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Sample records for gene circuit analysis

  1. Frequency domain analysis of noise in autoregulated gene circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L.; Cox, Chris D.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a frequency domain technique for the analysis of intrinsic noise within negatively autoregulated gene circuits. This approach is based on the transfer function around the feedback loop (loop transmission) and the equivalent noise bandwidth of the system. The loop transmission, T, is shown to be a determining factor of the dynamics and the noise behavior of autoregulated gene circuits, and this T-based technique provides a simple and flexible method for the analysis of noise arising from any source within the gene circuit. We show that negative feedback not only reduces the variance of the noise in the protein concentration, but also shifts this noise to higher frequencies where it may have a negligible effect on the noise behavior of following gene circuits within a cascade. This predicted effect is demonstrated through the exact stochastic simulation of a two-gene cascade. The analysis elucidates important aspects of gene circuit structure that control functionality, and may provide some insights into selective pressures leading to this structure. The resulting analytical relationships have a simple form, making them especially useful as synthetic gene circuit design equations. With the exception of the linearization of Hill kinetics, this technique is general and may be applied to the analysis or design of networks of higher complexity. This utility is demonstrated through the exact stochastic simulation of an autoregulated two-gene cascade operating near instability. PMID:12671069

  2. Frequency domain analysis of noise in autoregulated gene circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Michael L.; Cox, Chris D.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a frequency domain technique for the analysis of intrinsic noise within negatively autoregulated gene circuits. This approach is based on the transfer function around the feedback loop (loop transmission) and the equivalent noise bandwidth of the system. The loop transmission, T, is shown to be a determining factor of the dynamics and the noise behavior of autoregulated gene circuits, and this T-based technique provides a simple and flexible method for the analysis of noise arisin...

  3. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  4. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Johannes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modeling of real-life processes often requires the estimation of unknown parameters. Once the parameters are found by means of optimization, it is important to assess the quality of the parameter estimates, especially if parameter values are used to draw biological conclusions from the model. Results In this paper we describe how the quality of parameter estimates can be analyzed. We apply our methodology to assess parameter determinability for gene circuit models of the gap gene network in early Drosophila embryos. Conclusion Our analysis shows that none of the parameters of the considered model can be determined individually with reasonable accuracy due to correlations between parameters. Therefore, the model cannot be used as a tool to infer quantitative regulatory weights. On the other hand, our results show that it is still possible to draw reliable qualitative conclusions on the regulatory topology of the gene network. Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous.

  5. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  6. Identification of a new gene regulatory circuit involving B cell receptor activated signaling using a combined analysis of experimental, clinical and global gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Alexandra; Meyer, Katharina; Walther, Neele; Stolz, Ailine; Feist, Maren; Hand, Elisabeth; von Bonin, Frederike; Evers, Maurits; Kohler, Christian; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Vockerodt, Martina; Klapper, Wolfram; Szczepanowski, Monika; Murray, Paul G; Bastians, Holger; Trümper, Lorenz; Spang, Rainer; Kube, Dieter

    2016-07-26

    To discover new regulatory pathways in B lymphoma cells, we performed a combined analysis of experimental, clinical and global gene expression data. We identified a specific cluster of genes that was coherently expressed in primary lymphoma samples and suppressed by activation of the B cell receptor (BCR) through αIgM treatment of lymphoma cells in vitro. This gene cluster, which we called BCR.1, includes numerous cell cycle regulators. A reduced expression of BCR.1 genes after BCR activation was observed in different cell lines and also in CD10+ germinal center B cells. We found that BCR activation led to a delayed entry to and progression of mitosis and defects in metaphase. Cytogenetic changes were detected upon long-term αIgM treatment. Furthermore, an inverse correlation of BCR.1 genes with c-Myc co-regulated genes in distinct groups of lymphoma patients was observed. Finally, we showed that the BCR.1 index discriminates activated B cell-like and germinal centre B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma supporting the functional relevance of this new regulatory circuit and the power of guided clustering for biomarker discovery.

  7. CADAT integrated circuit mask analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CADAT System Mask Analysis Program (MAPS2) is automated software tool for analyzing integrated-circuit mask design. Included in MAPS2 functions are artwork verification, device identification, nodal analysis, capacitance calculation, and logic equation generation.

  8. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  9. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Mario A; Stelling, Jörg

    2011-02-01

    De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  10. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells.

  11. Rett syndrome: genes, synapses, circuits and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek eBanerjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of the nervous system proceeds through a set of complex checkpoints which arise from a combination of sequential gene expression and early neural activity sculpted by the environment. Genetic and environmental insults lead to neurodevelopmental disorders which encompass a large group of diseases that result from anatomical and physiological abnormalities during maturation and development of brain circuits. Rett syndrome (RTT is a postnatal neurological disorder of genetic origin, caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. It features neuropsychiatric abnormalities like motor dysfunctions and mild to severe cognitive impairment. This review discusses several key questions and attempts to evaluate recently developed animal models, cell-type specific function of MeCP2, defects in neural circuit plasticity and possible therapeutic strategies. Finally, we also discuss how genes, proteins and overlapping signaling pathways affect the molecular etiology of apparently unrelated neuropsychiatric disorders, an understanding of which can offer novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. MAGIA2: from miRNA and genes expression data integrative analysis to microRNA–transcription factor mixed regulatory circuits (2012 update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, Andrea; Sales, Gabriele; Coppe, Alessandro; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Romualdi, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    MAGIA2 (http://gencomp.bio.unipd.it/magia2) is an update, extension and evolution of the MAGIA web tool. It is dedicated to the integrated analysis of in silico target prediction, microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression data for the reconstruction of post-transcriptional regulatory networks. miRNAs are fundamental post-transcriptional regulators of several key biological and pathological processes. As miRNAs act prevalently through target degradation, their expression profiles are expected to be inversely correlated to those of the target genes. Low specificity of target prediction algorithms makes integration approaches an interesting solution for target prediction refinement. MAGIA2 performs this integrative approach supporting different association measures, multiple organisms and almost all target predictions algorithms. Nevertheless, miRNAs activity should be viewed as part of a more complex scenario where regulatory elements and their interactors generate a highly connected network and where gene expression profiles are the result of different levels of regulation. The updated MAGIA2 tries to dissect this complexity by reconstructing mixed regulatory circuits involving either miRNA or transcription factor (TF) as regulators. Two types of circuits are identified: (i) a TF that regulates both a miRNA and its target and (ii) a miRNA that regulates both a TF and its target. PMID:22618880

  13. MAGIA²: from miRNA and genes expression data integrative analysis to microRNA-transcription factor mixed regulatory circuits (2012 update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, Andrea; Sales, Gabriele; Coppe, Alessandro; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Romualdi, Chiara

    2012-07-01

    MAGIA(2) (http://gencomp.bio.unipd.it/magia2) is an update, extension and evolution of the MAGIA web tool. It is dedicated to the integrated analysis of in silico target prediction, microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression data for the reconstruction of post-transcriptional regulatory networks. miRNAs are fundamental post-transcriptional regulators of several key biological and pathological processes. As miRNAs act prevalently through target degradation, their expression profiles are expected to be inversely correlated to those of the target genes. Low specificity of target prediction algorithms makes integration approaches an interesting solution for target prediction refinement. MAGIA(2) performs this integrative approach supporting different association measures, multiple organisms and almost all target predictions algorithms. Nevertheless, miRNAs activity should be viewed as part of a more complex scenario where regulatory elements and their interactors generate a highly connected network and where gene expression profiles are the result of different levels of regulation. The updated MAGIA(2) tries to dissect this complexity by reconstructing mixed regulatory circuits involving either miRNA or transcription factor (TF) as regulators. Two types of circuits are identified: (i) a TF that regulates both a miRNA and its target and (ii) a miRNA that regulates both a TF and its target.

  14. Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saudemont

    Full Text Available Echinoderms, which are phylogenetically related to vertebrates and produce large numbers of transparent embryos that can be experimentally manipulated, offer many advantages for the analysis of the gene regulatory networks (GRN regulating germ layer formation. During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis. How this signaling center controls patterning and morphogenesis of the embryo is not understood. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the GRN deployed in response to the activity of this signaling center in the embryos of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, in which studies with high spatial resolution are possible. By using a combination of in situ hybridization screening, overexpression of mRNA, recombinant ligand treatments, and morpholino-based loss-of-function studies, we identified a cohort of transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed in the ventral ectoderm, dorsal ectoderm, and interposed neurogenic ("ciliary band" region in response to the known key signaling molecules Nodal and BMP2/4 and defined the epistatic relationships between the most important genes. The resultant GRN showed a number of striking features. First, Nodal was found to be essential for the expression of all ventral and dorsal marker genes, and BMP2/4 for all dorsal genes. Second, goosecoid was identified as a central player in a regulatory sub-circuit controlling mouth formation, while tbx2/3 emerged as a critical factor for differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm. Finally, and unexpectedly, a neurogenic ectoderm regulatory circuit characterized by expression of "ciliary band" genes was triggered in the absence of TGF beta signaling. We propose a novel model for ectoderm regionalization, in which neural ectoderm is the default fate in the absence of TGF beta signaling, and suggest that the stomodeal and neural subcircuits that we

  15. Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits using D-VASim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    A genetic logic circuit is a gene regulator network implemented by re-engineering the DNA of a cell, in order to controlgene expression or metabolic pathways, through a logic combination of external signals, such as chemicals or proteins. As for electroniclogic circuits, timing and propagation...... delay analysis may play a very significant role in the designing of genetic logic circuits. In thisdemonstration, we present the capability of D-VASim (Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator) to perform the timing and propagationdelay analysis of genetic logic circuits. Using D-VASim, the timing...... and propagation delay analysis of single as well as cascaded geneticlogic circuits can be performed. D-VASim allows user to change the circuit parameters during runtime simulation to observe its effectson circuit’s timing behavior. The results obtained from D-VASim can be used not only to characterize the timing...

  16. Design of analog circuits through symbolic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhfakh, Mourad; V Fernández, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic analyzers have the potential to offer knowledge to sophomores as well as practitioners of analog circuit design. Actually, they are an essential complement to numerical simulators, since they provide insight into circuit behavior which numerical analyzers do not provide. Symbolic analysis of electronic circuits addresses the generation of symbolic expressions for the parameters that describe the performance of linear and nonlinear circuits in three domains: DC, AC and time; some or all the circuit parameters can be kept as symbols. Due to the fact that these expressions remain va

  17. Constraint and contingency in multifunctional gene regulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Wagner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Gene regulatory circuits drive the development, physiology, and behavior of organisms from bacteria to humans. The phenotypes or functions of such circuits are embodied in the gene expression patterns they form. Regulatory circuits are typically multifunctional, forming distinct gene expression patterns in different embryonic stages, tissues, or physiological states. Any one circuit with a single function can be realized by many different regulatory genotypes. Multifunctionality presumably constrains this number, but we do not know to what extent. We here exhaustively characterize a genotype space harboring millions of model regulatory circuits and all their possible functions. As a circuit's number of functions increases, the number of genotypes with a given number of functions decreases exponentially but can remain very large for a modest number of functions. However, the sets of circuits that can form any one set of functions becomes increasingly fragmented. As a result, historical contingency becomes widespread in circuits with many functions. Whether a circuit can acquire an additional function in the course of its evolution becomes increasingly dependent on the function it already has. Circuits with many functions also become increasingly brittle and sensitive to mutation. These observations are generic properties of a broad class of circuits and independent of any one circuit genotype or phenotype.

  18. Analysis of circuits including magnetic cores (MTRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, G. R.; Nitzan, D.; Herndon, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of automated circuit analysis computer program to provide transient analysis of circuits with magnetic cores is discussed. Allowance is made for complications caused by nonlinearity of switching core model and magnetic coupling among loop currents. Computer program is conducted on Univac 1108 computer using FORTRAN IV.

  19. The emergy analysis of loop circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Feng, Xiao

    2008-12-01

    Emergy analysis can analyze the resource utilization and environmental performance of a system. Loop circuit is a common structure in the process industry, but when emergy analysis is carried out to such structure, mistakes such as emergy double counting often occur. To avoid emergy double counting, two types of loop circuit-direct loop circuit and indirect loop circuit-are theoretically distinguished, and the methods to avoid such mistake are proposed. Finally, PVC production and vinyl acetate production are adopted to demonstrate the methods.

  20. Tools and Principles for Microbial Gene Circuit Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Buck, Martin; Wang, Baojun

    2016-02-27

    Synthetic biologists aim to construct novel genetic circuits with useful applications through rational design and forward engineering. Given the complexity of signal processing that occurs in natural biological systems, engineered microbes have the potential to perform a wide range of desirable tasks that require sophisticated computation and control. Realising this goal will require accurate predictive design of complex synthetic gene circuits and accompanying large sets of quality modular and orthogonal genetic parts. Here we present a current overview of the versatile components and tools available for engineering gene circuits in microbes, including recently developed RNA-based tools that possess large dynamic ranges and can be easily programmed. We introduce design principles that enable robust and scalable circuit performance such as insulating a gene circuit against unwanted interactions with its context, and we describe efficient strategies for rapidly identifying and correcting causes of failure and fine-tuning circuit characteristics.

  1. The analysis and design of linear circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Roland E; Toussaint, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, 6e gives the reader the opportunity to not only analyze, but also design and evaluate linear circuits as early as possible. The text's abundance of problems, applications, pedagogical tools, and realistic examples helps engineers develop the skills needed to solve problems, design practical alternatives, and choose the best design from several competing solutions. Engineers searching for an accessible introduction to resistance circuits will benefit from this book that emphasizes the early development of engineering judgment.

  2. Rapid, modular and reliable construction of complex mammalian gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guye, Patrick; Li, Yinqing; Wroblewska, Liliana; Duportet, Xavier; Weiss, Ron

    2013-09-01

    We developed a framework for quick and reliable construction of complex gene circuits for genetically engineering mammalian cells. Our hierarchical framework is based on a novel nucleotide addressing system for defining the position of each part in an overall circuit. With this framework, we demonstrate construction of synthetic gene circuits of up to 64 kb in size comprising 11 transcription units and 33 basic parts. We show robust gene expression control of multiple transcription units by small molecule inducers in human cells with transient transfection and stable chromosomal integration of these circuits. This framework enables development of complex gene circuits for engineering mammalian cells with unprecedented speed, reliability and scalability and should have broad applicability in a variety of areas including mammalian cell fermentation, cell fate reprogramming and cell-based assays.

  3. No tradeoff between versatility and robustness in gene circuit motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L.

    2016-05-01

    Circuit motifs are small directed subgraphs that appear in real-world networks significantly more often than in randomized networks. In the Boolean model of gene circuits, most motifs are realized by multiple circuit genotypes. Each of a motif's constituent circuit genotypes may have one or more functions, which are embodied in the expression patterns the circuit forms in response to specific initial conditions. Recent enumeration of a space of nearly 17 million three-gene circuit genotypes revealed that all circuit motifs have more than one function, with the number of functions per motif ranging from 12 to nearly 30,000. This indicates that some motifs are more functionally versatile than others. However, the individual circuit genotypes that constitute each motif are less robust to mutation if they have many functions, hinting that functionally versatile motifs may be less robust to mutation than motifs with few functions. Here, I explore the relationship between versatility and robustness in circuit motifs, demonstrating that functionally versatile motifs are robust to mutation despite the inherent tradeoff between versatility and robustness at the level of an individual circuit genotype.

  4. Engineering Synthetic Gene Circuits in Living Cells with CRISPR Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusiak, Barbara; Cleto, Sara; Perez-Piñera, Pablo; Lu, Timothy K

    2016-07-01

    One of the goals of synthetic biology is to build regulatory circuits that control cell behavior, for both basic research purposes and biomedical applications. The ability to build transcriptional regulatory devices depends on the availability of programmable, sequence-specific, and effective synthetic transcription factors (TFs). The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system, recently harnessed for transcriptional regulation in various heterologous host cells, offers unprecedented ease in designing synthetic TFs. We review how CRISPR can be used to build synthetic gene circuits and discuss recent advances in CRISPR-mediated gene regulation that offer the potential to build increasingly complex, programmable, and efficient gene circuits in the future.

  5. Chaotic memristive circuit: equivalent circuit realization and dynamical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Zhou Guo-Hua; Ma Zheng-Hua; Zou Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a practical equivalent circuit of an active flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth piecewise-quadratic nonlinearity is designed and an experimental chaotic memristive circuit is implemented.The chaotic memristive circuit has an equilibrium set and its stability is dependent on the initial state of the memristor.The initial state-dependent and the circuit parameter-dependent dynamics of the chaotic memristive circuit are investigated via phase portraits,bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents.Both experimental and simulation results validate the proposed equivalent circuit realization of the active flux-controlled memristor.

  6. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  7. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  8. State-Space Formulation for Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marin, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new state-space approach for temporal analysis of electrical circuits. The method systematically obtains the state-space formulation of nondegenerate linear networks without using concepts of topology. It employs nodal/mesh systematic analysis to reduce the number of undesired variables. This approach helps students to…

  9. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  10. Effects of cell cycle noise on excitable gene circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2016-01-01

    We assess the impact of cell cycle noise on gene circuit dynamics. For bistable genetic switches and excitable circuits, we find that transitions between metastable states most likely occur just after cell division and that this concentration effect intensifies in the presence of transcriptional delay. We explain this concentration effect with a 3-states stochastic model. For genetic oscillators, we quantify the temporal correlations between daughter cells induced by cell division. Temporal correlations must be captured properly in order to accurately quantify noise sources within gene networks.

  11. Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Current Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    T. Dostal; A. I. Rybin

    2001-01-01

    A special method of the nodal analysis of the circuits containing several types of the multiport current conveyors is presented in this paper. The method is based on the given regular and homogeneous models of the irregular current conveyors by the gyrators. Then a diakoptic solving and modification of the inversion of the admittance matrix is applied

  12. Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dostal

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A special method of the nodal analysis of the circuits containingseveral types of the multiport current conveyors is presented in thispaper. The method is based on the given regular and homogeneous modelsof the irregular current conveyors by the gyrators. Then a diakopticsolving and modification of the inversion of the admittance matrix isapplied

  13. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op...

  14. Microprocessors as a Vehicle for Teaching Circuit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Emil C.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the premise that most engineering students will own their own microcomputers, discusses the teaching of circuit analysis, possible directions to be taken in hardware analysis, and impact on the mathematics related to circuit analysis. (SK)

  15. Hox genes: choreographers in neural development, architects of circuit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippidou, Polyxeni; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2013-10-02

    The neural circuits governing vital behaviors, such as respiration and locomotion, are comprised of discrete neuronal populations residing within the brainstem and spinal cord. Work over the past decade has provided a fairly comprehensive understanding of the developmental pathways that determine the identity of major neuronal classes within the neural tube. However, the steps through which neurons acquire the subtype diversities necessary for their incorporation into a particular circuit are still poorly defined. Studies on the specification of motor neurons indicate that the large family of Hox transcription factors has a key role in generating the subtypes required for selective muscle innervation. There is also emerging evidence that Hox genes function in multiple neuronal classes to shape synaptic specificity during development, suggesting a broader role in circuit assembly. This Review highlights the functions and mechanisms of Hox gene networks and their multifaceted roles during neuronal specification and connectivity.

  16. Construction and Analysis of Electronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ashley N.

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Environmental Technical Branch produces many various types of aeronautical research that benefits the NASA mission for space exploration and in turn, produces new technology for our nation. One of the present goals of the Aviation Environmental Technical Branch is to create better engines for airplanes by testing supersonic jet propulsion and safe fuel combustion. During the summer of 2004, I was hired by Vincent Sattenvhite Chief executive of the Aviation Environmental Technical Branch to Assist Yves Lamothe with a fuel igniter circuit. Yves Lamothe is an electrical engineer who is currently working on safe fuel combustion testing. This testing is planned to determine the minimum ignition energy for fuel and air vapors of current and alternative fuels under simulated flight conditions. An air temperature bath will provide simulated flight profile temperatures and the heat fluxes to the test chamber. I was assigned with Yves to help complete the igniter circuit which consists of a 36k voltage supply an oscilloscope, and a high voltage transistor switch. During my tenure in the L.E.C.I.R.P. program I studied the basics of electricity and circuitry along with two other projects that I completed. In the beginning of my internship, I devote all of my time to research the aspects of circuitry so that I would be prepared for the projects that I was assigned to do. I read about lessons on; the basic physical concepts of electronics, Electrical units, Basic dc circuits, direct current circuit analysis, resistance and cell batteries, various types of magnetism , Alternating current basics, inductance, and power supplies. I received work sheets and math equations from my Mentor so that I could be able to apply these concepts into my work. After I complete my studies, I went on to construct a LED chaser circuit which displays a series of light patterns using a 555 timer. I incorporated a switch and motion detector into the circuit to create basic alarm system

  17. Performance analysis of electrical circuits /PANE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Steinberg, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    Automated statistical and worst case computer program has been designed to perform dc and ac steady circuit analyses. The program determines the worst case circuit performance by solving circuit equations.

  18. Photonic gene circuits by optically addressable siRNA-Au nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Somin Eunice; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Park, Younggeun; Xu, Ren; Brennan, James S; Bissell, Mina J; Lee, Luke P

    2012-09-25

    The precise perturbation of gene circuits and the direct observation of signaling pathways in living cells are essential for both fundamental biology and translational medicine. Current optogenetic technology offers a new paradigm of optical control for cells; however, this technology relies on permanent genomic modifications with light-responsive genes, thus limiting dynamic reconfiguration of gene circuits. Here, we report precise control of perturbation and reconfiguration of gene circuits in living cells by optically addressable siRNA-Au nanoantennas. The siRNA-Au nanoantennas fulfill dual functions as selectively addressable optical receivers and biomolecular emitters of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Using siRNA-Au nanoantennas as optical inputs to existing circuit connections, photonic gene circuits are constructed in living cells. We show that photonic gene circuits are modular, enabling subcircuits to be combined on-demand. Photonic gene circuits open new avenues for engineering functional gene circuits useful for fundamental bioscience, bioengineering, and medical applications.

  19. Engineering robust and tunable spatial structures with synthetic gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wentao; Blanchard, Andrew E; Liao, Chen; Lu, Ting

    2017-01-25

    Controllable spatial patterning is a major goal for the engineering of biological systems. Recently, synthetic gene circuits have become promising tools to achieve the goal; however, they need to possess both functional robustness and tunability in order to facilitate future applications. Here we show that, by harnessing the dual signaling and antibiotic features of nisin, simple synthetic circuits can direct Lactococcus lactis populations to form programmed spatial band-pass structures that do not require fine-tuning and are robust against environmental and cellular context perturbations. Although robust, the patterns are highly tunable, with their band widths specified by the external nisin gradient and cellular nisin immunity. Additionally, the circuits can direct cells to consistently generate designed patterns, even when the gradient is driven by structured nisin-producing bacteria and the patterning cells are composed of multiple species. A mathematical model successfully reproduces all of the observed patterns. Furthermore, the circuits allow us to establish predictable structures of synthetic communities and controllable arrays of cellular stripes and spots in space. This study offers new synthetic biology tools to program spatial structures. It also demonstrates that a deep mining of natural functionalities of living systems is a valuable route to build circuit robustness and tunability.

  20. A recursive network approach can identify constitutive regulatory circuits in gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Monica Francesca; Casorelli, Ida; Colosimo, Alfredo; Blasi, Francesco Simone; Bignami, Margherita; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2005-03-01

    The activity of the cell is often coordinated by the organisation of proteins into regulatory circuits that share a common function. Genome-wide expression profiles might contain important information on these circuits. Current approaches for the analysis of gene expression data include clustering the individual expression measurements and relating them to biological functions as well as modelling and simulation of gene regulation processes by additional computer tools. The identification of the regulative programmes from microarray experiments is limited, however, by the intrinsic difficulty of linear methods to detect low-variance signals and by the sensitivity of the different approaches. Here we face the problem of recognising invariant patterns of correlations among gene expression reminiscent of regulation circuits. We demonstrate that a recursive neural network approach can identify genetic regulation circuits from expression data for ribosomal and genome stability genes. The proposed method, by greatly enhancing the sensitivity of microarray studies, allows the identification of important aspects of genetic regulation networks and might be useful for the discrimination of the different players involved in regulation circuits. Our results suggest that the constitutive regulatory networks involved in the generic organisation of the cell display a high degree of clustering depending on a modular architecture.

  1. Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits through mixed integer non-linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits.

  2. Shuttle Electrical Power Analysis Program (SEPAP) distribution circuit analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation was made of the operating parameters of the shuttle electrical power distribution circuit under load conditions encountered during a normal Sortie 2 Mission with emphasis on main periods of liftoff and landing.

  3. Equivalent circuit models for ac impedance data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    A least-squares fitting routine has been developed for the analysis of ac impedance data. It has been determined that the checking of the derived equations for a particular circuit with a commercially available electronics circuit program is essential. As a result of the investigation described, three equivalent circuit models were selected for use in the analysis of ac impedance data.

  4. Difference-Equation/Flow-Graph Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, I. M.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical technique enables rapid, approximate analyses of electronic circuits containing linear and nonlinear elements. Practiced in variety of computer languages on large and small computers; for circuits simple enough, programmable hand calculators used. Although some combinations of circuit elements make numerical solutions diverge, enables quick identification of divergence and correction of circuit models to make solutions converge.

  5. Logic analysis and verification of n-input genetic logic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Nature is using genetic logic circuits to regulate the fundamental processes of life. These genetic logic circuits are triggered by a combination of external signals, such as chemicals, proteins, light and temperature, to emit signals to control other gene expressions or metabolic pathways...... accordingly. As compared to electronic circuits, genetic circuits exhibit stochastic behavior and do not always behave as intended. Therefore, there is a growing interest in being able to analyze and verify the logical behavior of a genetic circuit model, prior to its physical implementation in a laboratory....... In this paper, we present an approach to analyze and verify the Boolean logic of a genetic circuit from the data obtained through stochastic analog circuit simulations. The usefulness of this analysis is demonstrated through different case studies illustrating how our approach can be used to verify the expected...

  6. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqian Zhang; Quan Li; Wei Cao; Weisheng Yue; Jianqiang Gu; Zhen Tian; Jiaguang Han; Weili Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials have been demonstrated over a significant portion of the electromagnetic spectra from radio,microwave,and terahertz (THz) to the optical regimes.The unique properties of metamaterials are not attainable with naturally occurring materials[1].Thus,enormous applications in devices and techniques,such as superlens,cloaking antenna,and sub-wavelength photolithography are enabled[2-5].The capability of metamaterials has been broadly expanded because they allow precise control of the electromagnetic responses.The appreciation of electromagnetic response control through metamaterial structures provides unique benefits in the design of versatile devices,including filters,modulators,and switchable components.%An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered.

  7. The program of the analysis crosstalk in circuits PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirotко V. K.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The brief review of existing programs of the analysis of electromagnetic compatibility for circuits PCB is given. Advantages of the developed program of the analysis are shown. The description of the developed method of a reduction of equivalent circuits for circuits PCB is given. This method provides fast and exact calculation crosstalk for circuits PCB of a high-speed digital equipment. Data on some checks of the program are given, confirming its high speed and sufficient accuracy.

  8. A linear circuit analysis program with stiff systems capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C. H.; Bavuso, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Several existing network analysis programs have been modified and combined to employ a variable topological approach to circuit translation. Efficient numerical integration techniques are used for transient analysis.

  9. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op-amps is explained. It is demonstrated in a simple manner that the constant gain-bandwidth product of the conventional op-amp and the constant bandwidth of the CFB op-amp are both in accordance with bas...

  10. Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code (EGCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolader, Glenn E.; Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Batteh, Jad H.; Scanlon, James J., III

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering code that simulates the performance of a railgun/power supply system. The code, named EGCAC (Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code), accounts for many performance degrading effects including viscous drag on the armature, viscous drag on the gas being pushed in front of the projectile, entrained gas that must be accelerated in front of the projectile, time-dependent rail resistance, armature resistance, system resistance, and ablation drag. EGCAC has been utilized to predict railgun performance up to a velocity of approximately 4 km/s for experiments at several laboratories. In this paper, the theory of EGCAC is described, and sample calculations are presented.

  11. Modular construction of mammalian gene circuits using TALE transcriptional repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinqing; Jiang, Yun; Chen, He; Liao, Weixi; Li, Zhihua; Weiss, Ron; Xie, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches using feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation.

  12. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  13. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1978-11-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directy related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  14. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  15. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-09-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  16. Decreasing the stochasticity of mammalian gene expression by a synthetic gene circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevozhay, Dmitry; Zal, Tomasz; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    Gene therapy and functional genetic studies usually require precisely controlled and uniform gene expression in a population of cells for reliable level of protein production. Due to this requirement, stochastic gene expression is perceived as undesirable in these fields and ideally has to be minimized. The number of approaches for decreasing gene expression stochasticity in mammalian cells is limited. This creates an unmet need to develop new gene expression systems for this purpose. Based on earlier synthetic constructs in yeast, we developed and assessed a negative feedback-based mammalian gene circuit, with uniform and low level of stochasticity in gene expression at different levels of induction. In addition, this new synthetic construct enables highly precise gene expression control in mammalian cells, due to the linear dependence of gene expression on the inducer concentration applied to the system. This mammalian gene expression circuit has potential applicability for the development of new treatment modalities in gene therapy and research tools in functional genetics. In addition, this work creates a roadmap for moving synthetic gene circuits from microbes into mammalian cells.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CIRCUIT TOLERANCE BASED ON RANDOM SET THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo Analysis has been an accepted method for circuit tolerance analysis,but the heavy computational complexity has always prevented its applications.Based on random set theory,this paper presents a simple and flexible tolerance analysis method to estimate circuit yield.It is the alternative to Monte Carlo analysis,but reduces the number of calculations dramatically.

  18. Genome engineering using a synthetic gene circuit in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Park, Seung-Hwan; Pan, Jae-Gu; Kim, Eui-Joong; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-03-31

    Genome engineering without leaving foreign DNA behind requires an efficient counter-selectable marker system. Here, we developed a genome engineering method in Bacillus subtilis using a synthetic gene circuit as a counter-selectable marker system. The system contained two repressible promoters (B. subtilis xylA (Pxyl) and spac (Pspac)) and two repressor genes (lacI and xylR). Pxyl-lacI was integrated into the B. subtilis genome with a target gene containing a desired mutation. The xylR and Pspac-chloramphenicol resistant genes (cat) were located on a helper plasmid. In the presence of xylose, repression of XylR by xylose induced LacI expression, the LacIs repressed the Pspac promoter and the cells become chloramphenicol sensitive. Thus, to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol, the cell must delete Pxyl-lacI by recombination between the wild-type and mutated target genes. The recombination leads to mutation of the target gene. The remaining helper plasmid was removed easily under the chloramphenicol absent condition. In this study, we showed base insertion, deletion and point mutation of the B. subtilis genome without leaving any foreign DNA behind. Additionally, we successfully deleted a 2-kb gene (amyE) and a 38-kb operon (ppsABCDE). This method will be useful to construct designer Bacillus strains for various industrial applications.

  19. GLITCH ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION IN DIGITAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazard in digital circuits is unnecessary transitions due to gate propagation delay in that circuit. Hazards occur due to uneven delay offered in the path of the various ongoing signals. One of the important reasons for power dissipation in CMOS circuits is the switching activity .This include activities such as spurious pulses, called glitches. Power optimization techniques that concentrate on the reduction of switching power dissipation of a given circuit are called glitch reduction techniques. In this paper, we analyse various Glitch reduction techniques such as Hazard filtering Technique, Balanced Path Technique, Multiple Threshold Technique and Gate Freezing Technique. We also measure the parameters such as noise and delay of the circuits on application of various techniques to check the reliability of different circuits in various situations.

  20. Oscillator circuits frontiers in design, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book surveys recent developments in the design, analysis and applications of oscillator circuit design. It highlights developments in the analysis of synchronization and wave phenomena, new analytical and design methods and their application, and novel engineering applications of oscillator circuits.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of penta-rhythmic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Knapper, Drake E.; Shilnikov, Andrey L.

    2016-12-01

    Inhibitory circuits of relaxation oscillators are often-used models for dynamics of biological networks. We present a qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of such a circuit constituted by three generic oscillators (of a Fitzhugh-Nagumo type) as its nodes coupled reciprocally. Depending on inhibitory strengths, and parameters of individual oscillators, the circuit exhibits polyrhythmicity of up to five simultaneously stable rhythms. With methods of bifurcation analysis and phase reduction, we investigate qualitative changes in stability of these circuit rhythms for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we quantify robustness of the rhythms maintained under random perturbations by monitoring phase diffusion in the circuit. Our findings allow us to describe how circuit dynamics relate to dynamics of individual nodes. We also find that quantitative and qualitative stability properties of polyrhythmicity do not always align.

  2. Performance Analysis of Modified QSERL Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on a new approach for minimizing energy consumption in quasi static energy recoverylogic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the non adiabatic losses completely.Energy recovering circuitry based on adiabatic principles is a promising technique leading towards lowpowerhigh performance circuit design. The efficiency of such circuits may be increased by reducing theadiabatic and non-adiabatic losses drawn by them during the charging and recovery operations. In thispaper, performance of the proposed logic style is analyzed and compared with CMOS in theirrepresentative inverters, gates, flip flops and adder circuits. All the circuits were simulated by VIRTUOSOSPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18μm technology. In our proposed inverter the energy efficiency hasbeen improved to almost 30% & 20% upto 20MHz and 20fF external load capacitance in comparison toCMOS & QSERL circuits respectively. Our proposed circuit provides energy efficient performance up to100 MHz and thus it has proven to be used in high-performance VLSI circuitry.

  3. Impact of the cell division cycle on gene circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Veronika; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    In growing cells, protein synthesis and cell growth are typically not synchronous, and, thus, protein concentrations vary over the cell division cycle. We have developed a theoretical description of genetic regulatory systems in bacteria that explicitly considers the cell division cycle to investigate its impact on gene expression. We calculate the cell-to-cell variations arising from cells being at different stages in the division cycle for unregulated genes and for basic regulatory mechanisms. These variations contribute to the extrinsic noise observed in single-cell experiments, and are most significant for proteins with short lifetimes. Negative autoregulation buffers against variation of protein concentration over the division cycle, but the effect is found to be relatively weak. Stronger buffering is achieved by an increased protein lifetime. Positive autoregulation can strongly amplify such variation if the parameters are set to values that lead to resonance-like behaviour. For cooperative positive autoregulation, the concentration variation over the division cycle diminishes the parameter region of bistability and modulates the switching times between the two stable states. The same effects are seen for a two-gene mutual-repression toggle switch. By contrast, an oscillatory circuit, the repressilator, is only weakly affected by the division cycle.

  4. AN ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HIGH-SPEED CIRCUIT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new method for analyzing high-speed circuit systems is presented. The method adds transmission line end currents to the circuit variables of the classical modified nodal approach. Then the matrix equation describing high-speed circuit system can be formulated directly and analyzed conveniently for its normative form. A time-domain analysis method for transmission lines is also introduced. The two methods are combined together to efficiently analyze high-speed circuit systems having general transmission lines. Numerical experiment is presented and the results are compared with that calculated by Hspice.

  5. Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…

  6. The clock gene circuit in Arabidopsis includes a repressilator with additional feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Edwards, Kieron D; Southern, Megan M; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J

    2012-03-06

    Circadian clocks synchronise biological processes with the day/night cycle, using molecular mechanisms that include interlocked, transcriptional feedback loops. Recent experiments identified the evening complex (EC) as a repressor that can be essential for gene expression rhythms in plants. Integrating the EC components in this role significantly alters our mechanistic, mathematical model of the clock gene circuit. Negative autoregulation of the EC genes constitutes the clock's evening loop, replacing the hypothetical component Y. The EC explains our earlier conjecture that the morning gene Pseudo-Response Regulator 9 was repressed by an evening gene, previously identified with Timing Of CAB Expression1 (TOC1). Our computational analysis suggests that TOC1 is a repressor of the morning genes Late Elongated Hypocotyl and Circadian Clock Associated1 rather than an activator as first conceived. This removes the necessity for the unknown component X (or TOC1mod) from previous clock models. As well as matching timeseries and phase-response data, the model provides a new conceptual framework for the plant clock that includes a three-component repressilator circuit in its complex structure.

  7. Symbolic Analysis of OTRAs-Based Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new nullor-based model to describe the behavior of Operational Transresistance Amplifiers (OTRAs is introduced.The new model is composed of four nullors and three grounded resistors. As a consequence, standard nodal analysiscan be applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal characteristics of OTRA-based analog circuits, and the nullorbasedOTRAs model can be used in CAD tools. In this manner, the fully-symbolic transfer functions of severalapplication circuits, such as filters and oscillators can easily be approximated.

  8. ENHANCING THE SYMBOLIC ANALYSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A new symbollc-method is introduced to enhance the calculation of symbolic expressions of analog circults. First, the analog circuit is transformed to a nullor equivalent circuit. Second, a new method is introduced to the formulation of a compact system of equations (CSES. Third, a new method is introduced to the solution of theCSES, by avoiding multiplications by zero to Improve the evaluation of determlnants. Flnally, two eXamples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods to calculate fully symbolic transfer functions.

  9. Inductorless Chua's Circuit: Experimental Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rubinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an operational amplifier inductorless realization of the Chua's circuit. We have registered time series from its dynamical variables with the resistor R as the control parameter and varying from 1300 Ω to 2000 Ω. Experimental time series at fixed R were used to reconstruct attractors by the delay vector technique. The flow attractors and their Poincaré maps considering parameters such as the Lyapunov spectrum, its subproduct the Kaplan-Yorke dimension, and the information dimension are also analyzed here. The results for a typical double scroll attractor indicate a chaotic behavior characterized by a positive Lyapunov exponent and with a Kaplan-Yorke dimension of 2.14. The occurrence of chaos was also investigated through numerical simulations of the Chua's circuit set of differential equations.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  11. Biologic: Gene circuits and feedback in an introductory physics sequence for biology and premedical students

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, S B

    2013-01-01

    Two synthetic gene circuits -- the genetic toggle switch and the repressilator -- are analyzed quantitatively and discussed in the context of an educational module on gene circuits and feedback that constitutes the final topic of a year-long introductory physics sequence, aimed at biology and premedical undergraduate students. The genetic toggle switch consists of two genes, each of whose protein product represses the other's expression, while the repressilator consists of three genes, each of whose protein product represses the next gene's expression. Analytic, numerical, and electronic treatments of the genetic toggle switch shows that this gene circuit realizes bistability. A simplified treatment of the repressilator reveals that this circuit can realize sustained oscillations. In both cases, a "phase diagram" is obtained, that specifies the region of parameter space in which bistability or oscillatory behavior, respectively, occurs.

  12. Special section on analysis, design and optimization of nonlinear circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kohshi

    Nonlinear theory plays an indispensable role in analysis, design and optimization of electric/electronic circuits because almost all circuits in the real world are modeled by nonlinear systems. Also, as the scale and complexity of circuits increase, more effective and systematic methods for the analysis, design and optimization are desired. The goal of this special section is to bring together research results from a variety of perspectives and academic disciplines related to nonlinear electric/electronic circuits.This special section includes three invited papers and six regular papers. The first invited paper by Kennedy entitled “Recent advances in the analysis, design and optimization of digital delta-sigma modulators” gives an overview of digital delta-sigma modulators and some techniques for improving their efficiency. The second invited paper by Trajkovic entitled “DC operating points of transistor circuits” surveys main theoretical results on the analysis of DC operating points of transistor circuits and discusses numerical methods for calculating them. The third invited paper by Nishi et al. entitled “Some properties of solution curves of a class of nonlinear equations and the number of solutions” gives several new theorems concerning solution curves of a class of nonlinear equations which is closely related to DC operating point analysis of nonlinear circuits. The six regular papers cover a wide range of areas such as memristors, chaos circuits, filters, sigma-delta modulators, energy harvesting systems and analog circuits for solving optimization problems.The guest editor would like to express his sincere thanks to the authors who submitted their papers to this special section. He also thanks the reviewers and the editorial committee members of this special section for their support during the review process. Last, but not least, he would also like to acknowledge the editorial staff of the NOLTA journal for their continuous support of this

  13. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  14. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.I. Jr.

    2000-06-20

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  15. Soft-Error Tolerance Analysis and Optimization of Nanometer Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Yuvraj Singh; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer circuits are becoming increasingly susceptible to soft-errors due to alpha-particle and atmospheric neutron strikes as device scaling reduces node capacitances and supply/threshold voltage scaling reduces noise margins. It is becoming crucial to add soft-error tolerance estimation and optimization to the design flow to handle the increasing susceptibility. The first part of this paper presents a tool for accurate soft-error tolerance analysis of nanometer circuits (ASERTA) that can be used to estimate the soft-error tolerance of nanometer circuits consisting of millions of gates. The tolerance estimates generated by the tool match SPICE generated estimates closely while taking orders of magnitude less computation time. The second part of the paper presents a tool for soft-error tolerance optimization of nanometer circuits (SERTOPT) using the tolerance estimates generated by ASERTA. The tool finds optimal sizes, channel lengths, supply voltages and threshold voltages to be assigned to gates in a comb...

  16. Analysis of the impact of harmonic interference circuit Costas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Shakhtarin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of influence of harmonic interference on the phase error in the Costas circuit is carried out. Differential equations of the circuit are obtained. Are obtained in the zero and first approximation the equations of the phase error for the Costas circuit. The simulation in MatLab environment of phase error introduced by the Costas circuit in the first approximation and the graphs of this error is carried out. On the basis of mathematical model, by the phase error counts were obtained graphs of probability density functions of the signal errors introduced by the model. A simulation model of the Costas circuit in the Simulink environment is given. In the simulation model, by the phase error counts in MatLab, were obtained graphs of probability density functions of the signal error due to the simulation model. The comparison of the obtained results of the Costas circuit analysis obtained by mathematical modeling of the phase error equation in the first approximation with simulation results in Simulink environment shows that the results of mathematical modeling rather accurately coincide with the simulation results. On the basis of simulation were obtained the graphs of the average time before mistracking for various values of the interference to signal ratio

  17. Cable Hot Shorts and Circuit Analysis in Fire Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey; Nowlen, Steven P.; Wyant, Frank

    1999-05-19

    Under existing methods of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the analysis of fire-induced circuit faults has typically been conducted on a simplistic basis. In particular, those hot-short methodologies that have been applied remain controversial in regards to the scope of the assessments, the underlying methods, and the assumptions employed. To address weaknesses in fire PRA methodologies, the USNRC has initiated a fire risk analysis research program that includes a task for improving the tools for performing circuit analysis. The objective of this task is to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms linking fire-induced cable damage to potentially risk-significant failure modes of power, control, and instrumentation cables. This paper discusses the current status of the circuit analysis task.

  18. Web-Based Trainer for Electrical Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; De Maeyer, J.

    2009-01-01

    A Web-based system for training electric circuit analysis is presented in this paper. It is centered on symbolic analysis techniques and it not only verifies the student's final answer, but it also tracks and coaches him/her through all steps of his/her reasoning path. The system mimics homework assignments, enhanced by immediate personalized…

  19. A systematic molecular circuit design method for gene networks under biochemical time delays and molecular noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yu-Te

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene networks in nanoscale are of nonlinear stochastic process. Time delays are common and substantial in these biochemical processes due to gene transcription, translation, posttranslation protein modification and diffusion. Molecular noises in gene networks come from intrinsic fluctuations, transmitted noise from upstream genes, and the global noise affecting all genes. Knowledge of molecular noise filtering and biochemical process delay compensation in gene networks is crucial to understand the signal processing in gene networks and the design of noise-tolerant and delay-robust gene circuits for synthetic biology. Results A nonlinear stochastic dynamic model with multiple time delays is proposed for describing a gene network under process delays, intrinsic molecular fluctuations, and extrinsic molecular noises. Then, the stochastic biochemical processing scheme of gene regulatory networks for attenuating these molecular noises and compensating process delays is investigated from the nonlinear signal processing perspective. In order to improve the robust stability for delay toleration and noise filtering, a robust gene circuit for nonlinear stochastic time-delay gene networks is engineered based on the nonlinear robust H∞ stochastic filtering scheme. Further, in order to avoid solving these complicated noise-tolerant and delay-robust design problems, based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy time-delay model and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique, a systematic gene circuit design method is proposed to simplify the design procedure. Conclusion The proposed gene circuit design method has much potential for application to systems biology, synthetic biology and drug design when a gene regulatory network has to be designed for improving its robust stability and filtering ability of disease-perturbed gene network or when a synthetic gene network needs to perform robustly under process delays and molecular noises.

