conceptual development of this topic. Design/methodology/approach: Through a conversation with celebrated…

  5. The Journey of Organizational Unlearning: A Conversation with William H. Starbuck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of the concept "organizational unlearning" and its development since it was first introduced to the management literature and presents a useful perspective that can help to advance the conceptual development of this topic. Design/methodology/approach: Through a conversation with celebrated…

  6. Conversion Disorder in an Appalachian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is believed to be the manifestation of physical and/or neurological symptoms for primary gain without an identifiable organic cause. Although it is believed to be more common in rural areas, the literature examining this claim is sparse. To our knowledge, no study has been published evaluating the prevalence of CD in a rural Appalachian population. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the prevalence of CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria in a rural Appalachian psychiatric consultation service and to compare this population with control patients from the same service. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed as having CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria on a psychiatric consultation service at a rural Appalachian academic medical center during a 13-month time period. For each case, two consecutive control patients were selected from the same service and time span. There were 21 cases and 42 controls in this study, with a CD prevalence rate of 6.0% (N = 21/351). Sociodemographic, comorbidity, and recent symptomatology data were obtained. Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse, seizure disorder, antiepileptic use, neurologic referral, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and history of CD. We found it interesting that fewer cases reported alcohol and drug use. The observed prevalence of 6.0% does not support the historical theory that CD is more prevalent in rural or lower socioeconomic populations. Our data add to the characterization of the Appalachian CD population.

  7. Limits on Lepton Flavor Violation from \\mu-e-conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Marcela; Helo, Juan Carlos; Kovalenko, Sergey; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Schmidt, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the status of Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) \\mu e qq contact interactions from the view point of \\mu - e -conversion in nuclei. We consider their contribution to this LFV process via the two mechanisms on the hadronic level: direct nucleon and meson exchange ones. In the former case the quarks are embedded directly into the nucleons while in the latter in mesons which then interact with nucleons in a nucleus. We revise and in some cases reevaluate the hadronic parameters relevant for both mechanisms and calculate the contribution of the above mentioned contact interactions in coherent \\mu - e -conversion in various nuclei. Then we update the existing upper bounds and also derive new ones for the scales of the \\mu e qq contact interactions from the experimental limits on the capture rates of \\mu - e -conversion. We compare these limits with the ones derived in the literature from other LFV processes and comment on the prospects of LHC searches related to the contact \\mu e qq interactions.

  8. The chemistry of energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-05-01

    What's in store: The sustainable development of our society requires the conversion and storage of renewable energy, and these should be scaled up to serve the global primary energy consumption. This special issue on "The Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage", assembled by guest editor Dangsheng Su, contains papers dealing with these aspects, and highlights important developments in the chemistry of energy conversion and storage during the last two years.

  9. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia;

    2016-01-01

    interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design......-taking, sequencing of conversation, repair strategies and procedures. Originality/value: This is the first study proposing a systematic measurement of the dialogue orientation of online conversations that takes into consideration the role of language and communicative actions. The proposed measurement offers...

  10. [Infidelities: Learning from Therapeutic Conversations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz, José Antonio Garciandía; Alum, Jeannette Samper

    2012-09-01

    In this article the authors explore the different vicissitudes in the construction of the infidelity experience. Increase knowledge concerning infidelity beyond existing topics in the literature. Deepen the understanding of infidelity towards a sort of complexity that includes contextual aspects of each couple. A qualitative analysis of different cases of couples having experienced infidelity. Infidelity is a painful couple event requiring an individualized understanding of its construction process. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Schisming: The Collaborative Transformation from a Single Conversation to Multiple Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria

    1997-01-01

    This article examines schisming, a phenomenon that relates to how the number of members in a group is related to the interaction of the group. More specifically, schisming is the observation that in a conversation with at least four participants, the conversation may systematically split into two...... or more smaller conversations. In the data examined here, schisming is induced when, during a conversation, one person introduces a turn oriented to a subset of coparticipants who break away from the ongoing conversation and establish a new conversation while the rest of the group continues the original...

  12. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  13. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  14. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  15. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  17. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  18. STEGANALYSIS USING COLOUR MODEL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  19. Steganalysis Using Colour Model Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  20. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).