  20. Functional analysis of the larval feeding circuit in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parag K; Neckameyer, Wendi S

    2013-11-19

    The serotonergic feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster larvae can be used to investigate neuronal substrates of critical importance during the development of the circuit. Using the functional output of the circuit, feeding, changes in the neuronal architecture of the stomatogastric system can be visualized. Feeding behavior can be recorded by observing the rate of retraction of the mouth hooks, which receive innervation from the brain. Locomotor behavior is used as a physiological control for feeding, since larvae use their mouth hooks to traverse across an agar substrate. Changes in feeding behavior can be correlated with the axonal architecture of the neurites innervating the gut. Using immunohistochemistry it is possible to visualize and quantitate these changes. Improper handling of the larvae during behavior paradigms can alter data as they are very sensitive to manipulations. Proper imaging of the neurite architecture innervating the gut is critical for precise quantitation of number and size of varicosities as well as the extent of branch nodes. Analysis of most circuits allow only for visualization of neurite architecture or behavioral effects; however, this model allows one to correlate the functional output of the circuit with the impairments in neuronal architecture.

  1. Performance analysis of a digital capacitance measuring circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Sun, Shijie; Cao, Zhang; Yang, Wuqiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the design and study of a digital capacitance measuring circuit with theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental evaluation. The static and dynamic performances of the capacitance measuring circuit are first defined, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), standard deviation, accuracy, linearity, sensitivity, and response time, within a given measurement range. Then numerical simulation is carried out to analyze the SNR and standard deviation of the circuit, followed by experiments to validate the overall performance of the circuit. The simulation results show that when the standard deviation of noise is 0.08 mV and the measured capacitance decreases from 6 pF to 3 fF, the SNR decreases from 90 dB to 22 dB and the standard deviation is between 0.17 fF and 0.24 fF. The experimental results show that when the measured capacitance decreases from 6 pF to 40 fF and the data sampled in a single period are used for demodulation, the SNR decreases from 88 dB to 40 dB and the standard deviation is between 0.18 fF and 0.25 fF. The maximum absolute error and relative error are 5.12 fF and 1.26%, respectively. The SNR and standard deviation can be further improved if the data sampled in more than one period are used for demodulation by the circuit.

  2. Parts & pools: a framework for modular design of synthetic gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Mario Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Published in 2008, Parts & Pools represents one of the first attempts to conceptualize the modular design of bacterial synthetic gene circuits with Standard Biological Parts (DNA segments) and Pools of molecules referred to as common signal carriers (e.g., RNA polymerases and ribosomes). The original framework for modeling bacterial components and designing prokaryotic circuits evolved over the last years and brought, first, to the development of an algorithm for the automatic design of Boolean gene circuits. This is a remarkable achievement since gene digital circuits have a broad range of applications that goes from biosensors for health and environment care to computational devices. More recently, Parts & Pools was enabled to give a proper formal description of eukaryotic biological circuit components. This was possible by employing a rule-based modeling approach, a technique that permits a faithful calculation of all the species and reactions involved in complex systems such as eukaryotic cells and compartments. In this way, Parts & Pools is currently suitable for the visual and modular design of synthetic gene circuits in yeast and mammalian cells too.

  3. Switching Surge Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker using EMTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ik Mo; Kim, Ji Hong [Hyundai Heavy Industry, Mechatronics Research Institute (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The first objective of this study is to set up the switching surge analysis method in motor driving distribution system. The simplified model which can simulate the motor energization and circuit breaker re-ignitions, and each circuit element model is presented in this paper. The second objective is to calculate the quantity of surge over-voltage in real nuclear power station. And the surge suppressing measures are verified on the simulation basis. It is clarified that most cases are not satisfactory to meet the IEEE standard 522-1992 without using surge suppressing measures. In cases that the surge arrester are installed in distribution board at the load side of circuit breaker. The IEEE specification is fully met. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Soft error generation analysis in combinational logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ding; Yu, Wang; Rong, Luo; Hui, Wang; Huazhong, Yang

    2010-09-01

    Reliability is expected to become a big concern in future deep sub-micron integrated circuits design. Soft error rate (SER) of combinational logic is considered to be a great reliability problem. Previous SER analysis and models indicated that glitch width has a great impact on electrical masking and latch window masking effects, but they failed to achieve enough insights. In this paper, an analytical glitch generation model is proposed. This model shows that after an inflexion point the collected charge has an exponential relationship with glitch duration and the model only introduces an estimation error of on average 2.5%.

  5. Dissecting differential gene expression within the circadian neuronal circuit of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Emi; Sugino, Ken; Kula, Ela; Okazaki, Etsuko; Tachibana, Taro; Nelson, Sacha; Rosbash, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by a neuronal circuit consisting of diverse neuronal subgroups. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of neuronal subgroups within the Drosophila circadian circuit, we used cell-type specific gene-expression profiling and identified a large number of genes specifically expressed in all clock neurons or in two important subgroups. Moreover, we identified and characterized two circadian genes, which are expressed specifically in subsets of clock cells and affect different aspects of rhythms. The transcription factor Fer2 is expressed in ventral lateral neurons; it is required for the specification of lateral neurons and therefore their ability to drive locomotor rhythms. The Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the vertebrate circadian gene nocturnin is expressed in a subset of dorsal neurons and mediates the circadian light response. The approach should also enable the molecular dissection of many different Drosophila neuronal circuits. PMID:19966839

  6. A framework for scalable parameter estimation of gene circuit models using structural information

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-21

    Motivation: Systematic and scalable parameter estimation is a key to construct complex gene regulatory models and to ultimately facilitate an integrative systems biology approach to quantitatively understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning gene regulation. Results: Here, we report a novel framework for efficient and scalable parameter estimation that focuses specifically on modeling of gene circuits. Exploiting the structure commonly found in gene circuit models, this framework decomposes a system of coupled rate equations into individual ones and efficiently integrates them separately to reconstruct the mean time evolution of the gene products. The accuracy of the parameter estimates is refined by iteratively increasing the accuracy of numerical integration using the model structure. As a case study, we applied our framework to four gene circuit models with complex dynamics based on three synthetic datasets and one time series microarray data set. We compared our framework to three state-of-the-art parameter estimation methods and found that our approach consistently generated higher quality parameter solutions efficiently. Although many general-purpose parameter estimation methods have been applied for modeling of gene circuits, our results suggest that the use of more tailored approaches to use domain-specific information may be a key to reverse engineering of complex biological systems. The Author 2013.

  7. Dynamically Tunable Memory in Two-Component Gene Circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghim, C; Almaas, E

    2008-09-05

    Cell has the potential to remember the environmental conditions for many (10{sup 7}) generations but stochastic fluctuations set a fundamental limit on the stability of this memory. Here we explicitly take the binding-unbinding of macromolecules into account to propose a novel rationale for the protein-protein interaction in cell physiology. Based on the first-exit time and the corresponding deterministic characterization of various genetic circuits, we show that the reversible binding dynamics may stabilize non-genetically inherited cell states, providing a practical strategy for designing robust epigenetic memory.

  8. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  9. Intra- and interregional coregulation of opioid genes: broken symmetry in spinal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, Olga; Galatenko, Vladimir; Andersson, Malin; Bazov, Igor; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Xing Wu; Iatsyshyna, Anna; Mityakina, Irina; Yakovleva, Tatiana; Sarkisyan, Daniil; Ponomarev, Igor; Krishtal, Oleg; Marklund, Niklas; Tonevitsky, Alex; Adkins, DeAnna L; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2017-01-25

    Regulation of the formation and rewiring of neural circuits by neuropeptides may require coordinated production of these signaling molecules and their receptors that may be established at the transcriptional level. Here, we address this hypothesis by comparing absolute expression levels of opioid peptides with their receptors, the largest neuropeptide family, and by characterizing coexpression (transcriptionally coordinated) patterns of these genes. We demonstrated that expression patterns of opioid genes highly correlate within and across functionally and anatomically different areas. Opioid peptide genes, compared with their receptor genes, are transcribed at much greater absolute levels, which suggests formation of a neuropeptide cloud that covers the receptor-expressed circuits. Surprisingly, we found that both expression levels and the proportion of opioid receptors are strongly lateralized in the spinal cord, interregional coexpression patterns are side-specific, and intraregional coexpression profiles are affected differently by left- and right-side unilateral body injury. We propose that opioid genes are regulated as interconnected components of the same molecular system distributed between distinct anatomic regions. The striking feature of this system is its asymmetric coexpression patterns, which suggest side-specific regulation of selective neural circuits by opioid neurohormones.-Kononenko, O., Galatenko, V., Andersson, M., Bazov, I., Watanabe, H., Zhou, X. W., Iatsyshyna, A., Mityakina, I., Yakovleva, T., Sarkisyan, D., Ponomarev, I., Krishtal, O., Marklund, N., Tonevitsky, A., Adkins, D. L., Bakalkin, G. Intra- and interregional coregulation of opioid genes: broken symmetry in spinal circuits.

  10. Refined anatomical isolation of functional sleep circuits exhibits distinctive regional and circadian gene transcriptional profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winrow, Christopher J; Tanis, Keith Q; Rigby, Alison M; Taylor, Rhonda R; Serikawa, Kyle; McWhorter, Mollie; Tokiwa, George Y; Marton, Matthew J; Stone, David J; Koblan, Kenneth S; Renger, John J

    2009-05-19

    Powerful new approaches to study molecular variation in distinct neuronal populations have recently been developed enabling a more precise investigation of the control of neural circuits involved in complex behaviors such as wake and sleep. We applied laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate precise brain nuclei from rat CNS at opposing circadian time points associated with wake and sleep. Discrete anatomical and temporal analysis was performed to examine the extent of variation in the transcriptional control associated with both identifiable anatomical nuclei and with light/dark cycle. Precise isolation of specific brain nuclei regulating sleep and arousal, including the LC, SCN, TMN, VTA, and VLPO, demonstrated robust changes in gene expression. Many of these differences were not observed in previous studies where whole brain lysates or gross dissections were used to probe for changes in gene expression. The robust and differential profiles of genomic data obtained from the approaches used herein underscore the requirement for careful anatomical refinement in CNS gene expression studies designed to understand genomic control within behaviorally-linked, but functionally isolated brain nuclei.

  11. Reversible and quantum circuits optimization and complexity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessaied, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new optimization flow for quantum circuits realization. At the reversible level, optimization algorithms are presented to reduce the quantum cost. Then, new mapping approaches to decompose reversible circuits to quantum circuits using different quantum libraries are described. Finally, optimization techniques to reduce the quantum cost or the delay are applied to the resulting quantum circuits. Furthermore, this book studies the complexity of reversible circuits and quantum circuits from a theoretical perspective.

  12. Sneak circuit analysis of instrumentation and control systems. [technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, J. P.; Williams, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The evolvement and implementation is presented of a systematic means for detecting the sneak prone designs of an electrical system which could result in such unplanned modes so that they can be prevented prior to occurrence. Sneak circuit analysis is shown to be a formalized approach based upon topological techniques. The trees employed are produced from manufacturing detail data processed by a computer to orderly completion. The analysis techniques applied on a variety of NASA programs are shown to be particularly applicable to industrial instrumentation and control systems.

  13. Advances in genetic circuit design: novel biochemistries, deep part mining, and precision gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Voigt, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Cells use regulatory networks to perform computational operations to respond to their environment. Reliably manipulating such networks would be valuable for many applications in biotechnology; for example, in having genes turn on only under a defined set of conditions or implementing dynamic or temporal control of expression. Still, building such synthetic regulatory circuits remains one of the most difficult challenges in genetic engineering and as a result they have not found widespread application. Here, we review recent advances that address the key challenges in the forward design of genetic circuits. First, we look at new design concepts, including the construction of layered digital and analog circuits, and new approaches to control circuit response functions. Second, we review recent work to apply part mining and computational design to expand the number of regulators that can be used together within one cell. Finally, we describe new approaches to obtain precise gene expression and to reduce context dependence that will accelerate circuit design by more reliably balancing regulators while reducing toxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Integrating anatomy and function for zebrafish circuit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrenberg, Aristides B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Due to its transparency, virtually every brain structure of the larval zebrafish is accessible to light-based interrogation of circuit function. Advanced stimulation techniques allow the activation of optogenetic actuators at different resolution levels, and genetically encoded calcium indicators report the activity of a large proportion of neurons in the CNS. Large datasets result and need to be analyzed to identify cells that have specific properties-e.g., activity correlation to sensory stimulation or behavior. Advances in three-dimensional (3D) functional mapping in zebrafish are promising; however, the mere coordinates of implicated neurons are not sufficient. To comprehensively understand circuit function, these functional maps need to be placed into the proper context of morphological features and projection patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, and key anatomical landmarks. We discuss the prospect of merging functional and anatomical data in an integrated atlas from the perspective of our work on long-range dopaminergic neuromodulation and the oculomotor system. We propose that such a resource would help researchers to surpass current hurdles in circuit analysis to achieve an integrated understanding of anatomy and function.

  15. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  16. Analysis, synchronization and circuit design of a novel butterfly attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Ihsan; Moroz, Irene M.; Vaidyanathan, Sundarapandian

    2014-09-01

    This research paper introduces a novel three-dimensional autonomous system, whose dynamics support periodic and chaotic butterfly attractors as certain parameters vary. A special case of this system, exhibiting reflectional symmetry, is amenable to analytical and numerical analysis. Qualitative properties of the new chaotic system are discussed in detail. Adaptive control laws are derived to achieve global chaotic synchronization of the new chaotic system with unknown parameters. Furthermore, a novel electronic circuit realization of the new chaotic system is presented, examined and realized using Orcad-PSpice program and physical components. The proposed novel butterfly chaotic attractor is very useful for the deliberate generation of chaos in applications.

  17. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  18. Nonlinear Circuit Analysis via Perturbation Methods and Hardware Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Odame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear signal processing is necessary in many emerging applications where form factor and power are at a premium. In order to make such complex computation feasible under these constraints, it is necessary to implement the signal processors as analog circuits. Since analog circuit design is largely based on a linear systems perspective, new tools are being introduced to circuit designers that allow them to understand and exploit circuit nonlinearity for useful processing. This paper discusses two such tools, which represent nonlinear circuit behavior in a graphical way, making it easy to develop a qualitative appreciation for the circuits under study.

  19. On the SCTC-OCTC Method for the Analysis and Design of Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, S.; Conte, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses guidelines that emphasize the relevance of short-circuit- and open-circuit-time constant (SCTC and OCTC, respectively) methods in the analysis and design of electronic amplifiers. It is demonstrated that it is only necessary to grasp a few concepts in order to understand that the two short- and open-circuit cases fall into a…

  20. Emergent bimodality and switch induced by time delays and noises in a synthetic gene circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Du, Liping; Xie, Qingshuang; Wang, Tonghuan; Zeng, Chunhua; Nie, Linru; Duan, Weilong; Jia, Zhenglin; Wang, Canjun

    2017-10-01

    Based on the kinetic model for obtaining emergent bistability proposed by Tan et al. (2009), the effects of the fluctuations of protein synthesis rate and maximum dilution rate, the cross-correlation between two noises, and the time delay and the strength of the feedback loop in the synthetic gene circuit have been investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Our results show that: (i) the fluctuations of protein synthesis rate and maximum dilution rate enhance the emergent bimodality of the probability distribution phenomenon, while the cross-correlation between two noises(λ), the time delay(τ) and the strength of the feedback loop(K) cause it to disappear; and (ii) the mean first passage time(MFPT) as functions of the noise strengths exhibits a maximum, this maximum is called noise-delayed switching (NDS) of the high concentration state. The NDS phenomenon shows that the noise can modify the stability of a metastable system in a counterintuitive way, the system remains in the metastable state for a longer time compared to the deterministic case. And the τ and the K enhances the stability of the ON state. The physical mechanisms for the switch between the ON and OFF states can be explained from the point of view of the effective potential.

  1. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to predicting the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload will bring the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The Super-Sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) Program was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  2. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-12-01

    An approach to predict the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances is described. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electromagnetic pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload brings the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The super-sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) programs was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  3. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuangMin Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  4. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, GuangMin; Yuan, Weizheng; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, HongLong

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  5. Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Constructing genetic logic circuits is an application of synthetic biology in which parts of the DNA of a living cell are engineered to perform a dedicated Boolean function triggered by an appropriate concentration of certain proteins or by different genetic components. These logic circuits work in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior of single and cascaded genetic logic circuits. We further analyze the timing sensitivity of circuits by varying the degradation rates and concentrations. Our approach can be used not only to characterize the timing behavior but also to analyze the timing constraints of cascaded genetic logic circuits, a capability that we believe will be important for design automation in synthetic biology.

  6. Design and engineering of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Li, Sijin; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput phenotyping tools is lagging far behind the rapid advances of genotype generation methods. To bridge this gap, we report a new strategy for design, construction, and fine-tuning of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits by repurposing bacterial transcription factors and eukaryotic promoters. As proof of concept, we systematically investigated the design and engineering of bacterial repressor-based xylose-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that numerous properties, such as induction ratio and dose-response curve, can be fine-tuned at three different nodes, including repressor expression level, operator position, and operator sequence. By applying these gene circuits, we developed a cell sorting based, rapid and robust high-throughput screening method for xylose transporter engineering and obtained a sugar transporter HXT14 mutant with 6.5-fold improvement in xylose transportation capacity. This strategy should be generally applicable and highly useful for evolutionary engineering of proteins, pathways, and genomes in S. cerevisiae.

  7. Optogenetic dissection of neuronal circuits in zebrafish using viral gene transfer and the Tet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditional expression of transgenes at high levels in sparse and specific populations of neurons is important for high-resolution optogenetic analyses of neuronal circuits. We explored two complementary methods, viral gene delivery and the iTet-Off system, to express transgenes in the brain of zebrafish. High-level gene expression in neurons was achieved by Sindbis and Rabies viruses. The Tet system produced strong and specific gene expression that could be modulated conveniently by doxycycline. Moreover, transgenic lines showed expression in distinct, sparse and stable populations of neurons that appeared to be subsets of the neurons targeted by the promoter driving the Tet activator. The Tet system therefore provides the opportunity to generate libraries of diverse expression patterns similar to gene trap approaches or the thy-1 promoter in mice, but with the additional possibility to pre-select cell types of interest. In transgenic lines expressing channelrhodopsin-2, action potential firing could be precisely controlled by two-photon stimulation at low laser power, presumably because the expression levels of the Tet-controlled genes were high even in adults. In channelrhodopsin-2-expressing larvae, optical stimulation with a single blue LED evoked distinct swimming behaviors including backward swimming. These approaches provide new opportunities for the optogenetic dissection of neuronal circuit structure and function.

  8. Genes, circuits, and precision therapies for autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-11-20

    Research in the genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism suggests that several hundred genes are likely risk factors for these disorders. This heterogeneity presents a challenge and an opportunity at the same time. Although the exact identity of many of the genes remains to be discovered, genes identified to date encode proteins that play roles in certain conserved pathways: protein synthesis, transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and synaptic signaling. The next generation of research in neurodevelopmental disorders must address the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral symptoms and comorbidities, the cell types playing critical roles in these circuits, and common intercellular signaling pathways that link diverse genes. Results from clinical trials have been mixed so far. Only when we can leverage the heterogeneity of neurodevelopmental disorders into precision medicine will the mechanism-based therapeutics for these disorders start to unlock success.

  9. Boolean network model for GPR142 against Type 2 diabetes and relative dynamic change ratio analysis using systems and biological circuits approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Sahi, Shakti

    2015-06-01

    Systems biology addresses challenges in the analysis of genomics data, especially for complex genes and protein interactions using Meta data approach on various signaling pathways. In this paper, we report systems biology and biological circuits approach to construct pathway and identify early gene and protein interactions for predicting GPR142 responses in Type 2 diabetes. The information regarding genes, proteins and other molecules involved in Type 2 diabetes were retrieved from literature and kinetic simulation of GPR142 was carried out in order to determine the dynamic interactions. The major objective of this work was to design a GPR142 biochemical pathway using both systems biology as well as biological circuits synthetically. The term 'synthetically' refers to building biological circuits for cell signaling pathway especially for hormonal pathway disease. The focus of the paper is on logical components and logical circuits whereby using these applications users can create complex virtual circuits. Logic gates process represents only true or false and investigates whether biological regulatory circuits are active or inactive. The basic gates used are AND, NAND, OR, XOR and NOT gates and Integrated circuit composition of many such basic gates and some derived gates. Biological circuits may have a futuristic application in biomedical sciences which may involve placing a micro chip in human cells to modulate the down or up regulation of hormonal disease.

  10. STICAP: A linear circuit analysis program with stiff systems capability. Volume 1: Theory manual. [network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    STICAP (Stiff Circuit Analysis Program) is a FORTRAN 4 computer program written for the CDC-6400-6600 computer series and SCOPE 3.0 operating system. It provides the circuit analyst a tool for automatically computing the transient responses and frequency responses of large linear time invariant networks, both stiff and nonstiff (algorithms and numerical integration techniques are described). The circuit description and user's program input language is engineer-oriented, making simple the task of using the program. Engineering theories underlying STICAP are examined. A user's manual is included which explains user interaction with the program and gives results of typical circuit design applications. Also, the program structure from a systems programmer's viewpoint is depicted and flow charts and other software documentation are given.

  11. Multiple fault analysis in synchronous sequential circuits by means of vector Boolean difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Boolean difference is an elegant mathematical concept which has found significant application in the study of single faults of a stuck-at nature in combinational logic circuits. Recently, several authors have extended this technique to the analysis of multiple faults in combinational circuits. The concept of vector Boolean difference is further extended to the analysis of multiple stuck-at faults in synchronous sequential circuits.

  12. Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior...

  13. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  14. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  15. Dynamic signal processing by ribozyme-mediated RNA circuits to control gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shensi; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Prakash, Satya; Majer, Eszter; Landrain, Thomas E; Kirov, Boris; Daròs, José-Antonio; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-05-26

    Organisms have different circuitries that allow converting signal molecule levels to changes in gene expression. An important challenge in synthetic biology involves the de novo design of RNA modules enabling dynamic signal processing in live cells. This requires a scalable methodology for sensing, transmission, and actuation, which could be assembled into larger signaling networks. Here, we present a biochemical strategy to design RNA-mediated signal transduction cascades able to sense small molecules and small RNAs. We design switchable functional RNA domains by using strand-displacement techniques. We experimentally characterize the molecular mechanism underlying our synthetic RNA signaling cascades, show the ability to regulate gene expression with transduced RNA signals, and describe the signal processing response of our systems to periodic forcing in single live cells. The engineered systems integrate RNA-RNA interaction with available ribozyme and aptamer elements, providing new ways to engineer arbitrary complex gene circuits.

  16. Analysis and design of a genetic circuit for dynamic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesiadis, Nikolaos; Kobayashi, Hideki; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-08-16

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have equipped us with new tools for bioprocess optimization at the genetic level. Previously, we have presented an integrated in silico design for the dynamic control of gene expression based on a density-sensing unit and a genetic toggle switch. In the present paper, analysis of a serine-producing Escherichia coli mutant shows that an instantaneous ON-OFF switch leads to a maximum theoretical productivity improvement of 29.6% compared to the mutant. To further the design, global sensitivity analysis is applied here to a mathematical model of serine production in E. coli coupled with a genetic circuit. The model of the quorum sensing and the toggle switch involves 13 parameters of which 3 are identified as having a significant effect on serine concentration. Simulations conducted in this reduced parameter space further identified the optimal ranges for these 3 key parameters to achieve productivity values close to the maximum theoretical values. This analysis can now be used to guide the experimental implementation of a dynamic metabolic engineering strategy and reduce the time required to design the genetic circuit components.

  17. Leakage Power Reduction and Analysis of CMOS Sequential Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janaki Rani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of the total power consumption in high performance digital circuits in deep sub micron regime is mainly due to leakage power. Leakage is the only source of power consumption in an idle circuit. Therefore it is important to reduce leakage power in portable systems. In this paper two techniques such as transistor stacking and self-adjustable voltage level circuit for reducing leakage power in sequential circuits are proposed. This work analyses the power and delay of three different types of D flip-flops using pass transistors, transmission gates and gate diffusion input gates. . All the circuits are simulated with and without the application of leakage reduction techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed pass transistor based D flip-flop using self-adjustable voltage level circuit has the least leakage power dissipation of 9.13nW with a delay of 77 nS. The circuits are simulated with MOSFET models of level 54 using HSPICE in 90 nm process technology.

  18. Comparison of NASCAP modelling results with lumped circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, D. B.; Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering design tools that can be used to predict the development of absolute and differential potentials by realistic spacecraft under geomagnetic substorm conditions are described. Two types of analyses are in use: (1) the NASCAP code, which computes quasistatic charging of geometrically complex objects with multiple surface materials in three dimensions; (2) lumped element equivalent circuit models that are used for analyses of particular spacecraft. The equivalent circuit models require very little computation time, however, they cannot account for effects, such as the formation of potential barriers, that are inherently multidimensional. Steady state potentials of structure and insulation are compared with those resulting from the equivalent circuit model.

  19. A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.

  20. Sub-circuits of a gene regulatory network control a developmental epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lindsay R; McClay, David R

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental cell state change that transforms epithelial to mesenchymal cells during embryonic development, adult tissue repair and cancer metastasis. EMT includes a complex series of intermediate cell state changes including remodeling of the basement membrane, apical constriction, epithelial de-adhesion, directed motility, loss of apical-basal polarity, and acquisition of mesenchymal adhesion and polarity. Transcriptional regulatory state changes must ultimately coordinate the timing and execution of these cell biological processes. A well-characterized gene regulatory network (GRN) in the sea urchin embryo was used to identify the transcription factors that control five distinct cell changes during EMT. Single transcription factors were perturbed and the consequences followed with in vivo time-lapse imaging or immunostaining assays. The data show that five different sub-circuits of the GRN control five distinct cell biological activities, each part of the complex EMT process. Thirteen transcription factors (TFs) expressed specifically in pre-EMT cells were required for EMT. Three TFs highest in the GRN specified and activated EMT (alx1, ets1, tbr) and the 10 TFs downstream of those (tel, erg, hex, tgif, snail, twist, foxn2/3, dri, foxb, foxo) were also required for EMT. No single TF functioned in all five sub-circuits, indicating that there is no EMT master regulator. Instead, the resulting sub-circuit topologies suggest EMT requires multiple simultaneous regulatory mechanisms: forward cascades, parallel inputs and positive-feedback lock downs. The interconnected and overlapping nature of the sub-circuits provides one explanation for the seamless orchestration by the embryo of cell state changes leading to successful EMT.

  1. Circuit modeling and performance analysis of photoconductive antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Jitendra; Bharadwaj, Mrinmoy; Chatterjee, Amitabh; Bhattacharjee, Ratnajit

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, several experimental and simulation studies have been reported on the terahertz (THz) generation using a photoconductive antenna (PCA). The major problem with PCA is its low overall efficiency, which depends on several parameters related to a semiconductor material, an antenna geometry, and characteristics of the laser beam. To analyze the effect of different parameters on PCA efficiency, accurate circuit modeling, using physics undergoing in the device, is necessary. Although a few equivalent circuit models have been proposed in the literature, these models do not adequately capture the semiconductor physics in PCA. This paper presents an equivalent electrical circuit model of PCA incorporating basic semiconductor device physics. The proposed equivalent circuit model is validated using Sentaurus TCAD device level modeling tool as well as with the experimental results available in the literature. The results obtained from the proposed circuit model are in close agreement with the TCAD results as well as available experimental results. The proposed circuit model is expected to contribute towards future research efforts aimed at optimization of the performance of the PCA system.

  2. One high-efficiency analysis method for high-speed circuit networks containing distributed parameter elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei DOU; Zhiquan WANG

    2005-01-01

    In the field of high-speed circuits,the analysis of mixed circuit networks containing both distributed parameter elements and lumped parameter elements becomes ever important.This paper presents a new method for analyzing mixed circuit networks.It adds transmission line end currents to the circuit variables of the classical modified nodal approach and can be applied directly to the mixed circuit networks.We also introduce a frequency-domain technique without requiring decoupling for multiconductor transmission lines.The two methods are combined together to efficiently analyze high-speed circuit networks containing uniform,nonuniform,and frequency-dependent transmission lines.Numerical experiment is presented and the results are compared with that computed by PSPICE.

  3. Hierarchical Symbolic Analysis of Large Analog Circuits with Totally Coded Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-bo

    2006-01-01

    Symbolic analysis has many applications in the design of analog circuits. Existing approaches rely on two forms of symbolic-expression representation: expanded sum-ofproduct form and arbitrarily nested form. Expanded form suffers the problem that the number of product terms grows exponentially with the size of a circuit. Nested form is neither canonical nor amenable to symbolic manipulation. In this paper, we present a new approach to exact and canonical symbolic analysis by exploiting the sparsity and sharing of product terms. This algorithm, called totally coded method (TCM), consists of representing the symbolic determinant of a circuit matrix by code series and performing symbolic analysis by code manipulation. We describe an efficient code-ordering heuristic and prove that it is optimum for ladder-structured circuits. For practical analog circuits, TCM not only covers all advantages of the algorithm via determinant decision diagrams (DDD) but is more simple and efficient than DDD method.

  4. Rational design of modular circuits for gene transcription: A test of the bottom-up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Emanuele

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of synthetic circuits developed so far have been designed by an ad hoc approach, using a small number of components (i.e. LacI, TetR and a trial and error strategy. We are at the point where an increasing number of modular, inter-changeable and well-characterized components is needed to expand the construction of synthetic devices and to allow a rational approach to the design. Results We used interchangeable modular biological parts to create a set of novel synthetic devices for controlling gene transcription, and we developed a mathematical model of the modular circuits. Model parameters were identified by experimental measurements from a subset of modular combinations. The model revealed an unexpected feature of the lactose repressor system, i.e. a residual binding affinity for the operator site by induced lactose repressor molecules. Once this residual affinity was taken into account, the model properly reproduced the experimental data from the training set. The parameters identified in the training set allowed the prediction of the behavior of networks not included in the identification procedure. Conclusions This study provides new quantitative evidences that the use of independent and well-characterized biological parts and mathematical modeling, what is called a bottom-up approach to the construction of gene networks, can allow the design of new and different devices re-using the same modular parts.

  5. Analysis of short circuit transfer behavior using acoustic signal detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakkachai Warinsiriruk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability of a short circuiting period is important to obtain the desired weld quality. The objective of this research is to analyze the uniformity of liquid bridge disruption period during short circuit mode affected by various shielding gas compositions. The shielding gas compositions of 100% CO2 and 84%Ar+2%O2+14%CO2 were used in this study. Short circuiting period was detected by using acoustic signals emitting from the arc. Acoustic data were recorded by using multimedia function of XP windows audio card through a high sensitivity microphone. The results of short circuit acoustic data were analyzed by using continuous wavelet transformation for classifying the difference of acoustic emitting mechanism of electrode tip touching with base metal and pinching cut-off. For 84%Ar+2%O2+14%CO2 shielding gas, it clearly showed smoothershort circuit transfer than that of CO2 shielding gas. CO2 shielding gas gave large variation in disruption period comparing with that of 84%Ar+2%O2+14%CO2 gas mixture.

  6. Nonlinear Magnetic Circuit Analysis of SMART Control Rod Drive Actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Myounggyu; Gi, Myung Ju; Kim, Myounggon; Park, Youngwoo [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaeseon; Kim, Jongwook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we derive a nonlinear magnetic circuit model of an electromagnetic control-rod actuator in the SMART. The results of the nonlinear model are compared with those by linear circuit model and finite-element analyses. gnetic circuit modeling is a useful tool when designing an electromagnetic actuator, as it allows fast calculations and enables parametric studies. It is particularly essential when the actuator is to be used in a very complex system such as a nuclear reactor. Important design parameters must be identified at the early stage of the design process. Once the design space is narrowed down, more accurate methods such finite-element analyses (FEA) can be employed for detailed design. Magnetic circuit modeling is based on the assumption that a flux path consists of sections in each of which field quantities are constant with linear constitutive relations. This assumption fails to hold when portions of the flux path become saturated. The magnetic circuit must be modified in order to accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of saturation.

  7. Simulation and Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of3D Assembly Circuit Module with Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春跃; 周德俭; 黄红艳

    2004-01-01

    Based on the modal analysis theory and by using the dynamics finite element analysis model of a three-dimensional assembly circuit module, dynamic characteristics of circuit module have been studied, including both natural characteristics analysis and dynamic responses analysis. Using a subspace method, modal analysis is first carried out. The first 6 orders of natural frequencies and vibration modes are obtained. Influence of the number of the Z-shaped metal slices on dynamic characteristics of the entire structure is also studied.Harmonic response analysis is then conducted. The steady-state response when the circuit module is subjected to harmonic excitation is determined. A curve of the response values against frequencies is obtained. As a result, the optimal number of Z-shaped metal slices can be determined, and it can be assured that the three-dimensional assembly circuit module has good performance in terms of the dynamic characteristics.

  8. Dynamic companion harmonic circuit models for analysis of power systems with embedded power electronics devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H.; Madrigal, M. [Programa de Graduados e Investigacion en Ingenieria Electrica, Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia (Mexico); Vyakaranam, B.; Rarick, R.; Villaseca, F.E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, OH (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper a methodology that extends the dynamic harmonic domain (DHD) analysis of large networks is presented. The method combines DHD analysis and discrete companion circuit modeling resulting in a powerful analytic technique called dynamic companion harmonic circuit modeling. It provides for a complete dynamic harmonic analysis of the system while preserving the advantages of discrete companion circuit models. The methodology is illustrated by its application to a three-node power system, where reactive power compensation is achieved using a fixed-capacitor, thyristor-controlled reactor (FC-TCR) and its control system. (author)

  9. Analysis and modeling of Fano resonances using equivalent circuit elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bo; Li, Rujiang; Fu, Jiahui; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; Chen, Wan; Wang, Zhefei; Ma, Ruyu

    2016-08-22

    Fano resonance presents an asymmetric line shape formed by an interference of a continuum coupled with a discrete autoionized state. In this paper, we show several simple circuits for Fano resonances from the stable-input impedance mechanism, where the elements consisting of inductors and capacitors are formulated for various resonant modes, and the resistor represents the damping of the oscillators. By tuning the pole-zero of the input impedance, a simple circuit with only three passive components e.g. two inductors and one capacitor, can exhibit asymmetric resonance with arbitrary Q-factors flexiblely. Meanwhile, four passive components can exhibit various resonances including the Lorentz-like and reversely electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) formations. Our work not only provides an intuitive understanding of Fano resonances, but also pave the way to realize Fano resonaces using simple circuit elements.

  10. Analysis of bilinear noise models in circuits and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsky, A. S.; Marcus, S. I.

    1976-01-01

    There are a number of applications in which linear noise models are inappropriate. In the paper, the use of bilinear noise models in circuits and devices is considered. Several physical problems are studied in this framework. These include circuits involving varying parameters (such as variable resistance circuits constructed using field-effect transistors), the effect of switching jitter on sampled data system performance and communication systems involving voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-lock loops. In addition, several types of analytical techniques for stochastic bilinear systems are considered. Specifically, the moment equations of Brockett for bilinear systems driven by white noise are discussed, and closed-form expressions for certain bilinear systems (those that evolve an Abelian or solvable Lie groups) driven by white or colored noise are derived. In addition, an approximate statistical technique involving the use of harmonic expansions is described.

  11. Dynamic modeling and analysis of the closed-circuit grinding-classification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfei Chu; Wenli Xu; Weihan Wan

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical models of the grinding process are the basis of analysis, simulation and control. Most existent models including theoretical models and identification models are, however, inconvenient for direct analysis. In addition, many models pay much attention to the local details in the closed-circuit grinding process while overlooking the systematic behavior of the process as a whole. From the systematic perspective, the dynamic behavior of the whole closed-circuit grinding-classification process is considered and a first-order transfer function model describing the dynamic relation between the raw material and the product is established.The model proves that the time constant of the closed-circuit process is lager than that of the open-circuit process and reveals how physical parameters affect the process dynamic behavior. These are very helpful to understand, design and control the closed-circuit grinding-classification process.

  12. Changes in maternal gene expression in olfactory circuits in the immediate postpartum period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija V Canavan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of maternal behavior in the immediate postpartum period involves neural circuits in reward and homeostasis systems responding to cues from the newborn. Our aim was to assess one specific regulatory mechanism: the role that olfaction plays in the onset and modulation of parenting behavior. We focused on changes in gene expression in olfactory brain regions, examining nine genes found in previous knockout studies to be necessary for maternal behavior. Using a qPCR-based approach, we assessed changes in gene expression in response to exposure to pups in eleven microdissected olfactory brain regions. Over the first postpartum days, all nine genes were detected in all eleven regions (at differing levels and their expression changed in response to pup exposure. As a general trend, five genes (Dbh, Esr1, FosB, Foxb1 and Oxtr were found to decrease their expression in most of the olfactory regions examined, while two genes (Mest and Prlr were found to increase expression. Nos1 and Peg3 levels remained relatively stable except in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, where greater than 4 fold increases in expression were observed. The largest magnitude expression changes in this study were found in the AOB, which mediates a variety of olfactory cues that elicit stereotypic behaviors such as mating and aggression as well as some non-pheromone odors. Previous analyses of null mice for the nine genes assessed here have rarely examined olfactory function. Our data suggest that there may be olfactory effects in these null mice which contribute to the observed maternal behavioral phenotypes. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that olfactory processing is an important sensory regulator of maternal behavior.

  13. Visualizing changes in circuit activity resulting from denervation and reinnervation using immediate early gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Meredith D; Worley, Paul F; Steward, Oswald

    2003-04-01

    We describe a novel strategy to evaluate circuit function after brain injury that takes advantage of experience-dependent immediate early gene (IEG) expression. When normal rats undergo training or are exposed to a novel environment, there is a strong induction of IEG expression in forebrain regions, including the hippocampus. This gene induction identifies the neurons that are engaged during the experience. Here, we demonstrate that experience-dependent IEG induction is diminished after brain injury in young adult rats (120-200 gm), specifically after unilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex (EC), and then recovers with a time course consistent with reinnervation. In situ hybridization techniques were used to assess the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein Arc at various times after the lesion (4, 8, 12, 16, or 30 d). One group of rats was allowed to explore a complex novel environment for 1 hr; control operated animals remained in their home cage. In unoperated animals, exposure to the novel environment induced Arc mRNA levels in most pyramidal neurons in CA1, in many pyramidal neurons in CA3, and in a small number of dentate granule cells. This characteristic pattern of induction was absent at early time points after unilateral EC lesions (4 and 8 d) but recovered progressively at later time points. The recovery of Arc expression occurred with approximately the same time course as the reinnervation of the dentate gyrus as a result of postlesion sprouting. These results document a novel approach for quantitatively assessing activity-regulated gene expression in polysynaptic circuits after trauma.

  14. Plasma Etching for Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuit Packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Schelen, J.B.J.; Beenakker, C.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic integrated circuit packages with copper wire bonds are decapsulated by a Microwave Induced Plasma system. Improvements on microwave coupling of the system are achieved by frequency tuning and antenna modification. Plasmas with a mixture of O2 and CF4 showed a high etching rate around 2 mm3/m

  15. General analytical solutions for DC/AC circuit network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rubido, Nicolás; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present novel general analytical solutions for the currents that are developed in the edges of network-like circuits when some nodes of the network act as sources/sinks of DC or AC current. We assume that Ohm's law is valid at every edge and that charge at every node is conserved (with the exception of the source/sink nodes). The resistive, capacitive, and/or inductive properties of the lines in the circuit define a complex network structure with given impedances for each edge. Our solution for the currents at each edge is derived in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the network defined from the impedances. This derivation also allows us to compute the equivalent impedance between any two nodes of the circuit and relate it to currents in a closed circuit which has a single voltage generator instead of many input/output source/sink nodes. Contrary to solving Kirchhoff's equations, our derivation allows to easily calculate the redistribution of currents that o...

  16. Plasma Etching for Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuit Packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Schelen, J.B.J.; Beenakker, C.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic integrated circuit packages with copper wire bonds are decapsulated by a Microwave Induced Plasma system. Improvements on microwave coupling of the system are achieved by frequency tuning and antenna modification. Plasmas with a mixture of O2 and CF4 showed a high etching rate around 2

  17. Automated Analysis of Reo Circuits using Symbolic Execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Pourvatan; M. Sirjani; H. Hojjat; F. Arbab (Farhad)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractReo is a coordination language that can be used to model different systems. We propose a technique for symbolic execution of Reo circuits using Constraint Automata and more specifically exploiting their data constraints. This technique enables us to obtain the relations among the data

  18. Application in Circuit Analysis of MATLAB%MATLAB在电路分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘骁

    2014-01-01

    电路分析一直是电子信息工程等相关专业学习的一个难点。本文以一个简单的正弦信号激励的一阶电路为例,先通过传统的分析方法得出解析表达式,然后运用MATLAB/Simulink为平台建模来计算和仿真电路,使得电路的分析变得更加直观。%Circuit analysis has been a difficulty in engineering and other related majors. This paper takes a simple first-order circuit of sinusoidal excitation as an example. Firstly, through traditional analysis, we deduce analytical expression analysis;secondly, by using MATLAB/Simulink, we make models and simulate circuit. In this way, circuit analysis becomes more intuitional.

  19. Algorithms for numerical and symbolic analysis of linear circuits and methods of derivatives LU-decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovin

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithms of numerical and symbolic analysis methods of linear chains of derivatives and LU-decomposition. An example of the calculation circuit functions using programs that implement the proposed algorithms.

  20. Combination Approach of FEM and Circuit System in IR Drop Analysis and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhanghong; YUAN Jiansheng

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed to solve the combined system of the current field and the circuit. The "super-node" was used to transform the matdx for conventional nodal analyses of a circuit system from non-positive definite to positive definite. Then, a positive definite matdx for the overall system was obtained by combining the matrix from the circuit nodal analysis method and the matrix resulted from finite element method (FEM) formulation to solve the FEM fields. This approach has been successfully applied to simulate the electrical potential and current distributions on each metal layer of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and in-tegrated circuit (IC) packages for a given power supply. The simulation results can then be used to analyze the properties of the PCBs and IC packages such as the port resistances and IR drops. The results can also be used to optimize PCB and IC package designs, such as by adjusting the power/ground distribution networks.

  1. A study of relaxation techniques for the transient analysis of digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, W. K.

    1985-06-01

    In the VLSI microelectronics era, the cost of the immense CPU time and memory storage for a standard circuit simulator has become prohibitive. In order to achieve dramatic improvement in the performance of the circuit simulator, there are two principal points of departure from the standard simulation approach, namely, tearing decomposition and relaxation decomposition. This research is to study the numerical convergence and stability properties of several of the relaxation algorithms that have been proposed for the simulation of VLSI circuits. The time-point Gauss-Seidel method with prediction, the exploitation of latency and event scheduling algorithms are implemented into a general purpose circuit simulator SLATE-R (a Simulator with Latency and Tearing--Relaxed version). The performance of the SLATE-R program in the analysis of various types of integrated circuit technologies is studied.

  2. Input-output Transfer Function Analysis of a Photometer Circuit Based on an Operational Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2008-01-09

    In this paper an input-output transfer function analysis based on the frequencyresponse of a photometer circuit based on operational amplifier (op amp) is carried out. Opamps are universally used in monitoring photodetectors and there are a variety of amplifierconnections for this purpose. However, the electronic circuits that are usually used to carryout the signal treatment in photometer circuits introduce some limitations in theperformance of the photometers that influence the selection of the op amps and otherelectronic devices. For example, the bandwidth, slew-rate, noise, input impedance and gain,among other characteristics of the op amp, are often the performance limiting factors ofphotometer circuits. For this reason, in this paper a comparative analysis between twophotodiode amplifier circuits is carried out. One circuit is based on a conventional currentto-voltage converter connection and the other circuit is based on a robust current-to-voltageconverter connection. The results are satisfactory and show that the photodiode amplifierperformance can be improved by using robust control techniques.

  3. Analysis and optimization of current sensing circuit for deep sub-micron SRAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yiqi; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Mengxin; Lü Yinxue; Zhao Bohua; Han Zhensheng

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative yield analysis of a traditional current sensing circuit considering the random dopant fluctuation effect is presented.It investigates the impact of transistor size,falling time of control signal CS and threshold voltage of critical transistors on failure probability of current sensing circuit.On this basis,we present a final optimization to improve the reliability of current sense amplifier.Under 90 nm process,simulation shows that failure probability of current sensing circuit can be reduced by 80% after optimization compared with the normal situation and the delay time only increases marginally.

  4. Circuit theorem analysis in analog circuits and its application%电路定理在分析模拟电路中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓友娥

    2011-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear analog electronic basic amplifying circuit, the application of circuit theorem is worked out(Kirchhoff's law, superposition theorem, Thevenin's theorem)analyses and solution of analog circuit such as the ideal operational amplifier circuit and amplifying circuit. This method can be used to reduce the difficulty of circuit analysis. And it can also simplify the process of solving problems, shorten the solving time and reduce the analysis of error. Meanwhile, it promotes the students' ability to use the circuit theorem analysis, and to solve practical problems.%基于模拟电子基本放大电路的非线性,研究了应用电路定理(基尔霍夫定律、叠加定理、戴维南定理)分析和求解模拟电路(理想运放电路、放大电路等)的方法.应用该方法可以降低电路的分析难度,简化解题过程,缩短解题时间,减少分析误差.同时,还可提高学生运用电路定理分析、解决实际问题的能力.

  5. p53 activated by AND gate genetic circuit under radiation and hypoxia for targeted cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Miao; Li, Rong; He, Rong; Wang, Xingyong; Yi, Qijian; Wang, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    Radio-activated gene therapy has been developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer; however, expression of therapeutic gene in peritumoral tissues will result in unacceptable toxicity to normal cells. To restrict gene expression in targeted tumor mass, we used hypoxia and radiation tolerance features of tumor cells to develop a synthetic AND gate genetic circuit through connecting radiation sensitivity promoter cArG6 , heat shock response elements SNF1, HSF1 and HSE4 with retroviral vector plxsn. Their construction and dynamic activity process were identified through downstream enhanced green fluorescent protein and wtp53 expression in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells and in a nude mice model. The result showed that AND gate genetic circuit could be activated by lower required radiation dose (6 Gy) and after activated, AND gate could induce significant apoptosis effects and growth inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The radiation- and hypoxia-activated AND gate genetic circuit, which could lead to more powerful target tumoricidal activity represented a promising strategy for both targeted and effective gene therapy of human lung adenocarcinoma and low dose activation character of the AND gate genetic circuit implied that this model could be further exploited to decrease side-effects of clinical radiation therapy.

  6. Analysis of Pocket Double Gate Tunnel FET for Low Stand by Power Logic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K. Jha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For low power circuits downscaling of MOSFET has a major issue of scaling of voltage which has ceased after 1V. This paper highlights comparative study and analysis of pocket double gate tunnel FET (DGTFET with MOSFET for low standby power logic circuits. The leakage current of pocket DGTFET and MOSFET have been studied and the analysis results shows that the pocket DGTFET gives the lower leakage current than the MOSFET. Further a pocket DGTFET inverter circuit is design in 32 nm technology node at VDD =0.6 V. The pocket DGTFET inverter shows the significant improvement on the leakage power than multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS inverter. The leakage power of pocket DGFET and MTCMOS inverter are 0.116 pW and 1.83 pW respectively. It is found that, the pocket DGTFET can replace the MOSFET for low standby power circuits.

  7. Escherichia coli flagellar genes as target sites for integration and expression of genetic circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Juhas

    Full Text Available E. coli is a model platform for engineering microbes, so genetic circuit design and analysis will be greatly facilitated by simple and effective approaches to introduce genetic constructs into the E. coli chromosome at well-characterised loci. We combined the Red recombinase system of bacteriophage λ and Isothermal Gibson Assembly for rapid integration of novel DNA constructs into the E. coli chromosome. We identified the flagellar region as a promising region for integration and expression of genetic circuits. We characterised integration and expression at four candidate loci, fliD, fliS, fliT, and fliY, of the E. coli flagellar region 3a. The integration efficiency and expression from the four integrations varied considerably. Integration into fliD and fliS significantly decreased motility, while integration into fliT and fliY had only a minor effect on the motility. None of the integrations had negative effects on the growth of the bacteria. Overall, we found that fliT was the most suitable integration site.

  8. Analysis and Evaluation of Statistical Models for Integrated Circuits Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz-Noval J.J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical models for integrated circuits (IC allow us to estimate the percentage of acceptable devices in the batch before fabrication. Actually, Pelgrom is the statistical model most accepted in the industry; however it was derived from a micrometer technology, which does not guarantee reliability in nanometric manufacturing processes. This work considers three of the most relevant statistical models in the industry and evaluates their limitations and advantages in analog design, so that the designer has a better criterion to make a choice. Moreover, it shows how several statistical models can be used for each one of the stages and design purposes.

  9. Mass analysis of the components separated from printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Charvátová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of effective and ecological recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs are searched all over the world at this time.The material composition and temperature properties of PCB are necessary to be known for an optimal recycling technology. For thispurpose we analyzed weight ratio of the electronic components moulded on the selected kinds of PCBs and next we formulatedmathematic model of temperature field in PCB during a grinding process in that the metal layers are separated from the plasticelements. We present the obtained results in this paper.

  10. Analysis and performance of paralleling circuits for modular inverter-converter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.; Gourash, F.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a modular inverter-converter development program, control techniques were developed to provide load sharing among paralleled inverters or converters. An analysis of the requirements of paralleling circuits and a discussion of the circuits developed and their performance are included in this report. The current sharing was within 5.6 percent of rated-load current for the ac modules and 7.4 percent for the dc modules for an initial output voltage unbalance of 5 volts.

  11. Inductive-resistive circuits with constant current: analysis of its treatment in University Basic Level textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Giacosa, Norah Silvana; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Químicas y Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Misiones Misiones; Zang, Claudia Mariela; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Químicas y Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Misiones Misiones; Giorgi, Silvia María; Facultad de Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) Santa Fe; Maidana, Jorge Armando; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Químicas y Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Misiones Misiones; Such, Alejandro; Estudiante de Ingeniería Química – Universidad Nacional de Misiones Misiones

    2013-01-01

    This study is formulated from the recognition of certain difficulties that University students experience in learning time-dependent electromagnetic phenomena. It describes, through content analysis of twelve-frequently used College textbooks in Argentina, the perspective from which electrical circuits formed by inductor, resistor and constant current source connected in series are approached. We found out that in most texts, the circuit is implicitly modeled as an isolated system, and the de...

  12. FAST: a framework for simulation and analysis of large-scale protein-silicon biosensor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a computer aided design (CAD) framework for verification and reliability analysis of protein-silicon hybrid circuits used in biosensors. It is envisioned that similar to integrated circuit (IC) CAD design tools, the proposed framework will be useful for system level optimization of biosensors and for discovery of new sensing modalities without resorting to laborious fabrication and experimental procedures. The framework referred to as FAST analyzes protein-based circuits by solving inverse problems involving stochastic functional elements that admit non-linear relationships between different circuit variables. In this regard, FAST uses a factor-graph netlist as a user interface and solving the inverse problem entails passing messages/signals between the internal nodes of the netlist. Stochastic analysis techniques like density evolution are used to understand the dynamics of the circuit and estimate the reliability of the solution. As an example, we present a complete design flow using FAST for synthesis, analysis and verification of our previously reported conductometric immunoassay that uses antibody-based circuits to implement forward error-correction (FEC).

  13. Time-domain analysis methodology for large-scale RLC circuits and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zuying; CAI Yici; Sheldon X.-D Tan; HONG Xianlong; WANG Xiaoyi; PAN Zhu; FU Jingjing

    2006-01-01

    With soaring work frequency and decreasing feature sizes, VLSI circuits with RLC parasitic components are more like analog circuits and should be carefully analyzed in physical design. However, the number of extracted RLC components is typically too large to be analyzed efficiently by using present analog circuit simulators like SPICE. In order to speedup the simulations without error penalty, this paper proposes a novel methodology to compress the time-descritized circuits resulted from numerical integration approximation at every time step. The main contribution of the methodology is the efficient structure-level compression of DC circuits containing many current sources, which is an important complement to present circuit analysis theory. The methodology consists of the following parts: 1) An approach is proposed to delete all intermediate nodes of RL branches. 2) An efficient approach is proposed to compress and back-solve parallel and serial branches so that it is error-free and of linear complexity to analyze circuits of tree topology. 3) The Y to ( transformation method is used to error-free reduce and back-solve the intermediate nodes of ladder circuits with the linear complexity. Thus, the whole simulation method is very accurate and of linear complexity to analyze circuits of chain topology. Based on the methodology, we propose several novel algorithms for efficiently solving RLC-model transient power/ground (P/G) networks. Among them, EQU-ADI algorithm of linear-complexity is proposed to solve RLC P/G networks with mesh-tree or mesh-chain topologies. Experimental results show that the proposed method is at least two orders of magnitude faster than SPICE while it can scale linearly in both time- and memory-complexity to solve very large P/G networks.

  14. Analysis of Short-circuit Characteristics and Calculation of Steady-state Short-circuit Current for DFIG Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines are connected to the grid and required to remain grid-connection during faults, the short-circuit current contributed by the generation has become a significant issue. However, the traditional calculation methods aiming at synchronous generators cannot be directly applied to the DFIG wind turbines. A new method is needed to calculate the short-circuit current required by the planning, protection and control of the power grid. The short-circuit transition of DFIG under symmetrical and asymmetric short-circuit conditions are mathematically deduced, and the short-circuit characteristics of DFIG are analyzed. A new method is proposed to calculate the steady-state short-circuit current of DFIG based on the derived expressions. The time-domain simulations are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Performance Analysis of Modified Drain Gating Techniques for Low Power and High Speed Arithmetic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Panwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several high performance and low power techniques for CMOS circuits. In these design methodologies, drain gating technique and its variations are modified by adding an additional NMOS sleep transistor at the output node which helps in faster discharge and thereby providing higher speed. In order to achieve high performance, the proposed design techniques trade power for performance in the delay critical sections of the circuit. Intensive simulations are performed using Cadence Virtuoso in a 45 nm standard CMOS technology at room temperature with supply voltage of 1.2 V. Comparative analysis of the present circuits with standard CMOS circuits shows smaller propagation delay and lesser power consumption.

  16. Frequency analysis for the thermal hydraulic characterization of a natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Conti, Thadeu N.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Masotti, Paulo H.; Angelo, Gabriel, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.b, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.b, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.b, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.b, E-mail: , E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.b, E-mail: pmasotti@ipen.b, E-mail: gabriel.angelo@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the frequency analysis studies of the pressure signals from an experimental natural circulation circuit during a heating process. The main objective is to identify the characteristic frequencies of this process using fast Fourier transform. Video images are used to associate these frequencies to the observed phenomenology in the circuit during the process. Sub-cooled and saturated flow boiling, heaters vibrations, overall circuit vibrations, chugging and geysering were observed. Each phenomenon has its specific frequency associated. Some phenomena and their frequencies must be avoided or attenuated since they can cause damages to the natural circulation circuit and its components. Special operation procedures and devices can be developed to avoid these undesirable frequencies. (author)

  17. Analysis of surface insulation resistance related failures in electronics by circuit simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Joshy, Salil; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this study is to show that the humidity levels for surface insulation resistance (SIR)-related failures are dependent on the type of activators used in no-clean flux systems and to demonstrate the possibility of simulating the effects of humidity and contamination on printed...... for the circuit analysis. The SIR data were compared to the surface resistance values observable on a real device printed circuit board assembly. SIR issues at the component and circuit levels were analysed on the basis of parasitic circuit effects owing to the formation of a water layer as an electrical...... conduction medium. Findings-This paper provides a summary of the effects of contamination with various weak organic acids representing the active components in no-clean solder flux residue, and demonstrates the effect of humidity and contamination on the possible malfunctions and errors in electronic...

  18. A failure mode effect analysis on extracorporeal circuits for cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrli-Veit, Michel; Riley, Jeffrey B; Austin, Jon W

    2004-12-01

    Although many refinements in perfusion methodology and devices have been made, extracorporeal circulation remains a contributor to neurological complications, bleeding coagulopathies, use of blood products, as well as systemic inflammatory response. With the exposure of these adverse effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, the necessity to re-examine the safety of extracorporeal circuits is vital. A failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) is a proven proactive technique developed to evaluate system effect or equipment failure. FMEA was used to evaluate the six different types of extracorporeal circuits based on feedback from five clinical experts. Cardiovascular device manufacturers, the Veteran's Administration National Center for Patient Safety, and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations recommend the use of FMEA to assess and manage risks in current and developing technologies and therapies. This analysis investigates the safety of six types of extracorporeal circuits used in coronary revascularization, including the newer miniaturized extracorporeal circuits. The FMEA lists and ranks the hazards associated with the use of each cardiopulmonary bypass extracorporeal circuit type. To increase the safety of extracorporeal circuits and minimize the effects associated with cardiopulmonary bypass, perfusionists must incorporate FMEA into their clinical practice.

  19. Neuromorphic log-domain silicon synapse circuits obey bernoulli dynamics: a unifying tutorial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I; Liu, Shih-Chii; Indiveri, Giacomo; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuromorphic silicon synapse circuits is revisited and a parsimonious mathematical framework able to describe the dynamics of this class of log-domain circuits in the aggregate and in a systematic manner is proposed. Starting from the Bernoulli Cell Formalism (BCF), originally formulated for the modular synthesis and analysis of externally linear, time-invariant logarithmic filters, and by means of the identification of new types of Bernoulli Cell (BC) operators presented here, a generalized formalism (GBCF) is established. The expanded formalism covers two new possible and practical combinations of a MOS transistor (MOST) and a linear capacitor. The corresponding mathematical relations codifying each case are presented and discussed through the tutorial treatment of three well-known transistor-level examples of log-domain neuromorphic silicon synapses. The proposed mathematical tool unifies past analysis approaches of the same circuits under a common theoretical framework. The speed advantage of the proposed mathematical framework as an analysis tool is also demonstrated by a compelling comparative circuit analysis example of high order, where the GBCF and another well-known log-domain circuit analysis method are used for the determination of the input-output transfer function of the high (4(th)) order topology.

  20. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  1. Application of damage function analysis to reactor coolant circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, D.D. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The application of deterministic models for simulating stress corrosion cracking phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuits is described. The first generation code, DAMAGE-PREDICTOR, has been used to model the radiolysis of the coolant, to estimate the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), and to calculate the crack growth rate (CGR) at fixed state points during reactor operation in about a dozen plants worldwide. This code has been validated in ''double-blind'' comparisons between the calculated and measured hydrogen concentration, oxygen concentration, and ECP in the recirculation system of the Leibstadt BWR in Switzerland, as well as through less formal comparisons with data from other plants. Second generation codes have now been developed, including REMAIN for simulating BWRs with internal coolant pumps and the ALERT series for modeling reactors with external pumps. One of this series, ALERT, yields the integrated damage function (IDF), which is the crack length versus time, on a component-by-component basis for a specified future operating scenario. This code therefore allows one to explore proposed future operating protocols, with the objective of identifying those that are most cost-effective and which minimizes the risk of failure of components in the coolant circuit by stress corrosion cracking. The application of this code is illustrated by exploring the benefits of partial hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) for an actual reactor, in which hydrogen is added to the feedwater over only limited periods during operation. The simulations show that the benefits, in terms of reduction in the IDFs for various components, are sensitive to when HWC was initiated in the plant life and to the length of time over which it is applied. (author)

  2. MATLAB在电路分析教学中的应用%The application of MATLAB in circuit analysis teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权建军

    2012-01-01

    The paper lists the MATLAB software in circuit analysis teaching application, includes DC circuit, sine AC circuit, three-phase circuits. Introducing MATLAB into circuit analysis course teaching, can achieve teaching intuitively, and help students to understand the circuit theory, as mean while, cultivate students' ability of computer aided circuit analysis.%列举了MATLAB软件在电路分析教学中的主要应用,包括直流电路、正弦交流电路、三相电路.将MATLAB引入电路分析教学,可以达到直观教学,有助于学生理解电路理论,还可以培养学生计算机分析电路的能力.

  3. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  4. Iterative experiment design guides the characterization of a light-inducible gene expression circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Jakob; Parise, Francesca; Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Khammash, Mustafa; Lygeros, John

    2015-06-30

    Systems biology rests on the idea that biological complexity can be better unraveled through the interplay of modeling and experimentation. However, the success of this approach depends critically on the informativeness of the chosen experiments, which is usually unknown a priori. Here, we propose a systematic scheme based on iterations of optimal experiment design, flow cytometry experiments, and Bayesian parameter inference to guide the discovery process in the case of stochastic biochemical reaction networks. To illustrate the benefit of our methodology, we apply it to the characterization of an engineered light-inducible gene expression circuit in yeast and compare the performance of the resulting model with models identified from nonoptimal experiments. In particular, we compare the parameter posterior distributions and the precision to which the outcome of future experiments can be predicted. Moreover, we illustrate how the identified stochastic model can be used to determine light induction patterns that make either the average amount of protein or the variability in a population of cells follow a desired profile. Our results show that optimal experiment design allows one to derive models that are accurate enough to precisely predict and regulate the protein expression in heterogeneous cell populations over extended periods of time.

  5. Linear circuit analysis program for IBM 1620 Monitor 2, 1311/1443 data processing system /CIRCS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.

    1967-01-01

    CIRCS is modification of IBSNAP Circuit Analysis Program, for use on smaller systems. This data processing system retains the basic dc, transient analysis, and FORTRAN 2 formats. It can be used on the IBM 1620/1311 Monitor I Mod 5 system, and solves a linear network containing 15 nodes and 45 branches.

  6. A PURE NODAL-ANALYSIS METHOD SUITABLE FOR ANALOG CIRCUITS USING NULLORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique suitable for computer-aided analysis of analog integrated circuits (ICs is introduced. This technique uses the features of both nodal-analysis (NA and symbolic analysis, at nullor level. First, the nullor is used to model the ideal behavior of several analog devices, namely: transistors, opamps, OTAs, and current conveyors. From this modeling approach, it is shown how to transform circuits working in voltage-mode to current-mode and vice-versa. Second, it is demonstrated that using nullors, all non-NA-compatible elements can be transformed into NA-compatible ones, this results in a computationally-improved pure-NA method. Third, the computation of fully-symbolic expressions using , is described. It is demonstrated that a symbolic expression gives more insight in the behavior and performance of the circuit. Finally, several examples demonstrate the suitability and appropriateness of the proposed method to be used in education.

  7. E-learning platform for automated testing of electronic circuits using signature analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherghina, Cǎtǎlina; Bacivarov, Angelica; Bacivarov, Ioan C.; Petricǎ, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Dependability of electronic circuits can be ensured only through testing of circuit modules. This is done by generating test vectors and their application to the circuit. Testability should be viewed as a concerted effort to ensure maximum efficiency throughout the product life cycle, from conception and design stage, through production to repairs during products operating. In this paper, is presented the platform developed by authors for training for testability in electronics, in general and in using signature analysis method, in particular. The platform allows highlighting the two approaches in the field namely analog and digital signature of circuits. As a part of this e-learning platform, it has been developed a database for signatures of different electronic components meant to put into the spotlight different techniques implying fault detection, and from this there were also self-repairing techniques of the systems with this kind of components. An approach for realizing self-testing circuits based on MATLAB environment and using signature analysis method is proposed. This paper analyses the benefits of signature analysis method and simulates signature analyzer performance based on the use of pseudo-random sequences, too.

  8. Gene set analysis for GWAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We discuss the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics in the context of gene set analysis and review corresponding null and alternative hypotheses. Especially, we show that, when enhancing the impact of highly significant genes in the calculation of the test statistic...... parameter and the genesis and distribution of the gene-level statistics, and illustrate the effects of differential weighting in a real-life example....

  9. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  10. Epidemiological analysis of doping offences in the professional tennis circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maquirriain Javier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tennis is a professional sport under a strict anti-doping control. However, since the first violation of the code, the positive cases have not been statistically studied. The objective of this study was to analyze doping offences in the international professional tennis circuit. Methods All offences to the Doping Code committed by tennis players during 2003-2009 were collected from the ITF official webpage, registered and analyzed. Results An average of 1905.7 (±174.5 samples was obtained per year. Fifty-two doping offences were reported and the overall incidence of positive doping samples accounted for 0.38% and 7.4 (±4.1 cases/year. Male players showed higher incidence doping offences than females (p = 0.0004. The incidence in wheelchair players was higher than in non-handicapped subjects (p = 0.0001 Banned substance distribution showed: stimulants 32.69%, cannabis 23.07%; anabolic 11.53%, diuretics and masking agents 11.53, β2-agonists 9.61%; corticosteroids 3.84%, others 3.84%. The overall incidence of 'social drugs' (cocaine, cannabis was 36.53%. All EPO and blood samples were normal, while the incidence of 'out-of-competition' offences was 0.12%. The lower incidence of doping was found in Grand Slams tournaments. Conclusions The incidence of positive doping samples among professional tennis players is quite low supporting the assumption that there is no evidence of systematic doping in Tennis. "Social drugs" misuse constitutes the main problem of doping in tennis. Male and wheelchair tennis players showed higher risk of infringing the doping code than their females and non-handicapped counterparts. Findings of this study should help to determine the direction of the ongoing strategy in the fight against doping in Tennis.

  11. Electrothermal Analysis of Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Theodore Robert

    2011-12-01

    Transient electro-thermal simulation of a three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC) is reported that uses a cell-based simulation to provide a selected transistor thermal profile while providing advantages of hierarchical simulation. Due to CPU and memory limitations, full transistor electro-thermal simulations on a useful scale are not possible. Standard cells are considered on a per-instance basis and modeled with electro-thermal macro-models developed in a multi-physics simulator. Simulations are compared favorably to measurements for a token-generating 3DIC clocking at a maximum of 1 GHz. The 3DIC, which is composed of 9 by 3 layers of repetitive frequency multipliers and dividers, was fabricated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MITLL) 3DIC process. Measurements indicated a linear rise in temperature of the active areas over a range of applied background ambient temperatures. An average of 7.5 K change in temperature was measured across dense areas of circuitry. For thermal simulation, the physical characteristics of the 3DIC were extracted from flattened OpenAccess layout files. Material parameters, connections, and geometries were considered in order to create a more physically accurate resistive thermal mesh. Physical thermal networks extracted with resolutions of 10 mum and 5 mum connect thermal terminals of the electrothermal macromodel cell elements to active layers yielding temporal and spatial simulated dynamic thermal results in three dimensions. Coupled with model-order reduction techniques, hierarchical dynamic electrothermal simulation of large 3DICs is shown to be tractable, yielding spatial and temporal selected transistor-level thermal profiles.

  12. Diagnosis of inverter switch open circuit faults based on neutral point voltage signal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei GUO

    Full Text Available Using the current signal to diagnose inverter faults information is apt to be affected by the load, noise and other factors; besides, it requires long diagnosis period with special algorithms and the diagnosis result is easily to be incorrect with no-load or light-load. Focusing on this issue, the logical analysis method is proposed for correlation logical analysis of leg neutral-point voltage and pulse signal to realize the diagnosis of the open circuit faults of inverter switches. The logical expressions of output signals of inverter power tube open-circuit faults is put forward and interrelated hardware circuit design is also elaborated. Delaying the rising edge of inverter power tube's pulse signal can effectively avoid the diagnosis error caused by the power tube's switching on/off. The experiment results show that the method can effectively diagnose the open-circuit faults of single-phase single power tube inverter in real-time and the hardware circuit cost is low, which shows it is effective and feasible.

  13. An analog integrated signal processing circuit for on-chip diffusion-based gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hesam; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2013-07-01

    In diffusion-based gas analysis, the transient of gas diffusion process is recorded by a generic gas sensor to serve as a fingerprint for qualitative and quantitative analysis of gaseous samples. Following the acquisition of these specific signals, any standalone gas analyzer requires a pattern recognition system for pattern classification. The classic digital pattern recognition methods require computing hardware of adequate computational throughput. In this paper, we have followed a straightforward mathematical procedure to relate the signals to their associated target gases. We have shown that the procedure can be implemented by a set of analog functions. Based on the results, we have designed an analog integrated circuit, in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process, for processing the diffusion-based transient signals. The main circuit components are a low-pass filter, the differentiator, the feature extractor and an artificial neural network. The output of the circuit is a 2-bit binary code that specifies the target gas. The circuit successfully classified four alcoholic vapors by processing the experimentally obtained response patterns. The proposed signal processing circuit, the semiconductor gas sensor and the diffusion channel can all be implemented on a single substrate to fabricate an integrated micro gas analyzer.

  14. Chromatin analysis of occluded genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Bugarija, Branimir; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Snyder, Gregory E.; Bush, Eliot C.; Lahn, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    We recently described two opposing states of transcriptional competency. One is termed ‘competent’ whereby a gene is capable of responding to trans-acting transcription factors of the cell, such that it is active if appropriate transcriptional activators are present, though it can also be silent if activators are absent or repressors are present. The other is termed ‘occluded’ whereby a gene is silenced by cis-acting, chromatin-based mechanisms in a manner that blocks it from responding to trans-acting factors, such that it is silent even when activators are present in the cellular milieu. We proposed that gene occlusion is a mechanism by which differentiated cells stably maintain their phenotypic identities. Here, we describe chromatin analysis of occluded genes. We found that DNA methylation plays a causal role in maintaining occlusion for a subset of occluded genes. We further examined a variety of other chromatin marks typically associated with transcriptional silencing, including histone variants, covalent histone modifications and chromatin-associated proteins. Surprisingly, we found that although many of these marks are robustly linked to silent genes (which include both occluded genes and genes that are competent but silent), none is linked specifically to occluded genes. Although the observation does not rule out a possible causal role of these chromatin marks in occlusion, it does suggest that these marks might be secondary effect rather than primary cause of the silent state in many genes. PMID:19380460

  15. An Exploratory Study Examining the Feasibility of Using Bayesian Networks to Predict Circuit Analysis Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Dionne, Gary B.; Kaiser, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Our research question was whether we could develop a feasible technique, using Bayesian networks, to diagnose gaps in student knowledge. Thirty-four college-age participants completed tasks designed to measure conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and problem-solving skills related to circuit analysis. A Bayesian network was used to model…

  16. Encountering the Expertise Reversal Effect with a Computer-Based Environment on Electrical Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Atkinson, Robert K.; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a computer-based environment employing three example-based instructional procedures (example-problem, problem-example, and fading) to teach series and parallel electrical circuit analysis to learners classified by two levels of prior knowledge (low and high). Although no differences between the…

  17. An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

  18. Design and analysis of CMOS analog signal processing circuits by means of a graphical MOST model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Hans; Bult, Klaas

    1989-01-01

    A graphical representation of a simple MOST (metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor) model for the analysis of analog MOS circuits operating in strong inversion is given. It visualizes the principles of signal-processing techniques depending on the characteristics of an MOS transistor. Several lineari

  19. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  20. Short Circuit Ratio analysis of multi-infeed HVDC system with a VSC-HVDC link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    As an important indicator of system stability, Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) is commonly used in power system analysis. For systems include HVDC link connection, the Effective SCR (ESCR) is mostly applied to indicate the strength of HVDC infeed bus. The contribution of VSC-HVDC link to multi......-infeed HVDC system stability has been analyzed a lot but the study on ESCR of this kind of system is still insufficient. This paper presents a calculation method for ESCR of the hybrid multi infeed HVDC system based on a simple two-infeed HVDC system model. The equivalent circuit of this system under short...

  1. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS BASED ON THE SEMIDISCRETIZATION OF TELEGRAPH EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yushun

    2001-01-01

    A new transient analysis method for the transmission line circuits is presented in this paper. Based on the semidiscretization of the telegraph equations, a discretized time domain companion models for the transmission lines which can be conveniently implemented in a general circuit simulator such as SPICE is derived. The computation required for the model is linear with time, equivalent to the recursive convolution-based method. The formulations for both single and coupled lossy transmission lines are given. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the method.

  2. Photonic circuit for high order USB and LSB separation for remote heterodyning: analysis and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-09-21

    A novel photonic integrated circuit is proposed that, using an RF source, generates at its output ports the same magnitude but opposite sign high order single optical side bands of a suppressed optical carrier. A single stage parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) and a two-stage series parallel MZM architecture are described and their relative merits discussed. A transfer matrix method is used to describe the operation of the circuits. The theoretical analysis is validated by computer simulation. As an illustration of a prospective application, it is shown how the circuit may be used as a key element of an optical transmission system to transport radio signals over fibre for wireless access; generating remotely a mm-wave carrier modulated by digital IQ data. A detailed calculation of symbol error rate is presented to characterise the system performance. The circuit may be fabricated in any integration platform offering a suitable phase modulator circuit element such as LiNbO(3), Silicon, and III-V or hybrid technology.

  3. General analytical solutions for DC/AC circuit-network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we present novel general analytical solutions for the currents that are developed in the edges of network-like circuits when some nodes of the network act as sources/sinks of DC or AC current. We assume that Ohm's law is valid at every edge and that charge at every node is conserved (with the exception of the source/sink nodes). The resistive, capacitive, and/or inductive properties of the lines in the circuit define a complex network structure with given impedances for each edge. Our solution for the currents at each edge is derived in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the network defined from the impedances. This derivation also allows us to compute the equivalent impedance between any two nodes of the circuit and relate it to currents in a closed circuit which has a single voltage generator instead of many input/output source/sink nodes. This simplifies the treatment that could be done via Thévenin's theorem. Contrary to solving Kirchhoff's equations, our derivation allows to easily calculate the redistribution of currents that occurs when the location of sources and sinks changes within the network. Finally, we show that our solutions are identical to the ones found from Circuit Theory nodal analysis.

  4. A comprehensive equivalent circuit model of all-vanadium redox flow battery for power system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Jiyun; Wang, Peng; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Xiong, Binyu; Badrinarayanan, Rajagopalan

    2015-09-01

    Electrical equivalent circuit models demonstrate excellent adaptability and simplicity in predicting the electrical dynamic response of the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) system. However, only a few publications that focus on this topic are available. The paper presents a comprehensive equivalent circuit model of VRB for system level analysis. The least square method is used to identify both steady-state and dynamic characteristics of VRB. The inherent features of the flow battery such as shunt current, ion diffusion and pumping energy consumption are also considered. The proposed model consists of an open-circuit voltage source, two parasitic shunt bypass circuits, a 1st order resistor-capacitor network and a hydraulic circuit model. Validated with experimental data, the proposed model demonstrates excellent accuracy. The mean-error of terminal voltage and pump consumption are 0.09 V and 0.49 W respectively. Based on the proposed model, self-discharge and system efficiency are studied. An optimal flow rate which maximizes the system efficiency is identified. Finally, the dynamic responses of the proposed VRB model under step current profiles are presented. Variables such as SOC and stack terminal voltage can be provided.

  5. FETSIM user's manual and example. [D.C. and transient analysis of MOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A batch program written in FORTRAN IV which does D.C. and transient analysis of MOS circuits is presented. Circuits employing N-MOS transistors and/or P-MOS transistors in either a bulk technology or an SOS technology, or almost any combination of R-C elements may be analyzed. The program requires as input data the complete circuit topology, device parameters, process parameters, and control parameters. The user can specify initial node conditions and the input pulse format. For example, pulse rise time, fall time, width and time between succeeding pulses are all independently controllable. The program contains a sophisticated mathematical model that can accurately handle either NMOS, P-MOS, Bulk or SOS devices. Sensitivity to process changes is maintained by requiring such process parameters as threshold voltage and doping level as program inputs.

  6. Quasi-linear vacancy dynamics modeling and circuit analysis of the bipolar memristor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-linear transport equation is investigated for modeling the bipolar memory resistor. The solution accommodates vacancy and circuit level perspectives on memristance. For the first time in literature the component resistors that constitute the contemporary dual variable resistor circuit model are quantified using vacancy parameters and derived from a governing partial differential equation. The model describes known memristor dynamics even as it generates new insight about vacancy migration, bottlenecks to switching speed and elucidates subtle relationships between switching resistance range and device parameters. The model is shown to comply with Chua's generalized equations for the memristor. Independent experimental results are used throughout, to validate the insights obtained from the model. The paper concludes by implementing a memristor-capacitor filter and compares its performance to a reference resistor-capacitor filter to demonstrate that the model is usable for practical circuit analysis.

  7. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N., E-mail: neelampg@iastate.edu; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.

  8. Short circuit analysis of distribution system with integration of DG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Integration of distributed generation (DG) such as wind turbines into distribution system is increasing all around the world, because of the flexible and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, DG integration may change the pattern of the fault currents in the distribution system...... as well. The results in this paper are based on mathematical analysis and simulation study in DIgSILENT PowerFactory....

  9. Analysis of the crosstalk in an underwater planar array transducer by the equivalent circuit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Seonghun; Roh, Yongrae

    2017-07-01

    A planar array transducer consists of several transducers arranged on an acoustic window, which causes crosstalk. The crosstalk is a phenomenon in which the acoustic pressure generated by a projector is transferred to adjacent hydrophones through the acoustic window and the transferred pressure generates noise signals in the hydrophones. The performance of the planar array transducer is deteriorated due to this acoustic interaction, which should be minimized for maximum array performance. Analysis of the crosstalk has been carried out with sophisticated numerical methods, which motivated the need to develop a simpler and accurate analysis method. In this work, an equivalent circuit has been developed to analyze the crosstalk level of the planar array transducer, and the validity of the developed method has been verified by comparing the result from the equivalent circuit analysis with that from finite element analysis.

  10. Analysis of multiple faults in synchronous sequential circuits by Boolean difference techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1978-04-01

    The Boolean difference is a mathematical concept which has found significant application in the study of single and multiple ''stuck at'' faults in combinational logic circuits. The concept of vector Boolean difference is extended to the analysis of multiple stuck-at faults in synchronous sequential circuits. A vector Boolean difference technique is utilized to determine the set of input/state pairs that will produce a difference in either output or next-state between the fault-free and faulty circuits. Assuming that the fault-free and faulty circuits start in the same initial state, they must be driven by applying a sequence of input vectors to a state in which either a difference in output or next-state is evidenced. If a difference in output cannot be achieved immediately, a second sequence of input vectors must be applied in order to propagate the state difference to the output. Methods for combining the Boolean difference analysis with techniques for deriving the required input vector sequence are discussed.

  11. Combined analysis of energy band diagram and equivalent circuit on nanocrystal solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Shinya, E-mail: kano@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Sasaki, Masato; Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: kano@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-06-07

    We investigate a combined analysis of an energy band diagram and an equivalent circuit on nanocrystal (NC) solids. We prepared a flat silicon-NC solid in order to carry out the analysis. An energy band diagram of a NC solid is determined from DC transport properties. Current-voltage characteristics, photocurrent measurements, and conductive atomic force microscopy images indicate that a tunneling transport through a NC solid is dominant. Impedance spectroscopy gives an equivalent circuit: a series of parallel resistor-capacitors corresponding to NC/metal and NC/NC interfaces. The equivalent circuit also provides an evidence that the NC/NC interface mainly dominates the carrier transport through NC solids. Tunneling barriers inside a NC solid can be taken into account in a combined capacitance. Evaluated circuit parameters coincide with simple geometrical models of capacitances. As a result, impedance spectroscopy is also a useful technique to analyze semiconductor NC solids as well as usual DC transport. The analyses provide indispensable information to implement NC solids into actual electronic devices.

  12. ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS WITH MULTIPLE COUPLED LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of coupled lossy transmission line structures like microwave directional couplers and filters, 3-phase power cable networks or a databus is not simple. In this paper it is shown that the admittance parameters for the 2N port network, N coupled lossy transmission lines form, may be fo...... be found using a set of almost arbitrary (orthogonal) quasi propagation modes instead of the true modes, if the up-per frequency is so low that the electrical length of the lines is smaller than about 1/3 of the wavelength for the propagation mode with the lowest phase velocity....

  13. Magnetic Circuit & Torque Analysis Of Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif J. Abbas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       This work is concerned with magnetic and torque analysis of BLDCM and with development of a method of designing BLDCM that have symmetric winding on the rotor .make significant contribution to the rotor inductance position difficult. It is also show that the prediction detent torque can be extremely sensitive to the permanent magnet by altering magnet arc width. Finally, simple lumped models that allow one to predict motor performance and characteristics as a function of main dimension, magnet residual flux density and phase current are developed. These models are used as a basis for an approach to designing BLDCM

  14. Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier as an Effective Example to Teach Normalization, Conduction Modes, and Circuit Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of a single phase rectifier as an example in teaching circuit modeling, normalization, operating modes of nonlinear circuits, and circuit analysis methods is proposed.The rectifier supplied from a voltage source by an inductive impedance is analyzed in the discontinuous as well as in the continuous conduction mode. Completely analytical solution for the continuous conduction mode is derived. Appropriate numerical methods are proposed to obtain the circuit waveforms in both of the operating modes, and to compute the performance parameters. Source code of the program that performs such computation is provided.

  15. Multivariate analysis and optimization of linear periodically time-variable circuits at the enviroment of MAOPCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shapovalov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The architecture of MAOPCs functions system and examples of its application for solving the tasks of multivariate analysis of linear periodically time-variable (LPTV circuits based on the frequency symbolic method are considered in this paper. The method is based on approximation of transfer functions of LPTV circuits in the form of trigonometric polynomials of the Fourier. The MAOPCs functions system is implemented in the environment of MATLAB. Architecture and functions of the system MAOPCs. The system consists of 17 functions that are implemented in the environment of MATLAB. Each function has arguments and global variables and carries out over them identified transformation. Functions and global variables form the input data program for research LPTV circuit and should be defined (set at the time of calling the function. Conclusions. The MAOPCs functions system enables to investigate LPTV circuits, setting in program input data the algorithms for their research and to use a strong symbolic apparatus and other standard functions of the package MATLAB in full, without understanding the deep of mathematical apparatus of implemented methods.

  16. Modal analysis based equivalent circuit model and its verification for a single cMUT cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, S. P.; Rottenberg, X.; Rochus, V.; Czarnecki, P.; Helin, P.; Severi, S.; Nauwelaers, B.; Tilmans, H. A. C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the lumped equivalent circuit model and its verification of both transmission and reception properties of a single cell capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT), which is operating in a non-collapse small signal region. The derivation of this equivalent circuit model is based on the modal analysis techniques, harmonic modes are included by using the mode superposition method; and thus a wide frequency range response of the cMUT cell can be simulated by our equivalent circuit model. The importance of the cross modal coupling between different eigenmodes of a cMUT cell is discussed by us for the first time. In this paper the development of this model is only illustrated by a single circular cMUT cell under a uniform excitation. Extension of this model and corresponding results under a more generalized excitation will be presented in our upcoming publication (Mao et al 2016 Proc. IEEE Int. Ultrasonics Symp.). This model is verified by both finite element method (FEM) simulation and experimental characterizations. Results predicted by our model are in a good agreement with the FEM simulation results, and this works for a single cMUT cell operated in either transmission or reception. Results obtained from the model also rather match the experimental results of the cMUT cell. This equivalent circuit model provides an easy and precise way to rapidly predict the behaviors of cMUT cells.

  17. Transient Analysis of Lumped Circuit Networks Loaded Thin Wires By DGTD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-03-31

    With the purpose of avoiding very fine mesh cells in the proximity of a thin wire, the modified telegrapher’s equations (MTEs) are employed to describe the thin wire voltage and current distributions, which consequently results in reduced number of unknowns and augmented Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. As hyperbolic systems, both the MTEs and the Maxwell’s equations are solved by the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method. In realistic situations, the thin wires could be either driven or loaded by circuit networks. The thin wire-circuit interface performs as a boundary condition for the thin wire solver, where the thin wire voltage and current used for the incoming flux evaluation involved in the DGTD analyzed MTEs are not available. To obtain this voltage and current, an auxiliary current flowing through the thin wire-circuit interface is introduced at each interface. Corresponding auxiliary equations derived from the invariable property of characteristic variable for hyperbolic systems are developed and solved together with the circuit equations established by the modified nodal analysis (MNA) modality. Furthermore, in order to characterize the field and thin wire interactions, a weighted electric field and a volume current density are added into the MTEs and Maxwell-Ampere’s law equation, respectively. To validate the proposed algorithm, three representative examples are presented.

  18. Design and Analysis of Broad-Band Fixed-Tuned Submillimeter-Waveguide Multipliers using MMIC Style Circuit Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruston, J.; Kim, M.; Martin, S. C.; Mehdi, I.; Smith, R. P.; Siegel, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The design and analysis of varactor diode doubler, quadrupler and cascaded doubler circuits for 320 and 640 GHz have been completed. A new approach has been employed to produce a tunerless waveguide mount with a very flexible, frequency scaleable, MMIC style multiplier circuit. The concept, design, predicted performance and measurements on some of the constituent mount elements are presented.

  19. Transient and Steady-State Analysis of Nonlinear RF and Microwave Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Lei(Lana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of simulation methods currently available for the transient and steady-state analysis of nonlinear RF and microwave circuits. The most general method continues to be the time-marching approach used in Spice, but more recent methods based on multiple time dimensions are particularly effective for RF and microwave circuits. We derive nodal formulations for the most widely used multiple time dimension methods. We put special emphasis on methods for the analysis of oscillators based in the warped multitime partial differential equations (WaMPDE approach. Case studies of a Colpitts oscillator and a voltage controlled Clapp-Gouriet oscillator are presented and discussed. The accuracy of the amplitude and phase of these methods is investigated. It is shown that the exploitation of frequency-domain latency reduces the computational effort.

  20. Characterization and Analysis of A Healthy 330 Kilovolt Double Circuit Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onuegbu J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 330KV healthy transmission line was analyzed with the aim to investigating the influence of high voltage on human being at normal regime. Some of the operating parameters of the line, namely: shock current and voltage, inductance, reactance, radio interference, electric field charge and corona effect were highlighted. The level of protection of humans and safety operation of the power system were investigated using numerical analysis. From the analysis, a healthy 330KV transmission line can generate a carrier frequency of about 85 KHz and that corona formation in double circuit power lines is slower than in single circuit lines and that step voltage is proportional to transmission line sag. Based on the results of the paper, normally operating 330KV transmission line parameters do exceed their rated values and this is not good for healthy living

  1. Sensitivity analysis of distributed parameter elements In high-speed circuit networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei DOU; Zhiquan WANG

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis method,based on MacCormack's technique,for the evaluation of the time domain sensitivity of distributed parameter elements in high-speed circuit networks.Sensitivities can be calculated from electrical and physical parameters of the distributed parameter elements.The proposed method is a direct numerical method of time-space discretization and does not require complicated mathematical deductive process.Therefore,it is very convenient to program this method.It can be applied to sensitivity analysis of general transmission lines in linear or nonlinear circuit networks.The proposed method is second-order-accurate.Numerical experiment is presented to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Electrical circuit analysis and technical english: articulation in a project-based learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, José Manuel; Branco, Denise; Oliveira, João Pedro Estima de

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of Electrical Circuit Analysis and Technical English in the same curricular module, in the context of a Project Based Learning (PBL) environment. The idea consists in taking advantage of the PBL setting to provide a context for the learning of the two different subjects in an articulated manner. The results of the evaluation of the first iteration of this experiment will also be discussed.

  3. Parameter estimation methods for gene circuit modeling from time-series mRNA data: a comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, M.

    2015-03-29

    Parameter estimation is a challenging computational problemin the reverse engineering of biological systems. Because advances in biotechnology have facilitated wide availability of time-series gene expression data, systematic parameter esti- mation of gene circuitmodels fromsuch time-series mRNA data has become an importantmethod for quantitatively dissecting the regulation of gene expression. By focusing on themodeling of gene circuits, we examine here the perform- ance of three types of state-of-the-art parameter estimation methods: population-basedmethods, onlinemethods and model-decomposition-basedmethods. Our results show that certain population-basedmethods are able to generate high- quality parameter solutions. The performance of thesemethods, however, is heavily dependent on the size of the param- eter search space, and their computational requirements substantially increase as the size of the search space increases. In comparison, onlinemethods andmodel decomposition-basedmethods are computationally faster alternatives and are less dependent on the size of the search space. Among other things, our results show that a hybrid approach that augments computationally fastmethods with local search as a subsequent refinement procedure can substantially increase the qual- ity of their parameter estimates to the level on par with the best solution obtained fromthe population-basedmethods whilemaintaining high computational speed. These suggest that such hybridmethods can be a promising alternative to themore commonly used population-basedmethods for parameter estimation of gene circuit models when limited prior knowledge about the underlying regulatorymechanismsmakes the size of the parameter search space vastly large. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. A combined noise analysis and power supply current based testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Pulendra, Vani K.; Yellampalli, Siva

    2005-05-01

    A technique integrating the noise analysis based testing and the conventional power supply current testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits is presented for bridging type faults due to manufacturing defects. The circuit under test (CUT) is a CMOS amplifier designed for operation at +/- 2.5 V and implemented in 1.5 μm CMOS process. The faults simulating possible manufacturing defects have been introduced using the fault injection transistors. The amplifier circuit is analyzed and simulated in SPICE for its performance with and without fault injections. The faults in the CUT are identified by observing the variation in the equivalent noise voltage at the output of CUT. In power supply current testing, the current (IPS) through the power supply voltage, VDD is measured under the application of an AC input stimulus. The effect of parametric variation is taken into consideration by determining the tolerance limit using the Monte-Carlo analysis. The fault is identified if the power supply current, IPS lies outside the deviation given by Monte-Carlo analysis. Simulation results are in close agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

  5. Conversion of matrixes of parameters and the analysis of circuits after closing and breaking of arbitrary number of branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Stashuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theorem which allows to define the magnitude order of determinant at which value of arbitrary quantity of elements grows infinitely is proved. The method of the analysis of electric circuits after closing and breaking of arbitrary quantity of branches is developed, using only one of matrixes of parameters (conductivities or resistance the initial circuit. Circuit analysis examples after closing of branch are given, using a matrix of conductivities of the initial circuit. Generally when closing arbitrary number of nodal couples theorem application also allows to find potentials of all nodes and currents of all branches, closed branches inclusively. For this purpose it is necessary to the appropriate elements of determinant on which required values are calculated, to add with a due sign of value of y and to pass to a limit, having applied the theorem. If the matrix of Z - parameters of the initial circuit is set, it is possible to receive dual results, using the proved theorem.

  6. Analysis and Simple Circuit Design of Double Differential EMG Active Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Federico Nicolás; Spinelli, Enrique Mario; Haberman, Marcelo Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the voltage amplifier needed for double differential (DD) sEMG measurements and a novel, very simple circuit for implementing DD active electrodes. The three-input amplifier that standalone DD active electrodes require is inherently different from a differential amplifier, and general knowledge about its design is scarce in the literature. First, the figures of merit of the amplifier are defined through a decomposition of its input signal into three orthogonal modes. This analysis reveals a mode containing EMG crosstalk components that the DD electrode should reject. Then, the effect of finite input impedance is analyzed. Because there are three terminals, minimum bounds for interference rejection ratios due to electrode and input impedance unbalances with two degrees of freedom are obtained. Finally, a novel circuit design is presented, including only a quadruple operational amplifier and a few passive components. This design is nearly as simple as the branched electrode and much simpler than the three instrumentation amplifier design, while providing robust EMG crosstalk rejection and better input impedance using unity gain buffers for each electrode input. The interference rejection limits of this input stage are analyzed. An easily replicable implementation of the proposed circuit is described, together with a parameter design guideline to adjust it to specific needs. The electrode is compared with the established alternatives, and sample sEMG signals are obtained, acquired on different body locations with dry contacts, successfully rejecting interference sources.

  7. Simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha; Su, Jian, E-mail: larissa@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenhraria Nuclear; Cotta, Renato Machado, E-mail: cotta@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (POLI/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Single phase natural circulation circuits composed of two convective heat exchangers and connecting tubes are important for the passive heat removal from spent fuel pools (SFP). To keep the structural integrity of the stored spent fuel assemblies, continuously cooling has to be provided in order to avoid increase at the pool temperature and subsequent uncovering of the fuel and enhanced reaction between water and metal releasing hydrogen. Decay heat can achieve considerably high amounts of energy e.g. in the AP1000, considering the emergency fuel assemblies, the maximum heat decay will reach 13 MW in the 15th day (Westinghouse Electric Company, 2010). A highly efficient alternative to do so is by means of natural circulation, which is cost-effective compared to active cooling systems and is inherently safer since presents less associated devices and no external work is required. Many researchers have investigated safety and stability aspects of natural circulation loops (NCL). However, there is a lack of literature concerning the improvement of NCL through a standard unified methodology, especially for natural circulation circuits with two heat exchangers. In the present study, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchanges is presented. Relevant dimensionless key groups were proposed to for the design and safety analysis of a scaled NCL for the cooling of spent fuel storage pool with convective cooling and heating. (author)

  8. Modeling and analysis of power extraction circuits for passive UHF RFID applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Bo; Dai Yujie; Zhang Xiaoxing; LV Yingjie

    2009-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of far field power extraction circuits for passive UHF RF identification (RFID) applications are presented. A mathematical model is derived to predict the complex nonlinear performance of UHF voltage multiplier using Schottky diodes. To reduce the complexity of the proposed model, a simple linear ap-proximation for Schottky diode is introduced. Measurement results show considerable agreement with the values calculated by the proposed model. With the derived model, optimization on stage number for voltage multiplier to achieve maximum power conversion efficiency is discussed. Furthermore, according to the Bode-Fano criterion and the proposed model, a limitation on maximum power up range for passive UHF RFID power extraction circuits is also studied.

  9. A Survey Analysis on CMOS Integrated Circuits with Clock-Gated Logic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PADMA KHARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Various circuit design techniques has been presented to improve noise tolerance of the proposed CGS logic families. Noise in deep submicron technology limits the reliability and performance of ICs. The ANTE (Average Noise Threshold Energy metric is used for the analysis of noise tolerance of proposed CGS. A 2- input NAND and NOR gate is designed by the proposed technique. Simulation results for a 2-input NAND gate at clock gated logic show that the proposed noise tolerant circuit achieves 1.79X ANTE improvement along with the reduction in leakage power. Continuous scaling of technology towards the manometer range significantly increases leakage current level and the effect of noise. This research can be further extended for performance optimization in terms of power, speed, area and noise immunity.

  10. Experiments and kinematics analysis of a hand rehabilitation exoskeleton with circuitous joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuhai; Fu, Yili; Zhang, Qinchao; Wang, Shuguo

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the hand rehabilitation of stroke patients, a wearable hand exoskeleton with circuitous joint is proposed. The circuitous joint adopts the symmetric pinion and rack mechanism (SPRM) with the parallel mechanism. The exoskeleton finger is a serial mechanism composed of three closed-chain SPRM joints in series. The kinematic equations of the open chain of the finger and the closed chains of the SPRM joints were built to analyze the kinematics of the hand rehabilitation exoskeleton. The experimental setup of the hand rehabilitation exoskeleton was built and the continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation experiment and the test of human-robot interaction force measurement were conducted. Experiment results show that the mechanical design of the hand rehabilitation robot is reasonable and that the kinematic analysis is correct, thus the exoskeleton can be used for the hand rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  11. DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF WELD POOL SHAPE FOR CO2 SHORT CIRCUITING ARC WELDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A general industrial CCD(ICCD) camera is redesigned to detect the weld pool without arc at the period of short circuiting,so that the interference of arc and spatter during CO2 short circuiting arc welding is eliminated. Through the analysis of weld pool image, both size parameters (such as weld pool area A, weld pool length L1, L2 and weld pool breadth b) and contour parameters (bi which describe the curves of weld pool boundany) ,which could indicate the shape features of weld pool, had been defined to express weld pool information quantitatively. The investigation of the relationships between weld pool shape parameters and welding process parameters may be beneficial to the quality control of CO2 welding.

  12. Analysis and modelling of GaN Schottky-based circuits at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, D.; Grajal, J.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents an analysis of the capabilities of GaN Schottky diodes for frequency multipliers and mixers at millimeter wavelengths. By using a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the diode coupled to a harmonic balance technique, the electrical and noise performances of these circuits are investigated. Despite the lower electron mobility of GaN compared to GaAs, multipliers based on GaN Schottky diodes can be competitive in the first stages of multiplier chains, due to the excellent power handling capabilities of this material. The performance of these circuits can be improved by taking advantage of the lateral Schottky diode structures based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology.

  13. Analysis of the discharge of the ATLAS barrel toroid and end cap toroids with different configurations of the protection circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Acerbi, E; Broggi, F; Sorbi, M; Volpini, G

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of the discharge of the barrel toroid and end cap toroids with different protection circuits has been carried out in order to verify the possibility of a new simplified and cheaper configuration of the components of the circuit. In the study also the presence of short circuits has been considered. The comparison of the results and the analysis of the advantages and risks of the different configurations should allow the choice of the best solution for the economy and safety of the toroids. (4 refs).

  14. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  15. Equivalent circuit-based analysis of CMUT cell dynamics in arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, H K; Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin

    2013-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are usually composed of large arrays of closely packed cells. In this work, we use an equivalent circuit model to analyze CMUT arrays with multiple cells. We study the effects of mutual acoustic interactions through the immersion medium caused by the pressure field generated by each cell acting upon the others. To do this, all the cells in the array are coupled through a radiation impedance matrix at their acoustic terminals. An accurate approximation for the mutual radiation impedance is defined between two circular cells, which can be used in large arrays to reduce computational complexity. Hence, a performance analysis of CMUT arrays can be accurately done with a circuit simulator. By using the proposed model, one can very rapidly obtain the linear frequency and nonlinear transient responses of arrays with an arbitrary number of CMUT cells. We performed several finite element method (FEM) simulations for arrays with small numbers of cells and showed that the results are very similar to those obtained by the equivalent circuit model.

  16. Analytic stability analysis of three-component self-regulatory genetic circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Julian

    2014-01-01

    A self-regulatory genetic circuit, where a protein acts as a positive regulator of its own production, is known to be a simplest form of biological network with a positive feedback loop. Although at least three components, DNA, RNA, and the protein, are required to form such a circuit, the stability analysis of fixed points of the self-regulatory circuit has been performed only after reducing the system into to a two-component system consisting of RNA and protein only, assuming a fast equilibration of the DNA component. Here, the stability of fixed points of the three-component positive feedback loop is analyzed by obtaining eigenvalues of full three dimensional Hessian matrix. In addition to rigorously identifying the stable fixed points and the saddle points, detailed information can be obtained, such as the number of positive eigenvalues near a saddle point. In particular, complex eigenvalues is shown to exist for sufficiently slow binding and unbinding of the auto-regulatory transcription factor to DNA, l...

  17. COUPLED ANALYSIS FOR THE HARVESTING STRUCTURE AND THE MODULATING CIRCUIT IN A PIEZOELECTRIC BIMORPH ENERGY HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuantai Hu; Ting Hu; Qing Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyze a piezoelectric energy harvester as an electro-mechanically coupled system. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric bimorph with a concentrated mass attached at one end, called the harvesting structure, an electric circuit for energy storage,and a rectifier that converts the AC output of the harvesting structure into a DC input for the storage circuit. The piezoelectric bimorph is assumed to be driven into flexural vibration by an ambient acoustic source to convert the mechanical energies into electric energies. The analysis indicates that the performance of this harvester, measured by the power density, is characterized by three important non-dimensional parameters, I.e., the non-dimensional inductance of the storage circuit, the non-dimensional aspect ratio (length/thickness) and the non-dimensional end mass of the harvesting structure. The numerical results show that: (1) the power density can be optimized by varying the non-dimensional inductance for each fixed non-dimensional aspect ratio with a fixed non-dimensional end mass; and (2) for a fixed non-dimensional inductance, the power density is maximized if the non-dimensional aspect ratio and the non-dimensional end mass are so chosen that the harvesting structure, consisting of both the piezoelectric bimorph and the end mass attached, resonates at the frequency of the ambient acoustic source.

  18. Simulation Methodology for Analysis of Substrate Noise Impact on Analog / RF Circuits Including Interconnect Resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Soens, C; Wambacq, P; Donnay, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a novel simulation methodology for analysis and prediction of substrate noise impact on analog / RF circuits taking into account the role of the parasitic resistance of the on-chip interconnect in the impact mechanism. This methodology allows investigation of the role of the separate devices (also parasitic devices) in the analog / RF circuit in the overall impact. This way is revealed which devices have to be taken care of (shielding, topology change) to protect the circuit against substrate noise. The developed methodology is used to analyze impact of substrate noise on a 3 GHz LC-tank Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) designed in a high-ohmic 0.18 $\\mu$m 1PM6 CMOS technology. For this VCO (in the investigated frequency range from DC to 15 MHz) impact is mainly caused by resistive coupling of noise from the substrate to the non-ideal on-chip ground interconnect, resulting in analog ground bounce and frequency modulation. Hence, the presented test-case reveals the important role of the o...

  19. Large scale neural circuit mapping data analysis accelerated with the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulin; Veidenbaum, Alexander V.; Nicolau, Alex; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern neuroscience research demands computing power. Neural circuit mapping studies such as those using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) produce large amounts of data and require intensive computation for post-hoc processing and analysis. New Method Here we report on the design and implementation of a cost-effective desktop computer system for accelerated experimental data processing with recent GPU computing technology. A new version of Matlab software with GPU enabled functions is used to develop programs that run on Nvidia GPUs to harness their parallel computing power. Results We evaluated both the central processing unit (CPU) and GPU-enabled computational performance of our system in benchmark testing and practical applications. The experimental results show that the GPU-CPU co-processing of simulated data and actual LSPS experimental data clearly outperformed the multi-core CPU with up to a 22x speedup, depending on computational tasks. Further, we present a comparison of numerical accuracy between GPU and CPU computation to verify the precision of GPU computation. In addition, we show how GPUs can be effectively adapted to improve the performance of commercial image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop. Comparison with Existing Method(s) To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GPU application in neural circuit mapping and electrophysiology-based data processing. Conclusions Together, GPU enabled computation enhances our ability to process large-scale data sets derived from neural circuit mapping studies, allowing for increased processing speeds while retaining data precision. PMID:25277633

  20. Feeding state, insulin and NPR-1 modulate chemoreceptor gene expression via integration of sensory and circuit inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gruner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feeding state and food availability can dramatically alter an animals' sensory response to chemicals in its environment. Dynamic changes in the expression of chemoreceptor genes may underlie some of these food and state-dependent changes in chemosensory behavior, but the mechanisms underlying these expression changes are unknown. Here, we identified a KIN-29 (SIK-dependent chemoreceptor, srh-234, in C. elegans whose expression in the ADL sensory neuron type is regulated by integration of sensory and internal feeding state signals. We show that in addition to KIN-29, signaling is mediated by the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor, OCR-2 TRPV channel, and NPR-1 neuropeptide receptor. Cell-specific rescue experiments suggest that DAF-2 and OCR-2 act in ADL, while NPR-1 acts in the RMG interneurons. NPR-1-mediated regulation of srh-234 is dependent on gap-junctions, implying that circuit inputs regulate the expression of chemoreceptor genes in sensory neurons. Using physical and genetic manipulation of ADL neurons, we show that sensory inputs from food presence and ADL neural output regulate srh-234 expression. While KIN-29 and DAF-2 act primarily via the MEF-2 (MEF2 and DAF-16 (FOXO transcription factors to regulate srh-234 expression in ADL neurons, OCR-2 and NPR-1 likely act via a calcium-dependent but MEF-2- and DAF-16-independent pathway. Together, our results suggest that sensory- and circuit-mediated regulation of chemoreceptor genes via multiple pathways may allow animals to precisely regulate and fine-tune their chemosensory responses as a function of internal and external conditions.

  1. Experimental measurements and mathematical modeling of biological noise arising from transcriptional and translational regulation of basic synthetic gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Lucia; Pasini, Alice; Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna; Mazzini, Giuliano; Magni, Paolo; Giordano, Emanuele; Furini, Simone

    2016-04-21

    The small number of molecules, unevenly distributed within an isogenic cell population, makes gene expression a noisy process, and strategies have evolved to deal with this variability in protein concentration and to limit its impact on cellular behaviors. As translational efficiency has a major impact on biological noise, a possible strategy to control noise is to regulate gene expression processes at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, fluctuations in the concentration of a green fluorescent protein were compared, at the single cell level, upon transformation of an isogenic bacterial cell population with synthetic gene circuits implementing either a transcriptional or a post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Experimental measurements showed that protein variability is lower under post-transcriptional control, when the same average protein concentrations are compared. This effect is well reproduced by stochastic simulations, supporting the hypothesis that noise reduction is due to the control mechanism acting on the efficiency of translation. Similar strategies are likely to play a role in noise reduction in natural systems and to be useful for controlling noise in synthetic biology applications.

  2. Using mice to model Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: From genes to circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Susanne E

    2016-05-03

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a severe, chronic, and highly prevalent psychiatric disorder that affects between 1.5% and 3% of people worldwide. Despite its severity, high prevalence, and clear societal cost, current OCD therapies are only partially effective. In order to ultimately develop improved treatments for this severe mental illness, we need further research to gain an improved understanding of the pathophysiology that underlies obsessions and compulsions. Though studies in OCD patients can provide some insight into the disease process, studies in humans are inherently limited in their ability to dissect pathologic processes because of their non-invasive nature. The recent development of strategies for genetic and circuit-specific manipulation in rodent models finally allows us to identify the molecular, cellular, and circuit events that lead to abnormal repetitive behaviors and affect dysregulation relevant to OCD. This review will highlight recent studies in mouse model systems that have used transgenic and optogenetic tools in combination with classic pharmacology and behavioral techniques to advance our understanding of these pathologic processes.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Newly Generated Dentate Granule Cells Using TU Tagging Reveals Pattern Shifts in Gene Expression during Circuit Integration1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Christina; Shen, Rongkun; Goodman, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite representing only a small fraction of hippocampal granule cells, adult-generated newborn granule cells have been implicated in learning and memory (Aimone et al., 2011). Newborn granule cells undergo functional maturation and circuit integration over a period of weeks. However, it is difficult to assess the accompanying gene expression profiles in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution using traditional methods. Here we used a novel method [“thiouracil (TU) tagging”] to map the profiles of nascent mRNAs in mouse immature newborn granule cells compared with mature granule cells. We targeted a nonmammalian uracil salvage enzyme, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, to newborn neurons and mature granule cells using retroviral and lentiviral constructs, respectively. Subsequent injection of 4-TU tagged nascent RNAs for analysis by RNA sequencing. Several hundred genes were significantly enhanced in the retroviral dataset compared with the lentiviral dataset. We compared a selection of the enriched genes with steady-state levels of mRNAs using quantitative PCR. Ontology analysis revealed distinct patterns of nascent mRNA expression, with newly generated immature neurons showing enhanced expression for genes involved in synaptic function, and neural differentiation and development, as well as genes not previously associated with granule cell maturation. Surprisingly, the nascent mRNAs enriched in mature cells were related to energy homeostasis and metabolism, presumably indicative of the increased energy demands of synaptic transmission and their complex dendritic architecture. The high spatial and temporal resolution of our modified TU-tagging method provides a foundation for comparison with steady-state RNA analyses by traditional transcriptomic approaches in defining the functional roles of newborn neurons. PMID:27011954

  4. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  5. Transient analysis of unbalanced short circuits of the ERDA-NASA 100 kW wind turbine alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Unbalanced short-circuit faults on the alternator of the ERDA-NASA Mod-O100-kW experimental wind turbine are studied. For each case, complete solutions for armature, field, and damper-circuit currents; short-circuit torque; and open-phase voltage are derived directly by a mathematical analysis. Formulated results are tabulated. For the Mod-O wind turbine alternator, numerical calculations are given, and results are presented by graphs. Comparisons for significant points among the more important cases are summarized. For these cases the transients are found to be potentially severe. The effect of the alternator neutral-to-ground impedance is evaluated.

  6. Comparative expression analysis of the phosphocreatine circuit in extant primates: Implications for human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Adam D; Warner, Lisa R; Wang, Catrina W; Nielsen, William J; Babbitt, Courtney C; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wray, Gregory A

    2011-02-01

    While the hominid fossil record clearly shows that brain size has rapidly expanded over the last ~2.5 M.yr. the forces driving this change remain unclear. One popular hypothesis proposes that metabolic adaptations in response to dietary shifts supported greater encephalization in humans. An increase in meat consumption distinguishes the human diet from that of other great apes. Creatine, an essential metabolite for energy homeostasis in muscle and brain tissue, is abundant in meat and was likely ingested in higher quantities during human origins. Five phosphocreatine circuit proteins help regulate creatine utilization within energy demanding cells. We compared the expression of all five phosphocreatine circuit genes in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and skeletal muscle tissue for humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. Strikingly, SLC6A8 and CKB transcript levels are higher in the human brain, which should increase energy availability and turnover compared to non-human primates. Combined with other well-documented differences between humans and non-human primates, this allocation of energy to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum may be important in supporting the increased metabolic demands of the human brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A classic learning opportunity from Arthur Guyton and colleagues (1955): circuit analysis of venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2007-06-01

    The circuit analysis of an electric analog of the systemic circulation, the focus of a classic paper by Guyton, Lindsey, and Kaufmann, provides a framework for understanding the factors that impact venous return and for appreciating the value of modeling physiological systems. The classic 1955 paper by Guyton, Lindsey, and Kaufmann gives your students an opportunity to learn about modeling from the physiologist who pioneered it (Guyton) and demonstrates that mathematics and data graphics are fundamental tools with which to learn about the regulation of the cardiovascular system. In this essay, I outline avenues of discovery by which your students can explore the factors that impact venous return.

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of eutherian kallikrein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Premzl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study made attempts to update and revise eutherian kallikrein genes implicated in major physiological and pathological processes and in medical molecular diagnostics. Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and free available genomic sequence assemblies, the tests of reliability of eutherian public genomic sequences annotated most comprehensive curated third party data gene data set of eutherian kallikrein genes including 121 complete coding sequences among 335 potential coding sequences. The present analysis first described 13 major gene clusters of eutherian kallikrein genes, and explained their differential gene expansion patterns. One updated classification and nomenclature of eutherian kallikrein genes was proposed, as new framework of future experiments.

  9. Gene set analysis for longitudinal gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene set analysis (GSA has become a successful tool to interpret gene expression profiles in terms of biological functions, molecular pathways, or genomic locations. GSA performs statistical tests for independent microarray samples at the level of gene sets rather than individual genes. Nowadays, an increasing number of microarray studies are conducted to explore the dynamic changes of gene expression in a variety of species and biological scenarios. In these longitudinal studies, gene expression is repeatedly measured over time such that a GSA needs to take into account the within-gene correlations in addition to possible between-gene correlations. Results We provide a robust nonparametric approach to compare the expressions of longitudinally measured sets of genes under multiple treatments or experimental conditions. The limiting distributions of our statistics are derived when the number of genes goes to infinity while the number of replications can be small. When the number of genes in a gene set is small, we recommend permutation tests based on our nonparametric test statistics to achieve reliable type I error and better power while incorporating unknown correlations between and within-genes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a greater power than other methods for various data distributions and heteroscedastic correlation structures. This method was used for an IL-2 stimulation study and significantly altered gene sets were identified. Conclusions The simulation study and the real data application showed that the proposed gene set analysis provides a promising tool for longitudinal microarray analysis. R scripts for simulating longitudinal data and calculating the nonparametric statistics are posted on the North Dakota INBRE website http://ndinbre.org/programs/bioinformatics.php. Raw microarray data is available in Gene Expression Omnibus (National Center for Biotechnology Information with

  10. Sensitivity analysis of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier via a virtual circuit approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chiarantoni, Ernesto; Aquila, Antonio Dell’;

    2004-01-01

    , to the grid side stiffness and to the parameters of the controller has never been detailed considered. In this paper the experimental results of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier are analysed with the circuit theory approach. A ?virtual circuit? is synthesized in role of the digital controller...... and of the feedback filters to have an homogenous model that allows a sensitivity analysis which is rigorous and straightforward for the industry....

  11. Noise analysis and characterization of a full differential CMOS interface circuit for capacitive closed-loop micro-accelerometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-wei; LI Hai-tao; YIN Liang; CHEN Wei-ping; SUO Chun-guang; ZHOU Zhi-ping

    2010-01-01

    To achieve a high precision capacitive closed-loop micro-accelerometer,a full differential CMOS based on switched-capacitor circuit was presented in this paper as the sensor interface circuit.This circuit consists of a balance-bridge module,a charge sensitive amplifier,a correlated-double-sampling module,and a logic timing control module.A special two-path feedback circuit configuration was given to improve the system linearity.The quantitative analysis of error voltage and noise shows that there is tradeoff around circuit's noise,speed and accuracy.A detailed design method was given for this tradeoff.The noise performance optimized circuit has a noise root spectral density of 1.0 μV/√Hz,equivalent to rms noise root spectral density of1.63 μg/√Hz.Therefore,the sensor' s Brown noise becomes the main noise source in this design.This circuit is designed with 0.5 μm n-well CMOS process.Under a ± 5 V supply,the Hspice simulation shows that the system sensitivity achieves 0.616 V/g,the system offset is as low as 1.456 mV,the non-linearity is below0.03%,and the system linear range achieves ±5 g.

  12. Equivalent circuit model analysis on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Cuifen; Wen, Guangwu

    2015-10-01

    Lithium metal electrode is pretreated with 1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane to improve its properties. The components and morphology of the surface films formed in the above two pretreatment liquids are studied using FTIR and SEM respectively. Li-LiCoO2 coin cells are then fabricated and their cycle and discharge performance are tested. It is found that the battery performance is greatly improved by such pretreatment. Interestingly, the 1,4-dioxane pretreatment is more effective than 1,3-dioxolane in improving the lithium metal electrode performance. To explore the mechanism(s) behind, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed and an equivalent circuit model is designed for EIS analysis. The fitting curves are aligned well with the experimental curves, suggesting that the proposed equivalent circuit model is an ideal model for lithium battery. Next, the corresponding relationship between the impedance components and every individual semicircle in the Nyquist curves is inferred theoretically and the result is satisfying. Based on the analysis using this model, we conclude that the structural stability of SEI film is increased and the interfacial compatibility between the lithium substrate and the SEI film is improved by 1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane pretreatment.

  13. Analysis of Three-Phase Thyristor Phase Control Circuit with Series RLC Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Himei, Toyoji; Nakanishi, Sen-ichiro; Funabiki, Shigeyuki; Komatsubara, Hitoshi; Kurose, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    An ac phase control circuit by thyristor is widely used in industry, The characteristics of the singlephase circuit with series RLC elements are numerically analyzed, and is reported the interesting phenomenon of step-up voltage without transformer. However, the performance of three phase phase control circuit with series RLC elements is not made clear. In this paper, the performance of three-phasecontrol circuit of a balanced and an unbalanced load with series RLC elements is described. The ...

  14. The modified nodal analysis method applied to the modeling of the thermal circuit of an asynchronous machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, O.; Salisteanu, C. I.; Popa, F.; Salisteanu, B.; Oprescu, C. V.; Dogaru, V.

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of electrical circuits or of equivalent thermal circuits that were considered to be analyzed and solved requires taking into account the method that is used for their solving. Choosing the method of solving determines the amount of calculation necessary for applying one of the methods. The heating and ventilation systems of electrical machines that have to be modeled result in complex equivalent electrical circuits of large dimensions, which requires the use of the most efficient methods of solving them. The purpose of the thermal calculation of electrical machines is to establish the heating, the overruns of temperatures or over-temperatures in some parts of the machine compared to the temperature of the ambient, in a given operating mode of the machine. The paper presents the application of the modified nodal analysis method for the modeling of the thermal circuit of an asynchronous machine.

  15. Analysis of Possibilities to Reduce the Voltages Induced in Multi-circuit and Multi-voltage Overhead Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Tarko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the issues of electromagnetic interactions in a four-circuit and dual-voltage power line. Such solutions are increasingly used in practice due to difficulties in land acquisition for the construction of new power lines. Lines of this type, however, have some disadvantages, incl. the electromagnetic interactions between the circuits and voltages induced as their consequence. These issues are considered in relation to an existing four-circuit, 110 kV and 15 kV line. Results of the studies of the interaction effects in a real system, and an analysis of selected ways to reduce the voltage induced in 15 kV line circuits are presented.

  16. Analysis and design of a charge pump circuit for high output current applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwijk, van Gijs; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A charge pump circuit has been developed that can deliver high currents even for a system supply voltage of 3 V. The circuit consists of capacitances, connected by MOS switches. The influence of the on-resistance of the switches on the circuit's output resistance has been analysed. The switches are

  17. Systems mechanobiology: tension-inhibited protein turnover is sufficient to physically control gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingal, P C Dave P; Discher, Dennis E

    2014-12-02

    Mechanotransduction pathways convert forces that stress and strain structures within cells into gene expression levels that impact development, homeostasis, and disease. The levels of some key structural proteins in the nucleus, cytoskeleton, or extracellular matrix have been recently reported to scale with tissue- and cell-level forces or mechanical properties such as stiffness, and so the mathematics of mechanotransduction becomes important to understand. Here, we show that if a given structural protein positively regulates its own gene expression, then stresses need only inhibit degradation of that protein to achieve stable, mechanosensitive gene expression. This basic use-it-or-lose-it module is illustrated by application to meshworks of nuclear lamin A, minifilaments of myosin II, and extracellular matrix collagen fibers—all of which possess filamentous coiled-coil/supercoiled structures. Past experiments not only suggest that tension suppresses protein degradation mediated and/or initiated by various enzymes but also that transcript levels vary with protein levels because key transcription factors are regulated by these structural proteins. Coupling between modules occurs within single cells and between cells in tissue, as illustrated during embryonic heart development where cardiac fibroblasts make collagen that cardiomyocytes contract. With few additional assumptions, the basic module has sufficient physics to control key structural genes in both development and disease.

  18. The time course of activity-regulated cytoskeletal (ARC) gene and protein expression in the whisker-barrel circuit using two paradigms of whisker stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Aida; Adelson, P David; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Thomas, Theresa Currier

    2015-05-01

    Immediate early genes have previously demonstrated a rapid increase in gene expression after various behavioral paradigms. The main focus of this article is to identify a molecular marker of circuit activation after manual whisker stimulation or exploration of a novel environment. To this end, we investigated the dynamics of ARC transcription in adult male rats during whisker somatosensation throughout the whisker barrel circuit. At various time points, tissue was biopsied from the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus, primary somatosensory barrel field (S1BF) cortex and hippocampus for quantification using real-time PCR and western blot. Our results show that there were no significant differences in ARC gene or protein expression in the VPM after both types of stimulation. However, manual whisker stimulation resulted in increased ARC gene expression at 15, 30, 60 and 300 min in the S1BF, and 15 min in the hippocampus (pwhisker sensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xueping [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Chongqing The Fourth Hospital), Chongqing, 400016 (China); Sheng, Shangchun [The No.2 Peoples' Hospital of Yibin, Sichuan, 644000 (China); Wang, Teng; Yang, Juan [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Xie, Guoming, E-mail: guomingxie@cqmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Feng, Wenli, E-mail: fengwlcqmu@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China)

    2015-08-19

    This article described a novel method by coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites (GS/PANI/AuNPs) for highly sensitive and specific detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene (bcr/abl) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DNA circuit known as catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) is enzyme-free and can be simply operated to achieve exponential amplification, which has been widely employed in biosensing. However, application of CHA has been hindered by the need of specially redesigned sequences for each single-stranded DNA input. Herein, a transducer hairpin (HP) was designed to obtain a universal DNA circuit with favorable signal-to-background ratio. To further improve signal amplification, GS/PANI/AuNPs with excellent conductivity and enlarged effective area were introduced into this DNA circuit. Consequently, by combining the advantages of CHA and GS/PANI/AuNPs, bcr/abl could be detected in a linear range from 10 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 1.05 pM. Moreover, this protocol showed excellent specificity, good stability and was successfully applied for the detection of real sample, which demonstrated its great potential in clinical application. - Highlights: • A transducer hairpin was designed to improve the versatility of DNA circuit. • GS/PANI/AuNPs were introduced to the DNA circuit for further signal amplification. • The established biosensor displayed high sensitivity and good specificity.

  20. Implementation and Analysis of Probabilistic Methods for Gate-Level Circuit Reliability Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; JIANG Jianhui; YANG Guang

    2007-01-01

    The development of VLSI technology results in the dramatically improvement of the performance of integrated circuits. However, it brings more challenges to the aspect of reliability. Integrated circuits become more susceptible to soft errors. Therefore, it is imperative to study the reliability of circuits under the soft error. This paper implements three probabilistic methods (two pass, error propagation probability, and probabilistic transfer matrix) for estimating gate-level circuit reliability on PC. The functions and performance of these methods are compared by experiments using ISCAS85 and 74-series circuits.

  1. Brain circuit-gene expression relationships and neuroplasticity of multisensory cortices in blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Ortiz, Tomás; Perez, David L; Aragón, Jose Ignacio; Costumero, Victor; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; El Fakhri, Georges; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2017-06-27

    Sensory deprivation reorganizes neurocircuits in the human brain. The biological basis of such neuroplastic adaptations remains elusive. In this study, we applied two complementary graph theory-based functional connectivity analyses, one to evaluate whole-brain functional connectivity relationships and the second to specifically delineate distributed network connectivity profiles downstream of primary sensory cortices, to investigate neural reorganization in blind children compared with sighted controls. We also examined the relationship between connectivity changes and neuroplasticity-related gene expression profiles in the cerebral cortex. We observed that multisensory integration areas exhibited enhanced functional connectivity in blind children and that this reorganization was spatially associated with the transcription levels of specific members of the cAMP Response Element Binding protein gene family. Using systems-level analyses, this study advances our understanding of human neuroplasticity and its genetic underpinnings following sensory deprivation.

  2. Can terminators be used as insulators into yeast synthetic gene circuits?

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wenjiang; Li, Jing; Liang, Qiang; Marchisio, Mario Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In bacteria, transcription units can be insulated by placing a terminator in front of a promoter. In this way promoter leakage due to the read-through from an upstream gene or RNA polymerase unspecific binding to the DNA is, in principle, removed. Differently from bacterial terminators, yeast S. cerevisiae terminators contain a hexamer sequence, the efficiency element, that strongly resembles the eukaryotic TATA box i.e. the promoter sequence recognized and bound by RNA polymerase ...

  3. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation. [digital systems and electromagnetic interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    An approach to predict the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances is described. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electromagnetic pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload brings the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The super-sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) programs was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  4. Mineralogical analysis of dust collected from typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhao, Yuemin; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Chenlong; Wang, Lizhang

    2015-09-01

    As dust is one of the byproducts originating in the mechanical recycling process of waste printed circuit boards such as crushing and separating, from the viewpoints of resource reuse and environmental protection, an effective recycling method to recover valuable materials from this kind of dust is in urgent need. In this paper, detailed mineralogical analysis on the dust collected from a typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards is investigated by coupling several analytical techniques. The results demonstrate that there are 73.1wt.% organic matters, 4.65wt.% Al, 4.55wt.% Fe, 2.67wt.% Cu and 1.06wt.% Pb in the dust, which reveals the dust is worthy of reuse and harmful to environment. The concentration ratios of Fe, Mn and Zn can reach 12.35, 12.33 and 6.67 respectively by magnetic separation. The yield of dust in each size fraction is nonuniform, while the yield of -0.75mm size fraction is up to 51.15wt.%; as the particle size decreases, the content of liberated metals and magnetic materials increase, and metals are mainly in elemental forms. The F, Cl and Br elements combing to C in the dust would make thermal treatment dangerous to the environment. Based on these results, a flowsheet to recycle the dust is proposed.

  5. Development and Analysis of Cold Trap for Use in Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, T. M.; Dervan, C. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    The design and analysis of a cold trap proposed for use in the purification of circulated eutectic sodium potassium (NaK-78) loops is presented. The cold trap is designed to be incorporated into the Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC), which incorporates a pumped NaK loop to simulate in-space nuclear reactor-based technology using non-nuclear test methodology as developed by the Early Flight Fission-Test Facility. The FSP-PTC provides a test circuit for the development of fission surface power technology. This system operates at temperatures that would be similar to those found in a reactor (500-800 K). By dropping the operating temperature of a specified percentage of NaK flow through a bypass containing a forced circulation cold trap, the NaK purity level can be increased by precipitating oxides from the NaK and capturing them within the cold trap. This would prevent recirculation of these oxides back through the system, which may help prevent corrosion.

  6. Development of a computer code for dynamic analysis of the primary circuit of advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jussie Soares da; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Magalhaes, Mardson A. de Sa, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Currently, advanced reactors are being developed, seeking for enhanced safety, better performance and low environmental impacts. Reactor designs must follow several steps and numerous tests before a conceptual project could be certified. In this sense, computational tools become indispensable in the preparation of such projects. Thus, this study aimed at the development of a computational tool for thermal-hydraulic analysis by coupling two computer codes to evaluate the influence of transients caused by pressure variations and flow surges in the region of the primary circuit of IRIS reactor between the core and the pressurizer. For the simulation, it was used a situation of 'insurge', characterized by the entry of water in the pressurizer, due to the expansion of the refrigerant in the primary circuit. This expansion was represented by a pressure disturbance in step form, through the block 'step' of SIMULINK, thus enabling the transient startup. The results showed that the dynamic tool, obtained through the coupling of the codes, generated very satisfactory responses within model limitations, preserving the most important phenomena in the process. (author)

  7. A regulatory circuit for piwi by the large Maf gene traffic jam in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kuniaki; Inagaki, Sachi; Mituyama, Toutai; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Ono, Yukiteru; Sakota, Eri; Kotani, Hazuki; Asai, Kiyoshi; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C

    2009-10-29

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence retrotransposons in Drosophila germ lines by associating with the PIWI proteins Argonaute 3 (AGO3), Aubergine (Aub) and Piwi. piRNAs in Drosophila are produced from intergenic repetitive genes and piRNA clusters by two systems: the primary processing pathway and the amplification loop. The amplification loop occurs in a Dicer-independent, PIWI-Slicer-dependent manner. However, primary piRNA processing remains elusive. Here we analysed piRNA processing in a Drosophila ovarian somatic cell line where Piwi, but not Aub or AGO3, is expressed; thus, only the primary piRNAs exist. In addition to flamenco, a Piwi-specific piRNA cluster, traffic jam (tj), a large Maf gene, was determined as a new piRNA cluster. piRNAs arising from tj correspond to the untranslated regions of tj messenger RNA and are sense-oriented. piRNA loading on to Piwi may occur in the cytoplasm. zucchini, a gene encoding a putative cytoplasmic nuclease, is required for tj-derived piRNA production. In tj and piwi mutant ovaries, somatic cells fail to intermingle with germ cells and Fasciclin III is overexpressed. Loss of tj abolishes Piwi expression in gonadal somatic cells. Thus, in gonadal somatic cells, tj gives rise simultaneously to two different molecules: the TJ protein, which activates Piwi expression, and piRNAs, which define the Piwi targets for silencing.

  8. Genome-wide Analysis of Gene Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun

    cells are capable of regulating their gene expression, so that each cell can only express a particular set of genes yielding limited numbers of proteins with specialized functions. Therefore a rigid control of differential gene expression is necessary for cellular diversity. On the other hand, aberrant...... gene regulation will disrupt the cell’s fundamental processes, which in turn can cause disease. Hence, understanding gene regulation is essential for deciphering the code of life. Along with the development of high throughput sequencing (HTS) technology and the subsequent large-scale data analysis......, genome-wide assays have increased our understanding of gene regulation significantly. This thesis describes the integration and analysis of HTS data across different important aspects of gene regulation. Gene expression can be regulated at different stages when the genetic information is passed from gene...

  9. Simulation Analysis for Opening Performance of Medium Voltage Vacuum Circuit Breaker Based on ADAMS and Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xianliang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuit breakers play a important role in control and protect the power systemand the vacuum circuit breaker has beenwidely used in the field of medium voltage with its excellent opening performance.Virtual prototyping technology is alsobecamemore and more popularin design and optimization of the vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, the electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft Maxwell is used to analyze the electric repulsion of the circuit breaker in the case of open the rated short circuit breaking current. The 3D model that wasbuilt by CREOis imported into ADAMS. Thenconstraints, contact force, and the electric repulsion forcethat was analysezed in Ansoft Maxwell is added into the 3D model.Therefore, we can carry on the multi-body dynamics simulation to the 3D model. Then We can get the openingperformance of the vacuum circuit breakerin the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current. The simulation results show that the circuit breaker can still meet the performance requirements in the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current.

  10. Analysis of the Alternating-current Circuits with Matlab%利用Matlab分析交流电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆朝华; 蓝海江

    2011-01-01

    探讨利用Matlab软件辅助分析交流电路的方法。以Matlab软件为辅助工具,具体分析了动态电路、正弦稳态电路及非正弦交流电路。结果表明,利用Matlab软件辅助分析交流电路问题,逻辑清晰、程序简短、结果精确。因此,Matlab软件是分析和研究电路的有效工具。%By using Matlab software,the aided analysis method of alternating-current(AC) circuits was explored.Taking Matlab software as aids,the dynamic circuit,sinusoidal steady state circuit and non-sinusoidal AC circuit were discussed.The results show that,it has such features: a clear logic,a short program and an accurate result,which analyzing the problems of AC circuits on using Matlab software.Therefore,the Matlab software is an effective tool for analyzing and researching AC circuits.

  11. NBTI-Aware Transient Fault Rate Analysis Method for Logic Circuit Based on Probability Voltage Transfer Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI circuits has become increasingly susceptible to transient faults induced by environmental noise with the scaling of technology. Some commonly used fault tolerance strategies require statistical methods to accurately estimate the fault rate in different parts of the logic circuit, and Monte Carlo (MC simulation is often applied to complete this task. However, the MC method suffers from impractical computation costs due to the size of the circuits. Furthermore, circuit aging effects, such as negative bias temperature instability (NBTI, will change the characteristics of the circuit during its lifetime, leading to a change in the circuit’s noise margin. This change will increase the complexity of transient fault rate estimation tasks. In this paper, an NBTI-aware statistical analysis method based on probability voltage transfer characteristics is proposed for combinational logic circuit. This method can acquire accurate fault rates using a discrete probability density function approximation process, thus resolving the computation cost problem of the MC method. The proposed method can also consider aging effects and analyze statistical changes in the fault rates. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the MC simulation, our method can achieve computation times that are two orders of magnitude shorter while maintaining an error rate less than 9%.

  12. FinFET Based Tunable Analog Circuit: Design and Analysis at 45 nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Singh Kushwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We included a designing of low power tunable analog circuits built using independently driven FinFETs devices, where the controlling of the back gate provide the output on the front gate. We show that this could be an effective solution to conveniently tune the output of bulk CMOS analog circuits particularly for Schmitt trigger and operational transconductance amplifier circuits. FinFET devices can be used to increase the performance by reducing the leakage current and power dissipation, because front and back gates both are independently controlled. FinFET device has a higher controllability, resulting relatively high Ion/Ioff ratio. In this paper, we proposed a tunable analog circuit such as CMOS amplifier circuit, Schmitt trigger circuit, and operational transconductance amplifier circuit, these circuit blocks are necessary for low noise high performance ICs for analog applications. Gain, phase, group delay, and output response of analog tunable circuits have been discussed in this paper. The proposed FinFET based analog tunable circuits have been designed using Cadence Virtuoso tool at 45 nm.

  13. Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes - Estimation of specific capacitances and construction of equivalent circuits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Ramya; M V Sangaranarayanan

    2008-01-01

    The galvanostatic polymerization of pyrrole is carried out on stainless steel electrodes using -toluene sulphonic acid. The morphology of the film is studied from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements while the nature of the substrate is analysed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) technique. The electrochemical behaviour is studied using cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge analysis and impedance spectroscopy. The feasibility of the electrode for supercapacitor applications is investigated. The specific capacitance is estimated as ∼ 102 Farads per gram with 103 charge-discharge cycles. A plausible equivalent circuit for the system is proposed and the circuit parameters are obtained by non-linear regression analysis.

  14. Analysis of Leakages and Leakage Reduction Methods in UDSM CMOS VLSI Circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Ekade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the era of portable devices which need to be powered by battery. Due to scarcity of space and leakages in chips, battery life is a serious concern. As technology advances, scaling of transistor feature size and supply voltage has improved the performance, increased the transistor density and reduced the power required by the chip. The maximum power consumed by the chip is the function of its technology along with its implementation. As technology is scaling down and CMOS circuits are supplied with lower supply voltages, the static power i.e. standby leakage current becomes very crucial. In Ultra Deep-submicron regime scaling has reduced the threshold voltage and that has led to increase in leakage current in sub-threshold region and hence rise in static power dissipation. This paper presents a critical analysis of leakages and leakage reduction techniques.

  15. General Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker Switching Overvoltages in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghafourian, S. M.; Arana, I.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of switching transient overvoltages in modern electrical power systems is a necessity to ensure a proper design of power plants and switchgear and the required level of reliable and secure system operation. High fidelity plant modelling and accurate transient analysis...... vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs), cables and transformers. An in-depth understanding of the prestrike effects in VCBs is a prerequisite for studying switching transient overvoltages. In this paper, the impact of VCB parameters (e.g., stray capacitance and withstand voltage ability) and cable length...... on the transformer terminal voltage during closing operation was studied. A wind farm power collection system was modelled in ATP-EMTP environment. To validate the results obtained through computer simulation, field measurements from an actual system were used....

  16. Algebraic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lloris Ruiz, Antonio; Parrilla Roure, Luis; García Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete and accurate study of algebraic circuits, digital circuits whose performance can be associated with any algebraic structure. The authors distinguish between basic algebraic circuits, such as Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) and cellular automata, and algebraic circuits, such as finite fields or Galois fields. The book includes a comprehensive review of representation systems, of arithmetic circuits implementing basic and more complex operations, and of the residue number systems (RNS). It presents a study of basic algebraic circuits such as LFSRs and cellular automata as well as a study of circuits related to Galois fields, including two real cryptographic applications of Galois fields.

  17. Layout parameter analysis in Shannon expansion theorem based on 32 bit adder circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senthilpari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 1-bit adder circuits are schematized using pass transistor logic (PTL technique, that’s optimized by the Shannon expansion theorem. The proposed 32 bit carry increment adder (CIA circuit is designed by bit slice method. The CIA adder layout gives tremendous change compared to existing author results. The proposed circuit achieved better performance on power consumption, speed, throughput, and area. The 32-bit adder circuits are implemented in various types of 1-bit adder cells, such as Shannon, Mixed-Shannon and MCIT-7T. Furthermore, the 32-bit CIA adder layout is furtherly investigated for RLC interconnect parameter such as capacitive impedance, inductive impedance, power factor sin ϕ, tan ϕ for applying frequency. The 32 bit adder circuit acts in a better way than existing circuits in terms of power dissipation, delay, throughput, latency, power factor, sin ϕ and tan ϕ.

  18. Optimization of Temperature Coefficient and Noise Analysis of MOSFET- Only Voltage Reference Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi.p

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of temperature coefficient and comparison of output noise of two MOSFET only voltage references are introduced. The circuit behavior is analytically described and the performance of the proposed circuits are confirmed through 180nm CMOS technology in virtuoso and the simulation results are presented. Both the circuits can be operated with supply voltage varies from 0.5-1.2V.The output voltage references varied over a temperature range of -25℃ to 50℃.

  19. Analysis of a Piezo Electric Driver Circuit for Use in a Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithya J. Mutuku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of piezo electric driver circuit is presented and analysed. The output voltage which is a triangular wave voltage and frequency of the driver circuit were measured and set at 80 V peak to peak and an output frequency of 1 KHz. A photo detector circuit which receives the output beam from the confocal Fabry- perot interferometer (CFPI through the photodiode is as well presented

  20. Analysis of electrical circuits with variable load regime parameters projective geometry method

    CERN Document Server

    Penin, A

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are d

  1. Gene set analysis using variance component tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene set analyses have become increasingly important in genomic research, as many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional repertoire, e.g., a biological pathway/network and are highly correlated. However, most of the existing gene set analysis methods do not fully account for the correlation among the genes. Here we propose to tackle this important feature of a gene set to improve statistical power in gene set analyses. Results We propose to model the effects of an independent variable, e.g., exposure/biological status (yes/no), on multiple gene expression values in a gene set using a multivariate linear regression model, where the correlation among the genes is explicitly modeled using a working covariance matrix. We develop TEGS (Test for the Effect of a Gene Set), a variance component test for the gene set effects by assuming a common distribution for regression coefficients in multivariate linear regression models, and calculate the p-values using permutation and a scaled chi-square approximation. We show using simulations that type I error is protected under different choices of working covariance matrices and power is improved as the working covariance approaches the true covariance. The global test is a special case of TEGS when correlation among genes in a gene set is ignored. Using both simulation data and a published diabetes dataset, we show that our test outperforms the commonly used approaches, the global test and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Conclusion We develop a gene set analyses method (TEGS) under the multivariate regression framework, which directly models the interdependence of the expression values in a gene set using a working covariance. TEGS outperforms two widely used methods, GSEA and global test in both simulation and a diabetes microarray data. PMID:23806107

  2. Circuit Analysis of a Drosophila Dopamine Type 2 Receptor That Supports Anesthesia-Resistant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Kornehl, Sabrina; Schwärzel, Martin

    2016-07-27

    Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory. By means of genetic mosaicism, we localize this function to Kenyon cells, the mushroom body intrinsic neurons, as well as GABAergic APL neurons and local interneurons of the antennal lobes, suggesting that consolidated anesthesia-resistant memory requires widespread dopaminergic modulation within the olfactory circuit. Additionally, dopaminergic neurons themselves require D2R, suggesting a critical role in dopamine release via its recognized autoreceptor function. Considering the dual role of dopamine in balancing memory acquisition (proactive function of dopamine) and its "forgetting" (retroactive function of dopamine), our analysis suggests D2R as central player of either process. Dopamine provides different information; while it mediates reinforcement during the learning act (proactive function), it balances memory performance between two antithetic processes thereafter (retroactive function) (i.e., forgetting and augmentation). Such bidirectional design can also be found at level of dopamine receptors, where augmenting D1 and abating D2 receptors are engaged to balance cellular cAMP levels. Here, we report that consolidated anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), but not other concomitant memory phases, are sensitive to bidirectional dopaminergic signals. By means of genetic mosaicism, we identified widespread dopaminergic modulation within the olfactory circuit that suggests nonredundant and reiterating functions of D2R in support of ARM. Our results oppose ARM to its concomitant memory phases

  3. Symbolic Nodal Analysis of Analog Circuits with Modern Multiport Functional Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sanchez-Lopez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes admittance matrix models to approach the behavior of six modern multiport functional blocks called: differential difference amplifier, differential difference operational floating amplifier, differential difference operational mirror amplifier, differential difference current conveyor, current backward transconductance amplifier and current differencing transconductance amplifier. The novelty is that the behavior of any active device mentioned before can immediately be introduced in the nodal admittance matrix by using the proposed admittance matrix models and without requiring the use of extra variables. Therefore, a standard nodal analysis is applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal performance parameters of analog circuits containing any active device mentioned above. This means that not only the size of the admittance matrix is smaller than those generated by applying modified nodal analysis method, for instance, but also, the number of nonzero elements and the generations of cancellation-terms are both reduced. An analysis example for each amplifier is provided in order to show the useful of the proposed stamps.

  4. Massively Parallel, Molecular Analysis Platform Developed Using a CMOS Integrated Circuit With Biological Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    A massively parallel, low cost molecular analysis platform will dramatically change the nature of protein, molecular and genomics research, DNA sequencing, and ultimately, molecular diagnostics. An integrated circuit (IC) with 264 sensors was fabricated using standard CMOS semiconductor processing technology. Each of these sensors is individually controlled with precision analog circuitry and is capable of single molecule measurements. Under electronic and software control, the IC was used to demonstrate the feasibility of creating and detecting lipid bilayers and biological nanopores using wild type α-hemolysin. The ability to dynamically create bilayers over each of the sensors will greatly accelerate pore development and pore mutation analysis. In addition, the noise performance of the IC was measured to be 30fA(rms). With this noise performance, single base detection of DNA was demonstrated using α-hemolysin. The data shows that a single molecule, electrical detection platform using biological nanopores can be operationalized and can ultimately scale to millions of sensors. Such a massively parallel platform will revolutionize molecular analysis and will completely change the field of molecular diagnostics in the future.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chol-Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant

  6. Full Wave Analysis of Passive Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit Devices Using a Generalized Finite Difference Time Domain (GFDTD) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Faiza S.; Rascoe, Daniel L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a modified Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique using a generalized conformed orthogonal grid. The use of the Conformed Orthogonal Grid, Finite Difference Time Domain (GFDTD) enables the designer to match all the circuit dimensions, hence eliminating a major source o error in the analysis.

  7. A Parallel Discrete Surface Integral Equation Method For the Analysis of Three-Dimensional Microwave Circuit Devices with Planar Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Lansing, Faiza

    1994-01-01

    It has been found that the Discrete Integral Equation (DSI)technique is a highly effective technique for the analysis of microwave circuits and devices [1,2]. The DSI is much more robust than the traditional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method in a number of ways.

  8. Analysis based on the diffusion model for saturation silica gel with water vapor at conservation units steam circuit TPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldaev, Sergey; Khushvaktov, Alisher

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the diffusion model dehumidifying air in the steam circuit of TPP, with a layer of silica gel. Showed that such an approximation, supplemented the experimental value of the coefficient of free diffusion identified by the developed method gives reliable values for the concentration of water vapor absorption over time.

  9. Transient Analysis of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG After an External Short-Circuit Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    on transient analysis of variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) after an external short-circuit fault. A simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with DFIG developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented, and the control and protection schemes are described in detail......The fast development of wind power generation brings new requirements for wind turbine integration to the network. After the clearance of an external short-circuit fault, the grid-connected wind turbine should restore its normal operation with minimized power losses. This paper concentrates...

  10. Experimental and theoretical analysis of vacuum circuit breaker prestrike effect on a transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Van der Sluis, L.; De Herdt, H.; Declerq, J.

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this paper deals with the investigation of circuit breaker prestrike effect that occurs during energizing a distribution transformer. An experimental test setup that consists of a supply transformer, a vacuum circuit breaker (VCB), a cable and a test transformer is built, and t

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of vacuum circuit breaker prestrike effect on a transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Van der Sluis, L.; De Herdt, H.; Declerq, J.

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this paper deals with the investigation of circuit breaker prestrike effect that occurs during energizing a distribution transformer. An experimental test setup that consists of a supply transformer, a vacuum circuit breaker (VCB), a cable and a test transformer is built, and

  12. CIRCUS--A digital computer program for transient analysis of electronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. T.; Steinbert, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program simulates the time domain response of an electronic circuit to an arbitrary forcing function. CIRCUS uses a charge-control parameter model to represent each semiconductor device. Given the primary photocurrent, the transient behavior of a circuit in a radiation environment is determined.

  13. [Modeling and analysis of volume conduction based on field-circuit coupling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhide; Liu, Hailong; Xie, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiufa; Hou, Deming

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations of volume conduction can be used to analyze the process of energy transfer and explore the effects of some physical factors on energy transfer efficiency. We analyzed the 3D quasi-static electric field by the finite element method, and developed A 3D coupled field-circuit model of volume conduction basing on the coupling between the circuit and the electric field. The model includes a circuit simulation of the volume conduction to provide direct theoretical guidance for energy transfer optimization design. A field-circuit coupling model with circular cylinder electrodes was established on the platform of the software FEM3.5. Based on this, the effects of electrode cross section area, electrode distance and circuit parameters on the performance of volume conduction system were obtained, which provided a basis for optimized design of energy transfer efficiency.

  14. The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Saxelby, Jai

    2013-10-01

    Gait analysis from closed circuit camera footage is now commonly used as evidence in criminal trials. The biomechanical analysis of human gait is a well established science in both clinical and laboratory settings. However, closed circuit camera footage is rarely of the quality of that taken in the more controlled clinical and laboratory environments. The less than ideal quality of much of this footage for use in gait analysis is associated with a range of issues, the combination of which can often render the footage unsuitable for use in gait analysis. The aim of this piece of work was to develop a tool for assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for the purpose of forensic gait analysis. A Delphi technique was employed with a small sample of expert forensic gait analysis practitioners, to identify key quality elements of CCTV footage used in legal proceedings. Five elements of the footage were identified and then subdivided into 15 contributing sub-elements, each of which was scored using a 5-point Likert scale. A Microsoft Excel worksheet was developed to calculate automatically an overall score from the fifteen sub-element scores. Five expert witnesses experienced in using CCTV footage for gait analysis then trialled the prototype tool on current case footage. A repeatability study was also undertaken using standardized CCTV footage. The results showed the tool to be a simple and repeatable means of assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. The inappropriate use of poor quality footage could lead to challenges to the practice of forensic gait analysis. All parties involved in criminal proceedings must therefore understand the fitness for purpose of any footage used. The development of this tool could offer a method of achieving this goal, and help to assure the continued role of forensic gait analysis as an aid to the identification process.

  15. LOFA analysis in helium and Pb-Li circuits of LLCB TBM by FE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Ranjithkumar, S.; Sharma, Deepak; Danani, Chandan

    2017-04-01

    One of the main ITER objectives is to demonstrate the feasibility of the breeding blanket concepts that would lead to tritium self-sufficiency and the extraction of a high-grade heat for electricity production. India has developed the LLCB TBM to be tested in ITER for the validation of design concepts for tritium breeding blankets relevant DEMO and future power reactor. LLCB concept has the unique features of combination of both solid (lithium titanate as packed pebble bed) and liquid breeders (molten lead lithium). India specific IN-RAFMS is the structural material for TBM. The First Wall is actively cooled by high-pressure helium (He) gas [1]. It is important to validate the design of TBM to withstand various loads acting on it including accident analysis like LOCA, LOFA etc. Detailed thermal-hydraulic simulation studies including LOFA in helium and Pb-Li circuits of LLCB TBM have been performed using Finite Element using ANSYS. These analyses will provide important information about the temperature distribution in different materials used in TBM during steady state and transient condition. Thermal-hydraulic safety requirement has also been envisaged for the initiation the FPPS (Fusion Power Shutdown System) during LOFA. All these analysis will be presented in detail in this paper.

  16. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuefel (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Kang, Huining (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Fields, Chris (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Cowie, Jim R. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Mosquera-Caro, Monica P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Xu, Yuexian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Andries, Erik (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ar, Kerem (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Potter, Jeffrey (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Willman, Cheryl L. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Murphy, Maurice H. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from

  17. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  18. Estimation of the frequency border for tolerable use of the approximate models of transmission lines at the circuit analysis of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirotко V. K.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The required frequency border was defined by means of comparison of amplitude signals on receiving end of printed circuit boards transmission lines calculated using more exact electrodynamic models. For the contemporary printed circuit boards materials and designs the frequency border makes 3 GHz.

  19. Analytical Analysis and Case Study of Transient Behavior of Inrush Current in Power Transformer for Designing of Efficient Circuit Breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanpreet, Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Parneet

    2010-11-01

    Stability & security are main aspects in electrical power systems. Transformer protection is major issue of concern to system operation. There are many mall-trip cases of transformer protection are caused by inrush current problems. The phenomenon of transformer inrush current has been discussed in many papers since 1958. In this paper analytical analysis of inrush current in a transformer switched on dc and ac supply has been done. This analysis will help in design aspects of circuit breakers for better performance.

  20. Application of Matlab in Circuit Analysis Teaching%Matlab在电路分析教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光杰; 杨家志

    2011-01-01

    Electronic circuit analysis is the technology-based courses of Electronics and Electrical Information Professional in vocational colleges. It's the basic of some follow-up curriculum, and has an important role in the professional. Matlab is an excellent mathematical tool, it has powerful mathematical functions and drawing functions, and it can solve some mathematical problems in circuit analysis. This paper is based on teaching practice, use Matlab in circuit analysis teaching, solves the resistance circuit, the results can be easily obtained, so as to give students an intuitive understanding to enable students to focus on understanding the law of the circuit to obtain a better teaching results.%电路分析课程是高等学校电子与电气信息类专业的技术基础课,是一些后续课程的基础,在专业中具有重要作用。Matlab是一个优秀的数学工具,具有强大的数学功能和图形绘制功能,可以解决电路分析中的一些数学问题。本文在教学实践的基础上,把Mauab应用于电路分析教学中,求解了电阻电路,可方便地得出结果,这样可以给学生一个直观的认识,使学生把精力集中在对电路规律的认识上,取得了较好的教学效果。

  1. Filtering Genes for Cluster and Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhomenko Elena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to cluster analysis or genetic network analysis it is customary to filter, or remove genes considered to be irrelevant from the set of genes to be analyzed. Often genes whose variation across samples is less than an arbitrary threshold value are deleted. This can improve interpretability and reduce bias. Results This paper introduces modular models for representing network structure in order to study the relative effects of different filtering methods. We show that cluster analysis and principal components are strongly affected by filtering. Filtering methods intended specifically for cluster and network analysis are introduced and compared by simulating modular networks with known statistical properties. To study more realistic situations, we analyze simulated "real" data based on well-characterized E. coli and S. cerevisiae regulatory networks. Conclusion The methods introduced apply very generally, to any similarity matrix describing gene expression. One of the proposed methods, SUMCOV, performed well for all models simulated.

  2. Interfacial and mechanical property analysis of waste printed circuit boards subject to thermal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Duan, Huabo; Yu, Keli; Wang, Siting

    2010-02-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the focal points for handling electric and electronic waste. In this paper, a thermal shock method was used to pretreat waste PCBs for the improvement of crushing performance. The influence of the thermal shock process on interfacial modification and mechanical property attenuation of PCB waste was studied. The appearance and layer spacing of the basal plane began to change slightly when the temperature reached 200 degrees C. By 250 degrees C, apparent bulging, cracking, and delamination were observed. However, pyrolysis of PCBs occurred when the temperature reached 275 degrees C, where PCBs were carbonized. The thermogravimetric analysis of PCB particles under vacuum showed that 270 degrees C was the starting point of pyrolysis. The tensile and impact strength of PCBs were reduced as shock temperature rose gradually, with a reduction by 2.6 and 16.5%, respectively, at 250 degrees C from its unheated strength. The PCBs that were heated to 250 degrees C achieved 100% liberation, increasing linearly from 13.6% for unheated PCBs through a single-level shear-crusher (2-mm mesh) and resulting in an obvious reduction of 9.5% (dB) in dust and noise at 250 degrees C. These parameters could be helpful for establishing the operational setup for industrial-scale facilities with the aim of achieving a compact process and a highly efficient recovery for waste PCBs compared with those of the traditional combination mechanical technologies.

  3. Modelling, analysis, and acceleration of a printed circuit board fabrication process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Aithal; Y Narahari; E Manjunath

    2001-10-01

    Product design and fabrication constitute an important business activity in any manufacturing firm. Designing an optimized product fabrication process is an important problem in itself and is of significant practical and research interest. In this paper, we look into a printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication process and investigate ways in which the fabrication cycle time can be minimized. Single class queueing networks constitute the modelling framework for our study. The model developed in this paper and the analysis experiments carried out are based on extensive data collected on a PCB fabrication company located in Bangalore, India. This is a representative PCB fabrication company involving multiple, concurrent fabrication works with contention for human/technical resources. Our model seeks to capture faithfully the flow of the fabrication process in this company and such other organisations, using queueing networks. Using the model developed, we explore how the cycle times can be reduced using input control, load balancing, and variability reduction. The model presented is sufficiently generic and conceptual; its scope extends beyond that of a PCB fabrication organization.

  4. Micromachining of semiconductor by femtosecond laser for integrated circuit defect analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbwax, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Sarnet, T. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)], E-mail: sarnet@lp3.univ-mrs.fr; Hermann, J.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Fares, L.; Haller, G. [STMicroelectronics, 190 Avenue Celestin Coq, ZI, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    The latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has highlighted the detection and analysis of defects in Integrated Circuits (IC) as a major challenge faced by the semiconductor industry. Advanced tools used today for defect cross sectioning include dual beams (focused ion- and electron-beam technologies) with resolution down to the sub-Angstrom level. However ion milling an IC with a FIB is time consuming because of the need to open wide cavities in front of the cross-sections that need to be analyzed. Therefore the use of a femtosecond laser as a tool for direct material removal is discussed in this paper. Experiments were performed on IC structures to reveal the different layers of fabrication: selective or total ablation can occur depending on the laser energy density, without delamination of the layers. Different laser irradiation conditions like pressure (air, vacuum), polarization, beam shaping, and scanning parameters have been used to produce different types of cavities. The femtosecond laser engraving of silicon-based structures could be useful for cross-sectioning devices but also for other applications like direct-write lithography, photomask repair, maskless implantation or reverse engineering/restructuring.

  5. Magnetic Circuit Design and Multiphysics Analysis of a Novel MR Damper for Applications under High Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel magnetorheological (MR damper with a multistage piston and independent input currents is designed and analyzed. The equivalent magnetic circuit model is investigated along with the relation between magnetic induction density in the working gap and input currents of the electromagnetic coils. Finite element method (FEM is used to analyze the distribution of magnetic field through the MR fluid region. Considering the real situation, coupling equations are presented to analyze the electromagnetic-thermal-flow coupling problems. Software COMSOL is used to analyze the multiphysics, that is, electromagnetic, thermal dynamic, and fluid mechanic. A measurement index involving total damping force, dynamic range, and induction time needed for magnetic coil is put forward to evaluate the performance of the novel multistage MR damper. The simulation results show that it is promising for applications under high velocity and works better when more electromagnetic coils are applied with input currents separately. Besides, in order to reduce energy consumption, it is recommended to apply more electromagnetic coils with relative low currents based on the analysis of pressure drop along the annular gap.

  6. Dynamical Analysis and Circuit Simulation of a New Fractional-Order Hyperchaotic System and Its Discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, A. M. A.; Elsonbaty, A.; Elsadany, A. A.; Matouk, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework to investigate the dynamical behavior of a new fractional-order hyperchaotic circuit system. A sufficient condition for existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial conditions of the solution of the proposed system is derived. The local stability of all the system’s equilibrium points are discussed using fractional Routh-Hurwitz test. Then the analytical conditions for the existence of a pitchfork bifurcation in this system with fractional-order parameter less than 1/3 are provided. Conditions for the existence of Hopf bifurcation in this system are also investigated. The dynamics of discretized form of our fractional-order hyperchaotic system are explored. Chaos control is also achieved in discretized system using delay feedback control technique. The numerical simulation are presented to confirm our theoretical analysis via phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. A text encryption algorithm is presented based on the proposed fractional-order system. The results show that the new system exhibits a rich variety of dynamical behaviors such as limit cycles, chaos and transient phenomena where fractional-order derivative represents a key parameter in determining system qualitative behavior.

  7. Analysis and calculation of lightning-induced voltages in aircraft electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques to calculate the transfer functions relating lightning-induced voltages in aircraft electrical circuits to aircraft physical characteristics and lightning current parameters are discussed. The analytical work was carried out concurrently with an experimental program of measurements of lightning-induced voltages in the electrical circuits of an F89-J aircraft. A computer program, ETCAL, developed earlier to calculate resistive and inductive transfer functions is refined to account for skin effect, providing results more valid over a wider range of lightning waveshapes than formerly possible. A computer program, WING, is derived to calculate the resistive and inductive transfer functions between a basic aircraft wing and a circuit conductor inside it. Good agreement is obtained between transfer inductances calculated by WING and those reduced from measured data by ETCAL. This computer program shows promise of expansion to permit eventual calculation of potential lightning-induced voltages in electrical circuits of complete aircraft in the design stage.

  8. Using GenePattern for Gene Expression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Heidi; Liberzon, Arthur; Reich, Michael; Mesirov, Jill P.

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of genomic data now available in biomedical research has stimulated the development of sophisticated statistical methods for interpreting the data, and of special visualization tools for displaying the results in a concise and meaningful manner. However, biologists often find these methods and tools difficult to understand and use correctly. GenePattern is a freely available software package that addresses this issue by providing more than 100 analysis and visualization tools for genomic research in a comprehensive user-friendly environment for users at all levels of computational experience and sophistication. This unit demonstrates how to prepare and analyze microarray data in GenePattern. PMID:18551415

  9. Analysis of a minimal Rho-GTPase circuit regulating cell shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, William R; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2016-07-19

    Networks of Rho-family GTPases regulate eukaryotic cell polarization and motility by controlling assembly and contraction of the cytoskeleton. The mutually inhibitory Rac-Rho circuit is emerging as a central, regulatory hub that can affect the shape and motility phenotype of eukaryotic cells. Recent experimental manipulation of the amounts of Rac and Rho or their regulators (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors, GTPase-activating proteins, guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) have been shown to bias the prevalence of these different states and promote transitions between them. Here we show that part of this data can be understood in terms of inherent Rac-Rho mutually inhibitory dynamics. We analyze a spatio-temporal mathematical model of Rac-Rho dynamics to produce a detailed set of predictions of how parameters such as GTPase rates of activation and total amounts affect cell decisions (such as Rho-dominated contraction, Rac-dominated spreading, and spatially segregated Rac-Rho polarization). We find that in some parameter regimes, a cell can take on any of these three fates depending on its environment or stimuli. We also predict how experimental manipulations (corresponding to parameter variations) can affect cell shapes observed. Our methods are based on local perturbation analysis (a kind of nonlinear stability analysis), and an approximation of nonlinear feedback by sharp switches. We compare the Rac-Rho model to an even simpler single-GTPase ('wave-pinning') model and demonstrate that the overall behavior is inherent to GTPase properties, rather than stemming solely from network topology.

  10. Analysis of a minimal Rho-GTPase circuit regulating cell shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, William R.; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2016-08-01

    Networks of Rho-family GTPases regulate eukaryotic cell polarization and motility by controlling assembly and contraction of the cytoskeleton. The mutually inhibitory Rac-Rho circuit is emerging as a central, regulatory hub that can affect the shape and motility phenotype of eukaryotic cells. Recent experimental manipulation of the amounts of Rac and Rho or their regulators (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors, GTPase-activating proteins, guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) have been shown to bias the prevalence of these different states and promote transitions between them. Here we show that part of this data can be understood in terms of inherent Rac-Rho mutually inhibitory dynamics. We analyze a spatio-temporal mathematical model of Rac-Rho dynamics to produce a detailed set of predictions of how parameters such as GTPase rates of activation and total amounts affect cell decisions (such as Rho-dominated contraction, Rac-dominated spreading, and spatially segregated Rac-Rho polarization). We find that in some parameter regimes, a cell can take on any of these three fates depending on its environment or stimuli. We also predict how experimental manipulations (corresponding to parameter variations) can affect cell shapes observed. Our methods are based on local perturbation analysis (a kind of nonlinear stability analysis), and an approximation of nonlinear feedback by sharp switches. We compare the Rac-Rho model to an even simpler single-GTPase (‘wave-pinning’) model and demonstrate that the overall behavior is inherent to GTPase properties, rather than stemming solely from network topology.

  11. Shuttle Electrical Power Analysis Program (SEPAP); single string circuit analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is reported of the data obtained from an analysis of the distribution network characteristics of the shuttle during a spacelab mission. A description of the approach utilized in the development of the computer program and data base is provided and conclusions are drawn from the analysis of the data. Data sheets are provided for information to support the detailed discussion on each computer run.

  12. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  13. Motor-related circuit dysfunction in MSA-P: Usefulness of combined whole-brain imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tir, Mélissa; Delmaire, Christine; le Thuc, Vianney; Duhamel, Alain; Destée, Alain; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Defebvre, Luc

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo changes in the brain's macro- and microstructure (notably in the motor system) in the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to characterize the cerebral anatomical differences between the two conditions. We used a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and whole-brain, voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging analysis (VB-DTI). Forty-seven right-handed subjects (14 MSA-P patients, 19 PD patients, and 14 controls) were evaluated using VBM and VB-DTI in an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with a significance threshold set to P MSA-P patients, VBM analysis revealed a lower density of grey matter (GM) in a motor-related circuit (especially in the left primary motor cortex, PMC), relative to PD patients, and in the left supplementary motor area (SMA), relative to controls). Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left PMC and the right cerebellum in MSA-P patients, compared with controls. Using a volumetric diffusion technique, our study revealed selective tissue degeneration in motor circuits, regardless of the volume loss detected in VBM and in agreement with pathology reports and clinical motor characteristics. Our findings suggest that MSA-P is characterized by both macro- and microstructural changes in the sensorimotor circuit.

  14. Insights into the algebraic structure of Lorenz-like systems using feedback circuit analysis and piecewise affine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Christophe; Amaral, Gleison F. V.; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2007-06-01

    The characterization of chaotic attractors has been a widely addressed problem and there are now many different techniques to define their nature in a rather accurate way, at least in the case of a three-dimensional system. Nevertheless, the link between the structure of the ordinary differential equations and the topology of their solutions is still missing and only a few necessary conditions on the algebraic structure are known today. By using a feedback circuit analysis, it is shown that it is possible to identify the relevant terms of the equations, that is, the terms that really contribute to the structure of the phase portrait. Such analysis also provides some guidelines for constructing piecewise affine models. Moreover, equivalence classes can be defined on the basis of the active feedback circuits involved.

  15. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  16. A Detailed Circuit Analysis of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Building 141 Detonator Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhall, D J; Wilson, M J; Wilson, J H

    2003-10-01

    A detailed electrical equivalent circuit of an as-built utility fault simulator is presented. Standard construction techniques for light industrial facilities were used to build a test-bed for evaluating utility power level faults into unintentional victims. The initial components or victims of interest are commercial detonators. Other possible candidates for fault response analyses include motors, power supplies, control systems, computers, or other electronic equipment. Measured Thevenin parameters of all interconnections provide the selected component values used in the model. Included in the model is an opening 10 HP motor circuit demonstrating voltage transients commonly seen on branch circuits from inductive loads common to industrial installations. Complex transmission lines were developed to represent real world transmission line effects possible from the associated branch circuits. To reduce the initial circuit stabilization delay a set of non-linear resistive elements are employed. The resulting model has assisted in confirming previous detonator safety work and supported the definition of critical parameters needed for continued safety assessment of victims to utility type power sources.

  17. Analysis of Electro-Electro Transmission Efficiency of SAW IDTs System by Six-Port Equivalent Circuit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENMing; TANGTiantong; CHENGuangde; ZHANGPenghui

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of electro - electro power transmission efficiency of SAW IDTs (Surface-acoustic-wave Interdigital transducers) system is studied, which is based on the newly developed simple six-port equivalent circuit model for SAW IDTs. The application of this method to the SAW IDTs with 80 fingers system on Y-Z LiNbO3 for acousto-optical interaction is also investigated, and it shows that the calculated result is in agreement with experimental one.

  18. Digital-circuit analysis of short-gate tunnel FETs for low-voltage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Jing; Verhulst, Anne S.; Vandenberghe, William G.; Dehaene, Wim; Huang, Ru; Wang, Yangyuan; Groeseneken, Guido

    2011-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), with emphasis on short-gate TFETs, by simulation for low-power digital applications having a supply voltage lower than 0.5 V. A transient study shows that the tunneling current has a negligible contribution in charging and discharging the gate capacitance of TFETs. In spite of a higher resistance region in the short-gate TFET, the gate (dis)charging speed still meets low-voltage application requirements. A circuit analysis is performed on short-gate TFETs with different materials, such as Si, Ge and heterostructures in terms of voltage overshoot, delay, static power, energy consumption and energy delay product (EDP). These results are compared to MOSFET and full-gate TFET performance. It is concluded that short-gate heterostructure TFETs (Ge-source for nTFET, In0.6Ga0.4As-source for pTFET) are promising candidates to extend the supply voltage to lower than 0.5 V because they combine the advantage of a low Miller capacitance, due to the short-gate structures, and strong drive current in TFETs, due to the narrow bandgap material in the source. At a supply voltage of 0.4 V and for an EOT and channel length of 0.6 nm and 40 nm, respectively, a three-stage inverter chain based on short-gate heterostructure TFETs saves 40% energy consumption per cycle at the same delay and shows 60%-75% improvement of EDP at the same static power, compared to its full-gate counterpart. When compared to the MOSFET, better EDP can be achieved in the heterostructure TFET especially at low static power consumption.

  19. 直流与交流电气线路中铜导线短路痕迹的分析%Analysis on short circuit trace of copper wire in direct and alternating current electric circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连铁; 高伟; 赵长征; 袁晓光

    2012-01-01

    直流电气线路及交流电气线路中铜导线发生短路故障时所形成的熔痕的组织特征不同,为区分二者之间的差别,利用模拟试验手段制备出金相样品,并采用宏观分析、金相分析等各种技术手段进行分析总结,归纳出二者发生短路故障时所形成的痕迹特征规律.模拟研究结果表明,直流线路一次短路熔痕的金相组织以细小的柱状晶为主,且孔洞较少;在交流线路中,一次短路故障形成的熔痕的金相组织胞状晶较多,且交、直流电气线路中铜导线发生短路故障时所形成的熔痕的组织特征明显不同,这些特征可用于实际鉴定工作中.%The microstructural characteristics of melted marks formed due to the short circuit fault of copper wire in direct current(DC) and alternating current(AC) electric circuits are different.In order to distinguish the difference between them,the metallographic samples were prepared through the simulation tests.In addition,such technical means as macro analysis and metallographic analysis were used to analyze and summarize the characteristics of the mark formed due to the short circuit fault in DC and AC electric circuits.The simulation results show that the microstructures of melted marks formed due to the primary short circuit fault in DC circuit are mainly composed of fine columnar crystals with fewer holes.However,the microstructures of melted marks formed due to the primary short circuit fault in AC circuit contain more cellular crystals.Furthermore,the microstructural characteristics of melted marks formed due to the short circuit faults of copper wire in DC and AC electric circuits are obviously different,and can provide the reference for the actual identification work.

  20. Analysis of cold flow reestablishment time in a circuit breaker nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, S. A.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    The deblocking process in a circuit breaker nozzle is similar to the flow starting process in a shock tunnel, and the computer uses this analogy to solve for the deblocking process by utilizing a diaphragm at the throat of a nozzle. At time equal to zero the diaphragm is broken and the throat area increases with time. It is a rarity to have the area as a function of both time and distance. Experimental data obtained from the RPI calibration shock tunnel are utilized to verify some of the calculated results with the area being a function of distance and the agreement is found to be good. The circuit breaker designer can utilize the computer simulation to estimate the deblocking time, an important parameter in the design of circuit breakers.

  1. Laplacian spectrum analysis and spanning tree algorithm for circuit partitioning problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华中; 胡冠章

    2003-01-01

    The spectrum of a graph is the set of all eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of the graph. There is a closed relationship between the Laplacian spectrum of graphs and some properties of graphs such as connectivity. In the recent years Laplacian spectrum of graphs has been widely applied in many fields. The application of Laplacian spectrum of graphs to circuit partitioning problems is reviewed in this paper. A new criterion of circuit partitioning is proposed and the bounds of the partition ratio for weighted graphs are also presented. Moreover, the deficiency of graph-partitioning algorithms by Lapla-cian eigenvectors is addressed and an algorithm by means of the minimal spanning tree of a graph is proposed. By virtue of taking the graph structure into consideration this algorithm can fulfill general re-quirements of circuit partitioning.

  2. Short-circuit fault analysis and isolation strategy for matrix converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娜; L De Lillo; C Brunson; L Empringham; P Wheeler

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of matrix converter (MC) drive systems under the condition of MC short-circuit faults is comprehensively investigated. Two isolation strategies using semiconductors and high speed fuses (HSFs) for MC short-circuit faults are examined and their performances are compared. The behavior of MC drive systems during the fuse action time under different operating conditions is explored. The feasibility of fault-tolerant operation during the fuse action time is also studied. The basic selection laws for the HSFs and the requirements for the passive components of the MC drive system from the point view of short-circuit faults are also discussed. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed isolation strategies.

  3. Analysis of the anatomy of the Papez circuit and adjoining limbic system by fiber dissection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abhidha; Jhawar, Sukhdeep Singh; Goel, Atul

    2012-02-01

    Fiber dissection techniques were used to study the limbic system, in particular the Papez circuit. The course, length and anatomical relations of the structures that make up the Papez circuit were delineated. Ten previously frozen and formalin-fixed cadaveric human brains were used, and dissected according to the fiber dissection techniques of Klingler et al. (Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1935;36:247-56). The primary dissection tools were thin and curved wooden and metallic spatulas with tips of varying sizes. We found that the Papez circuit (mean length: 350 mm) begins in the hippocampus and continues into the fornix to reach the mamillary body. From there, the mamillothalamic tract continues to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, which in turn connects to the cingulum by means of anterior thalamic radiations (mean length: 30 mm). The cingulum courses around the corpus callosum to end in the entorhinal cortex, which then projects to the hippocampus, thus completing the circuit. The average length and breadth of the mamillothalamic tract was 18 mm and 1.73 mm respectively. The average length of the cingulum was 19.6 cm and that of the fornix was 71 mm. The entire circuit was anatomically dissected first in situ in the hemisphere and was then reconstructed outside after removing its various components using fine fiber dissection under a surgical microscope. We found that fiber dissection elegantly delineates the anatomical subtleties of the Papez circuit and provides a three-dimensional perspective of the limbic system. Intricate knowledge of the anatomy of this part of the brain aids the neurosurgeon while performing epilepsy surgery and while approaching intrinsic brain parenchymal, ventricular and paraventricular lesions.

  4. Electrically Small Resonators for Planar Metamaterial, Microwave Circuit and Antenna Design: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán-Sindreu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Planar metamaterials and many microwave circuits and antennas are designed by means of resonators with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength at their resonance frequency. There are many types of such electrically small resonators, and the main purpose of this paper is to compare them as building blocks for the implementation of microwave components. Aspects such as resonator size, bandwidth, their circuit models when they are coupled to transmission lines (as is usually required, as well as key applications, will be considered.

  5. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  6. Risk analysis of colorectal cancer incidence by gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Che; Chang, Yu-Tien; Jian, Chen-En; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Liu, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yao, Chung-Tay

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers worldwide. Several studies have performed microarray data analyses for cancer classification and prognostic analyses. Microarray assays also enable the identification of gene signatures for molecular characterization and treatment prediction. Objective Microarray gene expression data from the online Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to to distinguish colorectal cancer from normal colon tissue samples. Methods We collected microarray data from the GEO database to establish colorectal cancer microarray gene expression datasets for a combined analysis. Using the Prediction Analysis for Microarrays (PAM) method and the GSEA MSigDB resource, we analyzed the 14,698 genes that were identified through an examination of their expression values between normal and tumor tissues. Results Ten genes (ABCG2, AQP8, SPIB, CA7, CLDN8, SCNN1B, SLC30A10, CD177, PADI2, and TGFBI) were found to be good indicators of the candidate genes that correlate with CRC. From these selected genes, an average of six significant genes were obtained using the PAM method, with an accuracy rate of 95%. The results demonstrate the potential of utilizing a model with the PAM method for data mining. After a detailed review of the published reports, the results confirmed that the screened candidate genes are good indicators for cancer risk analysis using the PAM method. Conclusions Six genes were selected with 95% accuracy to effectively classify normal and colorectal cancer tissues. We hope that these results will provide the basis for new research projects in clinical practice that aim to rapidly assess colorectal cancer risk using microarray gene expression analysis. PMID:28229027

  7. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  8. Process Analysis of Double Circuit Transmission Line Trip-out on the Same Tower Due to Lightning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Da-peng; REN Zhi-gang; WANG Peng; YE Kuan; CHANG Xiao-qi; LI Wei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,several failures of double circuit transmission line on the same tower due to lightning were happened in Beijing power grid.Although it can be reclosed successful,the lightning strike caused a grave threat to the power grid security.The cause of the accident and the accident process were studied for the sake of further understanding of the impact of lightning on power grid.As an example,110 kV double circuit transmission line(Xilong-line) was analyzed.At first,the system topology was given.Through the analysis on relay protection actions and the fault recorder data,over voltageon the insulator strings was calculated.Based on the analysis and the calculation,accident cause and the process were presented respectively.Secondly,it comes to the conclusion that the lightning failure was caused by counterattack.The wave of the lightning over voltage would spread to the not grounded neutral point of the transformers,and make the neutral protective gap breakdown,then cause freewheeling with the frequency of 50 Hz.As results of the relay protection,the double circuit transmission line all tripped out.Finally,the causes of the accident were proposed that included terrain features,large corner towers,strong thunderstorm weather and poor grounded contact of the tower.

  9. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  10. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  11. Analysis of Wave Propagation in Stratified Structures Using Circuit Analogues, with Application to Electromagnetic Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how circuit models can be used for analysing wave propagation in stratified structures. Relatively complex structures can be analysed using models which are accessible to undergraduate students. Homogeneous slabs are modelled as transmission lines, and thin sheets between the slabs are modelled as lumped…

  12. Battery open-circuit voltage estimation by a method of statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snihir, Iryna; Rey, William; Verbitskiy, Evgeny; Belfadhel-Ayeb, Afifa; Notten, Peter H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The basic task of a battery management system (BMS) is the optimal utilization of the stored energy and minimization of degradation effects. It is critical for a BMS that the state-of-charge (SoC) be accurately determined. Open-circuit voltage (OCV) is directly related to the state-of-charge of the

  13. Analysis of Wave Propagation in Stratified Structures Using Circuit Analogues, with Application to Electromagnetic Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how circuit models can be used for analysing wave propagation in stratified structures. Relatively complex structures can be analysed using models which are accessible to undergraduate students. Homogeneous slabs are modelled as transmission lines, and thin sheets between the slabs are modelled as lumped…

  14. Load Flow and Short Circuit Analysis of the Class III Power System of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S

    2005-12-15

    The planning, design, and operation of electric power system require engineering studies to assist in the evaluation of the system performance, reliability, safety and economics. The Class III power of HANARO supplies power for not only HANARO but also RIPF and IMEF. The starting current of most ac motors is five to ten times normal full load current. The loads of the Class III power are connected in consecutive orders at an interval for 10 seconds to avoid excessive voltage drop. This technical report deals with the load flow study and motor starting study for the Class III power of HANARO using ETAP(Electrical Transient Analyzer Program) to verify the capacity of the diesel generator. Short-circuit studies are done to determine the magnitude of the prospective currents flowing throughout the power system at various time intervals after a fault occurs. Short-circuit studies can be performed at the planning stage in order to help finalize the system layout, determine voltage levels, and size cables, transformers, and conductors. From this study, we verify the short circuit current capacity of air circuit breaker(ACB) and automatic transfer switch(ATS) of the Class III power.

  15. Improving Students' Data Analysis and Presentation Skills: The Ocean State Circuits, Inc. Forecasting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, James R.; Chen, Yuwen; Mangiameli, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Many potential employers expect that newly hired students will arrive on-the-job with the ability to analyze data, utilize spreadsheets, and communicate findings and recommendations. We designed the Ocean State Circuits, Inc. Forecasting Project to address these gaps in our students' knowledge of analytical tools (such as the "vlookup()"…

  16. Analysis and Simulation of a Low-Leakage Analog Single Gate and FinFET Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manorama; Kushwah, Ravindra Singh; Shrivastava, Pavan; Akashe, Shyam

    2014-05-01

    In the world of Integrated Circuits, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) has lost its ability during scaling beyond 50 nm. Scaling causes severe short channel effects (SCEs) which are difficult to suppress. FinFET devices undertake to replace usual Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFETs) because of their better ability in controlling leakage and diminishing SCEs while delivering a strong drive current. In this paper, we present a relative examination of FinFET with the double gate MOSFET (DGMOSFET) and conventional bulk Si single gate MOSFET (SGMOSFET) by using Cadence Virtuoso simulation tool. Physics-based numerical two-dimensional simulation results for FinFET device, circuit power is presented, and classifying that FinFET technology is an ideal applicant for low power applications. Exclusive FinFET device features resulting from gate-gate coupling are conversed and efficiently exploited for optimal low leakage device design. Design trade-off for FinFET power and performance are suggested for low power and high performance applications. Whole power consumptions of static and dynamic circuits and latches for FinFET device, believing state dependency, show that leakage currents for FinFET circuits are reduced by a factor of over 10X, compared to DGMOSFET and 20X compared with SGMOSFET.

  17. D-VASim: An Interactive Virtual Laboratory Environment for the Simulation and Analysis of Genetic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    the behavior of genetic logic circuit models represented in an SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language). Hence, SBML models developed in other software environments can be analyzed and simulated in D-VASim. D-VASim offers deterministic as well as stochastic simulation; and differs from other software tools...

  18. Improving Students' Data Analysis and Presentation Skills: The Ocean State Circuits, Inc. Forecasting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, James R.; Chen, Yuwen; Mangiameli, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Many potential employers expect that newly hired students will arrive on-the-job with the ability to analyze data, utilize spreadsheets, and communicate findings and recommendations. We designed the Ocean State Circuits, Inc. Forecasting Project to address these gaps in our students' knowledge of analytical tools (such as the "vlookup()"…

  19. Mechanisms of hierarchical reinforcement learning in corticostriatal circuits 1: computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael J; Badre, David

    2012-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is organized hierarchically, with more anterior regions having increasingly abstract representations. How does this organization support hierarchical cognitive control and the rapid discovery of abstract action rules? We present computational models at different levels of description. A neural circuit model simulates interacting corticostriatal circuits organized hierarchically. In each circuit, the basal ganglia gate frontal actions, with some striatal units gating the inputs to PFC and others gating the outputs to influence response selection. Learning at all of these levels is accomplished via dopaminergic reward prediction error signals in each corticostriatal circuit. This functionality allows the system to exhibit conditional if-then hypothesis testing and to learn rapidly in environments with hierarchical structure. We also develop a hybrid Bayesian-reinforcement learning mixture of experts (MoE) model, which can estimate the most likely hypothesis state of individual participants based on their observed sequence of choices and rewards. This model yields accurate probabilistic estimates about which hypotheses are attended by manipulating attentional states in the generative neural model and recovering them with the MoE model. This 2-pronged modeling approach leads to multiple quantitative predictions that are tested with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the companion paper.

  20. A general model for binary cell fate decision gene circuits with degeneracy: indeterminacy and switch behavior in the absence of cooperativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Andrecut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene regulatory circuit motif in which two opposing fate-determining transcription factors inhibit each other but activate themselves has been used in mathematical models of binary cell fate decisions in multipotent stem or progenitor cells. This simple circuit can generate multistability and explains the symmetric "poised" precursor state in which both factors are present in the cell at equal amounts as well as the resolution of this indeterminate state as the cell commits to either cell fate characterized by an asymmetric expression pattern of the two factors. This establishes the two alternative stable attractors that represent the two fate options. It has been debated whether cooperativity of molecular interactions is necessary to produce such multistability. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we take a general modeling approach and argue that this question is not relevant. We show that non-linearity can arise in two distinct models in which no explicit interaction between the two factors is assumed and that distinct chemical reaction kinetic formalisms can lead to the same (generic dynamical system form. Moreover, we describe a novel type of bifurcation that produces a degenerate steady state that can explain the metastable state of indeterminacy prior to cell fate decision-making and is consistent with biological observations. CONCLUSION: The general model presented here thus offers a novel principle for linking regulatory circuits with the state of indeterminacy characteristic of multipotent (stem cells.

  1. A General Model for Binary Cell Fate Decision Gene Circuits with Degeneracy: Indeterminacy and Switch Behavior in the Absence of Cooperativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, Mircea; Halley, Julianne D.; Winkler, David A.; Huang, Sui

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene regulatory circuit motif in which two opposing fate-determining transcription factors inhibit each other but activate themselves has been used in mathematical models of binary cell fate decisions in multipotent stem or progenitor cells. This simple circuit can generate multistability and explains the symmetric “poised” precursor state in which both factors are present in the cell at equal amounts as well as the resolution of this indeterminate state as the cell commits to either cell fate characterized by an asymmetric expression pattern of the two factors. This establishes the two alternative stable attractors that represent the two fate options. It has been debated whether cooperativity of molecular interactions is necessary to produce such multistability. Principal Findings Here we take a general modeling approach and argue that this question is not relevant. We show that non-linearity can arise in two distinct models in which no explicit interaction between the two factors is assumed and that distinct chemical reaction kinetic formalisms can lead to the same (generic) dynamical system form. Moreover, we describe a novel type of bifurcation that produces a degenerate steady state that can explain the metastable state of indeterminacy prior to cell fate decision-making and is consistent with biological observations. Conclusion The general model presented here thus offers a novel principle for linking regulatory circuits with the state of indeterminacy characteristic of multipotent (stem) cells. PMID:21625586

  2. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways and func......Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways...

  3. Multidimensional gene set analysis of genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Montaner

    Full Text Available Understanding the functional implications of changes in gene expression, mutations, etc., is the aim of most genomic experiments. To achieve this, several functional profiling methods have been proposed. Such methods study the behaviour of different gene modules (e.g. gene ontology terms in response to one particular variable (e.g. differential gene expression. In spite to the wealth of information provided by functional profiling methods, a common limitation to all of them is their inherent unidimensional nature. In order to overcome this restriction we present a multidimensional logistic model that allows studying the relationship of gene modules with different genome-scale measurements (e.g. differential expression, genotyping association, methylation, copy number alterations, heterozygosity, etc. simultaneously. Moreover, the relationship of such functional modules with the interactions among the variables can also be studied, which produces novel results impossible to be derived from the conventional unidimensional functional profiling methods. We report sound results of gene sets associations that remained undetected by the conventional one-dimensional gene set analysis in several examples. Our findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach for the discovery of new cell functionalities with complex dependences on more than one variable.

  4. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

    leading to decreased growth rate, decreased glucose metabolism, decreased amino acid and protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Some of these responses define a new type of stress that results from changes in the internal cell environment by overexpression of a membrane protein. Chapter 5...... that have been post-translationally modified by N- or C-terminal truncation and we show that this protein processing is not random and shows a specific pattern for a given yeast strain. Chapter 7 illustrates the construction of yeast proteome database and its potential application in characterising yeast...... analysis is a powerful tool to study yeast proteome and the complex proteome database gives a broad view on the molecular cell biology of yeast. The global database approach allows combining proteome data from different mutants and experiment conditions (e.g. heat stress, phosphate labelling, N...

  5. Analysis of a dc SQUID readout scheme with voltage feedback circuit and low-noise preamplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Zhang, Yi; Schmelz, Matthias; Mück, Michael; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Lee, Yong-Ho; Stolz, Ronny; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed the dc SQUID with voltage feedback circuit (VFC) and a low-noise room-temperature preamplifier to evaluate the feasibility of a low-noise SQUID direct-coupled readout scheme (DRS), possibly eliminating the need for a two-stage scheme employing a SQUID preamplifier. The passive VFC, connected in parallel to the SQUID, consists of a resistor Rs in series with an inductor L s. This inductor is coupled to the SQUID by a mutual inductance Ms. The purpose of the VFC is to increase the SQUID’s flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient ∂V/∂Φ, thus reducing the preamplifier noise contribution δΦpreamp. However, at the same time, VFC introduces the thermal noise of Rs, δΦR, which may not be negligible. Generally, the noise of the readout scheme, δΦreadout, may thus include both δΦpreamp and δΦR, i.e., δΦreadout2 = δΦpreamp2 + δΦR2. To characterize the SQUID operation with VFC we introduced two dimensionless parameters, r = Rs/Rd and Δ = (M s/Mdyn) - (Rs/R d), where Rd and Mdyn = 1/(∂i/∂Φ) are dynamic properties of the SQUID itself. For assumed intrinsic SQUID parameters, we then numerically analyzed the dependence of δΦreadout noise components on r and Δ to determine their suitable ranges and the minimum of δΦreadout. To verify our analysis, we experimentally characterized, in liquid helium, three niobium SQUIDs with VFC, having suitably chosen r and Δ. The measured SQUID system flux noise was on the order of 1 μΦ0/√Hz, comparable to the intrinsic noise of the SQUID itself. The deduced equivalent voltage noise was comparable to that of a SQUID preamplifier in the two-stage readout. Simple single-stage ultra-low-noise SQUID DRS readout was thus demonstrated.

  6. 基于PSpice的RLC电路频率特性分析%The Frequency Response Analysis of RLC Circuits Based on PSpice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 杨开原; 刘泉

    2011-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of RLC series circuits and multiple circuits, a new method which combines theory analysis and software simulation is introduced in this paper. By changing the circuit parameters, the effects of frequency response characteristics are analyzed in RLC circuits based on PSpice. The results show that the design,construction and analysis of the RLC circuits are very easy by introducing the software into the analysis of the circuits. It's available virtual experimental system for simulation of circuits.%针时RLC串联电路及并联电路的特点,提出了理论分析和PSpice软件仿真相结合的方法.并用PSpice软件分析了RLC串联电路及并联电路中参数的改变对电路的频率特性的影响.结果表明:用PSpice软件可以方便地设计、搭建和分析各种类型的电路,是一种有效的虚拟仿真实验平台.

  7. Genome-wide Analysis of Gene Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun

    IP-seq and small RNA-seq, we delineated the landscape of the promoters with bidirectional transcriptions that yield steady-state RNA in only one directions (Paper III). A subsequent motif analysis enabled us to uncover specific DNA signals – early polyA sites – that make RNA on the reverse strand sensitive...... they regulated or if the sites had global elevated usage rates by multiple TFs. Using RNA-seq, 5’end-seq in combination with depletion of 5’exonuclease as well as nonsensemediated decay (NMD) factors, we systematically analyzed NMD substrates as well as their degradation intermediates in human cells (Paper V......). Gene enrichment analysis on the detected NMD substrates revealed an unappreciated NMD-based regulatory mechanism of the genes hosting multiple intronic snoRNAs, which can facilitate differential expression of individual snoRNAs from a single host gene locus. Finally, supported by RNA-seq and small RNA-seq...

  8. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  9. Double-layer rotor magnetic shield performance analysis in high temperature superconducting synchronous generators under short circuit fault conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Aliahmadi, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    High temperature superconducting, HTS, synchronous machines benefit from a rotor magnetic shield in order to protect superconducting coils against asynchronous magnetic fields. This magnetic shield, however, suffers from exerted Lorentz forces generated in light of induced eddy currents during transient conditions, e.g. stator windings short-circuit fault. In addition, to the exerted electromagnetic forces, eddy current losses and the associated effects on the cryogenic system are the other consequences of shielding HTS coils. This study aims at investigating the Rotor Magnetic Shield, RMS, performance in HTS synchronous generators under stator winding short-circuit fault conditions. The induced eddy currents in different circumferential positions of the rotor magnetic shield along with associated Joule heating losses would be studied using 2-D time-stepping Finite Element Analysis, FEA. The investigation of Lorentz forces exerted on the magnetic shield during transient conditions has also been performed in this paper. The obtained results show that double line-to-ground fault is of the most importance among different types of short-circuit faults. It was revealed that when it comes to the design of the rotor magnetic shields, in addition to the eddy current distribution and the associated ohmic losses, two phase-to-ground fault should be taken into account since the produced electromagnetic forces in the time of fault conditions are more severe during double line-to-ground fault.

  10. auxiliary Analysis of Circuit Problem Used of Matlab%利用Matlab辅助分析电路问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘庆; 蓝海江

    2012-01-01

    《电路》课程是电气与电子信息类专业的重要技术基础课。通过实例,探讨利用Matlab软件辅助分析动态、正弦稳态等电路问题的方法。结果表明,利用Matlab软件辅助分析电路问题,程序易读、逻辑清晰、图像直观、结果精确。%The circuit course is an important technology basic course of electrical and electronic information major,through the example,using of Matlab software,the circuit problem method of analyzing dynamic and sinusoidal steady state and so on,was discussed.Results show that auxiliary analysis of circuit problem using of Matlab software,had the following features such as program is easy to read,logic clearness,direct image,precise results,etc.

  11. Simplest Analysis Method of AC Circuit%交流电路的一种简便分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施尚英; 黄世瑜

    2012-01-01

    The current and voltage in exchange circuit satisfies Ohm’s law in effective value.,current phase appears ahead of time or lag behind according to different load of current.The simplest method adopted by the author is vector analysis law,which not only applies to series-parallel circuit,also to all circuits of exchange electric.%交流电路中电流与电压的关系在有效值上满足欧姆定律,根据负载的性质不同,相位上存在一个超前与滞后的问题,最简单最精确的分析方法就是矢量分析法,这种方法不仅适用于简单的串并联电路,也适用于交流电的所有电路,所以笔者在这些电路中提取相同的矢量分析法.

  12. Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

  13. Control of Vibrio fischeri lux gene transcription by a cyclic AMP receptor protein-luxR protein regulatory circuit.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Expression of the Vibrio fischeri luminescence genes (lux genes) requires two transcriptional activators: the V. fischeri luxR gene product with autoinducer and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) with cAMP. It has been established that autoinducer and the luxR gene product are required for transcriptional activation of the luxICDABE operon, which contains a gene required for autoinducer synthesis and genes required for light emission. However, the role of cAMP-CRP in the induction o...

  14. Yield analysis of large capacity magnetic bubble circuits with redundancy design. [fabrication reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. F.; Reekstin, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication yield of an on-chip modifiable redundant circuit design for a 100M bit serial shift register is evaluated. The yield model is a redundancy design in which there is a primary loop and a set of secondary loops which can be enabled/disabled without introducing blanks to the data stream. This function has a finite yield, the loop-modification yield factor, which must be greater than 0.9 to make the system more economical than the simple nonredundant design. It is further established that small loop capacities greatly degrade the yield because of the effect of the modification yield factor, while large loop capacities degrade the yield because of defects in the operating area. As the modification yield increases the optimum loop capacity decreases. An optimum value for the number of redundant loops exists for each loop capacity. Other factors that affect the yield are the garnet film and the processed circuit.

  15. Differential microfluidic sensor on printed circuit board for biological cells analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongyuan; Guo, Jinhong; Chen, Liang; Xia, Chuncheng; Yu, Zhefeng; Ai, Ye; Li, Chang Ming; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    Coulter principal based resistive pulse sensor has been demonstrated as an important platform in biological cell detection and enumeration since several decades ago. Recently, the miniaturized micro-Coulter counter has attracted much attention due to its advantages in point of care diagnostics for on chip detection and enumeration of rare cells, such as circulating tumor cells. In this paper, we present a microfluidic cytometer with differential amplifier based on Coulter principle on a SU-8 coated printed circuit board substrate. The electrical current changes induced by the blockage of the microparticles in the sensing aperture are calibrated by polystyrene particles of standard size. Finally, HeLa cells are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed device for enumeration of biological samples. The proposed cytometer is built upon the cheap and widely available printed circuit board substrate and shows its great potential as personalized healthcare monitor.

  16. A nonlinear equivalent circuit method for analysis of passive intermodulation of mesh reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Passive intermodulation (PIM has gradually become a serious electromagnetic interference due to the development of high-power and high-sensitivity RF/microwave communication systems, especially large deployable mesh reflector antennas. This paper proposes a field-circuit coupling method to analyze the PIM level of mesh reflectors. With the existence of many metal–metal (MM contacts in mesh reflectors, the contact nonlinearity becomes the main reason for PIM generation. To analyze these potential PIM sources, an equivalent circuit model including nonlinear components is constructed to model a single MM contact so that the transient current through the MM contact point induced by incident electromagnetic waves can be calculated. Taking the electric current as a new electromagnetic wave source, the far-field scattering can be obtained by the use of electromagnetic numerical methods or the communication link method. Finally, a comparison between simulation and experimental results is illustrated to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis of Ring Oscillator and Cross-Coupled Oscillator Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-12-01

    Hassan Khalil’s research results and beautifully written textbook on nonlinear systems have influenced generations of researchers, including the authors of this paper. Using nonlinear systems techniques, this paper analyzes ring oscillator and cross-coupled oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. The paper first investigates local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator by making use of its cyclic structure. It next studies global stability properties of a class of cross-coupled oscillators which admit the representation of a dynamic system in feedback with a static nonlinearity, and presents su cient conditions for almost global convergence of the solutions to a limit cycle when the feedback gain is in the vicinity of a bifurcation point. The result are also extended to the synchronization of interconnected identical oscillator circuits.

  18. Dynamic Simulation and Opening Bouncing Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker with Permanent Magnetic Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xin; CAO Chen; LI Bin; LIU Yang; XU Jianyuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the dynamic characteristics of circuit breaker (CB) in opening process,taking a 12 kV vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) with permanent magnetic actuator as the example,a dynamic model of the VCB is established based on the virtual prototype technology,and dynamic equations of the model are deduced.Simulation and experiment are carried out on the VCB of both opening and closing processes.The simulative opening time and closing time are 39.5 ms and 54.6 ms respectively.Influencing factors of opening bouncing and their effect principles are analyzed through dynamic simulations of opening bouncing process.Analytic results indicate that the increase in the stiffness coefficient of contact spring limits the opening bouncing; meanwhile increases in the preload of contact spring and the mass of shaft can enlarge the opening bouncing.

  19. Loss Current Analysis of Water Tree Degradation in Polyethylene using Equivalent Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masafumi; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Noboru

    It is well known that the degradation of XLPE cable by water tree gives rise to harmonics in the loss current. Many researches by simulation and experiment have been carried out for the purpose of the elucidation of the mechanism of the harmonics in the loss current generation. In the present study, the loss current was calculated from the equivalent circuit model composed of voltage-dependent resistance and condenser. These elements are being connected with the matrix state. As a result, we were able to obtain the good agreement between the experimental value and the calculated value by appropriately choosing the characteristics of the voltage-dependent resistance. The equivalent circuit model determined in this study can consider not only the electrical characteristic of water tree but also its shape.

  20. Analysis of Constrained Optimization Variants of the Map-Seeking Circuit Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Harker; C.R. Vogel; T. Gedeon

    2005-09-05

    The map-seeking circuit algorithm (MSC) was developed by Arathorn to efficiently solve the combinatorial problem of correspondence maximization, which arises in applications like computer vision, motion estimation, image matching, and automatic speech recognition [D. W. Arathorn, Map-Seeking Circuits in Visual Cognition: A Computational Mechanism for Biological and Machine Vision, Stanford University Press, 2002]. Given an input image, a template image, and a discrete set of transformations, the goal is to find a composition of transformations which gives the best fit between the transformed input and the template. We imbed the associated combinatorial search problem within a continuous framework by using superposition, and we analyze a resulting constrained optimization problem. We present several numerical schemes to compute local solutions, and we compare their performance on a pair of test problems: an image matching problem and the challenging problem of automatically solving a Rubik's cube.

  1. The analysis of linear parametric circuits with switched capacitors by compact modified method of curve fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Artemenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical connections  between the topological resistive element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype and the topological switched capacitor’s connection matrices of resistor’s switch-capacitor  equivalents   for both phases of SC-circuits were established  that permits to  analyze a switched-capacitor networks on the base of  element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype. The formal mathematical apparatus of forming the SC-circuits’ difference equations based on element’s connection matrix of ARC-prototype was developed which allows to reduce the dimension of the analyzed model of SC-circuits to the number of prototype’s capacitors.

  2. Vulnerability of Network Traffic under Node Capture Attacks using Circuit Theoretic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    of a single, fixed path, as in AODV or DSR [11] in a static network. The second class of protocols yield routes consisting of multiple independent...the circuit mapping. We compute the vulnerability metric as a function of the routing and the cryptographic protocols used to secure the network traffic... routing and cryptographic protocols . I. INTRODUCTION The successful commercialization of many applications of wireless networks relies on the assurance of

  3. 水力学课程教学手段探讨%Thermal circuit analysis method for heat transfer teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文海; 赵静野; 冯翠敏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了教学手段的内涵,分析了实物、模型、板书、挂图、投影胶片、纸介质讲义、多媒体等教学常用知识载体的优缺点及其选用原则;针对有颇多争议的多媒体教学问题,以水力学及工程流体力学教学为例,概述笔者在备课、多媒体课件制作以及课堂使用过程中的体会,包括知识点分解、表达形式再加工、课件制作技术、课件播放、教与学互动、多媒体与板书的配合、口头与肢体语言运用等内容;讨论了多媒体技术为现代教育带来的机遇与挑战。%The basic idea and principle of thermal circuit analysis method for heat transfer process were illustrated and the importance of this method in promoting students to understand heat transfer process and motivating students' interest in learning was revealed. The results show that the thermal circuit analysis has clear physical meaning and is easy to understand, h not only can be used for heat conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer analysis, but also can be applied in complex heat transfer process that coupled with heat conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer. It can be concluded that the thermal circuit analysis method should be emohasized in heat transfer teaching.

  4. GATING CIRCUITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-10-14

    Control circuits for vacuum tubes are described, and a binary counter having an improved trigger circuit is reported. The salient feature of the binary counter is the application of the input signal to the cathode of each of two vacuum tubes through separate capacitors and the connection of each cathode to ground through separate diodes. The control of the binary counter is achieved in this manner without special pulse shaping of the input signal. A further advantage of the circuit is the simplicity and minimum nuruber of components required, making its use particularly desirable in computer machines.

  5. A new circuit-oriented model for the analysis of six-phase induction machine performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroquiadassou, Gerard; Henao, Humberto; Capolino, Gerard-Andre [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Department of Electrical Engineering, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Cavagnino, Andrea; Boglietti, Aldo [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electrical Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    This paper deals with a six-phase induction machine design for 42 V embedded applications such as electrical power steering. This machine has symmetrical 60 displacement windings which allow fault-tolerant modes. In fact, when one or more phases are opened, the machine is able to rotate with a torque reduction. A simple circuit-oriented model has been proposed in order to simulate the six-phase squirrel-cage induction machine and to predict its performances. The proposed method consists in the elaboration of an electric equivalent circuit obtained from minimal dimensional knowledge of stator and rotor parts. It takes into account only the magnetic circuit dimensions and the airgap length. A six-phase squirrel-cage induction machine of 0.09 kW, 17 V, 50 Hz, two poles has been used for the experimental set-up. A design program including the non-linear electromagnetic model has been also used with a complete description of stator and rotor cores using the iron non-linear characteristic for the final verification. The simulation results given by the two models are compared with the experimental tests in order to verify their accuracy. The harmonic analyses of stator currents are also compared to go further in the model validations. (author)

  6. Molecular analysis of the glucocerebrosidase gene locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, S.L.; Martin, B.M.; Fandino, A. [Clinical Neuroscience Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gaucher disease is due to a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Both the functional gene for this enzyme and a pseudogene are located in close proximity on chromosome 1q21. Analysis of the mutations present in patient samples has suggested interaction between the functional gene and the pseudogene in the origin of mutant genotypes. To investigate the involvement of regions flanking the functional gene and pseudogene in the origin of mutations found in Gaucher disease, a YAC clone containing DNA from this locus has been subcloned and characterized. The original YAC containing {approximately}360 kb was truncated with the use of fragmentation plasmids to about 85 kb. A lambda library derived from this YAC was screened to obtain clones containing glucocerebrosidase sequences. PCR amplification was used to identify subclones containing 5{prime}, central, or 3{prime} sequences of the functional gene or of the pseudogene. Clones spanning the entire distance from the last exon of the functional gene to intron 1 of the pseudogene, the 5{prime} end of the functional gene and 16 kb of 5{prime} flanking region and approximately 15 kb of 3{prime} flanking region of the pseudogene were sequenced. Sequence data from 48 kb of intergenic and flanking regions of the glucocerebrosidase gene and its pseudogene has been generated. A large number of Alu sequences and several simple repeats have been found. Two of these repeats exhibit fragment length polymorphism. There is almost 100% homology between the 3{prime} flanking regions of the functional gene and the pseudogene, extending to about 4 kb past the termination codons. A much lower degree of homology is observed in the 5{prime} flanking region. Patient samples are currently being screened for polymorphisms in these flanking regions.

  7. Simulation of TunneLadder traveling-wave tube cold-test characteristics: Implementation of the three-dimensional, electromagnetic circuit analysis code micro-SOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional, electromagnetic circuit analysis code, Micro-SOS, can be used to reduce expensive time-consuming experimental 'cold-testing' of traveling-wave tube (TWT) circuits. The frequency-phase dispersion characteristics and beam interaction impedance of a TunneLadder traveling-wave tube slow-wave structure were simulated using the code. When reasonable dimensional adjustments are made, computer results agree closely with experimental data. Modifications to the circuit geometry that would make the TunneLadder TWT easier to fabricate for higher frequency operation are explored.

  8. Lightning Surge Analysis in 154 kV S/S due to Flashover on the 4 Circuits Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J. W.; Shim, E. B.; Kwak, J. S.; Choi, B. J. [Korea Electric Power Corporation (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis results for the protection of lightning surge at 154 kV substation. We found that the surge arrester is needed at the inlet structure. The maximum overvoltage is about 1,500 kV at the circuit breaker without the surge arrester at the inlet structure. This value can be lower than 600 kV by installing the surge arrester at the inlet structure. In addition to the shield wire should be considered to prevent the shielding failure by the direct lightning stroke. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Computational algorithms for analysis of data from thin-film thermoresistors on a radio-electronic printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Anna; Shaydurov, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    In the paper, the data analysis is considered for thin-film thermoresistors coated on to a radio-electronic printed circuit board to determine possible zones of its overheating. A mathematical model consists in an underdetermined system of linear algebraic equations with an infinite set of solutions. For computing a more real solution, two additional conditions are used: the smoothness of a solution and the positiveness of an increase of temperature during overheating. Computational experiments demonstrate that an overheating zone is determined exactly with a tolerable accuracy of temperature in it.

  10. Analysis and implementation of memristor chaotic circuit%忆阻混沌电路的分析与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包伯成; 胡文; 许建平; 刘中; 邹凌

    2011-01-01

    具有记忆功能的忆阻器是除电阻器、电容器和电感器之外的第四种基本二端电路元件.提出了由φ-q平面上的一条三次单调上升的非线性曲线来确定的光滑磁控忆阻器,它有着斜"8"字形的类紧磁滞回线的伏安特性曲线.采用此忆阻器和负电导构成的有源忆阻器替换蔡氏混沌电路中的蔡氏二极管,导出了一个基于忆阻器的混沌振荡电路.此外,利用常规的运算放大器和乘法器等元器件给出了有源忆阻器的等效电路实现形式.理论分析、数值仿真和电路仿真结果一致,均表明忆阻混沌电路的动力学行为依赖于忆阻器的初始状态,在不同初始状态下存在混沌振荡、周期振荡或稳定的汇等不同的运行轨道.%Memristor with memory function is the fourth fundamental two-terminal circuit element,besides resistor,capacitor and inductor.In this paper,a smooth flux-controlled memristor is described by a monotone-increasing nonlinearity curve in the φ-q plane,and it has an italic type "8" like voltage current relation curve that looks like a pinched hysteresis loop characteristics.By replacing Chua's diode with an active memristor consisting of a smooth flux-controlled memristor and a negative conductance,a memristor based chaotic oscillation is derived from Chua's circuit.Furthermore,the equivalent circuit implementation form for the active memristor is designed by utilizing conventional components such as operational amplifiers and multipliers.The results from theoretical analysis,numerical simulations and circuit simulations are completely identical with each other,and demonstrate that the dynamical behaviors of the memristor chaotic circuit are dependent on the memristor initial state,showing different orbits such as chaotic oscillation,periodic oscillation and stable sink under different initial states.

  11. Coupled circuit numerical analysis of eddy currents in an open MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Md Shahadat Hossain; Terada, Yasuhiko; Keiichiro, Ishi; Kose, Katsumi

    2014-08-01

    We performed a new coupled circuit numerical simulation of eddy currents in an open compact magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Following the coupled circuit approach, the conducting structures were divided into subdomains along the length (or width) and the thickness, and by implementing coupled circuit concepts we have simulated transient responses of eddy currents for subdomains in different locations. We implemented the Eigen matrix technique to solve the network of coupled differential equations to speed up our simulation program. On the other hand, to compute the coupling relations between the biplanar gradient coil and any other conducting structure, we implemented the solid angle form of Ampere's law. We have also calculated the solid angle for three dimensions to compute inductive couplings in any subdomain of the conducting structures. Details of the temporal and spatial distribution of the eddy currents were then implemented in the secondary magnetic field calculation by the Biot-Savart law. In a desktop computer (Programming platform: Wolfram Mathematica 8.0®, Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo E7500 @ 2.93GHz; OS: Windows 7 Professional; Memory (RAM): 4.00GB), it took less than 3min to simulate the entire calculation of eddy currents and fields, and approximately 6min for X-gradient coil. The results are given in the time-space domain for both the direct and the cross-terms of the eddy current magnetic fields generated by the Z-gradient coil. We have also conducted free induction decay (FID) experiments of eddy fields using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe to verify our simulation results. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In this study we have also conducted simulations for transient and spatial responses of secondary magnetic field induced by X-gradient coil. Our approach is fast and has much less computational complexity than the conventional electromagnetic numerical simulation

  12. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  13. MATLAB BASED GUIS FOR ELECTROMAGNET CIRCUIT DESİGN AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürsel ŞEFKAT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the usage of computer has become inevitable in the solution of the engineering systems and problems. In this study, the development of easy-to-use and application specific computer programming is considered. The program is based on the GUI of MATLAB technical programming language, which is widely used at the engineering area. As a programming application, a solution of static and dynamic characteristics of different type of electromagnetic circuits is investigated. With the program, user can select the type of magnet and material, and can calculate the size of magnet by entering parameters of the design.

  14. CMOS circuits for piezoelectric energy harvesters efficient power extraction, interface modeling and loss analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hehn, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the challenge of exploiting ambient vibrational energy which can be used to power small and low-power electronic devices, e.g. wireless sensor nodes. Generally, particularly for low voltage amplitudes, low-loss rectification is required to achieve high conversion efficiency. In the special case of piezoelectric energy harvesting, pulsed charge extraction has the potential to extract more power compared to a single rectifier. For this purpose, a fully autonomous CMOS integrated interface circuit for piezoelectric generators which fulfills these requirements is presented.Due

  15. Homogenization on Multi-Materials’ Elements: Application to Printed Circuit Boards and Warpage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-material domains are often found in industrial applications. Modelling them can be computationally very expensive due to meshing requirements. The finite element properties comprising different materials are hardly accurate. In this work, a new homogenization method that simplifies the computation of the homogenized Young modulus, Poisson ratio and thermal expansion coefficient is proposed, and applied to composite-like material on a printed circuit board. The results show a good properties correspondence between the homogenized domain and the real geometry simulation.

  16. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-12-05

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  17. Combining Flux Balance and Energy Balance Analysis for Large-Scale Metabolic Network: Biochemical Circuit Theory for Analysis of Large-Scale Metabolic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Daniel A.; Liang, Shou-Dan; Qian, Hong; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Predicting behavior of large-scale biochemical metabolic networks represents one of the greatest challenges of bioinformatics and computational biology. Approaches, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), that account for the known stoichiometry of the reaction network while avoiding implementation of detailed reaction kinetics are perhaps the most promising tools for the analysis of large complex networks. As a step towards building a complete theory of biochemical circuit analysis, we introduce energy balance analysis (EBA), which compliments the FBA approach by introducing fundamental constraints based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Fluxes obtained with EBA are thermodynamically feasible and provide valuable insight into the activation and suppression of biochemical pathways.

  18. 基于短路容量法的并网风电场短路电流分析%Wind Farm Based on the Short Circuit Capacity of the Grid Short-circuit Current Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小平; 苏宏升; 马小军

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of the wind farm is not only the fan model, but also in many aspects of the unit layout, operation, system components and configuration, the large difference between conventional power plant is presented.A short-circuit characteristics of engineering precision is established, but also reflect the wind farm to meet the short-circuit current calculation methods have good value in engineering.The characteristics of the wind farm, the application of short-circuit capacity of law wind farm short-circuit current calculation, and further analysis of the impact of the wind farm voltage are presented.And finally to the actual wind farm, for example, computational analysis of the short-circuit current of the wind farm is presented.%由于风力发电场与常规的火力发电厂在模型建立方面存在很大差异,因此从工程应用的角度建立一套满足风力发电场特点的短路电流的计算方法具有实用价值.针对风力发电场的自身特点,结合应用短路容量法来进行风电场短路电流的分析,并进一步分析了风力发电场并网状态对并网点电压的影响.最后以实际的风力发电场为算例进行了短路电流的计算分析.

  19. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  20. Hierarchical Parallelization of Gene Differential Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarkadas Sandhya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray gene differential expression analysis is a widely used technique that deals with high dimensional data and is computationally intensive for permutation-based procedures. Microarray gene differential association analysis is even more computationally demanding and must take advantage of multicore computing technology, which is the driving force behind increasing compute power in recent years. In this paper, we present a two-layer hierarchical parallel implementation of gene differential association analysis. It takes advantage of both fine- and coarse-grain (with granularity defined by the frequency of communication parallelism in order to effectively leverage the non-uniform nature of parallel processing available in the cutting-edge systems of today. Results Our results show that this hierarchical strategy matches data sharing behavior to the properties of the underlying hardware, thereby reducing the memory and bandwidth needs of the application. The resulting improved efficiency reduces computation time and allows the gene differential association analysis code to scale its execution with the number of processors. The code and biological data used in this study are downloadable from http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/biostat/people/faculty/hu.cfm. Conclusions The performance sweet spot occurs when using a number of threads per MPI process that allows the working sets of the corresponding MPI processes running on the multicore to fit within the machine cache. Hence, we suggest that practitioners follow this principle in selecting the appropriate number of MPI processes and threads within each MPI process for their cluster configurations. We believe that the principles of this hierarchical approach to parallelization can be utilized in the parallelization of other computationally demanding kernels.

  1. Functional analysis of plastid-encoded genes

    OpenAIRE

    Swiatek, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Plastid chromosomes from the variety of plant species contain several conserved open reading frames of unknown function, which most probably represent functional genes. The primary aim of this thesis was the analysis of the role of two such ORFs, designated ycfs or hypothetical chloroplast reading frames, namely ycf9 (ORF62) and ycf10 (ORF229, cemA). Both were analyzed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) via their inactivation using biolistic plastid transformation. A new experiment...

  2. Computational Analysis of PTEN Gene Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Kien Mah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-genomic data can be efficiently analyzed using computational tools. It has the advantage over the biochemical and biophysical methods in term of higher coverage. In this research, we adopted a computational analysis on PTEN gene mutation.  Mutation in PTEN is responsible for many human diseases. The results of this research provide insights into the protein domains of PTEN and the distribution of mutation.

  3. Globaltest and GOEAST: two different approaches for Gene Ontology analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Kommadath, A.; Smits, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene set analysis is a commonly used method for analysing microarray data by considering groups of functionally related genes instead of individual genes. Here we present the use of two gene set analysis approaches: Globaltest and GOEAST. Globaltest is a method for testing whether sets of

  4. Subcortical volume analysis in traumatic brain injury: the importance of the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, Inge; Coxon, James P; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neuronal loss, diffuse axonal injury and executive dysfunction. Whereas executive dysfunction has traditionally been associated with prefrontal lesions, ample evidence suggests that those functions requiring behavioral flexibility critically depend on the interaction between frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. To test whether structural integrity of this fronto-striato-thalamic circuit can account for executive impairments in TBI we automatically segmented the thalamus, putamen and caudate of 25 patients and 21 healthy controls and obtained diffusion weighted images. We assessed components of executive function using the local-global task, which requires inhibition, updating and switching between actions. Shape analysis revealed localized atrophy of the limbic, executive and rostral-motor zones of the basal ganglia, whereas atrophy of the thalami was more global in TBI. This subcortical atrophy was related to white matter microstructural organization in TBI, suggesting that axonal injuries possibly contribute to subcortical volume loss. Global volume of the nuclei showed no clear relationship with task performance. However, the shape analysis revealed that participants with smaller volume of those subregions that have connections with the prefrontal cortex and rostral motor areas showed higher switch costs and mixing costs, and made more errors while switching. These results support the idea that flexible cognitive control over action depends on interactions within the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit.

  5. Graph-Based Symbolic Technique and Its Application in the Frequency Response Bound Analysis of Analog Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new graph-based symbolic technique (GBST for deriving exact analytical expressions like the transfer function H(s of an analog integrated circuit (IC, is introduced herein. The derived H(s of a given analog IC is used to compute the frequency response bounds (maximum and minimum associated to the magnitude and phase of H(s, subject to some ranges of process variational parameters, and by performing nonlinear constrained optimization. Our simulations demonstrate the usefulness of the new GBST for deriving the exact symbolic expression for H(s, and the last section highlights the good agreement between the frequency response bounds computed by our variational analysis approach versus traditional Monte Carlo simulations. As a conclusion, performing variational analysis using our proposed GBST for computing the frequency response bounds of analog ICs, shows a gain in computing time of 100x for a differential circuit topology and 50x for a 3-stage amplifier, compared to traditional Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. New regulatory circuit controlling spatial and temporal gene expression in the sea urchin embryo oral ectoderm GRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enhu; Materna, Stefan C; Davidson, Eric H

    2013-10-01

    The sea urchin oral ectoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) model has increased in complexity as additional genes are added to it, revealing its multiple spatial regulatory state domains. The formation of the oral ectoderm begins with an oral-aboral redox gradient, which is interpreted by the cis-regulatory system of the nodal gene to cause its expression on the oral side of the embryo. Nodal signaling drives cohorts of regulatory genes within the oral ectoderm and its derived subdomains. Activation of these genes occurs sequentially, spanning the entire blastula stage. During this process the stomodeal subdomain emerges inside of the oral ectoderm, and bilateral subdomains defining the lateral portions of the future ciliary band emerge adjacent to the central oral ectoderm. Here we examine two regulatory genes encoding repressors, sip1 and ets4, which selectively prevent transcription of oral ectoderm genes until their expression is cleared from the oral ectoderm as an indirect consequence of Nodal signaling. We show that the timing of transcriptional de-repression of sip1 and ets4 targets which occurs upon their clearance explains the dynamics of oral ectoderm gene expression. In addition two other repressors, the direct Nodal target not, and the feed forward Nodal target goosecoid, repress expression of regulatory genes in the central animal oral ectoderm thereby confining their expression to the lateral domains of the animal ectoderm. These results have permitted construction of an enhanced animal ectoderm GRN model highlighting the repressive interactions providing precise temporal and spatial control of regulatory gene expression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Method based on network flow simulation for sneak circuit analysis%基于网络流仿真的潜通路分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 马齐爽

    2012-01-01

    针对线索表法在分析潜通路问题过程中约束条件过多的问题,在人工神经网络分析法的基础上应用网络流仿真进行潜通路分析.根据电路元件的电气特性以及人工神经网络的特点,建立了元件的定性仿真模型,确定电路网络的构成方式.通过网络流仿真模拟电流在电路系统中的扩散过程,预测电路中负载的响应.通过对比电路网络中负载的设计响应以及通过分析预测得到的负载响应,就可以判断出电路网络是否存在潜通路问题,并且找到发生潜通路问题的原因.该方法可以正确预测电路网络中的负载响应,克服了线索表法的缺陷,减少对分析已知条件的要求以及人为因素对分析结果的影响.%To solve the too many constraints problem in sneak circuit analysis of clue table method,network flow simulation was applied in sneak circuit analysis based on the research of artificial neural network(ANN) analysis method.Electrical elements' qualitative simulation models were established and circuit network's composition method was determined,based on electrical and ANN characteristics.The network flow simulation method simulated the current diffusion process and predicted the loads' responses in circuit network.The analysis results showed whether there was sneak circuit problem.Compared the loads' responses between the circuit network design and simulation analysis forecast,the difference was the sneak circuit problem.By using this method,the loads' responses in circuit network can be predicted correctly,the defects of the clue table method can be overcome,the analysis requirements of known conditions and the effects of human factors on the analytical results can be reduced.The sneak circuit problems in real circuit network can be solved effectively by this method.

  8. Separate enrichment analysis of pathways for up- and downregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guini; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Hongdong; Shen, Xiaopei; Guo, Zheng

    2014-03-06

    Two strategies are often adopted for enrichment analysis of pathways: the analysis of all differentially expressed (DE) genes together or the analysis of up- and downregulated genes separately. However, few studies have examined the rationales of these enrichment analysis strategies. Using both microarray and RNA-seq data, we show that gene pairs with functional links in pathways tended to have positively correlated expression levels, which could result in an imbalance between the up- and downregulated genes in particular pathways. We then show that the imbalance could greatly reduce the statistical power for finding disease-associated pathways through the analysis of all-DE genes. Further, using gene expression profiles from five types of tumours, we illustrate that the separate analysis of up- and downregulated genes could identify more pathways that are really pertinent to phenotypic difference. In conclusion, analysing up- and downregulated genes separately is more powerful than analysing all of the DE genes together.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus laccase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, Cinzia; Lettera, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Giardina, Paola; Sannia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fungal laccases (p-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper-containing oxidases that catalyse the oxidation of a great variety of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines through simultaneous reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungi generally produce several laccase isoenzymes encoded by complex multi-gene families. The Pleurotus ostreatus genome encodes 11 putative laccase coding genes, and only six different laccase isoenzymes have been isolated and characterised so far. Laccase expression was found to be regulated by culture conditions and developmental stages even if the redundancy of these genes still raises the question about their respective functions in vivo. In this context, laccase transcript profiling analysis has been used to unravel the physiological role played by the different isoforms produced by P. ostreatus. Even if reported results depict a complex picture of the transcriptional responses exhibited by the analysed laccase genes, they were allowed to speculate on the isoform role in vivo. Among the produced laccases, LACC10 (POXC) seems to play a major role during vegetative growth, since its transcription is downregulated when the fungus starts the fructification process. Furthermore, a new tessera has been added to the puzzling mosaic of the heterodimeric laccase LACC2 (POXA3). LACC2 small subunit seems to play an additional physiological role during fructification, beside that of LACC2 complex activation/stabilisation.

  10. Analysis of gene expression in rabbit muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the demand for high quality food. Meat and meat products may be considered as irreplaceable in human nutrition. Breeding livestock to higher content of lean meat and the use of modern hybrids entails problems with the quality of meat. Analysing of livestock genomes could get us a great deal of important information, which may significantly affect the improvement process. Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS, which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, provides a new way to tackle this issue. New technologies now allow producing microarrays containing thousands of hybridization probes on a single membrane or other solid support. We used microarray analysis to study gene expression in rabbit muscle during different developmental age stages. The outputs from GeneSpring GX sotware are presented in this work. After the evaluation of gene expression in rabbits, will be selected genes of interest in relation to meat quality parameters and will be further analyzed by the available methods of molecular biology and genetics.

  11. Testing Cross-Talk Induced Delay Faults in Digital Circuit Based on Transient Current Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Youren; DENG Xiaoqian; CUI Jiang; YAO Rui; ZHANG Zhai

    2006-01-01

    The delay fault induced by cross-talk effect is one of the difficult problems in the fault diagnosis of digital circuit. An intelligent fault diagnosis based on IDDT testing and support vector machines (SVM) classifier was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the fault model induced by cross-talk effect and the IDDT testing method were analyzed, and then a delay fault localization method based on SVM was presented. The fault features of the sampled signals were extracted by wavelet packet decomposition and served as input parameters of SVM classifier to classify the different fault types. The simulation results illustrate that the method presented is accurate and effective, reaches a high diagnosis rate above 95%.

  12. Numerical analysis of the influence of circuit arrangement on a fin-and-tube condenser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Maria Joppolo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a model for the steady-state simulation of fin-and-tube condenser is developed. The model is based on a finite volume approach that divides each tube into small elemental volumes where mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are solved using the effectiveness-NTU method and with appropriate correlations for void fraction, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient calculation. The model is validated against experimental data on two small condensers finding that the calculated heat transfer rate and refrigerant-side pressure drop agree within ±5% and ±21% respectively to the experimental values. The model is then used to numerically analyse the impact of different circuit arrangements on the condenser heat transfer rate, refrigerant-side pressure drop and refrigerant charge.

  13. Multi-qubit joint measurements in circuit QED: stochastic master equation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criger, Ben; Ciani, Alessandro [RWTH, JARA Institut fuer Quanteninformation, Aachen (Germany); DiVincenzo, David P. [RWTH, JARA Institut fuer Quanteninformation, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We derive a family of stochastic master equations describing homodyne measurement of multi-qubit diagonal observables in circuit quantum electrodynamics. In the regime where qubit decay can be neglected, our approach replaces the polaron-like transformation of previous work, which required a lengthy calculation for the physically interesting case of three qubits and two resonator modes. The technique introduced here makes this calculation straightforward and manifestly correct. Using this technique, we are able to show that registers larger than one qubit evolve under a non-Markovian master equation. We perform numerical simulations of the three-qubit, two-mode case from previous work, obtaining an average post-measurement state fidelity of ∝94%, limited by measurement-induced decoherence and dephasing. (orig.)

  14. Q-band 4-state phase shifter in planar technology: Circuit design and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, E.; Cagigas, J.; Aja, B.; de la Fuente, L.; Artal, E.

    2016-09-01

    A 30% bandwidth phase shifter with four phase states is designed to be integrated in a radio astronomy receiver. The circuit has two 90° out-of-phase microwave phase-shifting branches which are combined by Wilkinson power dividers. Each branch is composed of a 180° phase shifter and a band-pass filter. The 180° phase shifter is made of cascaded hybrid rings with microwave PIN diodes as switching devices. The 90° phase shift is achieved with the two band-pass filters. Experimental characterization has shown significant results, with average phase shift values of -90.7°, -181.7°, and 88.5° within the operation band, 35-47 GHz, and mean insertion loss of 7.4 dB. The performance of its integration in a polarimetric receiver for radio astronomy is analyzed, which validates the use of the presented phase shifter in such type of receiver.

  15. Analysis and improvement in repulsive force of 630 A frame Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digpalsinh Parmar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB is a protective device used for low voltage protection in the range of 12–1250 A. It is having fast breaking and making ability due to special contact structure. In case of transformer it is generally placed in secondary side and in case of motor protection it is used as backup protection. The existing design is suffering from chattering of contact tip which lead to erosion and in turn affect electrical life. It also reduces interrupting/breaking capacity of MCCB. In this paper, detailed study of the factors and constraints related to repulsion threshold current (Irp and consistency of magnetic release for 630 A MCCB is carried out using Finite Element tool JMAG to find out limitations and scope of design improvements in existing design. The proposed suggestion is validated by testing.

  16. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Sigma-delta modulator modeling analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjie, Ge; Xin'an, Wang; Xing, Zhang; Xiaoxing, Feng; Qingqin, Wang

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces a new method for SC sigma-delta modulator modeling. It studies the integrator's different equivalent circuits in the integrating and sampling phases. This model uses the OP-AMP input pair's tail current (I0) and overdrive voltage (von) as variables. The modulator's static and dynamic errors are analyzed. A group of optimized I0 and von for maximum SNR and power × area ratio can be obtained through this model. As examples, a MASH21 modulator for digital audio and a second order modulator for RFID baseband are implemented and tested, and they can achieve 91 dB and 72 dB respectively, which verifies the modeling and design criteria.

  17. Review of ASITIC (Analysis and Simulation of Inductors and Transformers for Integrated Circuits Tool to Design Inductor on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Zamin Ali Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive elements such as inductors, capacitors, and transformers have the potential to improve the performance of key RF building blocks. Their use, though, not only necessitates proper modeling of electrostatic and magneto static effects, but also electromagnetic parasitic substrate coupling. A custom computer-aided-design tool called ASITIC, €œAnalysis and Simulation of Inductors and Transformers for Integrated Circuits€ is described, which is used for the analysis, design, and optimization of passive devices. This tool allows circuit and process engineers to design and optimize the geometry of passive devices and the process parameters to meet electrical specifications. The losses in the passive devices determine the achievable gain and power dissipation. Optimization of such passive devices is thus an integral part in the design of such building blocks.

  18. D-VASim: Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator for Genetic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A genetic circuit represents a gene regulator network that is triggered by a combination of external signals, such as chemicals, proteins, light or temperature, to emit signals to control gene expression or metabolic pathways accordingly. In order to match the intended behaviour, genetic circuits......, with the aim to reduce the number of required in-vitro experiments. We present a behavioural simulation and analysis tool that allows the biologist to carry out virtual lab experiments as an interactive process during simulation of the genetic circuit, rather than a batch process, which is current practice. We...

  19. An ensemble method for identifying regulatory circuits with special reference to the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, D.; Asch, D. K.; Case, M. E.; Arnold, J.; Schüttler, H.-B.

    2002-01-01

    A chemical reaction network for the regulation of the quinic acid (qa) gene cluster of Neurospora crassa is proposed. An efficient Monte Carlo method for walking through the parameter space of possible chemical reaction networks is developed to identify an ensemble of deterministic kinetics models with rate constants consistent with RNA and protein profiling data. This method was successful in identifying a model ensemble fitting available RNA profiling data on the qa gene cluster. PMID:12477937

  20. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  1. Noise analysis and circuit design based on photodiode detection circuit%基于光电二极管检测电路的噪声分析与电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊杰

    2016-01-01

    The photodiode can be light signals are converted to electrical signals.It is mainly through the photovoltaic effect of semiconductor pn junction to achieve the conversion step.Through the photoelectric diode on the circuit noise detection has important significance is an analysis of the value of photoelectric diode on the circuit noise detection,and simply analysis related circuit design problems, I hope the results could provide valuable reference for the related fields.%光电二极管可以将光信号转化为电信号,它主要是通过半导体PN结的光电效应来实现这一转化步骤的.通过光电二极管对电路的噪声进行检测具有重要意义,就主要分析光电二极管对电路的噪声检测的价值,同时简单的分析相关的电路设计问题,希望所得结果能够为相关领域提供有价值的参考.

  2. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata;

    2015-01-01

    expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles...... for these components, we observed that the residual expression levels (in 'functional genomic mRNA' profiling) correlated strongly with copy number. DNA copy number correlated positively with expression levels for 99% of all abundantly expressed human genes, indicating global gene dosage sensitivity. By applying...

  3. Nonlinear circuit analysis of harmonic currents in a floating Langmuir probe with a capacitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-02-01

    Plasma diagnostics using the floating harmonic technique were first used to obtain the electron temperature in a tokamak plasma. In this technique, the electron temperature depends on the ratio of the harmonic currents in a resistive sheath. Because these harmonic currents are determined by a modulated sheath voltage, calculation of the exact modulated voltage across the sheath is important; in general, the voltage is calculated using a phase of the first harmonic current. However, when a series load capacitance is present, the second harmonic currents are abnormally reduced compared to those expected by the conventional floating harmonic model, resulting in an unreliable measurement of the electron temperature. To describe this phenomenon, we used a modified floating harmonic model by applying the harmonic balance technique, a method that analyzes nonlinear circuits. Theoretical prediction of the harmonic current obtained from the modified model was compared with the experimental results, and they are in good agreement. In addition, the degrees of sheath nonlinearity, defined as the ratio of the second harmonic current (or voltage) to the fundamental current (or voltage), are discussed.

  4. Regulatory Analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 142: Leakage through electrical isolators in instrumentation circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rourk, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    Generic Issue (GI) 142 deals with staff concerns about the design of isolation devices used to ensure separation between Class 1E and non-Class 1E electrical control and instrumentation circuits. This issue was initiated in June 1987. Staff reviews of the implementation of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) requirement indicated that some isolation devices used to provide an interface between the non-Class 1E SPDS and the Class 1E safety systems would allow signal leakage if electrically challenged. It was unknown if the amount of leakage posed a hazard to safe operation of the Class 1E system. A review of failure records does not reveal any incidents of system damage caused by isolation device challenge. Furthermore, a review of existing PRA data indicates that the safety significance of ID challenge is low, at the expected challenge event frequency. However, based upon the potential design variations in future control systems resulting from application of computer technology, additional design and qualification test requirements for future plants are recommended.

  5. Circuit analysis and simulation of an ultrahigh-frequency capacitance sensor for scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Postula, A.; Bialkowski, M.

    2004-03-01

    Quantitative two-dimensional dopant profiling tools are urgently needed for nowadays semiconductor industry. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) holds most promise to become such a tool. The key component of SCM is an ultra high frequency (UHF) capacitance sensor. The output of the sensor has been approximately regarded as dC/dV, the derivative of the capacitance between the SCM tip and the sample versus the applied bias voltage. The SCM dopant profiling involves extracting the dopant profile from the SCM signal using analytic or numerical simulation models of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor physics. To achieve a quantitative SCM dopant profiling, the operational principle of the whole SCM measurement has to be well understood and correctly included in those models. Recently, experimental evidences show the SCM signal is dramatically affected by many SCM experimental factors, including the behavior of the UHF capacitance sensor. However, till now, very little research has been reported on the behavior of the sensor in SCM measurement of semiconductors. In this paper, we derive an analytic expression of the sensor output, a circuit simulation model of the sensor is established using Advanced Design System 2003, and the dependences of the sensor output on the SCM operational factors are simulated.

  6. Analysis of Power Transfer Efficiency of Standard Integrated Circuit Immunity Test Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Au Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct power injection (DPI and bulk current injection (BCI methods are defined in IEC 62132-3 and IEC 62132-4 as the electromagnetic immunity test method of integrated circuits (IC. The forward power measured at the RF noise generator when the IC malfunctions is used as the measure of immunity level of the IC. However, the actual power that causes failure in ICs is different from forward power measured at the noise source. Power transfer efficiency is used as a measure of power loss of the noise injection path. In this paper, the power transfer efficiencies of DPI and BCI methods are derived and validated experimentally with immunity test setup of a clock divider IC. Power transfer efficiency varies significantly over the frequency range as a function of the test method used and the IC input impedance. For the frequency range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz, power transfer efficiency of the BCI test was constantly higher than that of the DPI test. In the DPI test, power transfer efficiency is particularly low in the lower test frequency range up to 10 MHz. When performing the IC immunity tests following the standards, these characteristics of the test methods need to be considered.

  7. Noise calculation model and analysis of high-gain readout circuits for CMOS image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Shoji; Itoh, Shinya

    2008-02-01

    A thermal noise calculation model of high-gain switched-capacitor column noise cancellers for CMOS image sensors is presented. In the high-gain noise canceller with a single noise cancelling stage, the reset noise of the readout circuits dominates the noise at high gain. Using the double-stage architecture using a switched-capacitor gain stage and a sample-and-hold stage using two sampling capacitors, the reset noise of the gain stage can be cancelled. The resulting input referred thermal noise power of high-gain double-stage switched-capacitor noise canceller is revealed to be proportional to (g_a/g_s)/GC_L where g_a, G and C_L are the transconductance, gain and output capacitance of the amplifier, respectively, and g_s is the output conductance of an in-pixel source follower. An important contribution of the proposed noise calculation formula is the inclusion of the influence of the transconductance ratio of the amplifier to that of the source follower. For low-noise design, it is important that the transconductance of the amplifier used in the noise canceller is minimized under the condition of meeting the required response time of the switched capacitor amplifier which is inversely proportional to the cutoff angular frequency.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Radio Frequency Structures Using AN Equivalent Circuit Methodology with Application to Charged Particle Accelerator RF Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John J.

    The delineation of analysis techniques for high power radio frequency resonators, used as a fundamental component of particle accelerators, receives little attention in the literature. This dissertation reviews, describes, and develops techniques for resolving a transmission line mode rf resonator into an approximate equivalent circuit. Specifically, it presents a toolbox of techniques used to model and represent rf structures. One technique develops models of transmission lines with varying characteristic impedance (referred to as non-uniform) using multiple series connected circuits consisting of lumped elements and constant impedance transmission lines based on a conserved energy approach. This technique is tested for exponentially tapered and linearly tapered quarter-wave resonators. Another technique developed, maps transmission lines with arbitrary cross-sections (referred to as nonstandard) to a standard structure that preserves the characteristic impedance and loss properties of the original line. The techniques developed are applied to the analysis of the complex K1200 Superconducting Cyclotron rf resonators at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The results predicted from the model are compared to measurements. The K1200 rf resonators are tunable over the frequency range of 9.5 to 27 MHz with tuning stems that vary from 300 cm to 11 cm respectively. The resonators are operated in the continuos wave (cw) mode and sustain peak voltages of up to 180 kV requiring drive power of up to 250 kW. Using the techniques developed, the resonant frequency versus tuning stem position was predicted to within a positioning error that varied from 1 to 3.5 cm over the tuning range of 9.5 to 27 Mhz. The discrepancy between model predictions and the experimental data for the resonator power dissipation is postulated to be due to high surface resistance in regions where the rf surfaces were heavily worked or welded. After adjusting the surface resistance

  9. Large-scale circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y. P.

    1982-12-01

    The simulation of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuits falls beyond the capabilities of conventional circuit simulators like SPICE. On the other hand, conventional logic simulators can only give the results of logic levels 1 and 0 with the attendent loss of detail in the waveforms. The aim of developing large-scale circuit simulation is to bridge the gap between conventional circuit simulation and logic simulation. This research is to investigate new approaches for fast and relatively accurate time-domain simulation of MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductors), LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI circuits. New techniques and new algorithms are studied in the following areas: (1) analysis sequencing (2) nonlinear iteration (3) modified Gauss-Seidel method (4) latency criteria and timestep control scheme. The developed methods have been implemented into a simulation program PREMOS which could be used as a design verification tool for MOS circuits.

  10. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  11. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  12. The voltage-current relationship and equivalent circuit implementation of parallel flux-controlled memristive circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Feng Fei; Dong Wei; Pan Sai-Hu

    2013-01-01

    A flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth cubic nonlinearity is taken as an example,upon which the voltage-current relationships (VCRs) between two parallel memristive circuits-a parallel memristor and capacitor circuit (the parallel MC circuit),and a parallel memristor and inductor circuit (the parallel ML circuit)-are investigated.The results indicate that the VCR between these two parallel memristive circuits is closely related to the circuit parameters,and the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage stimulus.An equivalent circuit model of the memristor is built,upon which the circuit simulations and experimental measurements of both the parallel MC circuit and the parallel ML circuit are performed,and the results verify the theoretical analysis results.

  13. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  14. Gene coexpression network analysis as a source of functional annotation for rice genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Childs

    Full Text Available With the existence of large publicly available plant gene expression data sets, many groups have undertaken data analyses to construct gene coexpression networks and functionally annotate genes. Often, a large compendium of unrelated or condition-independent expression data is used to construct gene networks. Condition-dependent expression experiments consisting of well-defined conditions/treatments have also been used to create coexpression networks to help examine particular biological processes. Gene networks derived from either condition-dependent or condition-independent data can be difficult to interpret if a large number of genes and connections are present. However, algorithms exist to identify modules of highly connected and biologically relevant genes within coexpression networks. In this study, we have used publicly available rice (Oryza sativa gene expression data to create gene coexpression networks using both condition-dependent and condition-independent data and have identified gene modules within these networks using the Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis method. We compared the number of genes assigned to modules and the biological interpretability of gene coexpression modules to assess the utility of condition-dependent and condition-independent gene coexpression networks. For the purpose of providing functional annotation to rice genes, we found that gene modules identified by coexpression analysis of condition-dependent gene expression experiments to be more useful than gene modules identified by analysis of a condition-independent data set. We have incorporated our results into the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project database as additional expression-based annotation for 13,537 genes, 2,980 of which lack a functional annotation description. These results provide two new types of functional annotation for our database. Genes in modules are now associated with groups of genes that constitute a collective functional

  15. Pharmacological analysis of ionotropic glutamate receptor function in neuronal circuits of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Tabor

    Full Text Available Although synaptic functions of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the olfactory bulb have been studied in vitro, their roles in pattern processing in the intact system remain controversial. We therefore examined the functions of ionotropic glutamate receptors during odor processing in the intact olfactory bulb of zebrafish using pharmacological manipulations. Odor responses of mitral cells and interneurons were recorded by electrophysiology and 2-photon Ca(2+ imaging. The combined blockade of AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors abolished odor-evoked excitation of mitral cells. The blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors alone, in contrast, increased the mean response of mitral cells and decreased the mean response of interneurons. The blockade of NMDA receptors caused little or no change in the mean responses of mitral cells and interneurons. However, antagonists of both receptor types had diverse effects on the magnitude and time course of individual mitral cell and interneuron responses and, thus, changed spatio-temporal activity patterns across neuronal populations. Oscillatory synchronization was abolished or reduced by AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptor antagonists, respectively. These results indicate that (1 interneuron responses depend mainly on AMPA/kainate receptor input during an odor response, (2 interactions among mitral cells and interneurons regulate the total olfactory bulb output activity, (3 AMPA/kainate receptors participate in the synchronization of odor-dependent neuronal ensembles, and (4 ionotropic glutamate receptor-containing synaptic circuits shape odor-specific patterns of olfactory bulb output activity. These mechanisms are likely to be important for the processing of odor-encoding activity patterns in the olfactory bulb.

  16. An Integrated Circuit for Chip-Based Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics and Metabolite Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Boon Chong; Macdonald, Alasdair Iain; Martin, Christopher; Streklas, Angelos J; Campbell, Gordon; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A; Nemeth, Balazs; Grant, James P; Barrett, Michael P; Cumming, David R S

    2016-06-01

    We have created a novel chip-based diagnostic tools based upon quantification of metabolites using enzymes specific for their chemical conversion. Using this device we show for the first time that a solid-state circuit can be used to measure enzyme kinetics and calculate the Michaelis-Menten constant. Substrate concentration dependency of enzyme reaction rates is central to this aim. Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET) are excellent transducers for biosensing applications that are reliant upon enzyme assays, especially since they can be fabricated using mainstream microelectronics technology to ensure low unit cost, mass-manufacture, scaling to make many sensors and straightforward miniaturisation for use in point-of-care devices. Here, we describe an integrated ISFET array comprising 2(16) sensors. The device was fabricated with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Unlike traditional CMOS ISFET sensors that use the Si3N4 passivation of the foundry for ion detection, the device reported here was processed with a layer of Ta2O5 that increased the detection sensitivity to 45 mV/pH unit at the sensor readout. The drift was reduced to 0.8 mV/hour with a linear pH response between pH 2-12. A high-speed instrumentation system capable of acquiring nearly 500 fps was developed to stream out the data. The device was then used to measure glucose concentration through the activity of hexokinase in the range of 0.05 mM-231 mM, encompassing glucose's physiological range in blood. Localised and temporal enzyme kinetics of hexokinase was studied in detail. These results present a roadmap towards a viable personal metabolome machine.

  17. How "healthy" is circuit resistance training following paraplegia? Kinematic analysis associated with shoulder mechanical impingement risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Nawoczenski, PT, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether wheelchair-based circuit resistance training (CRT exercises place the shoulder at risk for mechanical impingement. Using a novel approach, we created a mechanical impingement risk score for each exercise by combining scapular and glenohumeral kinematic and exposure data. In a case series design, 18 individuals (25–76 yr old with paraplegia and without substantial shoulder pain participated. The mean mechanical impingement risk scores at 45–60 degrees humerothoracic elevation were rank-ordered from lowest to highest risk as per subacromial mechanical impingement risk: overhead press (0.6 +/– 0.5 points, lat pulldown (1.2 +/– 0.5 points, chest press (2.4 +/– 2.8 points, row (2.7 +/– 1.6 points, and rickshaw (3.4 +/– 2.3 points. The mean mechanical impingement risk scores at 105–120 degrees humerothoracic elevation were rank-ordered from lowest to highest risk as per internal mechanical impingement risk: lat pulldown (1.2 +/– 0.5 points and overhead press (1.3 +/– 0.5 points. In conclusion, mechanical impingement risk scores provided a mechanism to capture risk associated with CRT. The rickshaw had the highest subacromial mechanical risk, whereas the overhead press and lat pulldown had the highest internal mechanical impingement risk. The rickshaw was highlighted as the most concerning exercise because it had the greatest combination of magnitude and exposure corresponding with increased subacromial mechanical impingement risk.

  18. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on large particles of printed circuit board wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

    2009-08-01

    Pyrolysis of large printed circuit board (PCB) waste particle was conducted on a specially designed laboratory-scale thermobalance (Macro-TG) with sample loading of 30 g under dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of heating rate (10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C min(-1)) and particle size (1 mm x 1 mm, 5 mm x 5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm and 10 mm x 20 mm) were examined. To compare the different decomposition behavior of fine and large one, the thermal decomposition of PCB waste powder (approximately 5mg) was also performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (common TG) under various heating rates (10, 15, 20 and 40 degrees C min(-1)) and particle size ranges (0.198-0.165 mm, 0.165-0.074 mm, 0.074-0.055 mm and 0.055-0.047mm). Experimental results show that large particle has a pyrolysis reaction retardancy compared to fine one. The distributed activation energy model was used to study the pyrolysis kinetics. It was found that during pyrolysis process, values of frequency factor (k(0)) changed with different activation energy (E) values. On common TG, the E values range from 156.95 to 319.37 kJ mol(-1) and k(0) values range from 2.67 x 10(13) to 2.24 x 10(27)s(-1). While, on Macro-TG, the range of E was 31.48-41.26 kJ mol(-1) and of the frequency factor was 19.80-202.67s(-1).

  19. Optogenetics to study the circuits of fear- and depression-like behaviors: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine; Turiault, Marc; Griebel, Guy

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the development and extensive use of optogenetics resulted in impressive findings on the neurobiology of anxiety and depression in animals. Indeed, it permitted to depict precisely the role of specific cell populations in various brain areas, including the amygdala nuclei, the auditory cortex, the anterior cingulate, the hypothalamus, the hippocampus and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis in specific aspects of fear and anxiety behaviors. Moreover, these findings emphasized the involvement of projections from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex in eliciting depressive-like behaviors in stress-resilient mice or in inhibiting the expression of such behaviors in stress-vulnerable mice. Here we describe the optogenetic toolbox, including recent developments, and then review how the use of this technique contributed to dissect further the circuit underlying anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We then point to some drawbacks of the current studies, particularly a) the sharp contrast between the sophistication of the optogenetic tools and the rudimentary aspect of the behavioral assays used, b) the fact that the studies were generally undertaken using normal rodents, that is animals that have not been subjected to experimental manipulations shifting them to a state relevant for pathologies and c) that the opportunity to explore the potential of these techniques to develop innovative therapeutics has been fully ignored yet. Finally, we discuss the point that these findings frequently ignore the complexity of the circuitry, as they focus only on a particular subpart of it. We conclude that users of this cutting edge technology could benefit from dialog between behavioral neuroscientists, psychiatrists and pharmacologists to further improve the impact of the findings.

  20. Full wave analysis of non-radiative dielectric waveguide modulator for the determination of electrical equivalent circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N P Pathak; A Basu; S K Koul

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the determination of electrical equivalent circuit of ON/OFF modulator in non-radiative dielectric (NRD) guide configurations at Ka-band. Schottky barrier mixer diode is used to realize this modulator and its characteristics are determined experimentally using vector network analyzer. Full wave FEM simulator HFSS is used to determine an equivalent circuit for the mounted diode and modulator in ON and OFF states. This equivalent circuit is used to qualitatively explain the experimental characteristics of modulator.

  1. Quantum secure circuit evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huanhuan; LI Bin; ZHUANG Zhenquan

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of classical secure circuit evaluation, this paper proposes a quantum approach. In this approach, the method of inserting redundant entangled particles and quantum signature has been employed to strengthen the security of the system. Theoretical analysis shows that our solution is secure against classical and quantum attacks.

  2. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  3. Defining the robust behaviour of the plant clock gene circuit with absolute RNA timeseries and open infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flis, Anna; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Zielinski, Tomasz; Mengin, Virginie; Sulpice, Ronan; Stratford, Kevin; Hume, Alastair; Pokhilko, Alexandra; Southern, Megan M; Seaton, Daniel D; McWatters, Harriet G; Stitt, Mark; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the complex, transcriptional feedback loops in the circadian clock mechanism has depended upon quantitative, timeseries data from disparate sources. We measure clock gene RNA profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown with or without exogenous sucrose, or in soil-grown plants and in wild-type and mutant backgrounds. The RNA profiles were strikingly robust across the experimental conditions, so current mathematical models are likely to be broadly applicable in leaf tissue. In addition to providing reference data, unexpected behaviours included co-expression of PRR9 and ELF4, and regulation of PRR5 by GI. Absolute RNA quantification revealed low levels of PRR9 transcripts (peak approx. 50 copies cell(-1)) compared with other clock genes, and threefold higher levels of LHY RNA (more than 1500 copies cell(-1)) than of its close relative CCA1. The data are disseminated from BioDare, an online repository for focused timeseries data, which is expected to benefit mechanistic modelling. One data subset successfully constrained clock gene expression in a complex model, using publicly available software on parallel computers, without expert tuning or programming. We outline the empirical and mathematical justification for data aggregation in understanding highly interconnected, dynamic networks such as the clock, and the observed design constraints on the resources required to make this approach widely accessible. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Analysis and simulation comparison of RC circuit%RC电路的分析与仿真对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞平

    2015-01-01

    The circuit composed of RC with different characteristics. The paper theoretically analysed the integration circuit,low-pass filter and phase-shift circuit Which are composed of RC and simulate these circuits by Multisim software. Imagely display the circuit conditions and affect circuit and the influence of the parameters on the circuit. Enabled the students to a comprehensively consider the circuits and deepened the understanding and application of the circuit.%由RC组成的电路具有不同的特点,文章从理论上分析了由RC构成的积分电路、低通滤波器、移相电路,并通过Multisim软件仿真,形象地展现了构成电路的条件及参数对电路的影响。使学生能综合思考电路,加深对电路的理解和应用。

  5. Analysis of Duplicate Genes in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.M. Cai; K.J. Van; M.Y. Kim; S.H. Lee

    2007-01-01

    @@ Gene duplication is a major determinant of the size and gene complement of eukaryotic genomes (Lockton and Gaut, 2005). There are a number of different ways in which duplicate genes can arise (Sankoff, 2001), but the most spectacular method of gene duplication may be whole genome duplication via polyploidization.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes from Mesobuthus martensii reveals Hox gene duplication in scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhiyong; Yu, Yao; Wu, Yingliang; Hao, Pei; He, Yawen; Zhao, Huabin; Li, Yixue; Zhao, Guoping; Li, Xuan; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-06-01

    Homeobox genes belong to a large gene group, which encodes the famous DNA-binding homeodomain that plays a key role in development and cellular differentiation during embryogenesis in animals. Here, one hundred forty-nine homeobox genes were identified from the Asian scorpion, Mesobuthus martensii (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Scorpiones: Buthidae) based on our newly assembled genome sequence with approximately 248 × coverage. The identified homeobox genes were categorized into eight classes including 82 families: 67 ANTP class genes, 33 PRD genes, 11 LIM genes, five POU genes, six SINE genes, 14 TALE genes, five CUT genes, two ZF genes and six unclassified genes. Transcriptome data confirmed that more than half of the genes were expressed in adults. The homeobox gene diversity of the eight classes is similar to the previously analyzed Mandibulata arthropods. Interestingly, it is hypothesized that the scorpion M. martensii may have two Hox clusters. The first complete genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes in Chelicerata not only reveals the repertoire of scorpion, arachnid and chelicerate homeobox genes, but also shows some insights into the evolution of arthropod homeobox genes.

  7. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  8. The Application of the FDTD Method to Millimeter-Wave Filter Circuits Including the Design and Analysis of a Compact Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J. E.; Siegel, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to the analysis of microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave filter circuits. In each case, the validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with measured data. In addition, the FDTD calculations are used to design a new ultra-thin coplanar-strip filter for feeding a THz planar-antenna mixer.

  9. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  10. RNA amplification for successful gene profiling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of clinical samples is often limited by the amount of material available to study. While proteins cannot be multiplied in their natural form, DNA and RNA can be amplified from small specimens and used for high-throughput analyses. Therefore, genetic studies offer the best opportunity to screen for novel insights of human pathology when little material is available. Precise estimates of DNA copy numbers in a given specimen are necessary. However, most studies investigate static variables such as the genetic background of patients or mutations within pathological specimens without a need to assess proportionality of expression among different genes throughout the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization of DNA samples represents a crude exception to this rule since genomic amplification or deletion is compared among different specimens directly. For gene expression analysis, however, it is critical to accurately estimate the proportional expression of distinct RNA transcripts since such proportions directly govern cell function by modulating protein expression. Furthermore, comparative estimates of relative RNA expression at different time points portray the response of cells to environmental stimuli, indirectly informing about broader biological events affecting a particular tissue in physiological or pathological conditions. This cognitive reaction of cells is similar to the detection of electroencephalographic patterns which inform about the status of the brain in response to external stimuli. As our need to understand human pathophysiology at the global level increases, the development and refinement of technologies for high fidelity messenger RNA amplification have become the focus of increasing interest during the past decade. The need to increase the abundance of RNA has been met not only for gene specific amplification, but, most importantly for global transcriptome wide, unbiased amplification. Now gene

  11. Principle and Fault Analysis of Voltage Regulator Circuit%电压调节器电路原理及故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索明何

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, the paper explores the essential characteristics of voltage regulator through experiments, and then analyzes the circuit principle of the voltage regulator. The paper finally discusses the fault analysis method of voltage regulator circuit through the cases.%本文首先通过实验探究电压调节器的本质特性,然后分析电压调节器电路原理,最后通过案例探究电压调节器电路的故障分析方法.

  12. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  13. Evaluating the consistency of gene sets used in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintle Nathan L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical analyses of whole genome expression data require functional information about genes in order to yield meaningful biological conclusions. The Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG are common sources of functionally grouped gene sets. For bacteria, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide alternative, complementary sources of gene sets. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the data obtained from these resources has been performed. Results We define a series of gene set consistency metrics directly related to the most common classes of statistical analyses for gene expression data, and then perform a comprehensive analysis of 3581 Affymetrix® gene expression arrays across 17 diverse bacteria. We find that gene sets obtained from GO and KEGG demonstrate lower consistency than those obtained from the SEED and MicrobesOnline, regardless of gene set size. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of GO and KEGG gene sets in bacterial gene expression data analysis, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide more consistent sets for a wide variety of statistical analyses. Increased use of the SEED and MicrobesOnline gene sets in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data may improve statistical power and utility of expression data.

  14. Circuit Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The U-shaped wire devices in the upper photo are Digi-Klipsm; aids to compact packaging of electrical and electronic devices. They serve as connectors linking the circuitry of one circuit board with another in multi-board systems. Digi-Klips were originally developed for Goddard Space Flight Center to meet a need for lightweight, reliable connectors to replace hand-wired connections formerly used in spacecraft. They are made of beryllium copper wire, noted for its excellent conductivity and its spring-like properties, which assure solid electrical contact over a long period of time.

  15. Induction and discussion on analog circuit analysis method%模拟电路分析方法归纳与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琴; 张翠霞; 姚振静

    2012-01-01

      针对《模拟电子技术》课程基本概念抽象、知识点繁多、学习难度大的特点,本文以课程的主要内容“集成电路的单元电路和集成运算放大器的应用电路”为出发点,结合多年的教学经验,从电路的识别到性能指标的估算作了详细介绍,探讨了分析模拟电路方法的原则,为更好的学习该课程提供理论参考。%  In view of the characteristic of concepts, knowledge, learning difficulty of"analog electronic technology"course, the main contents of the course"integrated circuit element circuits and application of operational amplifier circuit"as the starting point, combines with years of teaching experience, introduces from the identification circuit to the estimation of performance index, discusses the method of analog circuit analysis principle, provides the theory reference for better learning this course.

  16. Analysis to Differences of Miniature Circuit Breakers Between EN and IEC Standard%解析小型断路器EN与IEC标准的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章晓艳

    2012-01-01

      Analysis and comparison were carried out for EN and IEC standard about circuit breakers for over-current protection used for household and similar site──circuit breakers for AC operation (miniature circuit breakers for short), EN 60898-1 and IEC 60898-1. In the aspects of product marking requirements, short-circuit test value quantity, tripping characteristic test of circuit breakers, energy losses clas-sification, this paper gave contents of main differences so as to provide references for related technical personnel.%  对欧盟、IEC 关于家用和类似场所用过电流保护断路器——用于交流的断路器(简称小型断路器)的标准 EN 60898-1、IEC 60898-1进行了分析比较,在产品标志要求、短路试验中试验量、断路器的脱扣特性试验、能耗等级分类等方面给出了主要差异内容,以供相关技术人员进行参考。

  17. 基于Multisim 8的串联谐振电路的仿真分析%Simulation analysis of series resonance circuit based on Multisim 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习大力

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the theoretical calculation complexity,complication and situayion beyond researchers' depth caused by different element performance parameters in the series resonance circuit analysis,to simulate the actual working conditions of circuit were simulated through the series resonance circuit theory research and the circuit simulation software Multisim 8. Ac⁃cording to the results of the comparison research,Multisim simulation method of the series resonance circuit is put forward. Mul⁃tisim 8 simulation images are clear,direct,and accurate. The method is a very good auxiliary experimental means.%  针对串联谐振电路分析中不同元件性能参数不同而导致一些理论计算复杂、繁琐并且难于理解的情况,通过对串联谐振电路的理论研究和利用Multisim 8仿真软件对电路实际工作情况进行模拟,根据二者结果的对比,研究并提出了串联谐振电路的Multisim电路仿真研究的方法.Multisim 8仿真分析中图像清晰、现象直观、结果精确,是一种很好的辅助实验手段.

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Loading Effect in Leakage of Nano-Scaled Bulk-CMOS Logic Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Saibal; Roy, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    In nanometer scaled CMOS devices significant increase in the subthreshold, the gate and the reverse biased junction band-to-band-tunneling (BTBT) leakage, results in the large increase of total leakage power in a logic circuit. Leakage components interact with each other in device level (through device geometry, doping profile) and also in the circuit level (through node voltages). Due to the circuit level interaction of the different leakage components, the leakage of a logic gate strongly depends on the circuit topology i.e. number and nature of the other logic gates connected to its input and output. In this paper, for the first time, we have analyzed loading effect on leakage and proposed a method to accurately estimate the total leakage in a logic circuit, from its logic level description considering the impact of loading and transistor stacking.

  19. Gene expression profile analysis of type 2 diabetic mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    Full Text Available Liver plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis, and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the precise gene expression profile of diabetic liver and its association with diabetes and related diseases are yet to be further elucidated. In this study, we detected the gene expression profile by high-throughput sequencing in 9-week-old normal and type 2 diabetic db/db mouse liver. Totally 12132 genes were detected, and 2627 genes were significantly changed in diabetic mouse liver. Biological process analysis showed that the upregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in immune-related processes, although all the altered genes were still mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Similarly, KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways were the major pathways altered in diabetic mouse liver, and downregulated genes were enriched in immune and cancer pathways. Analysis of the key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism showed that some key enzyme genes were significantly increased and none of the detected key enzyme genes were decreased. In addition, FunDo analysis showed that liver cancer and hepatitis were most likely to be associated with diabetes. Taken together, this study provides the digital gene expression profile of diabetic mouse liver, and demonstrates the main diabetes-associated hepatic biological processes, pathways, key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism and potential hepatic diseases.

  20. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  1. Experimental and CFD Analysis of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Supercritical CO{sub 2} Power Cycle Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seungjoon; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) power cycle has been suggested as an alternative for the SFR power generation system. First of all, relatively mild sodium-CO{sub 2} interaction can reduce the accident probability. Also the S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle can achieve high efficiency with SFR core thermal condition. Moreover, the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle can reduce cycle footprint due to high density of the working fluid. Recently, various compact heat exchangers have been studied for developing an optimal heat exchanger. In this paper, the printed circuit heat exchanger was selected for S-CO{sub 2} power cycle applications and was closely investigated experimentally and analytically. Recently, design and performance prediction of PCHE received attention due to its importance in high pressure power systems such as S-CO{sub 2} cycle. To evaluate a PCHE performance with CO{sub 2} to water, KAIST research team designed and tested a lab-scale PCHE. From the experimental data and CFD analysis, pressure drop and heat transfer correlations are obtained. For the CFD analysis, Ansys-CFX commercial code was utilized with RGP table implementation. In near future, the turbulence model sensitivity study will be followed.

  2. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  3. Mutation analysis of the preproghrelin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli H; Gjesing, Anette P; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the preproghrelin gene for variants and their association with obesity and type 2 diabetes.......To investigate the preproghrelin gene for variants and their association with obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  4. Discussion and Analysis on Common Mistakes in LV Circuit Breaker Type Selection%低压断路器选型误区探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿光

    2016-01-01

    There are various LV circuit breakers with different manufacturers, specifications and models available in the market. Regarding circuit breaker selection and using, there are some common mistakes of users that influence the actual effect. At best, such mistakes result in malfunction and movement resistance; at worst, they lead to life and property loss. From the aspect of product standard, issues like several common mistakes in LV circuit breaker selection: understanding and selection of parameters like Icu, Ics and Icw of LV circuit breaker; relationship between LV circuit breaker’s utilization category and full selective coordination; full and partial selective protections of circuit breakers in series; influence of circuit breaker’s trip value on selective coordination;let-though energy of LV circuit breaker and function of current limiting circuit breaker are illustrated. Suggestions are proposed on the basis of analysis.%市场上低压断路器的制造商众多,规格、型号各异。用户在选择使用断路器上还存在一些误区影响了实际使用效果,轻者误动拒动、重者遭受财产损失危及生命。文章试图从产品标准着眼解释几个主要对低压断路器选择认识的误区:如何理解和选择低压断路器的Ic u、 Ic s、 Ic w等参数,低压断路器的使用类别与全选择性配合的关系,串联断路器间的全选择性和局部选择性保护,断路器脱扣值的误差对选择性配合的影响,低压断路器的允通能量及限流型断路器的作用等,并在分析的基础上给出作者的建议。

  5. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  6. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  7. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.

  8. Fault detection in digital and analog circuits using an i(DD) temporal analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J.; Magallanes, D.; Vridhagiri, A.; Ramamurthy, Hema; Deyong, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An i(sub DD) temporal analysis technique which is used to detect defects (faults) and fabrication variations in both digital and analog IC's by pulsing the power supply rails and analyzing the temporal data obtained from the resulting transient rail currents is presented. A simple bias voltage is required for all the inputs, to excite the defects. Data from hardware tests supporting this technique are presented.

  9. DC operating points of transistor circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    Finding a circuit's dc operating points is an essential step in its design and involves solving systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. Of particular research and practical interests are dc analysis and simulation of electronic circuits consisting of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors (BJTs and FETs), which are building blocks of modern electronic circuits. In this paper, we survey main theoretical results related to dc operating points of transistor circuits and discuss numerical methods for their calculation.

  10. Self-Contained Statistical Analysis of Gene Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Judy L.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Johnson, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful tool for studying differential gene expression. However, lists of many differentially expressed genes are often generated, and unraveling meaningful biological processes from the lists can be challenging. For this reason, investigators have sought to quantify the statistical probability of compiled gene sets rather than individual genes. The gene sets typically are organized around a biological theme or pathway. We compute correlations between different gene set tests and elect to use Fisher’s self-contained method for gene set analysis. We improve Fisher’s differential expression analysis of a gene set by limiting the p-value of an individual gene within the gene set to prevent a small percentage of genes from determining the statistical significance of the entire set. In addition, we also compute dependencies among genes within the set to determine which genes are statistically linked. The method is applied to T-ALL (T-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) to identify differentially expressed gene sets between T-ALL and normal patients and T-ALL and AML (Acute Myeloid Leukemia) patients. PMID:27711232

  11. Numerical Electric Field Analysis of Power Status Sensor Observing Power Distribution System Taking into Account Voltage Divider Measurement Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Itoh, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Hisao; Wakuya, Hiroshi; Ohchi, Masashi

    We have proposed and preproducted the voltage-current waveform sensor of resin molded type for measuring the power factor and harmonics in power distribution systems. We have executed numerical electromagnetic analyses using the finite element method to estimate the characteristics and behaviours of the sensor. Although the magnetic field analyses for the current sensor have involved the measurement circuit, the electric field analyses have not included the measurement circuit for measuring voltage waveforms of power lines. In this paper, we describe the electric field analyses with the measurement circuit and prove the insulating strength of the proposed sensor permissible to the use in 22kV power distribution systems.

  12. Time-Course Gene Set Analysis for Longitudinal Gene Expression Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P Hejblum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene set analysis methods, which consider predefined groups of genes in the analysis of genomic data, have been successfully applied for analyzing gene expression data in cross-sectional studies. The time-course gene set analysis (TcGSA introduced here is an extension of gene set analysis to longitudinal data. The proposed method relies on random effects modeling with maximum likelihood estimates. It allows to use all available repeated measurements while dealing with unbalanced data due to missing at random (MAR measurements. TcGSA is a hypothesis driven method that identifies a priori defined gene sets with significant expression variations over time, taking into account the potential heterogeneity of expression within gene sets. When biological conditions are compared, the method indicates if the time patterns of gene sets significantly differ according to these conditions. The interest of the method is illustrated by its application to two real life datasets: an HIV therapeutic vaccine trial (DALIA-1 trial, and data from a recent study on influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. In the DALIA-1 trial TcGSA revealed a significant change in gene expression over time within 69 gene sets during vaccination, while a standard univariate individual gene analysis corrected for multiple testing as well as a standard a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA for time series both failed to detect any significant pattern change over time. When applied to the second illustrative data set, TcGSA allowed the identification of 4 gene sets finally found to be linked with the influenza vaccine too although they were found to be associated to the pneumococcal vaccine only in previous analyses. In our simulation study TcGSA exhibits good statistical properties, and an increased power compared to other approaches for analyzing time-course expression patterns of gene sets. The method is made available for the community through an R package.

  13. Ultrasonic Inspection Transmitting Circuit and Parameter Analysis%超声波探伤发射电路及参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓蕊; 张晓青; 贾三山

    2012-01-01

    Based on ARM and FPGA for the transmitting circuit system in digital ultrasonic inspection, threshold voltage and drain current formula were deduced by using the MOSFET switch I/V theory. The resistance factors of transmitting circuit were applied for limit analysis method and capacitance time, and the charging and discharging time was deduced. Transmitting circuit was simulated and analyzed to realize FPGA control. The effection of transmitting circuit parameters for inspection system performance was analyzed from the practical agent. It can be concluded that MOSFET switch and the factors of charging and discharging capacitor circuit,such as voltage,resistance and capacitance,which might influent transmitting circuit performance,will improve the capabilities of shear inspection system.%研究了基于ARM和FPGA的数字式超声波探伤电路系统,运用MOSFET开关I/V特性推导出阈值电压和漏极电流公式,推导了电容充放电时间以及运用极限法来分析发射电路中电容电阻因素.并对发射电路进行仿真设计及分析,实现了FPGA对发射电路的控制.最后从超声波探伤实用性角度分析了发射电路参数对探伤系统性能的影响.研究结论表明,MOFSET开关和电容充放电中电压、电阻、电容等影响发射电路性能的因素合理取值提高了超声波探伤系统的能力.

  14. Circuit design of VLSI for microelectronic coordinate-sensitive detector for material element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko V. P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been designed, manufactured and tested a VLSI providing as a part of the microelectronic coordinate-sensitive detector the simultaneous elemental analysis of all the principles of the substance. VLSI ensures the amplifier-converter response on receiving of 1,6.10–13 С negative charge to its input. Response speed of the microcircuit is at least 3 MHz in the counting mode and more than 4 MHz in the counter information read-out mode. The power consumption of the microcircuit is no more than 7 mA.

  15. Model parameter estimation approach based on incremental analysis for lithium-ion batteries without using open circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Yuan, Shifei; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Chengliang; Ma, Xuerui

    2015-08-01

    To improve the suitability of lithium-ion battery model under varying scenarios, such as fluctuating temperature and SoC variation, dynamic model with parameters updated realtime should be developed. In this paper, an incremental analysis-based auto regressive exogenous (I-ARX) modeling method is proposed to eliminate the modeling error caused by the OCV effect and improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Then, its numerical stability, modeling error, and parametric sensitivity are analyzed at different sampling rates (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 s). To identify the model parameters recursively, a bias-correction recursive least squares (CRLS) algorithm is applied. Finally, the pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) and urban dynamic driving sequences (UDDSs) profiles are performed to verify the realtime performance and robustness of the newly proposed model and algorithm. Different sampling rates (1 Hz and 10 Hz) and multiple temperature points (5, 25, and 45 °C) are covered in our experiments. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the proposed I-ARX model can present high accuracy and suitability for parameter identification without using open circuit voltage.

  16. Design-around biotechnology patents: an analysis of US Federal Circuit decisions shows the possibility of designing around biotechnology patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of design-around for patents, we reviewed 40 no-infringement cases out of all 4,760 Federal Circuit Court of Appeals (CAFC) cases decided from 2001 to 2009. Based on this analysis, designing around a biotechnology patent first requires a thorough reading of the patent specification and prosecution history. These written descriptions offer explicit directions about claim meanings or the scope being disclaimed. By statute, claims recite and define the structure or acts of an invention, and serve as tools to determine whether or not a patent is infringed. The next procedure would include omitting a part or property from the claim, reversing the action used in the claim, or changing the claim's structure or range to prevent the new design from falling within the scope of the claim. However, cases where patent infringement was found demonstrated that changing the structure or range not recited in the claim, such as enlarging the diameter, reducing concentration or alerting the shape, still falls within the scope of the patent. Although the 40 cases analyzed in this study were not related to vaccines, the thought process can serve as a guideline for patents related to vaccine development.

  17. GIFtS: annotation landscape analysis with GeneCards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalah Irina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene annotation is a pivotal component in computational genomics, encompassing prediction of gene function, expression analysis, and sequence scrutiny. Hence, quantitative measures of the annotation landscape constitute a pertinent bioinformatics tool. GeneCards® is a gene-centric compendium of rich annotative information for over 50,000 human gene entries, building upon 68 data sources, including Gene Ontology (GO, pathways, interactions, phenotypes, publications and many more. Results We present the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score (GIFtS which allows a quantitative assessment of a gene's annotation status, by exploiting the unique wealth and diversity of GeneCards information. The GIFtS tool, linked from the GeneCards home page, facilitates browsing the human genome by searching for the annotation level of a specified gene, retrieving a list of genes within a specified range of GIFtS value, obtaining random genes with a specific GIFtS value, and experimenting with the GIFtS weighting algorithm for a variety of annotation categories. The bimodal shape of the GIFtS distribution suggests a division of the human gene repertoire into two main groups: the high-GIFtS peak consists almost entirely of protein-coding genes; the low-GIFtS peak consists of genes from all of the categories. Cluster analysis of GIFtS annotation vectors provides the classification of gene groups by detailed positioning in the annotation arena. GIFtS also provide measures which enable the evaluation of the databases that serve as GeneCards sources. An inverse correlation is found (for GIFtS>25 between the number of genes annotated by each source, and the average GIFtS value of genes associated with that source. Three typical source prototypes are revealed by their GIFtS distribution: genome-wide sources, sources comprising mainly highly annotated genes, and sources comprising mainly poorly annotated genes. The degree of accumulated knowledge for a

  18. Surface-charge accumulation effects on open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells based on photoinduced impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Huidong; Hsiao, Yu-Che; Hu, Bin

    2014-03-14

    The accumulation of dissociated charge carriers plays an important role in reducing the loss occurring in organic solar cells. We find from light-assisted capacitance measurements that the charge accumulation inevitably occurred at the electrode and photovoltaic layer interface for bulk-heterojunction ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al solar cells. Our results indicate, for the first time through impedance measurements, that the charge accumulation exists at the anode side of the device, and more importantly, we successfully identify the type of charge accumulated. Further study shows that the charge accumulation can significantly affect open circuit voltage and short circuit current. As a result, our experimental results from light assisted capacitance measurements provide a new understanding of the loss in open-circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent based on charge accumulation. Clearly, controlling charge accumulation presents a new mechanism to improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells.

  19. Integrated analysis of gene expression by association rules discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carazo Jose M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology is generating huge amounts of data about the expression level of thousands of genes, or even whole genomes, across different experimental conditions. To extract biological knowledge, and to fully understand such datasets, it is essential to include external biological information about genes and gene products to the analysis of expression data. However, most of the current approaches to analyze microarray datasets are mainly focused on the analysis of experimental data, and external biological information is incorporated as a posterior process. Results In this study we present a method for the integrative analysis of microarray data based on the Association Rules Discovery data mining technique. The approach integrates gene annotations and expression data to discover intrinsic associations among both data sources based on co-occurrence patterns. We applied the proposed methodology to the analysis of gene expression datasets in which genes were annotated with metabolic pathways, transcriptional regulators and Gene Ontology categories. Automatically extracted associations revealed significant relationships among these gene attributes and expression patterns, where many of them are clearly supported by recently reported work. Conclusion The integration of external biological information and gene expression data can provide insights about the biological processes associated to gene expression programs. In this paper we show that the proposed methodology is able to integrate multiple gene annotations and expression data in the same analytic framework and extract meaningful associations among heterogeneous sources of data. An implementation of the method is included in the Engene software package.

  20. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of cubilin (CUBN) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Abjal Pasha; Alsaeed, Abbas H; Kiranmayee, S; Bammidi, Vk; Sultana, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin, (CUBN; also known as intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor [Homo sapiens Entrez Pubmed ref NM_001081.3; NG_008967.1; GI: 119606627]), located in the epithelium of intestine and kidney acts as a receptor for intrinsic factor - vitamin B12 complexes. Mutations in CUBN may play a role in autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia. The current study investigated the possible role of CUBN in evolution using phylogenetic testing. A total of 588 BLAST hits were found for the cubilin query sequence and these hits showed putative conserved domain, CUB superfamily (as on 27(th) Nov 2012). A first-pass phylogenetic tree was constructed to identify the taxa which most often contained the CUBN sequences. Following this, we narrowed down the search by manually deleting sequences which were not CUBN. A repeat phylogenetic analysis of 25 taxa was performed using PhyML, RAxML and TreeDyn softwares to confirm that CUBN is a conserved protein emphasizing its importance as an extracellular domain and being present in proteins mostly known to be involved in development in many chordate taxa but not found in prokaryotes, plants and yeast.. No horizontal gene transfers have been found between different taxa.

  2. Implementation, Test Pattern Generation, and Comparative Analysis of Different Adder Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas K. Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition usually affects the overall performance of digital systems and an arithmetic function. Adders are most widely used in applications like multipliers, DSP (i.e., FFT, FIR, and IIR. In digital adders, the speed of addition is constrained by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. Various techniques have been proposed to design fast adders. We have derived architectures for carry-select adder (CSA, Common Boolean Logic (CBL based adders, ripple carry adder (RCA, and Carry Look-Ahead Adder (CLA for 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit length. In this work we have done comparative analysis of different types of adders in Synopsis Design Compiler using different standard cell libraries at 32/28 nm. Also, the designs are analyzed for the stuck at faults (s-a-0, s-a-1 using Synopsis TetraMAX.

  3. Multi-Gbit/s 60 GHz Transceiver Analysis Using FDM Architecture and Six-Port Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazih Khaddaj Mallat; Emilia Moldovan; Serioja O. Tatu; Ke Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and validation by advanced system simulation of compact and low-cost six-port transceivers for future wireless local area networks (WLANs) operating at millimeter-wave frequencies. To obtain realistic simulation results, a six-port model based on the measurement results of a fabricated V-band hybrid coupler, the core component, is used. A frequency-division multiplexing scheme is used by introducing four quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) channels in the wireless communication link. The data rate achieved is about 4 Gbit/s. The operating frequency is in the 60-64 GHz unlicensed band. Bit error rate (BER) results are presented, and a comparison is made between single-carrier and multicarrier architectures. The proposed wireless system can be considered an efficient candidate for millimeter-wave communication systems operating at quasi-optical data rates.

  4. Cooper-pair number-phase quantization analysis in double-Josephson-junction mesoscopic circuit coupled by a capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Bao-Long; Wang Ji-Suo; Fan Hong-Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the quantization of mesoscopic circuit including Josephson junctions.Following Feynman's assumption,via the Hamilton dynamic approach and by virtue of the entangled state representation,it constructs Hamiltonian operator for the double-Jceephson-junction mesoscopic circuit coupled by a capacitor.Then it uses the Heisenberg equation of motion to derive the induction voltage across each Josephson junction.The result manifestly shows how the voltage is affected by the capacitance coupling.

  5. Gene expression profile analysis of human intervertebral disc degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Chen; Dajiang Wu; Xiaodong Zhu; Haijian Ni; Xianzhao Wei; Ningfang Mao; Yang Xie; Yunfei Niu; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate the biogenesis and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. The gene expression profiles of 37 disc tissue samples obtained from patients with herniated discs and degenerative disc disease collected by the National Cancer Institute Cooperative Tissue Network were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes between more and less degenerated discs were identified by significant analysis of microarray. A total of 555 genes were signi...

  6. Transient Thermal Analysis of 3-D Integrated Circuits Packages by the DGTD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2017-03-11

    Since accurate thermal analysis plays a critical role in the thermal design and management of the 3-D system-level integration, in this paper, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) algorithm is proposed to achieve this purpose. Such as the parabolic partial differential equation (PDE), the transient thermal equation cannot be directly solved by the DGTD method. To address this issue, the heat flux, as an auxiliary variable, is introduced to reduce the Laplace operator to a divergence operator. The resulting PDE is hyperbolic, which can be further written into a conservative form. By properly choosing the definition of the numerical flux used for the information exchange between neighboring elements, the hyperbolic thermal PDE can be solved by the DGTD together with the auxiliary differential equation. The proposed algorithm is a kind of element-level domain decomposition method, which is suitable to deal with multiscale geometries in 3-D integrated systems. To verify the accuracy and robustness of the developed DGTD algorithm, several representative examples are benchmarked.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of a novel dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase-like protein in Drosophila neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-An; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2008-02-29

    Sulfotransferase (ST)-catalyzed sulfation plays an important role in various neuronal functions such as homeostasis of catecholamine neurotransmitters and hormones. Drosophila is a popular model for the study of memory and behavioral manifestations because it is able to mimic the intricate neuroregulation and recognition in humans. However, there has been no evidence indicating that cytosolic ST(s) is(are) present in Drosophila. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not cytosolic ST(s) is(are) expressed in the Drosophila nervous system. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ST-like protein in Drosophila brain and a sensitive fluorometric assay revealed its sulfating activity toward DHEA. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated this DHEA ST-like protein to be abundant in specific neurons as well as in several bundles of nerve fibers in Drosophila. Clarification of a possible link between ST and a neurotransmitter-mediated effect may eventually aid in designing approaches for alleviating neuronal disorders in humans.

  8. Thermal analysis of wirelessly powered thermo-pneumatic micropump based on planar LC circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Pei Song; Nafea, Marwan; Leow, Pei Ling; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    This paper studies the thermal behavior of a wireless powered micropump operated using thermo-pneumatic actuation. Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the temporal conduction of the planar inductor-capacitor (LC) wireless heater and the heating chamber. The result shows that the temperature at the heating chamber reaches steady state temperature of 46.7.deg.C within 40 seconds. The finding was further verified with experimental works through the fabrication of the planar LC heater (RF sensitive actuator) and micropump device using MEMS fabrication technique. The fabricated device delivers a minimum volume of 0.096 μL at the temperature of 29.deg.C after being thermally activated for 10 s. The volume dispensed from the micropump device can precisely controlled by an increase of the electrical heating power within the cut-off input power of 0.22 W. Beyond the power, the heat transfer to the heating chamber exhibits non-linear behavior. In addition, wireless operation of the fabricated device shows successful release of color dye when the micropump is immersed in DI-water containing dish and excited by tuning the RF power.

  9. Application of lock-in thermography for failure analysis in integrated circuits using quantitative phase shift analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ch., E-mail: christian.schmidt@iwmh.fhg.de [Fraunhofer-Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Walter-Huelse-Str. 1, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Altmann, F. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Walter-Huelse-Str. 1, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Breitenstein, O., E-mail: breiten@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2012-09-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT), which is a well established technique for non-destructive evaluation, can also be used to identify and locate thermal active electrically defects like shorts and resistive opens in microelectronic devices. Defect localization on the level of the integrated circuits (IC) requires a {mu}m resolution. But LIT can also be applied to locate buried thermal active defects within fully packaged microelectronic devices by analysing the thermal signal detected at the surface of the device. In addition to the lateral localization of the hot spot, its depth can also be determined by analysing the phase shift of the thermal signal. This is especially valued for non destructive defect localization in complex 3D integrated system in package devices (3D SiP). In comparison to competitive thermal imaging techniques, like liquid crystal imaging or fluorescent micro thermal imaging, LIT is easier to apply since it does not need any foreign thermal sensitive layer at the surface of the device. Also, the sensitivity limit of this technique within {mu}K range is significantly better. In addition the dynamic character of LIT reduces thermal blurring, and the problem of inhomogeneous IR emissivity can be overcome by using the phase image or the 0 Degree-Sign /-90 Degree-Sign image. The spatial resolution limit of the used microscopic thermal imaging setup performed in the mid-wavelength range is about 5 {mu}m, but can be improved to 1.5 {mu}m by applying solid immersion lenses. Within the paper, the principle theory of LIT and the practical use for both, single and multiple IC devices is presented.

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of estrogen-responsive genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Adam E.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone that plays critical roles in a myriad of intracellular pathways. The expression of many genes is regulated through the steroid hormone receptors ESR1 and ESR2. These bind to DNA and modulate the expression of target genes. Identification of estrogen target genes is greatly facilitated by the use of transcriptomic methods, such as RNA-seq and expression microarrays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). Combining transcriptomic and ChIP-seq data enables a distinction to be drawn between direct and indirect estrogen target genes. This chapter will discuss some methods of identifying estrogen target genes that do not require any expertise in programming languages or complex bioinformatics. PMID:26585125

  11. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  12. Analysis of multiplex gene expression maps obtained by voxelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Desmond J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression signatures in the mammalian brain hold the key to understanding neural development and neurological disease. Researchers have previously used voxelation in combination with microarrays for acquisition of genome-wide atlases of expression patterns in the mouse brain. On the other hand, some work has been performed on studying gene functions, without taking into account the location information of a gene's expression in a mouse brain. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the relation between gene expression maps obtained by voxelation and gene functions. Results To analyze the dataset, we chose typical genes as queries and aimed at discovering similar gene groups. Gene similarity was determined by using the wavelet features extracted from the left and right hemispheres averaged gene expression maps, and by the Euclidean distance between each pair of feature vectors. We also performed a multiple clustering approach on the gene expression maps, combined with hierarchical clustering. Among each group of similar genes and clusters, the gene function similarity was measured by calculating the average gene function distances in the gene ontology structure. By applying our methodology to find similar genes to certain target genes we were able to improve our understanding of gene expression patterns and gene functions. By applying the clustering analysis method, we obtained significant clusters, which have both very similar gene expression maps and very similar gene functions respectively to their corresponding gene ontologies. The cellular component ontology resulted in prominent clusters expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The molecular function ontology gave prominent clusters in cortex, corpus callosum and hypothalamus. The biological process ontology resulted in clusters in cortex, hypothalamus and choroid plexus. Clusters from all three ontologies combined were most prominently expressed in

  13. Breaker Control Circuit Unusual Processing and Analysis%一起断路器控制回路异常的处理及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月卿; 虞俊峰

    2012-01-01

    Introduced 220kV the Simens circuit breaker simultaneously appears two group of circuit breaker control power source in the movement to short-circuit one after another the trip unusual situation,has made the detailed analysis to its emergency processing and the unusual reason,points out the circuit breaker factory because in the product design is not standard,has brought the serious hidden danger for the production movement,this question proposes the corresponding improvement measure.%介绍了220kV西门子断路器在运行中同时出现两组断路器控制电源相继短路跳闸的异常情况,对其应急处理和异常原因做了详细的分析,指出断路器厂家由于产品设计上的不规范,给生产运行带来了严重隐患,就此问题提出相应的改进措施。

  14. 三相桥式全控整流电路波形分析%Analysis of Three Phase Full Controlled Bridge Rectification Circuit Waveform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗培文; 王春芳; 熊婷婷

    2012-01-01

    为了便于分析和解决三相整流电路控制中的具体相位或者相位差,本文引入特殊点的概念。特殊点的引入不仅方便三相整流电路的波形分析,而且便于三相有源逆变电路、三相交流调压电路结论的推导和求解,让更多学习和爱好电力电子技术的学者有章可循。%The concept of special points is introduced in order to analyze and solve the three-phase rectifica- tion circuit control of specific phase or phase difference in this paper. It not only results in convenient three-phase rectifier circuit waveform analysis, but also the conclusion and solve of three phase active inverter circuit, three-phase AC voltage regulating circuit, which provides priciples for power electronic technology scholars to re- search it.

  15. 基于PSpice的光电探测电路仿真分析%Simulation and Analysis of Electro-optical Detection Circuit Based on PSpice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正茂; 胡心

    2012-01-01

      The performance of electro-optical detection system is affected by the design of electro-optical circuit. The performance of electro-optical detection circuit is simulated based on PSpice EDA software. The PSpice model of photodiode, the characteristics of time domain, frequency domain and noise are analyzed. Ac⁃cording to the parameter scanning function of PSpice software, the circuit parameters are optimized. Based on the noise analysis function of PSpice software, NEP and post-stage circuit design parameters of the system are calculated.%  光电探测电路的设计对光电探测系统的性能有重要的影响。采用PSpice电子电路设计软件,对光电探测电路性能进行了仿真。分析了光电二极管的PSpice模型,光电探测电路的时域特性、频域特性及噪声特性。通过PSpice软件的参数扫描功能,对电路参数进行了优化设计。利用PSpice软件的噪声分析功能,计算了系统等效噪声功率,并对后级电路设计参数进行了计算。

  16. Heat-inducible RNAi for gene functional analysis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Controlling gene expression during plant development is an efficient method to explore gene function and RNA interference (RNAi) is now considered as a powerful technology for gene functional analysis. However, constitutive gene silencing cannot be used with genes involved in fundamental processes such as embryo viability or plant growth and alternative silencing strategies avoiding these limitations should be preferred. Tissue-specific and inducible promoters, able to control gene expression at spatial and/or temporal level, can be used to circumvent viability problems. In this chapter, after a rapid overview of the inducible promoters currently used for transgenic approaches in plants, we describe a method we have developed to study gene function by heat-inducible RNAi. This system is easy to use and complementary to those based on chemical gene inducer treatments and might be useful for both research and biotechnological applications.

  17. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  18. Database for exchangeable gene trap clones: pathway and gene ontology analysis of exchangeable gene trap clone mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masatake; Nakahara, Mai; Muta, Mayumi; Itou, Miharu; Yanai, Chika; Yamazoe, Fumika; Miyake, Mikiko; Morita, Ayaka; Araki, Miyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakagata, Naomi; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kimi

    2014-02-01

    Gene trapping in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a proven method for large-scale random insertional mutagenesis in the mouse genome. We have established an exchangeable gene trap system, in which a reporter gene can be exchanged for any other DNA of interest through Cre/mutant lox-mediated recombination. We isolated trap clones, analyzed trapped genes, and constructed the database for Exchangeable Gene Trap Clones (EGTC) [http://egtc.jp]. The number of registered ES cell lines was 1162 on 31 August 2013. We also established 454 mouse lines from trap ES clones and deposited them in the mouse embryo bank at the Center for Animal Resources and Development, Kumamoto University, Japan. The EGTC database is the most extensive academic resource for gene-trap mouse lines. Because we used a promoter-trap strategy, all trapped genes were expressed in ES cells. To understand the general characteristics of the trapped genes in the EGTC library, we used Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for pathway analysis and found that the EGTC ES clones covered a broad range of pathways. We also used Gene Ontology (GO) classification data provided by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) to compare the functional distribution of genes in each GO term between trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and total genes annotated in MGI. We found the functional distributions for the trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and for the RefSeq genes for the whole mouse genome were similar, indicating that the EGTC mouse lines had trapped a wide range of mouse genes. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  20. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  1. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  2. The limitations of simple gene set enrichment analysis assuming gene independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Pablo; Steinhardt, George; Liberzon, Arthur; Mesirov, Jill P

    2016-02-01

    Since its first publication in 2003, the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis method, based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has been heavily used, modified, and also questioned. Recently a simplified approach using a one-sample t-test score to assess enrichment and ignoring gene-gene correlations was proposed by Irizarry et al. 2009 as a serious contender. The argument criticizes Gene Set Enrichment Analysis's nonparametric nature and its use of an empirical null distribution as unnecessary and hard to compute. We refute these claims by careful consideration of the assumptions of the simplified method and its results, including a comparison with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis's on a large benchmark set of 50 datasets. Our results provide strong empirical evidence that gene-gene correlations cannot be ignored due to the significant variance inflation they produced on the enrichment scores and should be taken into account when estimating gene set enrichment significance. In addition, we discuss the challenges that the complex correlation structure and multi-modality of gene sets pose more generally for gene set enrichment methods.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of homeobox gene family in legumes: identification, gene duplication and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors that are known to play a major role in different aspects of plant growth and development. In the present study, we identified homeobox genes belonging to 14 different classes in five legume species, including chickpea, soybean, Medicago, Lotus and pigeonpea. The characteristic differences within homeodomain sequences among various classes of homeobox gene family were quite evident. Genome-wide expression analysis using publicly available datasets (RNA-seq and microarray) indicated that homeobox genes are differentially expressed in various tissues/developmental stages and under stress conditions in different legumes. We validated the differential expression of selected chickpea homeobox genes via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Genome duplication analysis in soybean indicated that segmental duplication has significantly contributed in the expansion of homeobox gene family. The Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated homeobox genes in soybean showed that several members of this family have undergone purifying selection. Moreover, expression profiling indicated that duplicated genes might have been retained due to sub-functionalization. The genome-wide identification and comprehensive gene expression profiling of homeobox gene family members in legumes will provide opportunities for functional analysis to unravel their exact role in plant growth and development.

  4. A GeneTrek analysis of the maize genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renyi; Vitte, Clémentine; Ma, Jianxin; Mahama, A Assibi; Dhliwayo, Thanda; Lee, Michael; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2007-07-10

    Analysis of the sequences of 74 randomly selected BACs demonstrated that the maize nuclear genome contains approximately 37,000 candidate genes with homologues in other plant species. An additional approximately 5,500 predicted genes are severely truncated and probably pseudogenes. The distribution of genes is uneven, with approximately 30% of BACs containing no genes. BAC gene density varies from 0 to 7.9 per 100 kb, whereas most gene islands contain only one gene. The average number of genes per gene island is 1.7. Only 72% of these genes show collinearity with the rice genome. Particular LTR retrotransposon families (e.g., Gyma) are enriched on gene-free BACs, most of which do not come from pericentromeres or other large heterochromatic regions. Gene-containing BACs are relatively enriched in different families of LTR retrotransposons (e.g., Ji). Two major bursts of LTR retrotransposon activity in the last 2 million years are responsible for the large size of the maize genome, but only the more recent of these is well represented in gene-containing BACs, suggesting that LTR retrotransposons are more efficiently removed in these domains. The results demonstrate that sample sequencing and careful annotation of a few randomly selected BACs can provide a robust description of a complex plant genome.

  5. Three-dimensional Model Analysis of Electric Field Excited by Multi-circuit Intersecting Overhead Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dongping; LEI Hui; ZHANG Zhanlong; HE Wei

    2013-01-01

    This work is carried out to predict the special distribution of electric field induced by multi-circuit intersecting overhead high-voltage (HV) transmission lines (TLs) within a large range without any expensive and time-consuming computation.The two main parts of the presented methodology are 1) setting up a three-dimensional (3D) model to calculate the electric field based on combining catenary equations with charge simulation method and 2) calculating the hybrid electric field excited by multi-circuit intersecting TLs using coordinate transformation and superposition technique.Examples of different TLs configurations,including a 220 kV single-circuit horizontally configured TLs,a 500 kV single-circuit triangularly configured TLs and a combination of the 220 kV TLs and the 550 kV TLs,are illustrated to verify the validity of this methodology.A more complicatal configurations,including a 500 kV double-circuit TLs and two 220kV single-circuit horizontally configured TLs,are also calculated.Conclusions were drawn from the simulation:1) The presented 3D model outperforms 2D models in describing the electric field distribution generated by practical HV TLs with sag and span.2) Coordinate transformation and superposition technique considerably simplify the electric field computation for multi-circuit TLs configurations,which makes it possible to deal with complex engineering problems.3) The electric field in the area covered by multiple intersecting overhead TLs is distorted and the hybrid electric field strength in some partial region increases so sharply that it might exceed the admissible value.4) The configuration parameters of the TLs and the spatial configuration of multi-circuit TLs,for instance,the height of TLs,the length of span and the intersection angle of multiple circuits,influence the strength and the distribution of hybrid electric field.The influence regularities summarized in this paper can be referred by future TL designs to meet the electromagnetic

  6. Device and circuit level performance analysis of novel InAs/Si heterojunction double gate tunnel field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahish, S.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Vasantha, M. H.; Kumar, Y. B. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, for the first time, the impact of drain doping profile on device electrostatics and circuit performance of novel InAs/Si Hetero-junction Double Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (H-DGTFET) has been investigated. A highly doped layer placed near the source and channel junction decreases the width of the depletion region, thus, improving the ON-current and circuit performance. For this purpose, the effects of drain doping profile on the analog/RF performance of H-DGTFET is studied in terms of transconductance (gm), parasitic capacitances, cut-off frequency (fT) and gain bandwidth (GBW) product. The value of fT is increased by 13.84% and the GBW is improved by 144.7% for GD profile in Drain with CL = 0.05 when compared to UD profile. Further, the impact of drain doping profile on the circuit performance has been investigated by implementing digital and analog/RF circuits most widely used for nanoelectronic applications. For this, Verilog-A model has been developed for InAs/Si H-DGTFET. The circuit level performance assessment is carried out by implementing inverter, common source amplifier, inverter amplifier and pseudo differential amplifier by using Complementary TFET (CTFET) technology in a Verilog-A environment.

  7. Analysis of multiple spurions and associated circuits in Cofrentes; Analisis de espurios multiples y circuitos asociados en C.N. Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. J.; Celaya, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The article describes the process followed by the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (CNC) to conduct the analysis of multiple spurious in compliance with regulatory standards IS-30 rev 1 and CSN Safety Guide 1.19 based on the recommendations of the NEI-00-01 Guidance for Post-fire Safe Shutdown Circuit and NUREG/CR-6850. Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities. (Author)

  8. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  9. 立体组装电路模块动态特性的有限元模拟与分析%Simulation and Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of 3D Assembly Circuit Module with Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春跃; 周德俭; 黄红艳

    2004-01-01

    Based on the modal analysis theory and by using the dynamics finite element analysis model of a three-dimensional assembly circuit module, dynamic characteristics of circuit module have been studied, including both natural characteristics analysis and dynamic responses analysis. Using a subspace method, modal analysis is first carried out. The first 6 orders of natural frequencies and vibration modes are obtained. Influence of the number of the Z-shaped metal slices on dynamic characteristics of the entire structure is also studied.Harmonic response analysis is then conducted. The steady-state response when the circuit module is subjected to harmonic excitation is determined. A curve of the response values against frequencies is obtained. As a result, the optimal number of Z-shaped metal slices can be determined, and it can be assured that the three-dimensional assembly circuit module has good performance in terms of the dynamic characteristics.

  10. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  11. Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, S.

    1996-01-01

    When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...

  12. Pathogenic Network Analysis Predicts Candidate Genes for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to predicate candidate genes in cervical cancer (CC using a network-based strategy and to understand the pathogenic process of CC. Methods. A pathogenic network of CC was extracted based on known pathogenic genes (seed genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs between CC and normal controls. Subsequently, cluster analysis was performed to identify the subnetworks in the pathogenic network using ClusterONE. Each gene in the pathogenic network was assigned a weight value, and then candidate genes were obtained based on the weight distribution. Eventually, pathway enrichment analysis for candidate genes was performed. Results. In this work, a total of 330 DEGs were identified between CC and normal controls. From the pathogenic network, 2 intensely connected clusters were extracted, and a total of 52 candidate genes were detected under the weight values greater than 0.10. Among these candidate genes, VIM had the highest weight value. Moreover, candidate genes MMP1, CDC45, and CAT were, respectively, enriched in pathway in cancer, cell cycle, and methane metabolism. Conclusion. Candidate pathogenic genes including MMP1, CDC45, CAT, and VIM might be involved in the pathogenesis of CC. We believe that our results can provide theoretical guidelines for future clinical application.

  13. DNA Domino-Based Nanoscale Logic Circuit: A Versatile Strategy for Ultrasensitive Multiplexed Analysis of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravan, Hadi; Amandadi, Mojdeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2017-06-06

    In recent years, the analytical application of logical nanodevices has attracted much attention for making accurate decisions on molecular diagnosis. Herein, a DNA domino-based nanoscale logic circuit has been constructed by integrating three logic gates (AND-AND-YES) for simultaneous analysis of multiple nucleic acid biomarkers. In the first AND gate, a chimeric target DNA comprising of four biomarkers was hybridized to three biomarker-specific oligonucleotides (TRs) via their 5'-end regions and to a capture probe-magnetic microparticle. After harvesting the complex, 3' overhang regions of the TRs were labeled with three distinct monolayer double-stranded (ds) DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs). Upon gleaning the complex and addition of initiator oligonucleotide, a series of toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, which are reminiscent of a domino chain, spontaneously occurred between the confined dsDNAs on the nanoparticles' surface in the second AND gate. The output of the second gate entered into the last gate and triggered an exponential hairpin assembly to form four-way junction nanostructures. The resulting nanostructures bear split parts of DNAzyme at each end of the four arms which, in the presence of hemin, form catalytic hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes with peroxidase activity. The smart biosensor has exhibited a turn-on signal when all biomarkers are present in the sample. In fact, should any of the biomarkers be nonexistent, the signal remains turned-off. The biosensor can detect the biomarkers with a LOD value of 100 aM and a noticeable capability to discriminate single-nucleotide substitutions.

  14. Analysis of the property of nonlinear hybrid circuit by FDTD%基于FDTD的非线性混合电路特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅诣偲; 吴先良; 黄志祥; 鲁思龙; 任信钢; 杜红梅

    2012-01-01

    The full-wave analysis of nonlinear hybrid circuit is made by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and the electromagnetic field distribution graph of microstrip circuits at different moments is obtained. The simulation result of FDTD method and that of commercial software are highly consistent. With full-wave simulation of electromagnetic field, its calculation results are more accurate than those of traditional circuit simulations, and the field value and distribution of electromagnetic field of microstrip circuits at different moments responding to high-frequency signals can be obtained directly, which has important significance for researching the properties of high-frequency nonlinear hybrid circuits and the problems about electromagnetic compatibility and so on.%文章采用三维时域有限差分(FDTD)方法,对非线性混合电路进行了全波分析,不仅获得不同时刻微带电路平面的电磁场分布图,并且所获得的电压分布图与软件仿真结果高度吻合.由于FDTD是电磁场的全波模拟,所得结果比传统电路模拟精度高且可以得到高频信号激励下微带电路所在平面各个时刻时域内的场解,直接观测到场分布情况,为高频非线性混合电路的特性分析提供了有效依据,同时对研究电磁兼容等问题有重要意义.

  15. Preconditioner Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    throttgh the SELECT pin. This feature controls U1e voltage at which the complementary transistor input pairs switch. The ADS027/ AD8028 also has...Drift TMN tOTMAX 1.SO ~vrc Input Bias Current’ VCM = 0 V, NPN Active 4 6 ~A TmN tO TMA.X 4 ~A Input Bias Current’ VCM = 0 V, PNP Active - 8 - 11 ~A...or open, PNP active SELECT= high NPN active Input Offset Voltage Drift T .. NtOTMAX Input Bias Current’ VCM = 2.5 V, NPN active T .. NtOTMAX VCM

  16. Open-circuit voltage analysis of p-i-n type amorphous silicon solar cells deposited at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Jian; Zhang Jian-Jun; Cao Yu; Wang Xian-Bao; Li Chao; Chen Xin-Liang; Geng Xin-Hua; Zhao Ying

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the contributions of p-a-SiC:H layers and i-a-Si:H layers to the open circuit voltage of p-i-n type a-Si:H solar cells deposited at a low temperature of 125 ℃.We find that poor quality p-a-SiC:H films under regular conditions lead to a restriction of open circuit voltage although the band gap of the i-layer varies widely.A significant improvement in open circuit voltage has been obtained by using high quality p-a-SiC:H films optimized at the "low-power regime" under low silane flow rates and high hydrogen dilution conditions.

  17. The study of hybrid model identification,computation analysis and fault location for nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hong; HE Yi-gang; ZENG Guan-da

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the hybrid model identification for a class of nonlinear circuits and systems via a combination of the block-pulse function transform with the Volterra series.After discussing the method to establish the hybrid model and introducing the hybrid model identification,a set of relative formulas are derived for calculating the hybrid model and computing the Volterra series solution of nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems.In order to significantly reduce the computation cost for fault location,the paper presents a new fault diagnosis method based on multiple preset models that can be realized online.An example of identification simulation and fault diagnosis are given.Results show that the method has high accuracy and efficiency for fault location of nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems.

  18. A sequence-based approach to identify reference genes for gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chari Raj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important consideration when analyzing both microarray and quantitative PCR expression data is the selection of appropriate genes as endogenous controls or reference genes. This step is especially critical when identifying genes differentially expressed between datasets. Moreover, reference genes suitable in one context (e.g. lung cancer may not be suitable in another (e.g. breast cancer. Currently, the main approach to identify reference genes involves the mining of expression microarray data for highly expressed and relatively constant transcripts across a sample set. A caveat here is the requirement for transcript normalization prior to analysis, and measurements obtained are relative, not absolute. Alternatively, as sequencing-based technologies provide digital quantitative output, absolute quantification ensues, and reference gene identification becomes more accurate. Methods Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE profiles of non-malignant and malignant lung samples were compared using a permutation test to identify the most stably expressed genes across all samples. Subsequently, the specificity of the reference genes was evaluated across multiple tissue types, their constancy of expression was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR, and their impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data was evaluated. Results We show that (i conventional references genes such as ACTB and GAPDH are highly variable between cancerous and non-cancerous samples, (ii reference genes identified for lung cancer do not perform well for other cancer types (breast and brain, (iii reference genes identified through SAGE show low variability using qPCR in a different cohort of samples, and (iv normalization of a lung cancer gene expression microarray dataset with or without our reference genes, yields different results for differential gene expression and subsequent analyses. Specifically, key established pathways in lung

  19. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: II. Theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1994-05-20

    Theoretical aspects of the frequency-translation ring circuit are considered through numerical simulations. We analyze the signal and noise propagation around an optical ring circuit that contains a frequency shifter, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and a bandpass filter (BPF). The relations between the frequency-translation limit and some important parameters such as the BPF bandwidth and the polarization state are clarified. Numerical results for the frequency-translation limit are compared with reported experiments and a frequency translation of more than 100 GHz is predicted.

  20. A DSRPCL-SVM Approach to Informative Gene Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiong; Zhibin Cai; Jinwen Ma

    2008-01-01

    Microarray data based tumor diagnosis is a very interesting topic in bioinformatics. One of the key problems is the discovery and analysis of informative genes of a tumor. Although there are many elaborate approaches to this problem, it is still difficult to select a reasonable set of informative genes for tumor diagnosis only with microarray data. In this paper, we classify the genes expressed through microarray data into a number of clusters via the distance sensitive rival penalized competitive learning (DSRPCL) algorithm and then detect the informative gene cluster or set with the help of support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, the critical or powerful informative genes can be found through further classifications and detections on the obtained informative gene clusters. It is well demonstrated by experiments on the colon, leukemia, and breast cancer datasets that our proposed DSRPCL-SVM approach leads to a reasonable selection of informative genes for tumor diagnosis.

  1. Bioinformatics analysis of the gene expression profile in Bladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder carcinoma, which has the ninth highest incidence among malignant tumors in the world, is a complex, multifactorial disease. The malignant transformation of bladder cells results from DNA mutations and alterations in gene expression levels. In this work, we used a bioinformatics approach to investigate the molecular mechanisms of bladder carcinoma. Biochips downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO were used to analyze the gene expression profile in urinary bladder cells from individuals with carcinoma. The gene expression profile of normal genomes was used as a control. The analysis of gene expression revealed important alterations in genes involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways. We also identified some small molecules capable of reversing the altered gene expression in bladder carcinoma; these molecules could provide a basis for future therapies for the treatment of this disease.

  2. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression: Applications in Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool, which provides quantitative and comprehensive expression profile of genes in a given cell population. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The frequency of each SAGE tag in the cloned multimers directly reflects the transcript abundance. Therefore, SAGE r...

  3. Identification of candidate genes in osteoporosis by integrated microarray analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J J; Wang, B. Q.; Fei, Q.; Yang, Y; Li, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In order to screen the altered gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with osteoporosis, we performed an integrated analysis of the online microarray studies of osteoporosis. Methods We searched the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for microarray studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with osteoporosis. Subsequently, we integrated gene expression data sets from multiple microarray studies to obtain differentially expressed...

  4. Cluster Analysis of Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Domany, E

    2002-01-01

    The expression levels of many thousands of genes can be measured simultaneously by DNA microarrays (chips). This novel experimental tool has revolutionized research in molecular biology and generated considerable excitement. A typical experiment uses a few tens of such chips, each dedicated to a single sample - such as tissue extracted from a particular tumor. The results of such an experiment contain several hundred thousand numbers, that come in the form of a table, of several thousand rows (one for each gene) and 50 - 100 columns (one for each sample). We developed a clustering methodology to mine such data. In this review I provide a very basic introduction to the subject, aimed at a physics audience with no prior knowledge of either gene expression or clustering methods. I explain what genes are, what is gene expression and how it is measured by DNA chips. Next I explain what is meant by "clustering" and how we analyze the massive amounts of data from such experiments, and present results obtained from a...

  5. When noisy neighbors are a blessing: analysis of gene expression noise identifies coregulated genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junker, J.P.; van Oudenaarden, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Stewart-Ornstein et al. (2012) use systematic pair-wise correlation analysis of expression noise in a large number of yeast genes to identify clusters of functionally related genes and signaling pathways responsible for elevated noise.

  6. DAVID Knowledgebase: a gene-centered database integrating heterogeneous gene annotation resources to facilitate high-throughput gene functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseler Michael W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complex and distributed nature of biological research, our current biological knowledge is spread over many redundant annotation databases maintained by many independent groups. Analysts usually need to visit many of these bioinformatics databases in order to integrate comprehensive annotation information for their genes, which becomes one of the bottlenecks, particularly for the analytic task associated with a large gene list. Thus, a highly centralized and ready-to-use gene-annotation knowledgebase is in demand for high throughput gene functional analysis. Description The DAVID Knowledgebase is built around the DAVID Gene Concept, a single-linkage method to agglomerate tens of millions of gene/protein identifiers from a variety of public genomic resources into DAVID gene clusters. The grouping of such identifiers improves the cross-reference capability, particularly across NCBI and UniProt systems, enabling more than 40 publicly available functional annotation sources to be comprehensively integrated and centralized by the DAVID gene clusters. The simple, pair-wise, text format files which make up the DAVID Knowledgebase are freely downloadable for various data analysis uses. In addition, a well organized web interface allows users to query different types of heterogeneous annotations in a high-throughput manner. Conclusion The DAVID Knowledgebase is designed to facilitate high throughput gene functional analysis. For a given gene list, it not only provides the quick accessibility to a wide range of heterogeneous annotation data in a centralized location, but also enriches the level of biological information for an individual gene. Moreover, the entire DAVID Knowledgebase is freely downloadable or searchable at http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/knowledgebase/.

  7. Bioinformatics analysis and detection of gelatinase encoded gene in Lysinibacillussphaericus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Rul Aisyah Mat; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Shahimi, Safiyyah; Khalid, Rozida Mohd.; Ayob, Mohd. Khan; Bakar, Mohd. Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis toward genome sequence of Lysinibacillussphaericus (L. sphaericus) to determine gene encoded for gelatinase. L. sphaericus was isolated from soil and gelatinase species-specific bacterium to porcine and bovine gelatin. This bacterium offers the possibility of enzymes production which is specific to both species of meat, respectively. The main focus of this research is to identify the gelatinase encoded gene within the bacteria of L. Sphaericus using bioinformatics analysis of partially sequence genome. From the research study, three candidate gene were identified which was, gelatinase candidate gene 1 (P1), NODE_71_length_93919_cov_158.931839_21 which containing 1563 base pair (bp) in size with 520 amino acids sequence; Secondly, gelatinase candidate gene 2 (P2), NODE_23_length_52851_cov_190.061386_17 which containing 1776 bp in size with 591 amino acids sequence; and Thirdly, gelatinase candidate gene 3 (P3), NODE_106_length_32943_cov_169.147919_8 containing 1701 bp in size with 566 amino acids sequence. Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed and namely as, F1, R1, F2, R2, F3 and R3 were targeted short sequences of cDNA by PCR. The amplicons were reliably results in 1563 bp in size for candidate gene P1 and 1701 bp in size for candidate gene P3. Therefore, the results of bioinformatics analysis of L. Sphaericus resulting in gene encoded gelatinase were identified.

  8. An improved method for functional similarity analysis of genes based on Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Teng, Zhixia

    2016-12-23

    Measures of gene functional similarity are essential tools for gene clustering, gene function prediction, evaluation of protein-protein interaction, disease gene prioritization and other applications. In recent years, many gene functional similarity methods have been proposed based on the semantic similarity of GO terms. However, these leading approaches may make errorprone judgments especially when they measure the specificity of GO terms as well as the IC of a term set. Therefore, how to estimate the gene functional similarity reliably is still a challenging problem. We propose WIS, an effective method to measure the gene functional similarity. First of all, WIS computes the IC of a term by employing its depth, the number of its ancestors as well as the topology of its descendants in the GO graph. Secondly, WIS calculates the IC of a term set by means of considering the weighted inherited semantics of terms. Finally, WIS estimates the gene functional similarity based on the IC overlap ratio of term sets. WIS is superior to some other representative measures on the experiments of functional classification of genes in a biological pathway, collaborative evaluation of GO-based semantic similarity measures, protein-protein interaction prediction and correlation with gene expression. Further analysis suggests that WIS takes fully into account the specificity of terms and the weighted inherited semantics of terms between GO terms. The proposed WIS method is an effective and reliable way to compare gene function. The web service of WIS is freely available at http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/WIS/ .

  9. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of anguillid herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van S.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Davison, A.A.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas temporal gene expression in mammalian herpesviruses has been studied extensively, little is known about gene expression in fish herpesviruses. Here we report a genome-wide transcription analysis of a fish herpesvirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1, in cell culture, studied during the

  10. Global Analysis of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of microbes within plants and other specialized niches may facilitate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) affecting host-pathogen interactions. We recently identified fungal-to-fungal HGTs involving metabolic gene clusters. For a global analysis of HGTs in the maize pathogen Fusarium ve...

  11. A general modular framework for gene set enrichment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strimmer Korbinian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of microarray and other high-throughput data on the basis of gene sets, rather than individual genes, is becoming more important in genomic studies. Correspondingly, a large number of statistical approaches for detecting gene set enrichment have been proposed, but both the interrelations and the relative performance of the various methods are still very much unclear. Results We conduct an extensive survey of statistical approaches for gene set analysis and identify a common modular structure underlying most published methods. Based on this finding we propose a general framework for detecting gene set enrichment. This framework provides a meta-theory of gene set analysis that not only helps to gain a better understanding of the relative merits of each embedded approach but also facilitates a principled comparison and offers insights into the relative interplay of the methods. Conclusion We use this framework to conduct a computer simulation comparing 261 different variants of gene set enrichment procedures and to analyze two experimental data sets. Based on the results we offer recommendations for best practices regarding the choice of effective procedures for gene set enrichment analysis.

  12. Mechanical Analysis Method with Circuit Based on Similarity%基于相似性的电路力学分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 杨硕; 倪守诚; 田社平

    2012-01-01

    力学反映了最为普遍的自然规律,具有良好的自洽性。本文探讨了在集中参数电路中建立力学模型的可行性,给出电路分析的拉格朗日力学和哈密顿力学形式,指出了线性非时变集中参数电路的力学模型与线性质点系动力学模型的对应关系,通过实例说明了力学模型在电路分析中的应用。本文的讨论对电路课程的教学具有一定的参考价值。%Self-consistent mechanical laws are the most paper, the feasibility of establishing mechanical models Hamiltonian formations in circuit analysis are given, The universal and fundamental principle of nature. In this in lumped ciucuits is discussed and the Lagrangian and corresponding relationship beween mechanical models for linear time-invariant lumped circuits and particle dynamics models is pointed out. We also give examples to explain the application of mechanical model on circuit analysis. It is helpful for the teaching of ciucuit courses.

  13. Analysis and simulation of the three-phase AC voltage regulation circuit%三相交流调压电路的分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李衍孜

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the operation principle and mode of the single-phase AC voltage-regulation circuit, the voltage-regulating rule and effect of three-phase AC voltage-regulation was studied deeply in the paper. The theory of the three-phase star-style AC voltage-regulation circuit was tested in matlab/simulink, the simulation result proved the analysis of the theory of the three-phase AC voltage-regulation circuit was correct.%在分析单相交流调压电路运行原理和工作方式的基础上,深入研究了三相交流调压电路的调压规律和调压效果,并在Matlab/simulink仿真平台上对三相星形无中线交流调压电路的理论部分进行了验证,结果表明:三相交流调压电路的分析是正确的.

  14. Chaos Control for Chua's Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres, L. A. B.; Aguirre, L. A.; Palhares, R. M.; Mendes, E. M. A. M.

    The practical implementation of Chua's circuit control methods is discussed in this chapter. In order to better address this subject, an inductorless Chua's circuit realization is first presented, followed by practical issues related to data analysis, mathematical modelling, and dynamical characterization associated to this electronic chaotic oscillator. As a consequence of the investigation of different control strategies applied to Chua's circuit, a tradeoff among control objective, control energy, and model complexity is devised, which quite naturally leads to a principle that seems to be of general nature: the Information Transmission Via Control (ITVC) for nonlinear oscillators. The main purpose of the present chapter is to serve as an introductory guide to the universe of Chua's circuit control, synchronization, and mathematical modelling.

  15. Logic circuits from zero forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Burgarth, Daniel; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We design logical circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity.

  16. Design and Analysis of New Modified Feedthrough Logic (MFTL Circuits Using Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Meryn Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging task for a VLSI design engineer to develop low power VLSI circuits, without sacrificing its performance. Feedthrough Logic (FTL is a new technology which could be considered better than the existing technologies for improving circuit efficiency. Modified Feedthrough Logic (MFTL, offers a better power factor than the FTL logic structures, and also shows an improvement in the speed factor. But the scenario again changes when the design extends to nano scales of device dimension, where many factors which were neglected otherwise need to be given more importance. To avoid or minimize problems like hot carrier effects, electro migration, drain induced barrier lowering and other issues that becomes prominent in nano scale MOSFET‟s, Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET is considered to be a promising candidate in future integrated circuits. Hence this work extends the advantages of MFTL logic into nano level by incorporating CNTFETs in place of MOSFETs. The modifications have been implemented using CNTFETs of 16nm technology from HSPICE library on a 10 chain inverter stage, an 8 bit RCA and a Vedic multiplier and performance factors like PDP and ADP are compared to that of the conventional MOSFET circuits.

  17. Analysis of specification of an electrode type sensor equivalent circuit on the base of impedance spectroscopy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurtsov, V. I.; Mathewson, A.; Sheehan, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) based on a LabVIEW model of a complex impedance measuring system in the frequency domain has been investigated to specify parameters of Randle's equivalent circuit, which is ordinarily used for electrode sensors. The model was based on a standard system for EIS instrumentation and consisted of a sensor modelled by Randle's equivalent circuit, a source of harmonic frequency sweep voltage applied to the sensor and a transimpedance amplifier, which transformed the sensor current to voltage. It provided impedance spectroscopy data for different levels of noise, modelled by current and voltage equivalent noise sources applied to the amplifier input. The noise influence on Randle's equivalent circuit specification was analysed by considering the behaviour of the approximation error. Different metrics including absolute, relative, semilogarithmic and logarithmic based distance between complex numbers on a complex plane were considered and compared to one another for evaluating this error. It was shown that the relative and logarithmic based metrics provide more reliable results for the determination of circuit parameters.

  18. 某型导弹舵机限流电路分析%Missile Servo Current-limiting Circuit Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小波; 付克亚

    2016-01-01

    The current of current-limiting circuit frequently surpasses its nomial value in testing servo control circuit of a certain type missile.This paper analyses the working principle of current-limiting circuit,identifies its main influence factors,and brings forward the corresponding solution to solve such failure and promote the passing ratio of control circuit assembly test.The feasibility and effectiveness of the solution method is validat-ed in practice.%某型导弹舵机控制电路在测试时,经常出现限幅电流超差故障。该文从分析限流电路工作原理出发,查找出其主要影响因素,并有针对性的提出解决方法,以解决此类故障,提高控制电路装配测试合格率。通过生产实际,验证了这些解决方法的可行性和有效性。

  19. Knowledge-guided gene ranking by coordinative component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Xuan, Jianhua; Li, Huai; Wang, Yue; Zhan, Ming; Hoffman, Eric P; Clarke, Robert

    2010-03-30

    In cancer, gene networks and pathways often exhibit dynamic behavior, particularly during the process of carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to prioritize those genes that are strongly associated with the functionality of a network. Traditional statistical methods are often inept to identify biologically relevant member genes, motivating researchers to incorporate biological knowledge into gene ranking methods. However, current integration strategies are often heuristic and fail to incorporate fully the true interplay between biological knowledge and gene expression data. To improve knowledge-guided gene ranking, we propose a novel method called coordinative component analysis (COCA) in this paper. COCA explicitly captures those genes within a specific biological context that are likely to be expressed in a coordinative manner. Formulated as an optimization problem to maximize the coordinative effort, COCA is designed to first extract the coordinative components based on a partial guidance from knowledge genes and then rank the genes according to their participation strengths. An embedded bootstrapping procedure is implemented to improve statistical robustness of the solutions. COCA was initially tested on simulation data and then on published gene expression microarray data to demonstrate its improved performance as compared to traditional statistical methods. Finally, the COCA approach has been applied to stem cell data to identify biologically relevant genes in signaling pathways. As a result, the COCA approach uncovers novel pathway members that may shed light into the pathway deregulation in cancers. We have developed a new integrative strategy to combine biological knowledge and microarray data for gene ranking. The method utilizes knowledge genes for a guidance to first extract coordinative components, and then rank the genes according to their contribution related to a network or pathway. The experimental results show that such a knowledge-guided strategy

  20. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided