WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender achievement gaps

  1. Bridging the gender gap seven principles for achieving gender balance

    CERN Document Server

    Roseberry, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to promote gender equality, most leadership positions in business, politics, education, and even NGOs are occupied by men, and most people still work in occupations dominated by one sex. This book argues that gender imbalances in leadership and occupations are not simply a moral issue or an economic issue, but a governance issue. Gender imbalances persist in large part because the very people with the authority and influence to do something about them know very little about gender and how it works in their organizations and in society at large. Gender imbalanced governance is an expression of entrenched ideas about masculinity and femininity that lead to poor decision making. Improving the quality of governance requires action to counteract the main justifications for the status quo. Based on interviews and conversations with leaders and managers in Europe and the United States, the book presents seven of the most common explanations for persistent gender imbalances and shows how th...

  2. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  3. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  4. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  5. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  6. Divergent Streams: Race-Gender Achievement Gaps at Selective Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Douglas S.; Probasco, LiErin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyse...

  7. Understanding Science Achievement Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Kindergarten and First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…

  8. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  9. Understanding the Gender Gap in Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…

  10. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  11. Gender Gap Linked to Differential Socialization for High-Achieving Senior Mathematics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Beaudry, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether 11th-grade girls and boys enrolled in advanced mathematics courses nationwide were socialized in similar ways, using Campbell's differential socialization paradigm. Results uncovered a gender gap favoring boys. Self-imposed pressure and persistence had important direct effects on achievement. Self-concept had important direct…

  12. Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors across Two ECLS-K Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Joseph R.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Timmer, Jennifer D.; Makowski, Martha B.; Miller, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort.…

  13. Social and behavioral skills and the gender gap in early educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprete, Thomas A; Jennings, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Though many studies have suggested that social and behavioral skills play a central role in gender stratification processes, we know little about the extent to which these skills affect gender gaps in academic achievement. Analyzing data from the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, we demonstrate that social and behavioral skills have substantively important effects on academic outcomes from kindergarten through fifth grade. Gender differences in the acquisition of these skills, moreover, explain a considerable fraction of the gender gap in academic outcomes during early elementary school. Boys get roughly the same academic return to social and behavioral skills as their female peers, but girls begin school with more advanced social and behavioral skills and their skill advantage grows over time. While part of the effect may reflect an evaluation process that rewards students who better conform to school norms, our results imply that the acquisition of social and behavioral skills enhances learning as well. Our results call for a reconsideration of the family and school-level processes that produce gender gaps in social and behavioral skills and the advantages they confer for academic and later success. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  15. Gender Gaps in Achievement and Participation in Multiple Introductory Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel. PMID:25185231

  16. Divergent Streams: Race-Gender Achievement Gaps at Selective Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Probasco, Lierin

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyses consider an array of personal and institutional indicators of academic performance. Grades and graduation rates are improved by academic preparation (particularly high school GPA), scholarly effort, and, for graduation rates, membership in career-oriented or majority-white campus groups. Grade performance and graduation rates are undermined by a hostile racial climate on campus, family stress, and stereotype threat, all of which disproportionately affect minority students. We conclude with recommendations to college administrators for ways of selecting and supporting minority students to reduce differentials in academic achievement across race-gender groups.

  17. Gender gaps in achievement and participation in multiple introductory biology classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel. © 2014 S. L. Eddy et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Teachers' perceptions of students' mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-04-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers' perceptions of behavior and effort. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), Study 1 demonstrates that teachers actually rate boys' mathematics proficiency higher than that of girls when conditioning on both teachers' ratings of behavior and approaches to learning as well as past and current test scores. In other words, on average girls are only perceived to be as mathematically competent as similarly achieving boys when the girls are also seen as working harder, behaving better, and being more eager to learn. Study 2 uses mediation analysis with an instrumental-variables approach, as well as a matching strategy, to explore the extent to which this conditional underrating of girls may explain the widening gender gap in mathematics in early elementary school. We find robust evidence suggesting that underrating girls' mathematics proficiency accounts for a substantial portion of the development of the mathematics achievement gap between similarly performing and behaving boys and girls in the early grades. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Gender Gaps in Achievement and Participation in Multiple Introductory Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large…

  20. Science Achievement Gaps by Gender and Race/Ethnicity in Elementary and Middle School: Trends and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North

    2015-01-01

    Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…

  1. Equity and Spatial Reasoning: Reducing the Mathematical Achievement Gap in Gender and Social Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2018-01-01

    Since the early 70s, there has been recognition that there are specific differences in achievement based on variables, such as gender and socio-economic background, in terms of mathematics performance. However, these differences are not unilateral but rather quite specific and relate strongly to spatial reasoning. This early work has paved the way…

  2. Analyzing the Gender Gap in Math Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale US Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Galluzzo, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The US portion of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student questionnaire comprising of 4,733 observations was used in a multiple regression framework to predict math achievement from demographic variables, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, and two student-specific measures of perception, math anxiety and…

  3. Gender and Minority Achievement Gaps in Science in Eighth Grade: Item Analyses of Nationally Representative Data. Research Report. ETS RR-17-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyu; Nandakumar, Ratna; Glutting, Joseoph; Ford, Danielle; Fifield, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender and minority achievement gaps on 8th-grade science items employing a multilevel item response methodology. Both gaps were wider on physics and earth science items than on biology and chemistry items. Larger gender gaps were found on items with specific topics favoring male students than other items, for…

  4. The Development of Gender Achievement Gaps in Mathematics and Reading during Elementary and Middle School: Examining Direct Cognitive Assessments and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joseph Paul; Lubienski, Sarah Theule

    2011-01-01

    Using K-8 national longitudinal data, the authors investigate males' and females' achievement in math and reading, including when gender gaps first appear, whether the appearance of gaps depends on the metric used, and where on the achievement distribution gaps are most prevalent. Additionally, teachers' assessments of males and females are…

  5. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  6. Equity and spatial reasoning: reducing the mathematical achievement gap in gender and social disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2018-03-01

    Since the early 70s, there has been recognition that there are specific differences in achievement based on variables, such as gender and socio-economic background, in terms of mathematics performance. However, these differences are not unilateral but rather quite specific and relate strongly to spatial reasoning. This early work has paved the way for thinking critically about who achieves in mathematics and why. This project innovatively combines the strengths of the two Chief Investigators—Lowrie's work in spatial reasoning and Jorgensen's work in equity. The assumptions, the approach and theoretical framing used in the study unite quite disparate areas of mathematics education into a cogent research program that seeks to challenge some of the long-held views in the field of mathematics education.

  7. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  8. What Explains Gender Gaps in Maths Achievement in Primary Schools in Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses W.; Ciera, James; Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to improve the understanding of classroom-based gender differences that may lead to differential opportunities to learn provided to girls and boys in low and high performing primary schools in Kenya. The paper uses an opportunity to learn framework and tests the hypothesis that teaching practices and classroom interactions explain…

  9. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  10. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  11. Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally

    2006-01-01

    The widening gap between the average educational achievement of boys and girls has been the subject of much discussion. This gap is especially controversial for students taking national exams at the end of their compulsory education. However, the gender gap is also apparent at earlier and at later stages of education. In this paper, we analyse changes over time in the gender achievement gap at the different stages of compulsory education. We first use a combination of data sources to paint a ...

  12. Patterns and Trends in Achievement Gaps in Malaysian Secondary Schools (1999-2011): Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Guan Kung

    2016-01-01

    Educational inequality is a highly debated yet empirically understudied topic in Malaysia. This paper examines the patterns and trends of academic achievement gaps by student social groups in Malaysia, drawing upon nationally representative data for the most recent four cohorts (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) of eighth-grade Malaysian students from…

  13. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  14. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  15. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  16. Reducing the Achievement Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Barbara L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," which addresses educational underrepresentation of high-achieving minority students, examining how social sciences, psychology, and education research contribute to an understanding of the feasibility of the report's recommendations and noting implications of these recommendations…

  17. Ethnicity and Gender Gaps in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine; Jones, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in academic performance and achievement have been of policy concern for decades--both interest in lower performance by girls in the areas of mathematics and science and, more recently, in boys' underperformance in most other academic areas. Much previous research has focused on gender gaps, while overlooking other factors that…

  18. Understanding the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Claudia

    1985-01-01

    Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…

  19. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  20. Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Campa; Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individuals' attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms' attitudes. Firms' beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals' attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our ...

  1. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  2. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  3. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  4. Globalization and the Gender Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  5. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  6. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  7. Trends in Achievement Gaps in First-Year College Courses for Racial/Ethnic, Income, and Gender Subgroups: A 12-Year Study. ACT Research Report Series 2013 (8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Julie; Ndum, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated gaps in the academic success of college student subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, income, and gender. We studied trends over time in the success of students in these subgroups in particular first-year college courses: English Composition I, College Algebra, social science courses, and Biology. The study is based…

  8. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  9. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  10. The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses micro-data to analyze international differences in the gender pay gap among a sample of ten industrialized nations. We particularly focus on explaining the surprisingly low ranking of the U.S. in comparison to other industrialized countries. Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female worke...

  11. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  12. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  13. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  14. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  15. GENDER EQUALITY AND THE GENDER GAP IN MATHEMATICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Michalopoulos, Christos

    2018-03-01

    A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument. Furthermore, individual data for PISA 2012 and the multilevel data model were used. The conclusion drawn also does not support the argument. In fact, the relationship between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics vanished after PISA 2003.

  16. Gender Gap or Program Gap? Students' Negotiations of Study Practice in a Course in Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013.…

  17. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  18. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...

  19. Bridging the gender pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-31

    Nursing may be a largely female profession, but men are vastly overrepresented in senior positions. Experts say the NHS has to take action to correct the huge gender imbalance - and female nurses need to learn how to help themselves.

  20. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical....

  1. The Gender Wage Gap: Does a Gender Gap in Reservation Wages Play a Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Mahlstedt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on re-examining the gender wage gap and the potential role that reservation wages play. Based on two waves of rich data from the IZA Evaluation Dataset Survey we examine the importance of gender differences in reservation wages to explain the gender gap in realized wages for a sample of newly unemployed individuals actively searching for a full-time job in Germany. The dataset includes measures for education, socio-demographics, labor market history, psychological factors a...

  2. The gender pay gap in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Leaker

    2008-01-01

    Measuring differences between mens' and womens' earnings, presents estimates from ASHE, the LFS and the NES panel data setThe gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the earnings of men and women. This article presents estimates of the gender pay gap from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, the Labour Force Survey and the New Earnings Survey panel data set. It examines how different personal and labour market characteristics influence the earnings of men and women.The resul...

  3. Evaluating the gender wage gap in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    Using mainly quantile regressions, this paper evaluates the gender wage gap throughout the conditional wage distribution in Sweden. The gender wage is found to increase at the upper tail of the wage distribution, indicating an enforcement of the glass ceiling effect recorded in earlier studies. The results also indicate that the earlier noted trend of diminishing wage differences at the bottom of the wage distribution now is turning. The increase of overall wage inequalities coincides with a ...

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  5. Exploring cross-national differences in gender gaps in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, A.M.L. van; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of

  6. Gender wage gap in Vietnam 1993 - 98

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity p...

  7. Gender gap or program gap? Students' negotiations of study practice in a course in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013. Dynamics behind this gap were explored through interpretative discourse analysis on interviews of 21 students who had recently passed the course. A recurring pattern was identified in the interviews. Students described studying electromagnetism as either studying to pass or studying to learn. Their choice of practice was influenced by the significance recognized in the course, which primarily was discussed in relation to program affiliation. Students stressed that perceived differences, in their study context, were larger between students affiliated with different programs than between male and female students on the same program. This was supported by quantitative analysis of course grades in relation to study programs, where the grade difference between female and male students on the same program in most cases were not statistically significant. The gender gap in grades for the whole course was related to different achievements on different programs. Programs further from the discipline of physics had lower mean grades and also enrolled a larger fraction of female students. Society-wide gender differences in interest and study choice are reflected in the grades on this single course. These results displace the achievement gap from the level of individuals to that of programs, and the gender gap from a difference in achievement to a difference in study choice. We discuss the implications of this shift of perspective in relation to gender differences for both research and teaching.

  8. Quantifying the Gender Gap in Science Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 5,000 self-generated science-related K-12 students' questions, classified into seven science subjects, were used to quantitatively measure the gender gap in science interests and its change with age. In this data set, a difference between boys' and girls' science interests did not exist during early childhood, but increased over 20-fold by…

  9. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  10. A Theory of Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce uncertainty of the labour productivity of women in a competitive model of wage determination. We demonstrate that more qualified women are then offered much lower wages than men at the equilibrium. This result is consistent with the glass ceiling hypothesis according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution.

  11. Globalization and the gender wage gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  12. Exploring the gender gap in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P; Haddock, C C; Barowsky, D

    1996-01-01

    A 1990 study by ACHE and the University of Iowa compared the career attainments and attitudes of a group of male and female healthcare executives. The research showed that among men and women who had entered the field at the same time and had achieved similar educational levels, women did not fare as well as men in terms of salary, position level, or job satisfaction. A follow-up to this study, which consisted of two parts, was conducted in 1995 by ACHE, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Lamalie Amrop International to learn whether the gender gap had narrowed. The 1990 study divided respondents into groups according to the year they entered healthcare management: 1971-1975, 1976-1980, or 1981-1985. The first part of the 1995 project was a replication study that paralleled the 1990 study, dividing a new pool of respondents into three groups: 1976-1980, 1981-1985, and 1986-1990. The second part of the follow-up project was a panel study, in which respondents from the 1990 study were surveyed again. Following are highlights from the 1995 study.

  13. Introduction to the special issue "The determinants of gender gaps"

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Profeta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This volume contributes to advancing our knowledge on the determinants of gender gaps. It focuses on the role of historical factors in shaping persistent gender gaps and on how careful institutional design can allow different outcomes to reflect only differences in abilities rather than differences in gender. The contributions collected in this volume emphasize that there is no unique determinant of the gender gaps and that the gender gap itself is a multidimensional, complex indicator. They ...

  14. [The gender gap in Italian medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Podda, Daiana; Lampis, Jessica

    2015-01-28

    This study is collocated in the debate about the gender gap in Medicine giving voice to female physicians who have damaged the "glass ceiling". Our research offers a contribute to the exploration about the motivations of persistence of gender gap in Medicine despite current changes. This study is based on 21 biographical interviews to female physicians who are managers in Italian hospitals. The themes emerged by data analysis concerned the participants 'discrimination experiences in their hierarchical advancement, the evidences of a persistence of horizontal segregation in some medical specializations, the difficult to find a work-life balance and the effects of this difficult on the female physicians' health. Our research confirmed a persistence of gender gap in the medical world, which disadvantages women in their career choices and in their hierarchical advancement and which appears in the form of invisible barriers impregnated of stereotypes and prejudices that are taken for granted by many men and women, especially those who have the power; these barriers make the female doctors 'health more vulnerable to the event of work-related stress. By the dates emerged the necessity of cultural and institutional interventions, actions for deconstruction of gender stereotypes, and the necessity of intervention for a more flexible and functioning work organization that satisfies the female physicians' needs.

  15. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-06-01

    Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  16. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Kost

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2. The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  17. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2 . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  18. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  19. Is there a gap in the gap? Regional differences in the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  20. Early Gender Gaps among University Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Marco; Parey, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    We use data from six cohorts of university graduates in Germany to assess the extent of gender gaps in college and labor market performance twelve to eighteen months after graduation. Men and women enter college in roughly equal numbers, but more women than men complete their degrees. Women enter college with slightly better high school grades, but women leave university with slightly lower marks. Immediately following university completion, male and female full-timers work very similar numbe...

  1. Gender wage gap studies : consistency and decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the gender wage gap, with particular attention given to the identification of the key parameters in human capital wage regression models. This is of great importance in the literature for two main reasons. First, the main explanatory variables in the wage model, i.e., measures of work experience and the time-out-of-work, are endogenous. As a result, applying traditional estimators may lead to inconsistent parameter estimates. Secon...

  2. Selection into Labor Force and Gender Unemployment Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Bicakova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...

  3. Gender Gap in the ERASMUS Mobility Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Böttcher

    Full Text Available Studying abroad has become very popular among students. The ERASMUS mobility program is one of the largest international student exchange programs in the world, which has supported already more than three million participants since 1987. We analyzed the mobility pattern within this program in 2011-12 and found a gender gap across countries and subject areas. Namely, for almost all participating countries, female students are over-represented in the ERASMUS program when compared to the entire population of tertiary students. The same tendency is observed across different subject areas. We also found a gender asymmetry in the geographical distribution of hosting institutions, with a bias of male students in Scandinavian countries. However, a detailed analysis reveals that this latter asymmetry is rather driven by subject and consistent with the distribution of gender ratios among subject areas.

  4. Gender Gap in the ERASMUS Mobility Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Lucas; Araújo, Nuno A M; Nagler, Jan; Mendes, José F F; Helbing, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Studying abroad has become very popular among students. The ERASMUS mobility program is one of the largest international student exchange programs in the world, which has supported already more than three million participants since 1987. We analyzed the mobility pattern within this program in 2011-12 and found a gender gap across countries and subject areas. Namely, for almost all participating countries, female students are over-represented in the ERASMUS program when compared to the entire population of tertiary students. The same tendency is observed across different subject areas. We also found a gender asymmetry in the geographical distribution of hosting institutions, with a bias of male students in Scandinavian countries. However, a detailed analysis reveals that this latter asymmetry is rather driven by subject and consistent with the distribution of gender ratios among subject areas.

  5. Pakistan : Country Gender Assessment, Bridging the Gender Gap, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    If Pakistan is to reduce gender gaps and achieve its development goals, policy interventions will require a dual focus on near-term and long-term outcomes. In the near term, females need access to basic services and opportunities. In the longer term the economic, cultural, and political environment must sustain improved circumstances for women in health, labor force participation, and other outcomes. Far deeper and more integrated initiatives are needed if long-standing trends in gender inequ...

  6. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  7. The widening gap of gender inequality in Nigerian politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The widening gap of gender inequality in Nigerian politics: Advocating a quota system ... Advocates on gender equality in Nigeria have noted that a viable means of ... This research paper therefore argues that for Nigeria to breach the gender ...

  8. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  9. Examining the Gender Gap in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren; Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

    2009-05-01

    Our previous research[1] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques in the introductory physics course, the gap in performance between males and females on a mechanics conceptual learning survey persisted from pre- to post-test, at our institution. Such findings were counter to previously published work[2]. Follow-up studies[3] identified correlations between student performance on the conceptual learning survey and students' prior physics and math knowledge and their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. The results indicate that the gender gap at our institution is predominantly associated with differences in males' and females' previous physics and math knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs. Our current work extends these results in two ways: 1) we look at the gender gap in the second semester of the introductory sequence and find results similar to those in the first semester course and 2) we identify ways in which males and females differentially experience several aspects of the introductory course. [1] Pollock, et al, Phys Rev: ST: PER 3, 010107. [2] Lorenzo, et al, Am J Phys 74, 118. [3] Kost, et al, PERC Proceedings 2008.

  10. Gender Pay Gap, Productivity Gap and Discrimination in Canadian Clothing Manufacturing in 1870

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine L McDevitt; James R Irwin; Kris Inwood

    2009-01-01

    Women's earnings were less than men's in Canadian clothing factories in 1870. Orthodox neoclassical theory would explain that gender pay gap as a reflection of a gender productivity gap. Using classical hypothesis testing we reject that view, based on a large cross-section of 1870 census data. We find the gender pay gap was significantly larger than the gender productivity gap, much as Hellerstein et al. [1999] found for US manufacturing circa 1990. Our results are clear and compell...

  11. Exploring the gender gap on nuclear disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherrin, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This research explores the relationship between sex/gender factors and attitudes toward peace and militarism to determine whether more women than men favor non-military solutions to peace to examine the effect of gender identity on these attitudes. The investigation also looks at participation in a peace group, a military setting, child care, and the traditional homemaker role, to see what effect these activities might have on attitudes toward peace and militarism. In addition, the study explores whether there is a correlation between attitudes favorable to feminism and orientation toward war and peace issues. This study is guided by the sociological perspective which assumes that sex and gender differences, to the extent they exist, may be influenced by the social roles defined as appropriate for women and men. In this exploration there is not a sex gap on peace and military attitudes. A feminine gender identity does not have an effect on the direction of attitudes toward peace or militarism. However, an overall identification with masculine traits, plus believing oneself to be dominant, competitive and aggressive is correlated with a non-pacifist world view. Results of this study show that participation in a peace group is the best determinant of a pro-peace attitude, whereas participation in a military setting tends to be associated with a pro-military attitude.

  12. The Gender Gap in European Business Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseberry, Lynn; Remke, Robyn; Klæsson, Johan

    "The Gender Gap in European Business Schools: A Leadership Perspective" is a research project initiated and funded by EFMD, EQUAL, and the business schools represented on the project’s Steering Committee with following motivations for the study: Numerous studies by policy makers and academics have...... (the highest positions in the academic hierarchy) in HEIs in the vast majority of EU member states. In thirteen EU countries, women represented less than 20% of grade A academic staff. Business schools are no exception to this pattern. The average proportion of all full-time female faculty – not just...

  13. Gender wage gap in transistion in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The impact of sectoral location on the gender earnings gap is important in the context of Vietnam’s transition into a market-oriented economy. More and more women are seeking employment in the private sector either in response to retrenchment in the public sector or in response to increasing economic opportunities in the private sector. We apply the Appleton et al. (1999) decomposition technique to the Vietnam Living Standards Survey data collected in 1992- 93 and 1997-98, to decompose the ge...

  14. Overcoming the gender gap: increasing gender diversity, scientific scholarship and social legitimacy of our profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Penny M

    2015-06-01

    This article examines a recent college review of the gender distribution on Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatry (RANZCP) committees. It includes an analysis of the key reasons we should seek to address the gender disparity in our committees and conference speakers and strategies by which to achieve this. The gender gap in Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatry leadership influences the perception, social legitimacy, problem-solving capacity and scientific direction of our field. We could improve equality in our college committees and conference speakers by adopting strategies used by governments and other professional associations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Minding the gaps: health financing, universal health coverage and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Govender, Veloshnee; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Yates, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In a webinar in 2015 on health financing and gender, the question was raised why we need to focus on gender, given that a well-functioning system moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) will automatically be equitable and gender balanced. This article provides a reflection on this question from a panel of health financing and gender experts.We trace the evidence of how health-financing reforms have impacted gender and health access through a general literature review and a more detailed case-study of India. We find that unless explicit attention is paid to gender and its intersectionality with other social stratifications, through explicit protection and careful linking of benefits to needs of target populations (e.g. poor women, unemployed men, female-headed households), movement towards UHC can fail to achieve gender balance or improve equity, and may even exacerbate gender inequity. Political trade-offs are made on the road to UHC and the needs of less powerful groups, which can include women and children, are not necessarily given priority.We identify the need for closer collaboration between health economists and gender experts, and highlight a number of research gaps in this field which should be addressed. While some aspects of cost sharing and some analysis of expenditure on maternal and child health have been analysed from a gender perspective, there is a much richer set of research questions to be explored to guide policy making. Given the political nature of UHC decisions, political economy as well as technical research should be prioritized.We conclude that countries should adopt an equitable approach towards achieving UHC and, therefore, prioritize high-need groups and those requiring additional financial protection, in particular women and children. This constitutes the 'progressive universalism' advocated for by the 2013 Lancet Commission on Investing in Health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The

  16. Equal Opportunity? Gender Gaps in CEO Appointments and Executive Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Keloharju, Matti; Knüpfer, Samuli; Tåg, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses exceptionally rich data on Swedish corporate executives and their personal characteristics to study gender gaps in CEO appointments and pay. Both gaps are sizeable: 18% for CEO appointments and 27% for pay. At most one-eight of the gaps can be attributed to observable gender differences in executives' and their firms' characteristics. Further tests suggest that unobservable gender differences in characteristics are unlikely to account for the remaining gaps. Instead, our resul...

  17. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  19. Incentive pay and gender gaps in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Westling, Tatu

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of incentive pay on gender pay gaps in Finland, Norway and Sweden among professionals and managers within MNCs. Mercer 2009 Total Remuneration Survey data is utilised. Uniform job ladder, occupation, industry and wage definitions enable consistent cross-country comparisons. In addition to the between-country variation, the within-country variation of gender gap with respect to incentive pay is analysed. The results indicate that gender pay gaps differ among the ...

  20. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighbor...

  1. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effe...

  2. Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap, Regional Studies. This paper analyses gender-specific employment rates and the gender employment gap in Dutch municipalities for 2002. The novelty of this analysis is that it takes into account the

  3. Gendered Pathways? Gender, Mediating Factors, and the Gap in Boys' and Girls' Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Rachel Bridges; Hayes-Smith, Justin; Hayes-Smith, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A gender gap in alcohol and drug use exists but is somewhat smaller than the gender gap in other forms of delinquency. This article extends studies that examine the gender-delinquency relationship to substance use in particular and estimate the extent to which major risk and protective factors mediate the association between gender and alcohol and…

  4. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  5. Early Gender Test Score Gaps across OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Kelly; Cho, Insook

    2010-01-01

    The results reported in this paper contribute to the debate about gender skill gaps in at least three ways. First, we document the large differences in early gender gaps across developed countries using a large scale, modern, representative data source. Second, we show that countries with pro-female sorting, countries that place girls in classes…

  6. The Challenge of Gender Gap in Science and Technology Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Challenge of Gender Gap in Science and Technology Among ... of Mkar shows that the gender gap in core science and computer courses is too wide to be ... tuition scholarship and the introduction of sexuality education for the purpose of ...

  7. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  8. Wealth, wages and wedlock : Explaining the college gender gap reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    We study the role of changes in the wage structure and expectations about marriage in explaining the college gender gap reversal. With strongly diminishing marginal utility of wealth and in the presence of a gender wage gap, single women have a greater incentive than single men to invest in

  9. The Gender Wage Gap by Education in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies the gender wage gap by educational attainment in Italy using the 1994–2001 ECHP data. We estimate wage distributions in the presence of covariates and sample selection separately for highly and low educated men and women. Then, we decompose the gender wage gap across all

  10. Motivation, expectations and the gender pay gap for UK graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Chevalier

    2004-01-01

    Focussing on recent UK graduates, a wage gap of 12% is found. The unexplained component of the gap is small and a large fraction of the gap can be explained by subject choice, job characteristics, motivation and expectation variables. Motivation and expectations account for 44% of the explained gap, thus most studies over-estimate the unexplained component of the gender wage gap. Following stereotypes, women tend to be more altruistic and less career oriented than men, character traits that a...

  11. The gender wage GAP ın Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2017-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages. Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. We concentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Although women earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entire wage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distr...

  12. The gender pay gap in informal employment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...

  13. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  14. Introductory Physics Gender Gaps: Pre- and Post-Studio Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent

    2009-11-01

    Prior work has characterized the gender gaps present in college-level introductory physics courses. Such work has also shown that research-based interactive engagement techniques can reduce or eliminate these gender gaps. In this paper, we study the gender gaps (and lack thereof) in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the Colorado School of Mines. We present eight semesters' worth of data, totaling 2577 students, with four semesters preceding a transition to Studio physics, and four following. We examine gender gaps in course grades, DFW (D grade, fail, or withdrawal) rates, and normalized gains on the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), and consider factors such as student ACT scores and grades in prior math classes. We find little or no gap in male/female course grades and DFW rates, but substantial gaps in CSEM gains that are reduced somewhat by the transition to Studio physics.

  15. Distributional and behavioral effects of the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-Granados, Patricia; Geyer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap is a persistent labor market phenomenon. Most research focuses on the determinants of these wage differences. We contribute to this literature by exploring a different research question: if wages of women are systematically lower than male wages, what are the distributional consequences (disposable income) and what are the labor market effects (labor supply) of the wage gap? We demonstrate how the gender gap in gross hourly wages shows up in the distribution of disposable ...

  16. Gender Wage Gap and Segregation in Late Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Jurajda

    2001-01-01

    Transition countries hoping to join the European Union are in the process of introducing western-type anti-discrimination policies aimed at reducing the gender wage gap. The efficacy of these policies depends on the relative size of those elements of the gap they target; therefore, it is important to quantify these parts. In this Paper, large matched employer-employee data sets from the Czech Republic and Slovakia are used to provide such detailed gender wage gap decomposition. The results, b...

  17. Understanding the Gender Gap in Science and Engineering: Evidence from the Chilean College Admissions Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…

  18. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  19. Solving the Achievement Gap: Overcoming the Structure of School Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the cause of the student achievement gap, suggesting that the prevailing emphasis on socioeconomic factors, sociocultural influences, and teacher quality is misplaced. The cause of the achievement gap is not differences in parenting styles, or the economic advantages of middle-class parents, or differences in the quality of…

  20. The Importance of Physical Activity in Closing the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; VanHeest, Jaci L.

    2007-01-01

    The most significant concern within the US educational community is the academic achievement gap. Investigation of the achievement gap reveals that minority students across all levels of education are not meeting the same academic measures as their non-Hispanic White peers. In addition, a disproportionate number of minority children are identified…

  1. The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    This paper analyses the gender gap in compensation for CEOs, Vice-Directors, and potential top executives in the 2000 largest Danish private companies based on a panel data set of employer-employees data covering the period 1996-2005. During the period, the overall gender gap in compensation...... for top executives and potential top executives decreased from 35 percent to 31 percent. However, contrary to many other studies, we do not find that the gender gap for Danish top executives disappears when controlling for observed individual and firm characteristics and unobserved individual...... heterogeneity. For CEOs, the raw compensation gap is 28 percent during the period while the estimated compensation gap after controlling for observed and unobserved characteristics increases to 30 percent. For executives below the CEO level, the estimated compensation gap is lower, ranging from 15 to 20 percent...

  2. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  3. Performance pay and the gender wage gap : evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rica, Sara de la; Dolado, Juan José; Vegas Sánchez, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses detailed information from a large wage survey in 2006 to analyze the gender wage gap in the performance-pay (PP) component of total hourly wages and its contribution to the overall gender gap in Spain. Under the assumption that PP is determined in a more competitive fashion than the other wage components, one would expect, in principle, to find a low gender gap in PP. However, this is not what we find. After controlling for observable differences in individual and job characte...

  4. The Gender Wage Gap and Sample Selection via Risk Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung , Seeun

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a new way to estimate the gender wage gap with the introduction of individual risk attitudes using representative Korean data. We es- timate the wage gap with correction for the selection bias, which latter results in the overestimation of this wage gap. Female workers are more risk averse. They hence prefer working in the public sector, where wages are generally lower than in the private sector. It goes on to explain the reduced gender wage gap by develop- ing an appr...

  5. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  6. The Persistence of the Gender Gap in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2008-10-01

    We previously showed[l] that despite teaching with interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on conceptual learning surveys persisted from pre- to posttest, at our institution. Such findings were counter to previously published work[2]. Our current work analyzes factors that may influence the observed gender gap in our courses. Posttest conceptual assessment data are modeled using both multiple regression and logistic regression analyses to estimate the gender gap in posttest scores after controlling for background factors that vary by gender. We find that at our institution the gender gap persists in interactive physics classes, but is largely due to differences in physics and math preparation and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  7. Examination of Poverty Gender Gap among Households in Ukwuani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of Poverty Gender Gap among Households in Ukwuani Local Government area of Delta State, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A test analysis to determine the effect of selected socioeconomic ...

  8. New workplace practices and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Tor, Eriksson

    2005-01-01

    We explore the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap using a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Wage gains from adopting new workplace practices accrue mainly to hourly paid males and salaried females but do not generate large changes in the gender gap ...

  9. Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between ...

  10. Gender Wage Gaps across Skills and Trade Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Yahmed , Sarra

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical studies have shown that the effect of openness on the gender wage gap depends on the skill requirement of the workplace. This paper offers a theoretical explanation to understand that finding. We integrate a statistical discrimination framework with the labour assignment approach to give general conditions under which the matching between firms and workers gives rise to a wider gender wage gap at the upper tail of the distribution, in accordance with empirical evidence. We f...

  11. Gender gaps in performance: Evidence from young lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Ghazala; Ferrer, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and studies the gender gap in performance among associate lawyers in the United States. Unlike other high-skilled professions, the legal profession assesses performance using transparent measures that are widely used and comparable across firms: the number of hours billed to clients and the amount of new client revenue generated. We find clear evidence of a gender gap in annual performance with respect to both measures. Male lawyers bill ten percent more hours and bring i...

  12. An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time labor inputs are complementary in home production. We show that initial beliefs about the gender wage gap are self-fulfilling, and a central result is multiplicity of equilibria. Spouses allocate their ...

  13. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2010-12-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior.

  15. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  16. Gender unemployment gaps in the EU: blame the family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 22 (2016), s. 1-31 E-ISSN 2193-9012 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gender unemployment gap * family leave * gender discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Gender Gaps in High School Students' Homework Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth; Holt, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in human capital investments made outside of the traditional school day suggest that males and females consume, respond to, and form habits relating to education differently. We document robust, statistically significant one-hour weekly gender gaps in secondary students' non-school study time using time diary data from the…

  18. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  19. The Gender "Gap" in Attainment: The Scottish Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Val

    2017-01-01

    The "gender gap" in attainment is an issue in Scotland but is also an international phenomenon. In Scotland, this gap continues to be apparent as girls outperform boys in national examinations. This raises challenges for those working in schools and for policymakers in responding to this phenomenon. This article focuses on appraising…

  20. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  1. Salary Structure Effects and the Gender Pay Gap in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.; Hughes, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the gender salary gap and discrimination based on the most recent national faculty survey data. New estimates for 1999 indicate that male faculty members still earn 20.7% more than comparable female colleagues. Depending upon which decomposition technique is employed, the portion of this gap attributable to…

  2. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  3. A Distributional Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Ahmed; Pushkar Maitra

    2011-01-01

    This paper decomposes the gender wage gap along the entire wage distribution into an endowment effect and a discrimination effect, taking into account possible selection into full-time employment. Applying a new decomposition approach to the Bangladesh Labour Force Survey (LFS) data we find that women are paid less than men every where on the wage distribution and the gap is higher at the lower end of the distribution. Discrimination against women is the primary determinant of the wage gap. W...

  4. Intangibles and the gender wage gap: An analysis of gender wage gaps across occupations in the Finnish private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Rita; Napari, Sami

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares the gender wage differentials of two occupation groups - innovation and non-innovation workers - separately for manufacturing and services using Finnish private-sector data. We apply a decomposition method based on unconditional quantile regression techniques to identify key factors underlying the gender wage gaps observed along the whole wage distribution, as well as changes in these wage gaps between 2002 and 2009. This more nuanced approach provides important new insight...

  5. The gender wage gap and the overcrowding theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo Bru, María

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau. Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2016-2017 “The gender wage gap and the overcrowding theory” is a study based on the obstacles of the female gender when they try to get a job, besides to promote and obtain senior positions. In order to understand the situation as well as the effect and context of the wage gap, we have analyzed different theories and documents. We have emphasized in concepts like overcrowding and wage gap as the most im...

  6. New Workplace Practices and the Gender Wage Gap:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    We estimate the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap in wages in the manufacturing sector. We use a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project...... organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Our estimates from a difference-in-differences model of wages and work practices show that the wage gains from adopting new workplace practices accrue mainly to males so that the gender gap in pay increases at the level...... of the firm, in particular among hourly-paid workers. Considering practices individually, however, a few exceptions are seen: the gender wage gap among salaried workers is significantly reduced in firms which offer project organisation, while the gap in pay among workers paid by the hour is significantly...

  7. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  8. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  9. Unisex Math: Narrowing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E., II

    This study examined gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics of undergraduate students. The Attitudes Toward Mathematics Instrument (ATMI) was administered to students enrolled in introductory mathematics classes (Pre-Calculus, Calculus, and Business Calculus) at two Southeast universities, one a large state university and the other one…

  10. Trends in China’s gender employment and pay gap: estimating gender pay gaps with employment selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the United States and European countries, China has witnessed a widening gender pay gap in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the size of the gender pay gap could still be underestimated as a result of not accounting for the low-wage women who have dropped out of the labor force. As shown by a large and representative set of household survey data in China, since the 1980s the female employment rate has been falling and the gap between male and female employment rates has been ...

  11. School Personnel-Student Racial Congruence and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…

  12. Exploring racial differences in the obesity gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Marissa J; Robinson, Whitney R; Thorpe, Roland J; Cole, Stephen R; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. In the National Health Interview Survey, the obesity gender gap was larger in blacks than whites as follows: 7.7 percentage points (ppts; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-11.9) in blacks versus -1.5 ppts (95% CI: -2.8 to -0.2) in whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for blacks and whites as follows: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6-22.0) in blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1-20.9) in whites. In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for blacks and whites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  14. Childhood Illness and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsan, Marcella; Xing, Anlu; Wise, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bendavid, Eran

    2017-07-01

    Achieving gender equality in education is an important development goal. We tested the hypothesis that the gender gap in adolescent education is accentuated by illnesses among young children in the household. Using Demographic and Health Surveys on 41 821 households in 38 low- and middle-income countries, we used linear regression to estimate the difference in the probability adolescent girls and boys were in school, and how this gap responded to illness episodes among children gender gap in education, we assessed the relationship between the gender gap and national immunization coverage. In our sample of 120 708 adolescent boys and girls residing in 38 countries, girls were 5.08% less likely to attend school than boys in the absence of a recent illness among young children within the same household (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.50%-4.65%). This gap increased to 7.77% (95% CI, 8.24%-7.30%) and 8.53% (95% CI, 9.32%-7.74%) if the household reported 1 and 2 or more illness episodes, respectively. The gender gap in schooling in response to illness was larger in households with a working mother. Increases in child vaccination rates were associated with a closing of the gender gap in schooling (correlation coefficient = 0.34, P = .02). Illnesses among children strongly predict a widening of the gender gap in education. Investments in early childhood health may have important effects on schooling attainment for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Gender inequality, gender pay gap, and pay inequity: Perceptions and reactions in Finnish society and workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Khoreva, Violetta

    2012-01-01

    A growing awareness of gender inequality as well as a conviction that it should be eliminated has produced a number of studies aiming at uncovering its reasons. Much less attention has been given to the subjective dimension of how individuals perceive gender inequality. One of the main elements of gender inequality, the gender pay gap, has also received considerable attention by scholars all around the world. However, several researchers documented that their respondents did not perceive the...

  16. Financial Knowledge and the Gender Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Woodyard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial knowledge has been identified as an issue of importance to individual financial wellness. The FINRA Financial Capability Study provides data that make it possible to assess financial knowledge, and to analyze it in the context of financial satisfaction and participation in financial behaviors that are generally considered positive. This paper looks at these relationships by gender and by age group, identifying key differences in outcomes and behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify areas and issues where policy makers can focus efforts, and where practitioners can develop education and therapy protocols to assist clients in financial development and restoration.

  17. Social psychology and gender efficiency wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Our paper introduces the dimension of social psychology in a model of efficiency wages and gender diversity. In this context, we show that women earn lower wages than men but provide in return relatively less effort. Therefore in order to increase women's productivity, the firm increases their level of employment. In our efficiency-wage theory, women’s lower wages is explained by assuming that efficiency-wages function for women are believed to be different from those of men. This could be th...

  18. An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time...... labor inputs are complementary in home production. We show that initial beliefs about the gender wage gap are self-fulfilling, and a central result is multiplicity of equilibria. Spouses allocate their labor equally, if they expect to earn the same wage rates, which ex post reinforces equal wage rates......; whereas they allocate their labor differently, if they expect to earn different wage rates. The latter situation manifests itself in a gender wage gap. By use of numerical examples, we show that welfare is highest when spouses allocate labor equally. We relate this finding to policy recommendations...

  19. Gender inequality and the gender gap in life expectancy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolip, Petra; Lange, Cornelia

    2018-05-14

    The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) varies substantially in EU 28 Member States. This paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality affects the GGLE as well as life expectancy (LE) in both genders. We conducted an ecological study and used the gender inequality index (GII) developed by the United Nations as well as the gender difference in LE in 2015. We found a correlation between GGLE and GII (r2=0.180) and between GII and LE of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men). Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women's as well as men's health.

  20. Personality Traits and the Gender Gap in Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    personality traits by far dominate the direct effects of gender. They also dominate other potential differences between the sexes like income or education as explanatory factors. Our findings suggest that women tend to be more leftist than men mainly because they have different personalities, which, in turn......What explains the gender gap in ideology, i.e. the observation that women tend to be more leftist than men? We provide new evidence showing that personality traits play a key role. Using a novel high-quality data set, we show that the mediating (i.e. indirect) effects of gender operating through......, shape their expressed ideology. Taking such mediating effects of personality traits into account explains over three quarters of the observed gender gap in general ideological preferences....

  1. Salary and the Gender Salary Gap in the Academic Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Melanie E.

    1999-01-01

    The academic profession is an occupation in which pay has fallen dramatically, resulting in the setting up of a Committee of Inquiry to examine both pay relativities and mechanisms for pay determination. This paper considers salary determination and the gender salary gap in the academic labour market drawing upon a particularly detailed data set of 900 academics from five traditional Scottish Universities. Results reveal an aggregate gender salary differential for academic staff of 15%. Most ...

  2. Educational segregation and the gender wage gap in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To investigate the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by male and female university graduates contributes to the gender pay gap in Greece, an EU country with historically large gender discrepancies in earnings and occupational segregation. In addition, to explore the reasons underlying the distinct educational choices of men and women, with particular emphasis on the role of wage uncertainty.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud Using micro-data from the ...

  3. Perceived Wages and the Gender Gap in STEM Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    We estimate gender differences in elicited wage expectations among German Uni- versity students applying for STEM and non-STEM fields. Descriptively, women expect to earn less than men and also have lower expectations about wages of average graduates across different fields. Using a two-step estimation procedure accounting for self-selection, we find that the gender gap in own expected wages can be explained to the extent of 54-69% by wage expectations for average graduates across different f...

  4. Gender wage gap in the Turkish labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Berna

    2011-01-01

    106 pages The aim of this study is to explore the causes and the extent of the gender wage gap in the Turkish labor market. For this purpose, standard wage regressions are estimated using micro data from an official survey for the year 2006. A number of variables in the dataset enable a comprehensive quantitative analysis including both human capital variables and job-related variables. Furthermore, in order to examine the wage gap in detail, Oaxaca decomposition method is e...

  5. Accounting for the Gender Income Gap in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zizhuo

    2000-01-01

    Accounting for the Gender Income Gap in Urban China Zizhuo Sun (ABSTRACT) Using data from the China Housing Survey, that was conducted in 1993, the present study attempts to learn whether and how specific factors--human capital (including education and health), guanxi (social connections), housework, and employment in different sectors of the economy influence the income gap between men and women in urban China when traditional, soc...

  6. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean Experience ... of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. ... implementation of policies meant to promote education of girls and women.

  7. The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government department: a case study of ... particularly in terms of the upward mobility of women in the workplace, remains open. ... leadership should be considered in addressing gender issues.

  8. Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-03

    Nov 3, 2016 ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health ... yet limited access to sexual and reproductive health services is preventing women and girls ... forms of sexual violence, trafficking, and abuse and gender discrimination.

  9. Gender wage gap : Discrimination or Human Capital? A subgroup approach

    OpenAIRE

    Etoundi Atenga, Eric Martial; Chameni Nembua, Célestin; Meva Avoulou, Henri Joel

    2013-01-01

    The working population is becoming more and more feminized from 2000 to 2008 in Cameroon. Women receive on average a salary lower than that of the men and the sex remains a significant determiner of the professional position in Cameroon. From Oaxaca-Blinder(1973)decomposition, this work suggests studying gender wage gap composition in private and para public sectors by using subgroup approach. Results show that wage gap is estimated to 8.8% in favor of men. This gap is higher for employees ag...

  10. Gender as a predictor for academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Profesionalisme adalah hal penting yang harus diperhatikan oleh profesi dokter agar dapat menjaga kepercayaan masayarakat pada profesi ini. Mengembangkan atribut profesionalisme selama masa studi merupakan langkah yang dapat dilakukan oleh institusi pendidikan untuk mengembangkan profesionalisme siswa. Meskipun demikian, professionalism mungkin tidak hanya berpengaruh pada kinerjanya sebagai dokter kelak, namun juga akan berpengaruh pada kinerja ketika masih menjadi mahasiswa. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara faktor demografi dan atribut profesionalisme dengan keberhasilan akademik siswa. Metode: Subjek penelitian potong lintang ini terdiri dari mahasiswa tahun ke 4 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (FK Unissula Semarang semester Tahun ke empat. Data mengenai atribut profesionalisme dinilai dengan menggunakan inventory “Penilaian profesionalisme mahasiswa kedokteran”, yang disusun dengan menggunakan metode Delphi oleh beberapa ahli dari berbagai bidang. Data mengenai keberhasilan akademik siswa yang diketahui dari indeks prestasi akademik (IPK dikumpulkan dari Unit IT FK Unissula. Data dianalisis memakai regresi Cox dengan waktu yang konstan menggunakan STATA versi 9. Hasil: Sebanyak 86.25% (207 dari 240 mahasiswa berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil akhir analisis menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat satupun atribut profesionalisme yang merupakan prediktor keberhasilan akademik yang dicerminkan IPK. Meskipun demikian, gender merupakan faktor yang dapat memprediksi keberhasilan akademik mahasiswa FK Unissula. Mahasiswa perempuan dibandingkan mahasiswa laki-laki 35% lebih tinggi mendapat nilai IPK [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1, 35; 95 interval kepercayaan (CI = 1, 05-1, 74. Kesimpulan: Mahasiswa perempuan dibandingkan laki-laki lebih berhasil untuk mendapatkan nilai indeks prestasi kumulatif. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 43 - 50 Kata kunci: gender, atribut

  11. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Teacher qualification and the achievement gap in early primary grades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Easton-Brooks

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act (P.L. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1245, 2002 holds schools accountable for reducing the academic achievement gap between the different ethnic groups and requires elementary school teachers to have at least a bachelors degree and a state certification. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the qualification requirement of NCLB to the goal of reducing the academic achievement gap. The study found that students with a certified teacher for most of their early school experience scored higher in reading than students who did not have a certified teacher. In addition, certification was associated with slightly narrowing the academic gap between African American and European American students across early elementary grades.

  13. Expanding METCO and Closing Achievement Gaps. White Paper No. 129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Katherine; Ardon, Ken

    2015-01-01

    School systems around the United States are heavily segregated by income and race. At the same time, an achievement gap between white and nonwhite students persists despite many efforts to close it. Against this background, in this white paper the authors explore the history and successes of the Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity…

  14. Minding the Achievement Gap One Classroom at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jane E.; Ford, Sharon; Black, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Do teachers have the power to close achievement gaps? Here's a book that boldly claims they do and lays out a blueprint for how to do something now to help students who are falling short of standards. Regardless of the student population you need to address--English language learners, special education, or just the unmotivated and hard to…

  15. Modelling of Factors Influencing Gender Difference in Mathematics Achievement Using TIMSS 2011 Data for Singaporean Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Seok

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed gender difference in mathematics achievement to various sociocultural influences. Singapore is a country of higher gender equality as represented in the Global Gender Gap Index and Singaporean girls perform as well or higher than boys in international mathematics assessments. This study develops a conceptual model…

  16. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  17. Gender Earnings Gap among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of the gender earnings gap among young European higher education graduates, with a particular focus on competencies controlling for individual background and job characteristics. The results show that much of the female worker's earnings advantage can be explained by job characteristics. With respect to the…

  18. Gender unemployment gaps: evidence from the new EU member states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 41-97 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender unemployment gap * labor force participation * family leave policies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp410.pdf

  19. Impact of Scaffolding and Question Structure on the Gender Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Hedgeland, Holly; Jordan, Sally

    2017-01-01

    We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question…

  20. Gender wage gap and segregation in late transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    č. 182 (2001), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition * gender wage gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp182.pdf

  1. Gender gap in admission performance under competitive pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    -, č. 371 (2008), s. 1-22 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender gap in performance * test anxiety * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp371.pdf

  2. State Policy Strategies for Narrowing the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Coghlan, Erin; Hinkley, Sara

    2018-01-01

    #MeToo and #TimesUp protests about the treatment of women in the workplace have brought renewed attention to gender pay equity. This brief looks at three legislative solutions that aim to close the gap by increasing pay transparency and pushing employers to set salaries to the position, not the history of the person doing the job.

  3. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  4. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  5. How Does Collective Bargaining Affect the Gender Pay Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Marta M.; Saporta, Ishak

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Industry Wage Survey data from nine manufacturing industries indicated that unionization made the gender wage gap considerably smaller in six industries. In the other three, the overall proportion of women in the industry and the characteristics of unions may contribute to the disparity. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)

  6. Is the gender wage gap declining in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I try to answer the question whether the gender wage gap in the Netherlands is declining. I posed this question because on several other indicators labour market differences between men and women in the Netherlands declined or disappeared altogether. First of all the labour market

  7. Gender Gaps in Cincinnati Public Schools, Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaux, Nancy E.; Gerring, Lori F.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the gender gap in salaries and promotions among Cincinnati (Ohio) public school teachers from the beginning of the school system in 1830 to 1991. Current data show that, although increasing numbers of women are being promoted to principal, the proportion still lags behind that of men. (SLD)

  8. Does Menstruation Explain Gender Gaps in Work Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Mariesa A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2012-01-01

    Ichino and Moretti (2009) find that menstruation may contribute to gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings, based on evidence that absences of young female Italian bank employees follow a 28-day cycle. We find this evidence is not robust to the correction of coding errors or small changes in specification, and we find no evidence of increased…

  9. A note on selection and gender unemployment gaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2017), s. 428-438 ISSN 0195-3613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : selection bias * Manski bounds * gender unemployment gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2016

  10. A note on selection and gender unemployment gaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2017), s. 428-438 ISSN 0195-3613 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : selection bias * Manski bounds * gender unemployment gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2016

  11. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  12. "Quietly Stripping the Pastels": The Undergraduate Gender Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakaboski, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The "new" gender gap refers to women as the majority of the undergraduate student population, and the national newspaper discourse on this trend represents a value system that translates into societal implications and potential policy. The media portrays a "boy crisis" with male students as the victims of female students' enrollment success. The…

  13. The gender health gap in China: A decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Bago d'Uva, Teresa; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2015-07-01

    Around the world, and in spite of their higher life expectancy, women tend to report worse health than men until old age. Explanations for this gender gap in self-perceived health may be different in China than in other countries due to the traditional phenomenon of son preference. We examine several possible reasons for the gap using the Chinese SAGE data. We first rule out differential reporting by gender as a possible explanation, exploiting information on anchoring vignettes in eight domains of health functioning. Decomposing the gap in general self-assessed health, we find that about 31% can be explained by socio-demographic factors, most of all by discrimination against women in education in the 20th century. A more complete specification including chronic conditions and health functioning fully explains the remainder of the gap (about 69%). Adding chronic conditions and health functioning also explains at least two thirds of the education contribution, suggesting how education may affect health. In particular, women's higher rates of arthritis, angina and eye diseases make the largest contributions to the gender health gap, by limiting mobility, increasing pain and discomfort, and causing sleep problems and a feeling of low energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Black-White achievement gap: Do state policies matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I. Braun

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding issue in American education is the gap in academic achievement between majority and minority students. The goal of this study is to accumulate and evaluate evidence on the relationship between state education policies and changes in the Black-White achievement gap, while addressing some of the methodological issues that have led to differences in interpretations of earlier findings. To that end, we consider the experiences of ten states that together enroll more than forty percent of the nation's Black students. We estimate the trajectories of Black student and White student achievement on the NAEP 8th grade mathematics assessment over the period 1992 to 2000, and examine the achievement gap at three levels of aggregation: the state as a whole, groups of schools (strata within a state defined by the SES level of the student population, and within schools within a stratum within a state. From 1992 to 2000, at every level of aggregation, mean achievement rose for both Black students and White students. However, for most states the achievement gaps were large and changed very little at every level of aggregation. The gaps are pervasive, profound and persistent. There is substantial heterogeneity among states in the types of policies they pursued, as well as the coherence and consistency of those policies during the period 1988-1998. We find that states' overall policy rankings (based on our review of the data correlate moderately with their record in improving Black student achievement but are somewhat less useful in predicting their record with respect to reducing the achievement gaps. States' rankings on commitment to teacher quality correlate almost as well as did the overall policy ranking. Thus, state reform efforts are a blunt tool, but a tool nonetheless. Our findings are consistent with the following recommendations: states' reform efforts should be built on broad-based support and buffered as much as possible from changes in

  15. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender Gaps and Gendered Action in a First-Year Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Stang, Jared B.; Holmes, N. G.; Kumar, Dhaneesh; Bonn, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is established that male students outperform female students on almost all commonly used physics concept inventories. However, there is significant variation in the factors that contribute to the gap, as well as the direction in which they influence it. It is presently unknown if such a gender gap exists on the relatively new Concise Data…

  17. Gender and Public Pensions in China: Do Pensions Reduce the Gender Gap in Compensation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes gender issues with respect to public pensions in China. Because provision of public pensions in China is highly fragmented, with different programs applying to different groups of people, we focus on the largest mandatory public pension program in urban China, the Urban Employees’ Pension Program. The paper uses data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS for 2011 to empirically analyze the causes of gender differences in benefit levels between men and women. We argue that raising the retirement age for women from its current age for most women of 50 would be a major step toward gender equality in public pension benefits. Women would have higher benefits than currently due to having longer working careers, and they may have higher wages as a result of their longer careers. They would also have higher benefits from the individual accounts pensions due to more years of contributions and investment earnings, and a more generous benefit conversion factor due to the older age when they started receiving benefits. Nonetheless, an important feature of the Chinese public pension system is that the gender gap in benefits is less than the gender gap in earnings. In many countries, the reverse is the situation, in part because women have fewer years of work, as well as lower earnings, than men. We explore reasons why the gender pension gap in China reduces the gender gap in compensation.

  18. Gender Equality in Educational Achievement An East-West Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Schnepf, Sylke Viola

    2004-01-01

    Data on educational access show gender parity of pupils attending primary and secondary schools in transition countries. The first aim of this analysis is to examine whether the gender balance in educational access translates also into gender equality in educational achievement. There are several and very recent international surveys available measuring pupils learning achievement and functional literacy in schools. These surveys are typically analysed in isolation from each other even though...

  19. Educational standardization and gender differences in mathematics achievement: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Hanna; Livneh, Idit

    2013-03-01

    We argue that between-country variations in the gender gap in mathematics are related to the level of educational system standardization. In countries with standardized educational systems both genders are exposed to similar knowledge and are motivated to invest in studying mathematics, which leads to similar achievements. We hypothesize that national examinations and between-teacher uniformity in covering major mathematics topics are associated with a smaller gender gap in a country. Based on Trends of International Mathematical and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, we use multilevel regression models to compare the link of these two factors to the gender gap in 32 countries, controlling for various country characteristics. The use of national examinations and less between-teacher instructional variation prove major factors in reducing the advantage of boys over girls in mathematics scores and in the odds of excelling. Factors representing gender stratification, often analyzed in comparative gender-gap research in mathematics, are at most marginal in respect of the gap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender Wage Gap Accounting: The Role of Selection Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Michael; Kim, Seik; Leukhina, Oksana

    2015-10-01

    Mulligan and Rubinstein (2008) (MR) argued that changing selection of working females on unobservable characteristics, from negative in the 1970s to positive in the 1990s, accounted for nearly the entire closing of the gender wage gap. We argue that their female wage equation estimates are inconsistent. Correcting this error substantially weakens the role of the rising selection bias (39 % versus 78 %) and strengthens the contribution of declining discrimination (42 % versus 7 %). Our findings resonate better with related literature. We also explain why our finding of positive selection in the 1970s provides additional support for MR's main hypothesis that an exogenous rise in the market value of unobservable characteristics contributed to the closing of the gender gap.

  1. The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Skiba, Russell J.; Noguera, Pedro A.

    2010-01-01

    The gap in achievement across racial and ethnic groups has been a focus of education research for decades, but the disproportionate suspension and expulsion of Black, Latino, and American Indian students has received less attention. This article synthesizes research on racial and ethnic patterns in school sanctions and considers how…

  2. Gender and racial training gaps in Oregon apprenticeship programs

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Günseli; Bilginsoy, Cihan; Williams, Larry S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses micro data from Oregon to measure the gender and minority training gaps in apprenticeship training. Its methodological innovation is the use of on-the-job training credit hours of exiting workers as the measure of the quantity of training. Apprentices who started training between 1991 and 2002 are followed through 2007. Controlling for individual and program attributes, women and racial/ethnic minorities on average receive less training than men and whites, respectively. Union...

  3. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Dawkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  4. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Hedgeland, Holly; Jordan, Sally

    2017-12-01

    We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  5. The gender wage gap in an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Plasman, Robert; Sissoko Ndeye, Salimata

    2005-01-01

    Using a rich and comparable matched employer-employee data set, we analyse international differences in gender pay gaps in the private sector for a sample of five European economies: Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Using different methods, we examine how wage structure, differences in the distribution of measured characteristics and occupational segregation contribute to explain the pattern of international differences. Furthermore, we take account of the fact that indirect discri...

  6. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

  7. State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Educational Attainment and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the 1986 and 1991 Canadian Censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Pamela; Shannon, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Uses Canadian census data to examine effects of gender differences in educational attainment on the gender earnings gap for full-time, full-year Canadian workers. These educational attainment differences account for virtually none of the gender earnings gap in 1985 and 1990. Gender differences in field of study matter somewhat more. (Contains 17…

  9. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  10. Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Rural Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the mathematics achievement of rural male and female students in Cross River State, Nigeria; ...

  11. IRIS, Gender, and Student Achievement at University of Genova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the…

  12. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  13. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  14. The 'gender gap' in final examination results at Oxford University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, J; Martin, M; O'Doherty, J

    2000-08-01

    A lower proportion of women than men obtain first class degrees at British universities (the so-called gender gap). At Oxford University, this difference is not seen in all degree subjects but is found both in some Arts and in some Science subjects. We have used a questionnaire administered under supervision to undergraduates 2 to 3 months before their final examination to assess factors which might be expected to affect examination performance. These included measures of verbal and non-verbal reasoning (Alice Heim AH6 test), self-esteem, motivation, responses to stresses of examinations and of personal relationships, happiness, risk-taking and working patterns. We have also obtained a detailed breakdown of the marks the students were given in the examination. Women scored higher on negative emotions while men scored higher on self-esteem, their perception of their own academic efficacy and on risk-taking strategies, but none of these factors predicted outcome. Verbal reasoning ability did predict outcome but there was no gender difference. Hence, it is concluded that the gender gap is not due to any of these individual differences and is more likely to be related to the nature of the academic assessment system.

  15. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  16. Gender gaps and gendered action in a first-year physics laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Day

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] It is established that male students outperform female students on almost all commonly used physics concept inventories. However, there is significant variation in the factors that contribute to the gap, as well as the direction in which they influence it. It is presently unknown if such a gender gap exists on the relatively new Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA and, therefore, whether gendered actions in the teaching lab might influence—or be influenced by—the gender gap. To begin to get an estimates of the gap, its predictors, and its correlates, we have measured performance on the CDPA at the pretest and post-test level. We have also made observations of how students in mixed-gender partnerships divide their time in the lab. We find a gender gap on the CDPA that persists from pre- to post-test and that is as big as, if not bigger than, similar reported gaps. We also observe compelling differences in how students divide their time in the lab. In mixed-gender pairs, male students tend to monopolize the computer, female and male students tend to share the equipment equally, and female students tend to spend more time on other activities that are not the equipment or computer, such as writing or speaking to peers. We also find no correlation between computer use, when students are presumably working with their data, and performance on the CDPA post-test. In parallel to our analysis, we scrutinize some of the more commonly used approaches to similar data. We argue in favor of more explicitly checking the assumptions associated with the statistical methods that are used and improved reporting and contextualization of effect sizes. Ultimately, we claim no evidence that female students are less capable of learning than their male peers, and we suggest caution when using gain measures to draw conclusions about differences in science classroom performance across gender.

  17. The gender gap in mental health service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Bracke, P

    2015-07-01

    This study examines why men engage less in mental health service use, by studying how gender is performed in interactions, following the doing gender perspective. We hypothesize that seeking help for mental illness may constitute a gendered role conflict among men since help seeking is associated with femininity. Therefore, we expect that men will recommend reliance on self-care options to other men, and in cases in which professional treatment is recommended, they will prefer medication to psychotherapy. We also expect that men will report greater stigmatizing attitudes. The survey Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study (2009) conducted interviews of a representative sample of the Belgian general population (N = 743). The vignette technique, depicting depressive and schizophrenic symptoms, was used. Multiple linear and logistic models were estimated in SPSS. In male vignettes, self-care is more likely to be recommended, both by male and female respondents. Men are less likely to acknowledge the helpfulness of psychotherapy and women rate psychotherapy as less helpful when judging a man compared to a woman. Men rate tranquilizers as more helpful for other males than that women do for other females. Furthermore, male respondents seem to ascribe more shame and blame to the situation. The gender gap in mental health service use is due not only to men and their negative attitudes toward help seeking, but also to structured social norms that are reconstructed in interactions. Women also contribute to the maintenance of masculinity norms.

  18. The Gender Pay Gap in Europe from a Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    FOUBERT, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principle of equal pay for men and women for work of equal value has been key to the European Union ever since its foundation. It was laid down in the original Treaty, and brought into practice by several directives. Also the Court of Justice's case law has boosted its importance. Notwithstanding these efforts at the legal level, the average gender pay gap for the 27 EU Member States (17.6% in 2008) is hardly diminishing. It is against this worrisome background that the European Commision...

  19. The Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Polycarpou, Alexandros; Vrachimis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    We consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 24 EU member states, all of which share the objective of gender equality, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries and selection corrections affect the offered gap, sometimes substantially. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in most cou...

  20. Can the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in FYR Macedonia Decrease the Gender Wage Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    F. Angel-Urdinola, Diego

    2008-01-01

    This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels amo...

  1. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We...

  2. How a gender gap in belonging contributes to the gender gap in physics participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane G.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of research indicates that feeling a secure sense of belonging in academic settings is critical to students' achievement. In the current work, we present data collected over multiple semesters of a calculus-based introductory physics class indicating that women feel a lower sense of belonging than men in physics. This finding is important because our data also indicate that having a strong sense of belonging in physics positively predicts the degree to which all students see the value of physics in their daily life (an outcome that predicts motivation and persistence in achievement settings) as well as performance on exams in the course. We identify one potential antecedent of women's relatively lower sense of belonging in physics, namely, negative cultural stereotypes about women's inferior ability in physics compared to men. We then discuss pedagogical strategies that might be employed to enhance women's sense of belonging in physics.

  3. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspecti...

  4. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  5. The Unique Trio: Academic Achievement, Sport, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachaf, Miri; Katz, Yaacov J.; Shoval, Ella

    2013-01-01

    This study examined gender, participation in sport and academic achievement of Israeli high school students. The study examined the academic achievement of those who participated in competitive or non-competitive sport and those who did not participate in sport. Results indicate that female athletes who participated in competitive sport attained…

  6. Depression, gender, and the treatment gap in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Orozco, Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Gender is associated to lifetime risk of mood disorders, women having the highest lifetime and 12-month prevalence. In Mexico one out of five individuals with any mood disorder receives treatment during the first year. We evaluate the ages at which women and men are more vulnerable for the first onset of a major depressive episode, the longest duration and greatest number of episodes, the areas of daily functioning most affected, and which variables predict whether or not a person receives any kind of treatment. The Mexican National Comorbidity Survey, as part of the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative, is based on a stratified, multistage area probability Mexican urban household sample aged 18 to 65 (n=5782). Wald X(2) tests were performed to evaluate gender and cohort differences; logistic regression models were performed to evaluate gender and cohort as treatment predictors. The most vulnerable group is the cohort of 45-54 year-old women. Once a first episode occurs, there are no sex differences in terms of number or length of episodes. There is a gap in service use, especially among 18-29 year-old women; the oldest women are the most impaired. Individuals from rural communities are not represented and there may have been recall bias due to the retrospective design. Efforts should focus on factors related to the first onset episode and on early treatment programs to reduce the risk of subsequent episodes. Research and health resources should attend to the most vulnerable group, and the youngest women, who are in the reproductive age and have the largest treatment gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Performance Gaps: Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Role of Gender Differences in Sleep Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    Sleep studies suggest that girls go to sleep earlier, are more active in the morning, and cope with sleep deprivation better than boys. We provide the first causal evidence on how gender differences in sleep cycles can help explain the gender performance gap. We exploit over 240,000 assignment-level grades from a quasi-experiment with a community of middle and high schools where students' schedules alternated between morning and afternoon start times each month. Relative to girls, we find tha...

  8. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  9. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  10. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  11. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Madsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%, but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by

  12. The Political Gender Gap: Gender Bias in Facial Inferences that Predict Voting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bowman, Nicholas E.; Gill, Harleen

    2008-01-01

    Background Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. Methodology/Principal Finding Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. Conclusions/Significance Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our findings underscore

  13. The political gender gap: gender bias in facial inferences that predict voting behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y Chiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our

  14. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender, Major and Wage. A Study of the Gender Pay Gap among Italian University Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Cantalini Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In Italian labour market women are paid less than men. The qualitative dimension of education, namely the field of study, might be considered as one of the most important factor behind these wage inequalities, since men and women unequally distribute across university majors and women are more likely to hold a degree in not lucrative fields. In this paper we analyze the gender wage gap among early-career Italian university graduates. First, we investigate the main factors behind women's econo...

  16. A Semiotic Analysis of the Gender Equality Paradigm. Case study: the Gender Pay Gap Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Manolache

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the new European space of identity, attitude and action challenges, syntagms such as “unity in diversity” or “equal pay for work of equal value” have become identitarian brands for social groups with a high-level of self-awareness. Having the social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen [1996] 2006 as theoretical background, we focused our analysis on the gender equality paradigm. The empirical data were provided by four visual texts of the Gender Pay Gap campaign, initiated by the European Commission in March 2009, in order to map the new European “puzzle-space” . The analysis showed the importance of compositional, representational and interactive meanings within the European discourse on equality of chances and gender.

  17. Cohort Effects on the Gender Wage Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naur, Michèle; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    In this study the gender wage gap within three birth cohorts is analysed on the basis of a panel sample of Danish workers covering the period 1979-1990. During the latest decades there has been a considerable change in the female participat ion rate, the part time frequency and the educational...... level of women. The changed position of women and the building up of the welfare state have made women less dependent on the income of a husband and changed the division of labour within the households. These changes may, to a large extent, be caused by differences between older and younger cohorts....... Traditional human capital wage functions are estimated in order to investigate to what extent these changes are reflected in cohort differences with respect to the influence that children, marriage, labour market experience and educational level may have on the earning capacity...

  18. Gender Gaps in the Effects of Childhood Family Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Lundberg, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    We examine the differential effects of family disadvantage on the education and adult labor market outcomes of men and women using high-quality administrative data on the entire population of Denmark born between 1966 and 1995. We link parental education and family structure during childhood...... to male-female and brother-sister differences in teenage outcomes, educational attainment, and adult earnings and employment. Our results are consistent with U.S. findings that boys benefit more from an advantageous family environment than do girls in terms of the behavior and grade-school outcomes....... Father's education, which has not been examined in previous studies, is particularly important for sons. However, we find a very different pattern of parental influence on adult outcomes. The gender gaps in educational attainment, employment, and earnings are increasing in maternal education, benefiting...

  19. Women Labor Market: Gender Pay Gap and Its Determinants / Trh práce žen: Gender pay gap a jeho determinanty [available in Czech only

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Mysíková

    2007-01-01

    This study is concerned with decomposing the gender pay gap in the Czech Republic. It aims not only to compare male and female wage-equations but also to uncover the gender pay gap structure. The decision of many women not to participate in the labor market can be influenced by potentially low wages. Their entry into the labor market could increase the gender pay gap in large measure. The advantage of this study is that it uses a selection method to estimate the male and female wage equations...

  20. Gender wage gap when women are highly inactive: Evidence from repeated imputations with Macedonian data

    OpenAIRE

    Petreski, Marjan; Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica; Petreski, Blagica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand if large gender employment and participation gaps in Macedonia can shed some light on the gender wage gap. A large contingent of inactive women in Macedonia including long-term unemployed due to the transition process, female remittance receivers from the male migrant, unpaid family workers in agriculture and so on, is outside employment, but is not necessarily having the worst labour-market characteristics. In addition, both gender wage gap and...

  1. Decomposing the gender wage gap with sample selection adjustment: evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Badel; Ximena Peña

    2010-01-01

    Despite the remarkable improvement of female labor market characteristics, a sizeable gender wage gap exists in Colombia. We employ quantile regression techniques to examine the degree to which current small differences in the distribution of observable characteristics can explain the gender gap. We find that the gap is largely explained by gender differences in the rewards to labor market characteristics and not by differences in the distribution of characteristics. We claim that Colombian w...

  2. Equality and Diversity Policy in the British Public Sector: Narrowing the Gender Pay Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the effect of equality and diversity policies on the gender pay gap in UK public sector. The study is evaluated using secondary data from Labour Force Surveys (LFS), Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) and Workplace Employees Relations Survey (WERS) which compares the presence of equality and diversity policies with the simultaneous gender pay gap in UK public sector in order to determine the extent to which these policies have affected the gender pay gap in ...

  3. THE GENDER PAY GAP IN VIETNAM, 1993-2002: A QUANTILE REGRESSION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hung T; Reilly, Barry

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses mean and quantile regression analysis to investigate the gender pay gap for the wage employed in Vietnam over the period 1993 to 2002. It finds that the Doi moi reforms appear to have been associated with a sharp reduction in gender pay gap disparities for the wage employed. The average gender pay gap in this sector halved between 1993 and 2002 with most of the contraction evident by 1998. There has also been a narrowing in the gender pay gap at most selected points of the con...

  4. Unequal Depression for Equal Work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001–2002 US nationally representati...

  5. Rexamining the gender wage gap : evidence from an online labour market experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan, Syed Muntasir

    2015-01-01

    Gender wage gap have declined over the past decades with the progression of society and legal enforcement of equal wages. However, there is still existence of quite a significant gender wage gap even in developed countries. There are number of theories that have emerged regarding the psychological orientation of women that are likely to be responsible for the prevalence of gender wage. But most of these studies either focuses on the demand side in isolation that is the gender d...

  6. The 'gender gap' in authorship in nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Linda; Hall, Jenny; Mamun, Abdulla A

    2011-11-01

    Gender bias has been found in medical literature, with more men than women as first or senior authors of papers, despite about half of doctors being women. Nursing is about 90% female, so we aimed to determine if similar biases exist in nursing literature. Taking the eight non-specialist nursing journals with the highest impact factors for that profession, we counted the numbers of men and women first authors over 30 years. We used nursing journals from around the world which attract the highest impact factors for nursing publication. Eight journals qualified for entry, three from the United Kingdom, four from the United States of America, and one from Australia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Using Chi-square and Fisher exact tests, we determined differences between the numbers of men and women across all the journals, between countries (USA, UK and Australia), changes over the 30 years, and changes within journals over time. RESULTS Despite the small proportion of men in the nursing workforce, up to 30% of first authors were men. UK journals were more likely to have male authors than USA journals, and this increased over time. USA journals had proportions of male first authors consistent with the male proportion of its nursing workforce. CONCLUSIONS In the UK (though not in the USA) gender bias in nursing publishing exists, even though the nursing workforce is strongly feminized. This warrants further research, but is likely to be due to the same reasons for the gender gap in medical publishing; that is, female nurses take time out to have families, and social and family responsibilities prevent them taking opportunities for career progression, whereas men's careers often are not affected in such ways.

  7. [Boys' health survey-between gender gap and information backlog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundl, S; Kranz, J; Rosellen, J; Steffens, C; Steffens, J

    2018-05-02

    Early detection examinations take place from birth to the age of 6 years. The youth screening is a continuation of the screening of the "U-series" and should be carried out between the age of 12-15 and 16-17, respectively. Afterwards adolescent girls have good contact with a gynecologist, but adolescent boys usually do not have a medical contact person who they can trust in. To evaluate the state of knowledge on boys' health, a 15-item comprehensive knowledge survey was conducted among ninth grade students at 7 secondary schools (Gymnasien) in North Rhine-Westphalia. The knowledge survey took place at three specified times (before, immediately after and approximately 3 months after adolescent sexual education classes). Only completed questionnaires were analyzed and evaluated in a gender-specific manner. Overall, 459 students participated from March-September 2017. Before sexual education instruction, about half of all questions were answered correctly by the students. Immediately after class, the proportion increased by a factor of 1.5 to a total of 79.24%. Then 2-3 months after the class, the percentage was 69.67%. Considering gender separately, this resulted in an increase of 15.32% for the female students and 16.99% for the male students. The knowledge survey reveals a need to catch up on facts on the subject of boys' health. Despite evidence of an increase in knowledge of both sexes after sexual education instruction, there is a gender gap. Hence, a preventive check-up especially for boys should be established and offered. Issues such as the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, options for vaccination against human papillomavirus, etc. should be actively addressed.

  8. Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? : Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arulampalam, Wiji; Booth, Alison L.; Bryan, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns bet...

  9. Gender salary and promotion gaps in Japanese academia: Results from science and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi; Thomas Maloney

    2015-01-01

    Using original survey data on Japanese academics in science and engineering, we examined the gender salary and promotion gaps. We found a 6\\% gender salary gap after controlling for ranks. This gap was unaffected when quality and quantity of publications were controlled for. In contrast, promotion gap disappeared when publication variables were controlled for. We failed to find negative effects of marriage and children on women's salary and promotion, though a positive sorting into motherhood...

  10. Gender salary and promotion gaps in Japanese academia: Results from science and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; 高橋, 新吾; Maloney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Using original survey data on Japanese academics in science and engineering, we examined the gender salary and promotion gaps. We found a 6% gender salary gap after controlling for ranks. This gap was unaffected when quality and quantity of publications were controlled for. In contrast, promotion gap disappeared when publication variables were controlled for. We failed to find negative effects of marriage and children on women's salary and promotion, though a positive sorting into motherhood ...

  11. Explaining Gender Gaps in English Composition and College Algebra in College: The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndum, Edwin; Allen, Jeff; Way, Jason; Casillas, Alex

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of six psychosocial factors (PSFs) in explaining gender gaps in English Composition (n = 8,633) and College Algebra (n = 2,261) using data of first-year female (55%) and male students from 42 colleges. Using a multilevel model and controlling for prior achievement, we found that PSFs mediated between 3% and 41% of the gender…

  12. Gender Gap in the National College Entrance Exam Performance in China: A Case Study of a Typical Chinese Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to investigate gender achievement gap in the National College Entrance Exam in a typical municipality in China, which is the crucial examination for the transition from high school to higher education in that country. Using ordinary least square model and quantile regression model, the study consistently finds that…

  13. The Speaker Gender Gap at Critical Care Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise; Cook, Deborah; Herridge, Margaret; Owais, Sawayra; Metaxa, Victoria

    2018-06-01

    To review women's participation as faculty at five critical care conferences over 7 years. Retrospective analysis of five scientific programs to identify the proportion of females and each speaker's profession based on conference conveners, program documents, or internet research. Three international (European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine) and two national (Critical Care Canada Forum, U.K. Intensive Care Society State of the Art Meeting) annual critical care conferences held between 2010 and 2016. Female faculty speakers. None. Male speakers outnumbered female speakers at all five conferences, in all 7 years. Overall, women represented 5-31% of speakers, and female physicians represented 5-26% of speakers. Nursing and allied health professional faculty represented 0-25% of speakers; in general, more than 50% of allied health professionals were women. Over the 7 years, Society of Critical Care Medicine had the highest representation of female (27% overall) and nursing/allied health professional (16-25%) speakers; notably, male physicians substantially outnumbered female physicians in all years (62-70% vs 10-19%, respectively). Women's representation on conference program committees ranged from 0% to 40%, with Society of Critical Care Medicine having the highest representation of women (26-40%). The female proportions of speakers, physician speakers, and program committee members increased significantly over time at the Society of Critical Care Medicine and U.K. Intensive Care Society State of the Art Meeting conferences (p gap at critical care conferences, with male faculty outnumbering female faculty. This gap is more marked among physician speakers than those speakers representing nursing and allied health professionals. Several organizational strategies can address this gender gap.

  14. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed.

  15. Gender as predictor of academic achievement in English among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of gender on academic achievement in English Language among senior secondary school students in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State. The researchers adopted survey designfor the study. The study sample comprise 660 Senior Secondary School two (SSS II) students drawn from ...

  16. Influence of Gender and Cognitive Styles on Students' Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of gender and cognitive styles on students' achievement in biology in senior secondary schools in Anambra State. One research question and one null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. A causal comparative research design and a population of 12,000 (SSII) ...

  17. Is it what you do or where you work that matters most? Gender composition and the gender wage gap revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Mahmood; Nekby, Lena; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of gender segregation on wages using matched employer-employee private-sector data from Sweden. The questions that we are interested in examining are two-fold. Has the effect of gender segregation on the gender wage gap been overestimated and what matters more for gender wage differentials, occupation or establishment segregation? Our results show that a too detailed aggregation of occupations and/or establishments leads to an overestimation ...

  18. Depression in later life: A closer look at the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciai, Francesco; Hardy, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Gender differences in depressive symptoms have been extensively documented, with women reporting a higher number of depressive symptoms than men. However, studies offer different explanations for why such a gap exists. The goal of the current paper is to analyze how much of the observed gender gap in depression may be attributed to (1) compositional versus (2) reporting differences or (3) differences in reactivity to adversities. We contribute to this literature by testing, net of compositional differences, whether the relationship between reporting behavior and depressive symptoms is gendered and whether accounting for the possibility of gender-specific reactivity alters the structure of the gender gap at older ages. Our results show that the observed gender gap in depression (1) only partially derives from compositional differences; (2) is not an artifact of a gender-specific reporting style; and remarkably (3) men appear more sensitive to adversities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gendered Education in a Gendered World: Looking beyond Cosmetic Solutions to the Gender Gap in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education…

  20. Students’ Gender-Related Choices and Achievement in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jugović

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research was to explore the role of motivation, gender roles and stereotypes in the explanation of students’ educational outcomes in a stereotypically male educational domain: physics. Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value model was used as a theoretical framework for the research. The research sample included 736 grammar school students from Zagreb, Croatia. The variables explored were expectancy of success, selfconcept of ability and subjective task values of physics, gender roles and stereotypes, and educational outcomes: academic achievement in physics, intention to choose physics at the high school leaving exam, and intention to choose a technical sciences university course. The results showed that girls had a lower self-concept of ability and lower expectancies of success in physics compared to boys, in spite of their higher physics school grades. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-concept of physics ability was the strongest predictor of physics school grades, whereas the utility value of physics was the key predictor of educational intentions for both genders. Expectancy of success was one of the key predictors of girls’ educational intentions, as well. Endorsement of a typically masculine gender role predicted girls’ and boys’ stronger intentions to choose a stereotypically male educational domain, whereas acceptance of the stereotype about the poorer talent of women in technical sciences occupations predicted girls’ lower educational outcomes related to physics. The practical implication of the research is the need to create gender-sensitive intervention programmes aimed at deconstructing the gender stereotypes and traditional gender roles that restrain students from choosing gender-non-stereotypical careers.

  1. Gender Gap Trends on Mathematics Exams Position Girls and Young Women for STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, John A.; Ober, David

    2015-01-01

    Nine years of results on 4.2 million of Indiana's Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) mathematics (math) exams (grades 3-10) taken after the implementation of No Child Left Behind have been used to determine gender gaps and their associated trends. Sociocultural factors were investigated by comparing math gender gaps and gap…

  2. Gender Gaps in Political Participation across Sub-Saharan African Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A substantial literature has studied gender differences in political participation in Western industrialized democracies, but little is known about such gaps in sub-Saharan African nations. Using 2005 Afrobarometer data, this paper presents a systematic investigation of the gender gap in political participation across 18 sub-Saharan African…

  3. The Gender Gap in Student Engagement: The Role of Teachers' Autonomy Support, Structure, and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietaert, Sofie; Roorda, Debora; Laevers, Ferre; Verschueren, Karine; De Fraine, Bieke

    2015-01-01

    Background: The gender gap in education in favour of girls is a widely known phenomenon. Boys generally have higher dropout rates, obtain lower grades, and show lower engagement. Insight into factors related to these academic outcomes could help to address the gender gap. Aims: This study investigated, for Dutch language classes, (1) how boys and…

  4. Access to finance in sub-Saharan Africa : Is there a gender gap?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aterido, R.; Beck, T.H.L.; Lacovone, L.

    2013-01-01

    We show the existence of an unconditional gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, when key observable characteristics of the enterprises or individuals are taken into account the gender gap disappears. In the case of enterprises, we explain our finding with differences in key characteristics and

  5. The gender gap in student engagement : The role of teachers’ autonomy support, structure, and involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lietaert, S.; Roorda, D.; Laevers, F.; Verschueren, K.; De Fraine, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gender gap in education in favour of girls is a widely known phenomenon. Boys generally have higher dropout rates, obtain lower grades, and show lower engagement. Insight into factors related to these academic outcomes could help to address the gender gap. AIMS: This study

  6. Why should women get less? Evidence on the gender pay gap from multifactorial survey experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auspurg, K.; Hinz, T.; Sauer, C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Gender pay gaps likely persist in Western societies because both men and women consider somewhat lower earnings for female employees than for otherwise similar male employees to be fair. Two different theoretical approaches explain "legitimate" wage gaps: same-gender referent theory and reward

  7. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  8. The Differential Valuation of Women's Work: A New Look at the Gender Gap in Lawyers' Incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitzer, Ronit; Reichman, Nancy; Sterling, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the mechanisms underlying the gender wage gap among new lawyers. Relying on nationally representative data to examine the salaries of lawyers working fulltime in private practice, we find a gender gap of about 5 percent. Identifying four mechanisms--work profiles, opportunity paths and structures, credentials, and…

  9. The Gender Pay Gap Beyond Human Capital: Heterogeneity in Noncognitive Skills and in Labor Market Tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Wayne A.; Hussey, Andrew; Jetter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Focused on human capital, economists typically explain about half of the gender earnings gap. For a national sample of MBAs, we account for 82 percent of the gap by incorporating noncognitive skills (for example, confidence and assertiveness) and preferences regarding family, career, and jobs. Those two sources of gender heterogeneity account for…

  10. Gender, abilities, cognitive style and students' achievement in cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.

  11. The Gender Wage Gap in Paid and Self-Employment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristy Eastough; Paul W. Miller

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the gender wage gap in the highly regulated Australian labour market. It compares wage outcomes in the wage and salary sector with those for the self-employed. Comparisons with the United States are provided. The large gender pay gap in self-employment suggests that the aggregate gender wage differential will not be eliminated solely through wage determination for wage and salary earners. The greater gender wage gap in the self-employed sector may reflect li...

  12. Socio-demographic Model of Gender Gap in Expected and Actual Wages in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille

    2014-01-01

    Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...

  13. Games, Game Flow, and Gender as They Affect Mathematics Achievement of Pupils in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aremu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Game flow experience in the use of games has the potential of determining whether games used for learning would achieve the desired goal of improved achievement. With a subject like Mathematics, it is vital to ensure that if game based strategies are to be used, the games must possess this very important construct. Furthermore, the games must be able to produce the flow experience in both males and females, so that the observed gender gap in the learning of the subject would not be further widened. It is therefore important to investigate the gender differences in a game based learning environment for a subject such as Mathematics. This is the purpose of this research. This research investigated games, game flow, and gender as they affect Mathematics achievement of pupils in Nigeria. Through the use of Achievement of Pupils in Fraction-concepts Test (APFT and Game Flow Questionnaire (GFQ, data were collected. The result was a significant difference in mathematics achievements of pupils exposed to game based strategy and those exposed to modified conventional method of teaching. However, there was no significant difference in game flow experiences, as well as in mathematics achievement of male and female pupils exposed to game based strategy.

  14. Will Public Pre-K Really Close Achievement Gaps? Gaps in Prekindergarten Quality between Students and across States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Publicly funded pre-K is often touted as a means to narrow achievement gaps, but this goal is less likely to be achieved if poor and/or minority children do not, at a minimum, attend equal quality pre-K as their non-poor, non-minority peers. In this paper, I find large "quality gaps" in public pre-K between poor, minority students and…

  15. Family Background, Gender and Reading Achievement in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Țoc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Romania formally tried to overcome the problems related to inequality of opportunity in education. This paper examines the role of home resources and gender in determining academic performance. Based on secondary data drawn from Progress in International Reading Literacy Study we suggest that both gender and home resources have a significant impact on the reading achievement of students. The existing work operationalizes the differences in reading achievement as an indicator for life chances, being proportional with economic success later in life. Our findings contradict ideas about equality of opportunity promoted by the official curriculum regarding the individual merit as the main factor that places students in privileged social positions.

  16. Gender, single-sex schooling and maths achievement

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Donal

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a distinctive feature of the Irish education system to examine the impact of single-sex education on the gender difference in mathematical achievement at the top of the distribution. The Irish primary school system is interesting both for the fact that many children attend single-sex schools, and because these single-sex schools are part of the general educational system, rather than serving a particular socio-economic group. In keeping with research on other co...

  17. Manager impartiality? Worker-firm matching and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hensvik, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich matched employer-employee data set from Sweden, the author examines whether female managers in a firm narrow the gender pay gap. The studyÌs main contribution is its ability to account for unobserved heterogeneity among both workers and firms that is potentially correlated with manager gender. The results show a substantial negative association between the representation of female managers and the establishmentÌs gender wage gap. Estimates that account for sorting on unobserved w...

  18. Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Blackaby, David; Booth, Alison L; Frank, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Using a unique data source on academic economist labour market experiences, we explore gender, pay and promotions. In addition to earnings and productivity measures, we have information on outside offers and perceptions of discrimination. In contrast to the existing literature, we find both a gender promotions gap and a within-rank gender pay gap. A driving factor may be the role of outside offers: men receive more outside offers than women of comparable characteristics, and gain higher pay i...

  19. Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan Tojerow; François Rycx

    2002-01-01

    This paper simultaneously analyses the gender wage gap and the inter-industry wage differentials in the Belgian private sector. On the basis of the 1995 Structure of Earning Survey, we estimate the inter-industry wage differentials by gender and the gender wage gap by industry. We find significant interindustry wage differentials for men and women, even when controlling for a large number of productivity-related factors. These differentials are highly correlated but significantly different. A...

  20. Why Should Women Get Less? : Evidence on the Gender Pay Gap from Multifactorial Survey Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Auspurg, Katrin; Hinz, Thomas; Sauer, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Gender pay gaps likely persist in Western societies because both men and women consider somewhat lower earnings for female employees than for otherwise similar male employees to be fair. Two different theoretical approaches explain “legitimate” wage gaps: same-gender referent theory and reward expectations theory. The first approach states that women compare their lower earnings primarily with that of other underpaid women; the second approach argues that both men and women value gender as a ...

  1. The gender gap in mobility: A global cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechakra-Tahiri Samia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have demonstrated that women have greater mobility disability than men. The goals of this research were: 1 to assess the gender gap in mobility difficulty in 70 countries; 2 to determine whether the gender gap is explained by sociodemographic and health factors; 3 to determine whether the gender gap differs across 6 regions of the world with different degrees of gender equality according to United Nations data. Methods Population-based data were used from the World Health Survey (WHS conducted in 70 countries throughout the world. 276,647 adults aged 18 years and over were recruited from 6 world regions. Mobility was measured by asking the level of difficulty people had moving around in the last 30 days and then creating a dichotomous measure (no difficulty, difficulty. The human development index and the gender-related development index for each country were obtained from the United Nations Development Program website. Poisson regression with Taylor series linearized variance estimation was used. Results Women were more likely than men to report mobility difficulty (38% versus 27%, P  Conclusions These are the first world-wide data to examine the gender gap in mobility. Differences in chronic diseases are the main reasons for this gender gap. The gender gap seems to be greater in regions with the largest loss of human development due to gender inequality.

  2. The gender gap in mobility: a global cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemâa; Freeman, Ellen E; Haddad, Slim; Samson, Elodie; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2012-08-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that women have greater mobility disability than men. The goals of this research were: 1) to assess the gender gap in mobility difficulty in 70 countries; 2) to determine whether the gender gap is explained by sociodemographic and health factors; 3) to determine whether the gender gap differs across 6 regions of the world with different degrees of gender equality according to United Nations data. Population-based data were used from the World Health Survey (WHS) conducted in 70 countries throughout the world. 276,647 adults aged 18 years and over were recruited from 6 world regions. Mobility was measured by asking the level of difficulty people had moving around in the last 30 days and then creating a dichotomous measure (no difficulty, difficulty). The human development index and the gender-related development index for each country were obtained from the United Nations Development Program website. Poisson regression with Taylor series linearized variance estimation was used. Women were more likely than men to report mobility difficulty (38% versus 27%, P gap in mobility difficulty, while the Western Pacific region, with the smallest loss of human development due to gender inequality, had the smallest gender gap in mobility difficulty. These are the first world-wide data to examine the gender gap in mobility. Differences in chronic diseases are the main reasons for this gender gap. The gender gap seems to be greater in regions with the largest loss of human development due to gender inequality.

  3. The unequal distribution of unequal pay - An empirical analysis of the gender wage gap in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothe Bonjour; Michael Gerfin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the distribution of the gender wage gap. Using microdata for Switzerland we estimate conditional wage distribution functions and find that the total wage gap and its discrimination component are not constant over the range of wages. At low wages an overproportional part of the wage gap is due to discrimination. In a further analysis of specific individuals we examine the wage gap at different quantiles and propose a new measure to assess equal earnings opportunities. ...

  4. Subject of degree and the gender wage gap: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Noe', Chiara

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by men and women contribute to the gender pay gap in Italy. Using micro-data from the “Survey of Household Income and Wealth” collected by Bank of Italy (1995-2006), we studied the evolution of the gender pay gap before and after 2000. We show that also in Italy like in other countries women are over-represented in Humanities while men in Engineering. We show that the gender wage gap has widened a...

  5. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  6. Gendered use of experts in the media: Analysis of the gender gap in Finnish news journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Mari K; Pitkänen, Ville

    2017-04-01

    Several studies conducted in Western democracies have indicated that men continue to be overrepresented and women underrepresented as experts in the media. This article explores the situation in Finland, a progressive and 'female-friendly' Nordic country with highly educated women who are widely present in the job market. The analysis is based on three sets of research data featuring a wide set of media data, a survey and interviews. This study reveals that public expertise continues to be male dominated in Finland: less than 30% of the experts interviewed in the news media are women. While the distribution of work and power in the labour market may explain some of the observed gender gap, journalistic practices and a masculine tradition of public expertise are likely to play a role as well.

  7. School Administrators' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap between African American Students and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Jonathan; Brown, Casey Graham

    2014-01-01

    This study included an analysis of principal perceptions of the achievement gap between African American and White students. School administrators from campuses with a substantial number of African American students within the subgroup were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the achievement gap. The study revealed factors within the…

  8. The Achievement Gap in Reading: Complex Causes, Persistent Issues, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Rosalind, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    In this volume prominent scholars, experts in their respective fields and highly skilled in the research they conduct, address educational and reading research from varied perspectives and address what it will take to close the achievement gap--with specific attention to reading. The achievement gap is redefined as a level at which all groups can…

  9. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Rethinking the Reading Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Rhoads, Chris; Maykel, Cheryl; Kennedy, Clint; Timbrell, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on income inequality that is separate from the achievement gap in traditional, offline reading? This possibility was examined between students in two pseudonymous school districts: West Town (economically advantaged) and East Town (economically challenged; N = 256). Performance-based…

  10. Understandings and discussions regarding the gender pay gap in Norway. Report by the gender pay gap and gender care gap project Report 2016:02

    OpenAIRE

    Orupabo, Julia; Kitterød, Ragni Hege

    2016-01-01

    This report presents results from six interviews with people that are responsible for/or negotiate in collective bargaining, and/or participate in the managing of human resources in their company. The questions applied to the interviewees’ own workplace as well as to the Norwegian labour market more generally and captured the interviewees’ viewpoints about women and men’s situation on the labour market, possible gender differences in employees’ competence, productivity, career ambitions and w...

  11. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  12. Closing the Gender Gap: Improved Performance of U.S.-Born Females on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the current state of the gender literacy gap and the change in the gender literacy gap between 1992 and 2003, using the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). The results revealed that although there were significant gender literacy gaps in 1992, virtually all…

  13. Performance Pay, Competitiveness, and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Andrew; McGee, Peter; Pan, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence that women are less likely to opt into competitive compensation schemes in the laboratory has generated speculation that a gender difference in competitiveness contributes to the gender wage gap. Using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97, we show that women are less likely to be employed in jobs using competitive compensation. The portion of the gender wage gap explained by gender segregation in compensation schemes is small in the NLSY79 but somewhat larger in the NLSY97 – suggesting an...

  14. Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Letizia Zanier; Isabella Crespi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous) significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first c...

  15. The Gender Pay Gap In Vietnam, 1993-2002: A Quantile Regression Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Reilly & T. Hung Pham

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses mean and quantile regression analysis to investigate the gender pay gap for the wage employed in Vietnam over the period 1993 to 2002. It finds that the Doi moi reforms have been associated with a sharp reduction in gender wage disparities for the wage employed. The average gender pay gap in this sector halved between 1993 and 2002 with most of the contraction evident by 1998. There has also been a contraction in the gender pay at most selected points of the conditional wage d...

  16. Do Interim Assessments Reduce the Race and SES Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined differential effects of interim assessments on minority and low socioeconomic status students' achievement in Grades K-6. They conducted a large-scale cluster randomized experiment in 2009-2010 to evaluate the impact of Indiana's policy initiative introducing interim assessments statewide. The authors used 2-level models to…

  17. Teen Pregnancy and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…

  18. Asthma and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of asthma among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which poorly controlled asthma adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Asthma is the most common chronic…

  19. The Achievement Gap between Science Classrooms and Historic Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    In the past politics deprived many African children (in particular) in South Africa the opportunity of achieving quality education. This was most especially true in subjects such as mathematics and science. In this research the science teacher-level data from Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 (TIMSS'99) were analysed with a…

  20. The High School Environment and the Gender Gap in Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in education, women pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees at much lower rates than those of their male peers. This study extends existing explanations for these gender differences and examines the role of the high school context for plans to major in STEM fields. Building on recent gender theories, we argue that widely shared and hegemonic gender beliefs manifest differently across schools so that the gender-specific formation of study plans is shaped by the local environment of high schools. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study, we first show large variations between high schools in the ability to attract students to STEM fields conditional on a large set of pre–high school measures. Schools that are successful in attracting students to these fields reduce the gender gap by 25 percent or more. As a first step toward understanding what matters about schools, we then estimate the effect of two concrete high school characteristics on plans to major in STEM fields in college—a high school's curriculum in STEM and gender segregation of extracurricular activities. These factors have a substantial effect on the gender gap in plans to major in STEM: a finding that is reaffirmed in a number of sensitivity analyses. Our focus on the high school context opens concrete avenues for policy intervention and is of central theoretical importance to understand the gender gap in orientations toward STEM fields. PMID:27857451

  1. The Gender Gap in Library Education. Historical Paper 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roma M.; Michell, B. Gillian; Cooley, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Five directory issues of the "Journal of Education for Librarianship" covering a span of 18 years were examined in order to determine whether there are gender-related differences in teaching specialties within graduate programs of library and information science. The results of this inquiry revealed strong support for the gender-linked…

  2. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  3. Segregation and the gender wage gaps in the private and the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...

  4. "Prince Charming Syndrome?" Gender gap in preferences for defined contribution pensions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi P

    2017-01-01

    Using survey data collected by the Japan Institute of Life Insurance in 2002, this study finds that a significant gender gap existed in defined contribution (DC) pension knowledge among workers employed at small- to medium-sized private firms in Japan. Even with similar DC knowledge, however, men and women reveal different preferences for DC pensions, indicating that their perceptional responses may widely differ from actual behaviors. Apart from the knowledge gap, the result shows evidence of the Prince Charming Syndrome among female employees as a significant source of the gender gap in DC participation rates. Among corporate pension-covered employees, the gender difference in the efficacy of DC portability is a more significant gap-generating factor. DC tax advantage is particularly favored by pension-covered female employees over male counterparts, reducing the DC preference gap. No similar evidence is found for employees with no corporate pension coverage.

  5. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Michelmore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the National Science Foundation's SESTAT data, we examine the gender wage gap by race among those working in computer science, life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. We find that in fields with a greater representation of women (the life and physical sciences, the gender wage gap can largely be explained by differences in observed characteristics between men and women working in those fields. In the fields with the lowest concentration of women (computer science and engineering, gender wage gaps persist even after controlling for observed characteristics. In assessing how this gap changes over time, we find evidence of a narrowing for more recent cohorts of college graduates in the life sciences and engineering. The computer sciences and physical sciences, however, show no clear pattern in the gap across cohorts of graduates.

  6. Wide gap Chern Mott insulating phases achieved by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongli; Gangopadhyay, Shruba; Köksal, Okan; Pentcheva, Rossitza; Pickett, Warren E.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum anomalous Hall insulators, which display robust boundary charge and spin currents categorized in terms of a bulk topological invariant known as the Chern number (Thouless et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 405-408 (1982)), provide the quantum Hall anomalous effect without an applied magnetic field. Chern insulators are attracting interest both as a novel electronic phase and for their novel and potentially useful boundary charge and spin currents. Honeycomb lattice systems such as we discuss here, occupied by heavy transition-metal ions, have been proposed as Chern insulators, but finding a concrete example has been challenging due to an assortment of broken symmetry phases that thwart the topological character. Building on accumulated knowledge of the behavior of the 3d series, we tune spin-orbit and interaction strength together with strain to design two Chern insulator systems with bandgaps up to 130 meV and Chern numbers C = -1 and C = 2. We find, in this class, that a trade-off between larger spin-orbit coupling and strong interactions leads to a larger gap, whereas the stronger spin-orbit coupling correlates with the larger magnitude of the Hall conductivity. Symmetry lowering in the course of structural relaxation hampers obtaining quantum anomalous Hall character, as pointed out previously; there is only mild structural symmetry breaking of the bilayer in these robust Chern phases. Recent growth of insulating, magnetic phases in closely related materials with this orientation supports the likelihood that synthesis and exploitation will follow.

  7. The gender pay gap in the Australian private sector: Is selection relevant across the wage distribution?

    OpenAIRE

    Chzhen, Yekaterina; Mumford, Karen A.; Nicodemo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    We use quantile regression and counterfactual decomposition methods to explore gender gaps across the earning distribution for full-time employees in the Australian private sector. Significant evidence of a self selection effect for women into full-time employment (or of components of self selection related to observable or unobservable characteristics) is, interestingly, not found to be relevant in the Australian context. Substantial gender earnings gaps (and glass ceilings) are established,...

  8. Importing equality? The effects of increased competition on the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. Black; Elizabeth Brainerd

    1999-01-01

    It is now well documented that the gender wage gap declined substantially in the 1980s, despite rising overall wage inequality. While Blau and Kahn (JoLE 1997) attribute much of this improvement to gains in women's relative labor market experience and other observable characteristics, a substantial part of the decline in the gender wage gap remains unexplained, and may be due to reduced discrimination against women in the labor market. This paper tests the hypothesis (based on Becker 1957) th...

  9. Gender gap v cestovním ruchu v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Křivanová, Klára

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis describes the factors and how they affect gender gap, the differ-ence in salary for women versus men for the same work. The thesis is focused on the tourism sector in the Czech Republic. The work includes a review of literature dealing with available data and according to appropriate methods of measuring the size of gender gap in tourism in the Czech Republic.

  10. The gender pay gap in Europe: an international comparison with matched employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pérez, Hipólito J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the origin of the gender wage gap and of its cross-country heterogeneity using unique harmonized international matched employer-employee microdata for nine representative European countries. Evidence obtained uncovers that female segregation into low-paying workplaces is by and large an outstanding origin of both the gender pay gap in every European economy and of international differences in its magnitude. Empirical results also suggest that, in contrast with the findings...

  11. New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Atal, Juan Pablo; Nopo, Hugo; Winder, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys gender and ethnic wage gaps in 18 Latin American countries, decomposing differences using matching comparisons as a non-parametric alternative to the Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition. It is found that men earn 9-27 percent more than women, with high cross-country heterogeneity. The unexplained pay gap is higher among older, informal and self-employed workers and those in small firms. Ethnic wage differences are greater than gender differences, and educational attainment di...

  12. New century, old disparities: Gender and ethnic gaps in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Ñopo, Hugo; Atal, Juan Pablo; Winder, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys gender and ethnic wage gaps in 18 Latin American countries, decomposing differences using matching comparisons as a non-parametric alternative to the Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition. It is found that men earn 9-27 percent more than women, with high cross-country heterogeneity. The unexplained pay gap is higher among older, informal and self-employed workers and those in small firms. Ethnic wage differences are greater than gender differences, and educational attainment di...

  13. Closing the Gender Gap in Leadership Positions: Can Expanding the Pipeline Increase Parity?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ryan; Mansour, Hani; O'Connell, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    Gender gaps in leadership roles may be reduced by increasing the number of women in career stages that typically precede high-status positions. This can occur by increasing the supply of experienced women, inspiring new female candidates for these positions, and/or changing beliefs about women as leaders. In this study, we investigate whether and how adding women to a career pipeline can reduce gender gaps in higher-ranking positions over time. Specifically, we examine the effects of women's ...

  14. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  15. Predictors of gender achievement in physical science at the secondary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenko, Brittany Hunter

    This study used the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science restricted data-set for twelfth graders. The NAEP data used in this research study is derived from a sample group of 11,100 twelfth grade students that represented a national population of over 3,000,000 twelfth grade students enrolled in science in the United States in 2009. The researcher chose the NAEP data set because it provided a national sample using uniform questions. This study investigated how the factors of socioeconomic status (SES), parental education level, mode of instruction, and affective disposition affect twelfth grade students' physical science achievement levels in school for the sample population and subgroups for gender. The factors mode of instruction and affective disposition were built through factor analysis based on available questions from the student surveys. All four factors were found to be significant predictors of physical science achievement for the sample population. NAEP exams are administered to a national sample that represents the population of American students enrolled in public and private schools. This was a non-experimental study that adds to the literature on factors that impact physical science for both genders. A gender gap is essentially nonexistent at the fourth grade level but appears at the eighth grade level in science based on information from NAEP (NCES, 1997). The results of the study can be used to make recommendation for policy change to diminish this gender gap in the future. Educators need to be using research to make instructional decisions; research-based instruction helps all students.

  16. Mind the Gap: The Layered Reconstruction of Gender in Sport Related Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Claringbould, I.E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most sports are structured by gender resulting in sex segregation by sport. This formal division of an activity based on gender is unique in sport, in contrast paid and volunteer work in sport are not formally segregated by gender.. Qualified men and women may engage in this work regardless of sport. Yet, informal gender segregation also occurs in this work. Although men and women participate in similar numbers in sport, there is still a gender gap in positions of leadership. The goal of this...

  17. A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…

  18. Redressing the Gender Gap in Science through Use of the Thinking Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Currently (and historically) there exists a significant gender gap within the STEM fields in our schools, tertiary institutions, and workforce. The disproportion of gender representation in the workforce filters down to the classroom level, where teachers see a lack of confidence and engagement in their female students resulting in poor results or…

  19. Adolescent Moral Motivations for Civic Engagement: Clues to the Political Gender Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Heather; Tirri, Kirsi; Liauw, Indrawati

    2015-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in moral motivations and civic engagement among adolescents to add to existing explanations for the gender gap in political engagement in the US. We examined moral motivations for civic engagement in a sample of 1578 high school seniors, using a mixed-methods analysis of survey and interview data. Multiple…

  20. The High School Environment and the Gender Gap in Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in education, women pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees at much lower rates than those of their male peers. This study extends existing explanations for these gender differences and examines the role of the high school context for plans to major in STEM fields.…

  1. Exploring the Gender Gap in the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel; Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John; Michaluk, Lynnette; Traxler, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    The "gender gap" on various physics conceptual evaluations has been extensively studied. Men's average pretest scores on the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation are 13% higher than women's, and post-test scores are on average 12% higher than women's. This study analyzed the gender differences within the…

  2. Accounting for the Gender Gaps in Student Performance in Reading and Mathematics: Evidence from 31 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2008-01-01

    In most countries, girls perform better than boys in reading but worse in mathematics. However, there is much variation between countries. Explanations for the gender gaps include the organisation of the school system, students' expectations and macro-societal factors. The purpose of this paper is to account for gender differences in both reading…

  3. Gender Wage Gap : A Semi-Parametric Approach With Sample Selection Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, M.; Mussida, C.

    2010-01-01

    Sizeable gender differences in employment rates are observed in many countries. Sample selection into the workforce might therefore be a relevant issue when estimating gender wage gaps. This paper proposes a new semi-parametric estimator of densities in the presence of covariates which incorporates

  4. Does the Level of Occupational Aggregation Affect Estimates of the Gender Wage Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the 1989 Canadian Labour-Market Activity Survey, when occupation is treated as a productivity-related characteristic, gender wage gap estimates are distorted. Using a larger number of occupations, the occupational aggregation by gender reflects barriers women face in attempting to enter male-dominated occupations. (SK)

  5. An Action Five Strategy For Bridging The Gender Gap In Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic research and productivity remain major criteria for determining productivity among university academics. Faculty progress and success are measured by their research productions. In the search for gender equality in higher education, the gender gaps in academic research productions raise concerns. Not only ...

  6. The gender gap in reactions to nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that women are less in favor of nuclear power than are men. These differences have been explained by observed gender differences in values, levels of knowledge about nuclear energy, and perceptions of risks and benefits of advanced technology. This study employs data from three national surveys taken in the United States after the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl events to identify the extent and nature of gender differences in views toward nuclear energy

  7. Gender Wage Gap in the Czech Republic and Central European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysíková, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2012), s. 328-346 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP 404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : : endowment effect * gender wage gap * Heckman model Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012

  8. The Decline of Private-Sector Unionism and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William E.; Macpherson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1988, private sector union membership fell by 9.5 percentage points more for men than women; the gender wage gap decreased by 0.09. Unionism fell more slowly for women. Greater decline in male unionism is responsible for one-seventh of the decline in the wage gap. (SK)

  9. Gender and occupational wage gaps in Romania: from planned equality to market inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Andrén, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Romania, the communist regime promoted an official policy of gender equality for more than 40 years, providing equal access to education and employment, and restricting pay differentiation based on gender. After its fall in December 1989, the promotion of equal opportunities and treatment for women and men did not constitute a priority for any of the governments of the 1990s. This paper analyzes both gender and occupational wage gaps before and during the first years of transition to a mar...

  10. The Gender Wage Gap as a Function of Educational Degree Choices in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliakas, Konstantinos; Livanos, Ilias

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by male and female university graduates contributes to the gender pay gap in Greece. The case of Greece is interesting as it is an EU country with historically large gender discrepancies in earnings and one of the highest levels of occupational gender segregation among OECD economies. Using micro-data from the most recently available waves (2000-2003) of the Greek Labour Force Survey (LFS), the returns ...

  11. Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap Across the Wage Distribution: South Korea in 2003 vs. 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Tromp, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the gender wage gap in South Korea across the wage distribution in 2003 vs. 2013. Gaps are decomposed into composition and structural effects using a semi-parametric framework. I find a "glass ceiling" effect in both years with larger wage gaps at the upper end of the wage distribution. Decompositions show that the structural effect decreases, and composition effect increases, in importance as we move up the distribution. Between 2003 and 2013, a fall in the composition effect driv...

  12. Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...

  13. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  14. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…

  15. The Dialectical Problematic of Resolving the Black-White Academic Achievement Gap and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I argue that resolving the Black-White academic achievement gap is incompatible with the emerging issues of global climate change. That is, solutions (equitable funding of schools and resources, school integration movements, and after-school and mentoring programs) for closing the gap in order so that Blacks in America and…

  16. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling."

  17. Changing the culture of academic medicine to eliminate the gender leadership gap: 50/50 by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah; Sandborg, Christy I

    2013-10-01

    Central to the daily struggles that successful working women face is the misalignment of the current work culture and the values of the workforce. In addition to contributing to work-life integration conflicts, this disconnect perpetuates the gender leadership gap. The dearth of women at the highest ranks of academic medicine not only sends a clear message to women that they must choose between career advancement and their personal life but also represents a loss of talent for academic health centers as they fail to recruit and retain the best and the brightest. To close the gender leadership gap and to meet the needs of the next generation of physicians, scientists, and educators, the authors argue that the culture of academic medicine must change to one in which flexibility and work-life integration are core parts of the definition of success. Faculty must see flexibility policies, such as tenure clock extensions and parental leaves, as career advancing rather than career limiting. To achieve these goals, the authors describe the Stanford University School of Medicine Academic Biomedical Career Customization (ABCC) model. This framework includes individualized career plans, which span a faculty member's career, with options to flex up or down in research, patient care, administration, and teaching, and mentoring discussions, which ensure that faculty take full advantage of the existing policies designed to make career customization possible. The authors argue that with vision, determination, and focus, the academic medicine community can eliminate the gender leadership gap to achieve 50/50 by 2020.

  18. Gender gap matters in maternal mortality in low and lower-middle-income countries: A study of the global Gender Gap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Hongsoo

    2017-09-01

    Reducing maternal mortality has been a crucial part of the global development agenda. According to modernisation theory, the effect of gender equality on maternal health may differ depending on a country's economic development status. We explored the correlation between the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) provided by the World Economic Forum and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) obtained from the World Development Indicators database of the World Bank. The relationships between each score in the GGI, including its four sub-indices (measuring gender gaps in economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment), and the MMR were analysed. When the countries were stratified by gross national income per capita, the low and lower-middle-income countries had lower scores in the GGI, and lower scores in the economic participation, educational attainment, and political empowerment sub-indices than the high-income group. Among the four sub-indices, the educational attainment sub-index showed a significant inverse correlation with the MMR in low and lower-middle-income countries when controlling for the proportion of skilled birth attendance and public share of health expenditure. This finding suggests that strategic efforts to reduce the gender gap in educational attainment could lead to improvements in maternal health in low and lower-middle-income countries.

  19. Colleges Confront a Gender Gap in Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    For decades, women have enrolled in college in greater numbers than men, and, by many measures, have outperformed them in the classroom. But in recent years, as social scientists and student-affairs offices have focused on other differences between the genders, they have documented patterns that could explain how engagement influences student…

  20. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2005), s. 598-607 ISSN 1542-4766 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.jstor.org/stable/40005002

  1. Gender Gap: Are Boys Being Shortchanged in K-12 Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard; Bailey, Susan McGee

    2010-01-01

    Debates about gender and schooling have taken a surprising turn in the past decade. After years of concern that girls were being shortchanged in male-dominated schools, especially in math and science, there has grown a rising chorus of voices worrying about whether boys are the ones in peril. With young women making up close to 60 percent of…

  2. Despite Efforts to Close Gender Gaps, Some Disciplines Remain Lopsided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Engineering and teaching are among the most lopsided disciplines in academe's gender split. In 2010, women received 80 percent of the undergraduate degrees awarded in education, the U.S. Education Department reports. And they earned 77 percent of the master's and 67 percent of the doctoral degrees in that field. In engineering, by contrast, women…

  3. The publication gender gap in US academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Wright, Robert; Girod, Sabine

    2017-02-14

    Terms such as "glass ceiling" and "sticky floor" are still commonly used to describe women's role in academic surgery. Despite continued efforts to address disparities between men and women in the field, gender inequalities persist. In this investigation we highlight gender differences in published surgical literature by both quantity and impact. Websites for departments of surgery of three academic centers were reviewed to assess the bibliometrics of publications by gender over a two-week period. A one-way ANOVA showed a significantly higher H-index for men than women (p > .05). Further, one-way ANOVA showed significantly more articles published by men than women (p = .019). These differences are most dramatic at the rank of associate professor where the H-index for men is three times that of the women. The rank of full professor showed men had double the number of articles published. These findings align with the previous research that shows a disparity between males and females as they climb the academic ladder. Conducting and publishing research is a vital part of advancement in academic medicine. This study suggests that publication productivity may be a factor that hinders women from advancing within surgery compared to men. Continuing to explore and identify reasons for this gender difference in academic surgery may highlight ways to address the imbalance.

  4. Closing or Reproducing the Gender Gap? Parental Transmission, Social Norms and Education Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink; Smith, Nina

    the intergenerational correlation in gender-stereotypical choice of education. Although to some extent picking up inherited and acquired skills, our results suggest that if parents exhibit gender stereotypical labour market behaviour, children of the same sex are more likely to choose a gender stereotypical education......Over the last decade, the economic literature has increasingly focused on the importance of gender identity and sticky gender norms in an attempt to explain the persistence of the gender gaps. Using detailed register data on the latest cohorts of Danish labour market entrants, this paper examines....... The associations are strongest for sons. Exploiting the detailed nature of our data, we use birth order and sibling sex composition to shed light on the potential channels through which gender differences in educational preferences are transmitted across generations. We propose that such transmissions may...

  5. Mind the gap: gender differences in child special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Valerie; Rieker, Patricia P

    2012-07-01

    The gendered nature of special health care needs in childhood is an important yet understudied area. Although gendered differences in the prevalence of special health care needs have been documented, there is less knowledge about the factors which contribute to those differences. Two research questions guide this inquiry. First, is the gender gap consistent across child special health care need indicators? Second, to what extent is the gender gap in special health care needs driven by behavioral conditions? We use multiple indicators from the U.S. National Survey of Children's Health to expand our understanding about the dynamic relationship between gender and childhood health. There are clear gender differences in the prevalence of special health care needs. Boys are more likely than girls to have special health care needs overall and on the five separate components examined (medication, more care than typical, limitations, special therapies, and educational or behavioral problem). This gender gap is dynamic and varies by indicator; while behavioral conditions play a role, it remains even after controlling for behavioral conditions. The reasons for the gender differences appear to be both biological and social but much remains unknown about this pattern.

  6. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  7. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  8. Unpacking the Gender Gap in Postsecondary Participation among African Americans and Caucasians Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleselassie, Abebayehu; Mallery, Coretta; Choi, Jaehwa

    2013-01-01

    National reports recognize a growing gender gap in postsecondary enrollment as a major challenge impacting the lives of young men, particularly African Americans. Previous gender and race specific research is largely inconclusive. It is, for example, unclear from previous research how persistent the gender gap is across various school contexts,…

  9. The Gender Gap in Mathematics: Evidence from Low- and Middle-Income Countries. NBER Working Paper No. 18464

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Prashant; De Giorgi, Giacomo; Hansen, David; Neilson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We establish the presence of a gender gap in mathematics across many low- and middle-income countries using detailed, comparable test score data. Examining micro level data on school performance linked to household demographics we note that first, the gender gap appears to increase with age. Indeed, the gap nearly doubles when comparing 4th grade…

  10. WOMEN AND MEN IN SPORT PERFORMANCE: THE GENDER GAP HAS NOT EVOLVED SINCE 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Thibault

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex is a major factor influencing best performances and world records. Here the evolution of the difference between men and women's best performances is characterized through the analysis of 82 quantifiable events since the beginning of the Olympic era. For each event in swimming, athletics, track cycling, weightlifting and speed skating the gender gap is fitted to compare male and female records. It is also studied through the best performance of the top 10 performers in each gender for swimming and athletics. A stabilization of the gender gap in world records is observed after 1983, at a mean difference of 10.0% ± 2.94 between men and women for all events. The gender gap ranges from 5.5% (800-m freestyle, swimming to 18.8% (long jump. The mean gap is 10.7% for running performances, 17.5% for jumps, 8.9% for swimming races, 7.0% for speed skating and 8.7% in cycling. The top ten performers' analysis reveals a similar gender gap trend with a stabilization in 1982 at 11.7%, despite the large growth in participation of women from eastern and western countries, that coincided with later- published evidence of state-institutionalized or individual doping. These results suggest that women will not run, jump, swim or ride as fast as men

  11. Exports, Gender Wage Gaps and Poverty in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael E.; Bussolo, Maurizio; Núñez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and estimates the reduction in poverty attributable to the improved opportunities that international trade integration offered to women in Honduras. The expansion of the export-oriented maquila sector has brought gender equality both in terms of employment and labour earnings. A simulation exercise shows that, at a given point in time, poverty in Honduras would have been 1.5 percentage points higher had the maquila sector not existed. Of this increase in poverty, 0.35 pe...

  12. Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Obadić

    2016-01-01

    The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in c...

  13. The gender gap in mortality: How much is explained by behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schünemann, Johannes; Strulik, Holger; Trimborn, Timo

    2017-07-01

    In developed countries, women are expected to live about 4-5 years longer than men. In this paper, we develop a novel approach to gauge the extent to which gender differences in longevity can be attributed to gender-specific preferences and health behavior. We set up a physiologically founded model of health deficit accumulation and calibrate it using recent insights from gerontology. From fitting life cycle health expenditure and life expectancy, we obtain estimates of the gender-specific preference parameters. We then perform the counterfactual experiment of endowing women with the preferences of men. In our benchmark scenario, this reduces the gender gap in life expectancy from 4.6 to 1.4 years. When we add gender-specific preferences for unhealthy consumption, the model can motivate up to 89 percent of the gender gap. Our theory offers also an economic explanation for why the gender gap declines with rising income. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Zanier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women.

  15. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% ( n = 62) women and 69.9% ( n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  16. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  17. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: A Review of Research, Policies, and Issues. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertert, Linda; Teague, Jackie

    Student achievement tests consistently show that certain groups of children score far below children in other groups. The data document a strong association between poverty and students' academic success. The achievement gap begins early in children's lives as the result of physical, social, and emotional deprivations. California is attempting to…

  18. Inverse gender gap in Germany: social dominance orientation among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Across cultures studies show that men score higher on social dominance orientation than women. This gender gap is considered invariant, but conflicting explanations are discussed: Some authors refer to evolutionary psychology and perceive the gender gap to be driven by sociobiological factors. Other authors argue that social roles or gender-stereotypical self-construals encouraged by intergroup comparisons are responsible for attitudinal gender difference. In Study 1 we analyzed sex differences in social dominance orientation in three German probability surveys (each n > 2300). Unexpectedly, the analyses yielded an inverse gender gap with higher values for social dominance orientation in women than in men. Interactions with age, education, political conservatism, and perceived inequity indicated that the inverse gender gap can be mainly attributed to older, conservative, (and less educated) respondents, and those who feel they get their deserved share. In Study 2 we replicated the well-known gender gap with men scoring higher than women in social dominance orientation among German students. Results are interpreted on the basis of biocultural interaction, which integrates the sociobiological, social role, and self-construal perspectives. Our unusual findings seem to reflect a struggle for status by members of low-status groups who consider group-based hierarchy the most promising option to improve their status. While younger women take advantage of a relational, feminine self-construal that leads to lower social dominance orientation in young women than in young men, older women are supposed to profit from an agentic self-construal that results in stronger social dominance orientation values. Specific characteristics of the culture in Germany seem to promote this strategy. Here, we discuss the female ideal of the national socialist period and the agentic female social role in the post-war era necessitated by the absence of men.

  19. Unequal Depression for Equal Work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001–2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30–65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men’s pay to 67.5% of men’s pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95–3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80–6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96–1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04–2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. PMID:26689629

  20. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Systematic Assessment of Employer Equal Employment Opportunity Efforts as a Means of Reducing the Gender Earnings Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Mary E.; Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    2002-01-01

    A gender earnings gap has persisted for many years in the United States. This gap is somewhat remarkable in light of reductions in gender-related occupational segregation, the narrowing of human capital differences between women and men, and government and employer-initiated efforts to enhance opportunities for women. In this article we argue that federal employment laws and current oversight mechanisms help maintain the gender earnings gap by encouraging small, separate, parts: pay discrim...

  2. Innovative Solutions for Companies to Reduce Gender Gaps (UK Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ANGHELUTA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years the gender gap has been a complex reality having economic implications and social decisiveness. No matter the percentage recently decreased, we still confront with social discriminations. In this paper we focused on the UK labour market so we developed a case study for a logistics company, using classification of the employees in different pay bands. Based on this study we created a state of the art human resource tool that can be applied worldwide and that help firms to analyse the root causes and to reduce the gender gap.

  3. The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J; Hershbein, Brad; Miller, Amalia R

    2012-07-01

    Decades of research on the US gender gap in wages describes its correlates, but little is known about why women changed their career paths in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper explores the role of "the Pill" in altering women's human capital investments and its ultimate implications for life-cycle wages. Using state-by-birth-cohort variation in legal access, we show that younger access to the Pill conferred an 8 percent hourly wage premium by age 50. Our estimates imply that the Pill can account for 10 percent of the convergence of the gender gap in the 1980s and 30 percent in the 1990s.

  4. Swimming with the tide: solidarity wage policy and the gender earnings gap

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Per-Anders; Richardson, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of wage compression for the gender wage gap in Sweden during the period 1968-1991. We find that the effects of changes in the wage structure on women’s wages have varied over time and have had partly counteracting effects. Changes in industry wage differentials have systematically worked against women, while the changes in the returns to human capital and unobserved characteristics have contributed to reductions in the gender wage gap. Changes ...

  5. What Explains the Gender Gap in Financial Literacy? The Role of Household Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Raquel; Mullen, Kathleen J; Zamarro, Gema; Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Using newly collected data from the RAND American Life Panel, we examine potential explanations for the gender gap in financial literacy, including the role of marriage and who within a couple makes the financial decisions. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition reveals the majority of the gender gap in financial literacy is not explained by differences in the characteristics of men and women-but rather differences in coefficients, or how literacy is produced. We find that financial decision making of couples is not centralized in one spouse although it is sensitive to the relative education level of spouses.

  6. Top Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap: Canada, Sweden and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Bell, Brian; Böhm, Michael Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the under-representation of women in top jobs for the overall gender pay gap. Using administrative annual earnings data from Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, it applies the approach used in the analysis of earnings inequality in top incomes, as well as reweighting techniques, to the analysis of the gender pay gap. The analysis is supplemented by classic O-B decompositions of hourly wages using data from the Canadian and U.K. Labour Force Surveys....

  7. Gender wage gap trends in Europe: the role of occupational allocation and skill prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Ezgi; Cardiff University

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the recent gender wage gap trends in a sample of European countries with a new approach that uses the direct measures of skill requirements of jobs held by men and women. We find that, during the 1990s and 2000s, the gender wage gap declined in the majority of the European countries. Similar to the U.S. experience, a part of this decline is explained by changes in returns to brain and brawn skills in Austria and in the U.K. However, in contrast to the U.S. experience...

  8. Gender Wage Gap Trends in Europe: The Role of Occupational Allocation and Skill Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Ezgi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the recent gender wage gap trends in a sample of European countries with a new approach that uses the direct measures of skill requirements of jobs held by men and women. We find that, during the 1990s and 2000s, the gender wage gap declined in the majority of the European countries. Similar to the U.S. experience, a part of this decline is explained by changes in returns to brain and brawn skills in Austria and in the U.K. However, in contrast to the U.S. experience...

  9. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it is twice as high at the top. At the same time, the share of women in top positions appears to be twice as high as at the middle ranks. Hence, it seems that in the context of a very patriarchal cult...

  10. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  11. Gender Earnings Gap in German Firms : The Impact of Firm Characteristics and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Anja; Wolf, Elke

    2006-01-01

    Most existing analyses on the gender wage gap (GWG) have neglected the establishment as a place where inequality between male and female employees arises and is maintained. The use of linked employee-employer data permits us to move beyond the individual and consider the importance of the workplace to explain gender pay differentials. That is, we first provide a comprehensive study on the effects of various firm characteristics and the institutional framework on the GWG in Germany. The innova...

  12. Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Djurdjevic; Sergiy Radyakin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gender wage differentials for Switzerland. Using micro data from the Swiss Labour Force Survey, we apply a matching method to decompose the wage gap in Switzerland. Compared to the traditional Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, this nonparametric technique does not require any estimation of wage equations and accounts for wage differences that can be due to differences in the support. Our estimation results show that the problem of gender differences in the suppor...

  13. Recession, employment and self-rated health: a study on the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, I; Carrera-Lasfuentes, P; Sánchez-Recio, R; Alonso, J P; Rabanaque, M J

    2018-01-01

    Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap. Repeated cross-sectional study using Spanish health surveys (2001-2014). Logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status and its evolution over time and gender. To test the impact of the economic recession, pooled data regression models were conducted. In this study, we considered 104,577 subjects. During the last 15 years, women have entered the labour market, leading to wide changes in the Spanish traditional family roles. Instead of an increasing proportion of women workers, gender employment differences persist. Therefore, in 2014, the prevalence of workers was 55.77% in men, whereas in women, it was 44.01%. Self-rated health trends during the economic recession differ by gender, with women improving slightly their self-rated health from a low self-rated health prevalence of 38.76% in 2001 to 33.78% in 2014. On the contrary, men seem more vulnerable to employment circumstances, which have led to substantial reduction in the gender gap. Although a gender gap persists, the change in socio-economic roles seems to increase women's self-rated health, reducing this gap. It is important to promote women's labour market inclusion, even in economic recession periods. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Are Female Workers Less Productive Than Male Workers? Productivity and the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerson, Eva M.; Petersen, Trond; Snartland, Vemund

    1998-01-01

    It is extraordinarily difficult to determine the extent to which the gender wage gap reflects discriminatory behaviors by employers or differences in productive capacities between men and women. We note that where piece-rate work is performed, wages should in principle reflect productivity differences and that it is more difficult to discriminate on the basis of gender because one is paid for what one produces. With this as our point of departure, we compared men and women working in the same...

  15. Detailed RIF decomposition with selection : the gender pay gap in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Töpfer, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the gender pay gap along the wage distribution using a detailed decomposition approach based on unconditional quantile regressions. Non-randomness of the sample leads to biased and inconsistent estimates of the wage equation as well as of the components of the wage gap. Therefore, the method is extended to account for sample selection problems. The decomposition is conducted by using Italian microdata. Accounting for labor market selection may be particularly rele...

  16. Investigating Gender Wage Gap in Employment: A Microeconometric Type-Analysis for Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mbratana, Taoufiki; Kenne Fotié, Andrée

    2017-01-01

    Using the 2007 Cameroon Household Consumption Survey, we study gender wage disparity in pay-employment and self-employment. The main question considered in this paper is to know why women pay-employment and self-employment wages are relatively low. More generally, what is the underlying factors generating and explained wage gap between men and women householder in employment? To answer to our question, firstly, we use the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) Decomposition to explain wage gap. Afterward, we pe...

  17. Analysis of gender gaps in profession, career and pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues and concerns about its incorporation into all Community and national policies enjoy attention, both on the agenda of decision makers from the European Union and the Member States. Moreover, equality between women and men is one of the fundamental principles contained in the Charter of fundamental rights and at the same time, is also one of the founding principles of the EU, because it is based on the principle of “equal pay for equal work” stipulated in the Economics Community Treaty from Rome. The results presented in this article are based on questionnaire-based survey, conducted in ProFeminAntrep project financed on ESF, at national level, which included a sample of 3,200 respondents.

  18. The gender gap in high-impact psychiatry journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amering, Michaela; Schrank, Beate; Sibitz, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The number of women in medicine generally and in psychiatry specifically has increased considerably during the past 40 years, but the lack of advancement of women in academic medicine is still concerning. This study explores the changes in female authorship patterns in three high-impact general psychiatric journals. The authors categorized articles published in 1994 and 2007 by the Archives of General Psychiatry, The American Journal of Psychiatry, and The British Journal of Psychiatry according to the characteristics of the psychiatric research and the gender of each author for all articles. Overall, the percentage of female authors increased from 24.6% in 1994 to 33.6% in 2007. The authors found the greatest increases in the percentages of female authors in the areas most relevant to an academic career-first authorship (from 17.1% in 1994 to 35.3% in 2007) and original research articles (from 18.4% in 1994 to 42.7% in 2007)-and in articles on the topic with the most growth over the same time frame-neuroimaging (from 14.7% in 1994 to 43.2% in 2007). The percentages of female authors of editorials rose from only 13.5% in 1994 to 26.2% in 2007. In 2007, women made up only 25% of the editorial boards of the journals under study (up from 16% in 1994). Despite considerable gains, women still are underrepresented in academic psychiatry, including in leadership positions. Ongoing efforts and interventions are required to promote further advances and gender equity.

  19. Closing the achievement gap: the association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair.

  20. Gender Gap in Maths Test Scores in South Korea and Hong Kong: Role of Family Background and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hwan; Law, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In many industrialised societies, women remain underrepresented in the sciences, which can be predicted by the gender gap in math achievement at school. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls' disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated…

  1. Understanding the MBA Gender Gap: Women Respond to Gender Norms by Reducing Public Assertiveness but Not Private Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Aaron S; Morris, Michael W; Devine, Beth A; Lu, Jackson G

    2017-08-01

    Women's underperformance in MBA programs has been the subject of recent debate and policy interventions, despite a lack of rigorous evidence documenting when and why it occurs. The current studies document a performance gap, specifying its contours and contributing factors. Two behaviors by female students that may factor into the gap are public conformity and private internalization. We predicted that women conform to the norm associating maleness with technical prowess by minimizing their public assertiveness in class discussions and meetings, but that they do not internalize the norm by reducing private effort. Data from multiple cohorts of a top-ranked MBA program reveal female underperformance occurred in technical subjects (e.g., accounting), but not social subjects (e.g., marketing). As predicted, the gender effect ran not through private effort but through public assertiveness, even controlling for gender differences in interests and aptitudes. These findings support some current policy interventions while casting doubt on others.

  2. Closing the Technological Gender Gap: Feminist Pedagogy in the Computer-Assisted Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Gilbert, Melissa Kesler

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although computers are playing an increasingly important role in the classroom, a technological gender gap serves as a barrier to the effective use of computers by women instructors in higher education. Encourages women to seize computer tools for their own educational purposes and argues for enhancing women's computer learning. (CFR)

  3. An Empirical Study of Gender Gap in Children Schooling in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Study of Gender Gap in Children Schooling in Nigeria. Olanrewaju Olaniyan. Abstract. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol10(1) 2003: 117-131. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajep.v10i1.24245 · AJOL African ...

  4. Understanding the Changing Dynamics of the Gender Gap in Undergraduate Engineering Majors: 1971-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Linda J.; Kanny, M. Allison; Jacobs, Jerry A.; Whang, Hannah; Weintraub, Dayna S.; Hroch, Amber

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the level and determinants of entering college students' plans to major in engineering. While the overall level of interest in engineering has fluctuated between 1971 and 2011, a very large gender gap in freshman interest remains. We find that the percent of first-year women who plan to major in engineering is roughly the…

  5. Explaining Cross-Racial Differences in the Educational Gender Gap. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucejo, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    The sizable gender gap in college enrolment, especially among African Americans, constitutes a puzzling empirical regularity that may have serious consequences on marriage markets, male labor force participation and the diversity of college campuses. For instance, only 35.7 percent of all African American undergraduate students were men in 2004.…

  6. Gender wage gap and segregation in enterprises and the public sector in late transition countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 199-222 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : gender wage gap * segregation * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  7. Fewer Diplomas for Men: The Influence of College Experiences on the Gender Gap in College Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Women's advantage in college graduation is evident at all socioeconomic levels and for most racial and ethnic groups. This study examines whether college experiences critical to persistence to graduation, including college major, attendance patterns, social integration, and academic performance, contribute to this gender gap in graduation.…

  8. Understanding the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing : a cross-sectional analysis of English primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, David R M; Dolk, F Christiaan K; Smieszek, Timo; Robotham, Julie V; Pouwels, Koen B

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the causes of the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing, and to determine whether women are more likely than men to receive an antibiotic prescription per consultation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic medical records from The Health

  9. Gender gap in performance under competitive pressure: admissions to Czech universities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 3 (2011), s. 514-518 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender gap in performance * competition * universities & colleges Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2011

  10. Are Boys That Bad? Gender Gaps in Measured Skills, Grades and Aspirations in Czech Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines gender gaps in academic performance (grades in mathematics and reading) between boys and girls of ninth-grade elementary schools in the Czech Republic. Our analysis is based on 2003 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, encompassing the academic performance and family background of ninth-grade pupils.…

  11. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  12. Convergence or Continuity? The Gender Gap in Household Labor after Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, T.; Skopek, J.

    2015-01-01

    This research examined 2 hypotheses about the effect of retirement on couples' division of household labor. The continuity hypothesis posits that the gender gap in household labor remains unaffected by retirement, whereas the convergence hypothesis expects it to close. The authors tested these

  13. Addressing the gender pay gap: Government and social partner actions - The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunell, M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of equal pay and the problem of the gender pay gap has been on the agenda of the social partners and the government for many years. Government and social partners have taken action to tackle this form of discrimination. They have encouraged research into sectors and offered instruments and

  14. Two Sides of the Same Coin: U. S. "Residual" Inequality and the Gender Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacolod, Marigee P.; Blum, Bernardo S.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the narrowing gender gap and the growth in earnings inequality are consistent with a simple model in which skills are heterogeneous, and the growth in skill prices has been particularly strong for skills with which women are well endowed. Empirical analysis of DOT, CPS, and NLSY79 data finds evidence to support this model. A large…

  15. How Does Gender Play a Role in the Earnings Gap? An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraas, Stephanie; Rodgers, William M., III

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, women earned 77% as much as men. Current Population Survey data indicate that personal choices, occupational crowding, and discrimination contribute to the gender gap. However, the high proportion of women in an occupation is the largest contributor to the salary differential. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/JOW)

  16. Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap in the Netherlands with Sample Selection Adjustments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, James; Vuuren, van Aico; Vroman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we use quantile regression decomposition methods to analyzethe gender gap between men and women who work full time in the Nether-lands. Because the fraction of women working full time in the Netherlands isquite low, sample selection is a serious issue. In addition to shedding light

  17. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  18. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  19. Representation and Salary Gaps by Race-Ethnicity and Gender at Selective Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory

    2017-01-01

    We use data from 2015-2016 to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race-ethnicity and gender in six fields at selective public universities. Consistent with widely available information, Black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and White and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. Disadvantaged minority and…

  20. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  1. Toward an Understanding of Dimensions, Predictors, and the Gender Gap in Written Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne; Gatlin, Brandy

    2015-01-01

    We had 3 aims in the present study: (a) to examine the dimensionality of various evaluative approaches to scoring writing samples (e.g., quality, productivity, and curriculum-based measurement [CBM] writing scoring), (b) to investigate unique language and cognitive predictors of the identified dimensions, and (c) to examine gender gap in the…

  2. Stress reactions cannot explain the gender gap in willingness to compete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Dreber, A.; Mollerstrom, J.

    2015-01-01

    Women are often less willing than men to compete, even in tasks where there is no gender gap in performance. Also, many people experience competitive contexts as stressful and previous research has documented that men and women sometimes react differently to acute stressors. We use two laboratory

  3. Gender Issues in Gaps of Household Labour Supplied to Farms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Issues in Gaps of Household Labour Supplied to Farms and Labour Market ... Male members of the farm households supplied labour to their farms at a rate ... Across the domains of labour use, the females supplied labour at a relatively ... off-farm supplies of labour were off-farm monthly income from jobs, and level ...

  4. The Gender Gap in Undergraduate Business Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    In the last several years there has been much scholarship in the area of the reverse gender gap in colleges and universities, as there have been more women than men attending and graduating from colleges and universities since the early 1980s. Little if any scholarship exists about students and recent graduates from undergraduate business programs…

  5. Effect of streaming by gender on student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related differences in cerebral organization. In: Wilting MA 85 Patterson AC (eds). Sex related difference in cognitive functioning. New York: Academic Press. Changeiywo JM 2000. Students' images of science in Kenya: A comparison of gender.

  6. Single-Parent Families: The Role of Parent's and Child's Gender on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Kushner, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data, the present study investigated whether adolescents living with parents of their same gender fare better on academic achievement than their peers living with opposite-gender parents. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) procedures were employed to examine the effects of the children's gender in single-father and…

  7. Gender Pay Gaps and the Restructuring of Graduate Labour Markets in Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Rocha, Vera; Biscaia, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate whether education-job mismatches and growing occupational diversity are important explanatory factors of gender pay gaps amongst university graduates in Southern Europe (namely in Portugal, Spain, and Italy). We use standard decomposition techniques and test...... that occupational assignment and selection into employment shape gender pay gaps amongst the highly skilled provides a more pessimistic view on the ability of educational expansion or equal pay legislation to significantly reduce gender pay inequality. Southern European economies are also particularly interesting...... to look at since there may be a greater degree of mismatch between the pace of higher education expansion and the changes in the job structure, making women particularly vulnerable to over-education....

  8. Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the Hellenic Maritime Sector 1995 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvanitis S. E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores gender wage gap as well as educational level, work experience and age in the Hellenic maritime companies by utilizing the European Structure of Earnings Surveys of 1995 and 2002. The nonparametric statistical analysis used shows that even though the male-female wage distributions were not identical in 1995, so discrimination was present, though, we did not find evidence of this gap in 2002. Hourly wage rate which proved to be independent of educational level, while dependent on work experience and age, and for both latter characteristics, much more for females than for males, may explain the elimination of the gender pay gap at the end of the investigation period.

  9. Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Quintano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occupational dynamics have brought in significant innovations in Italy, as the increased participation of women in the labour market, that have stimulated studies about the gender wage gap, concerning the different remuneration reserved to male and female workers. In this work the Authors, following Oaxaca and Blinder approach, estimate the gap for Italian employers and proceed to its decomposition, one part due to differences in individual characteristics (endowment effect and another part due to the different returns on the same characteristics (coefficient effect, related to discrimination. Then, the gender wage gap and its decomposition is analyzed with reference to Italian macro-areas considered separately with the aim to highlight the different fundamental dynamics. The model has also been modified using the Heckmann correction to eliminate the bias due to self-selection; i.e. the different propensity to work for men and women.

  10. Gender and Public Pensions in China: Do Pensions Reduce the Gender Gap in Compensation?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tianhong; Turner, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes gender issues with respect to public pensions in China. Because provision of public pensions in China is highly fragmented, with different programs applying to different groups of people, we focus on the largest mandatory public pension program in urban China, the Urban Employees’ Pension Program. The paper uses data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) for 2011 to empirically analyze the causes of gender differences in benefit levels between me...

  11. The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 17541

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marianne; Pan, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of the home and school environments in explaining the gender gap in disruptive behavior. We document large differences in the gender gap across key features of the home environment--boys do especially poorly in broken families. In contrast, we find little impact of the early school environment on non-cognitive…

  12. The Widening Gender Gap and Its Influence on Contemporary Postsecondary Campuses: Perceptions of Senior Student Affairs Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellpfeffer, Shane E.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the past 30 years, a gender gap in postsecondary education in the United States has steadily widened. The widening postsecondary gender gap, described as the difference between the number of males and females in both enrollment and degree attainment in postsecondary education, has recently garnered significant attention. The purpose of…

  13. Gender Wage Gaps by College Major in Taiwan: Empirical Evidence from the 1997-2003 Manpower Utilization Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the effect of incorporating the fields of study on the explained and unexplained components of the standard Oaxaca decomposition for the gender wage gaps in Taiwan using 1997-2003 Manpower Utilization Survey data. Using several existing and lately developed measures, we inspect the gender wage gap by college major to…

  14. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Specifically, we introduced a values affirmation exercise that counters stereotype threat by reinforcing a student's feelings of integrity and self-worth in three iterations of an intensive active-learning college biology course. On average, this exercise reduced the achievement gap between URM and white students who entered the course with the same incoming grade point average. This result suggests that achievement gaps resulting from the underperformance of URM students could be mitigated by providing students with a learning environment that removes psychological and emotional impediments of performance through short psychosocial interventions. © 2017 H. Jordt et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L.; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E.; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning…

  16. Examining the Evidence from TIMSS: Gender Differences in Year 8 Science Achievement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia's continuing participation in international science studies such as TIMSS provides a useful lens through which to monitor achievement in science over time. Gender differences in science were not evident in the early years of TIMSS but appear to be growing. This article examines gender differences in science achievement in early secondary…

  17. Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

  18. Students' Gender-Related Choices and Achievement in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the research was to explore the role of motivation, gender roles and stereotypes in the explanation of students' educational outcomes in a stereotypically male educational domain: physics. Eccles and colleagues' expectancy-value model was used as a theoretical framework for the research. The research sample included 736 grammar school…

  19. Correlates of gender and achievement in introductory algebra based physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Clara

    The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.

  20. Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from different countries suggest that the gender gap is not constant across the wage distribution and the average wage gap provides limited information on women’s relative position in the labour market. Using micro level data from official statistics, this study explores the gender wage‐gap in Turkey across the wage distribution. The quantile regression and counterfactual decomposition analysis results reveal three striking features of the Turkish labour market. The first is th...

  1. The gender gap in student engagement: The role of teachers' autonomy support, structure, and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietaert, Sofie; Roorda, Debora; Laevers, Ferre; Verschueren, Karine; De Fraine, Bieke

    2015-12-01

    The gender gap in education in favour of girls is a widely known phenomenon. Boys generally have higher dropout rates, obtain lower grades, and show lower engagement. Insight into factors related to these academic outcomes could help to address the gender gap. This study investigated, for Dutch language classes, (1) how boys and girls differ in behavioural engagement, (2) which teacher support dimensions (autonomy support, structure, involvement) may explain gender differences in engagement (mediation hypothesis), and (3) whether and which of these teacher support dimensions matter more for boys' as opposed to girls' engagement (moderation or differential effects hypothesis). A total of 385 Grade 7 students and their 15 language teachers participated in this study. Teacher support was assessed through student reports. Student engagement was measured using student, teacher, and observer reports. By means of structural equation modelling, the mediating role of the teacher support dimensions for gender differences in behavioural engagement was tested. The potential differential role of the teacher support dimensions for boys' and girls' engagement was investigated through multigroup analysis. Boys were less engaged than girls and reported lower support from their teacher. Autonomy support and involvement partially mediated the relationship between gender and behavioural engagement. Autonomy support was demonstrated to be a protective factor for boys' engagement but not for girls'. Structure and involvement contributed equally to engagement for both sexes. Although involvement and autonomy support partly explained the gender gap in engagement (mediation hypothesis), more support was found for differential effects of autonomy support on boys' versus girls' engagement (differential effects hypothesis). © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. The reverse environmental gender gap in China: evidence from "The China Survey".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Todd; Zeng, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This article explores gender differences in attitudes about the seriousness of the environment as a problem in China using the “2008 China Survey.” Methods We use generalized ordered logit models to analyze survey respondents’ environmental attitudes. Results Our results indicate that there is indeed a “gender gap” in environmental attitudes in China, but the pattern is reversed from what has been generally found in previous work conducted in the United States and Europe. Chinese men, not women, show a greater concern about environmental problems and the seriousness of the environmental degradation in China. Further, we find that this gender gap is based largely in the substantial economic and educational differences between men and women in contemporary China. Conclusions This study emphasizes the mediating influence of socioeconomic variables in explaining gender attitudes toward the environment in China. Our findings suggest that in different contexts, women may be faced with difficult decisions between immediate economic necessities and long-term environmental concerns. The observed environmental gender gap in China will likely persist unless further economic development results in improved access to education and economic conditions for Chinese women.

  3. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The region has a higher salary for migrants, both for men and for women, consistent with the results already seen in the literature. Men have a higher salary, and the largest wage gap by gender occurs in the migrant population. By decomposing wage gap we detected discrimination by sex, which is higher among migrants. We also found the migration effect on wages, i.e. a wage gap caused by migration even after controlling by workers endowments: among women, about 15% of the pay gap comes from the migration status (favorable to migrants, and among men a difference of approximately 38% (favorable migrants.

  4. The Gender Wage Gap in France: the Role of Non-Cognitive Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bensidoun, Isabelle; Trancart, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    (english) Differences between men and women in non-cognitive skills could be the reason why the gender gap closing didn’t improve since the middle of the nineties. To investigate this issue in the case of France we used the "Génération 1998 à 10 ans" database conducted by the Céreq. This survey provides information on gender preferences differences in terms of career versus family, risk attitudes or the vision individuals have of their professional futures. As these non-cognitive factors are ...

  5. Unequal pay or unequal employment?: a cross-country analysis of gender gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo

    2005-01-01

    There is substantial international variation in gender pay gaps, from 25-30% in the US and the UK, to 10-20% in a number of central and northern EU countries, down to an average of 10% in southern EU. We argue that non-random selection of women into work across countries may explain part of such variation. This ides is supported by the observed variation in employment gaps, from 10% in the US, UK and Scandinavian countries, to 15-25% in northern and central EU, up to 30-40% in southern EU and...

  6. Union and gender wage gap estimates for young workers in Ireland: a note

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Barry

    1995-01-01

    This note exploits data from the YEA/ESRI Follow-Up Survey of School-Leavers from 1981 and 1982 to provide union wage gap estimates for young male and female workers. In contrast to the evidence available for the adult labour market in Ireland, the union wage effect for young male workers is found to be relatively small. Young female union members, on the other hand, fare considerably better. The union wage gap is seen to decline with employer size for both gender groups. In addition, the ...

  7. Is the persistent gender gap in income and wages due to unequal family responsibilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Angelov, Nikolay; Johansson, Per; Lindahl, Erica

    2013-01-01

    We compare the income and wage trajectories of women in relation to their male partners before and after parenthood. Focusing on the within-couple gap allows us to control for both observed and unobserved attributes of the spouse and to estimate both short- and long-term effects of entering parenthood. Our main finding is that 15 years after the first child was born, the male-female gender gaps in income and wages have increased with 35 and 10 percentage points, respectively. In line with a c...

  8. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  9. Gender differences in liver disease and the drug-dose gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Elena; Parikh, Pathik M; Gerussi, Alessio; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Although gender-based medicine is a relatively recent concept, it is now emerging as an important field of research, supported by the finding that many diseases manifest differently in men and women and therefore, might require a different treatment. Sex-related differences regarding the epidemiology, progression and treatment strategies of certain liver diseases have long been known, but most of the epidemiological and clinical trials still report results only about one sex, with consequent different rate of response and adverse reactions to treatment between men and women in clinical practice. This review reports the data found in the literature concerning the gender-related differences for the most representative hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Navigating the gender minefield: An IPV prevention campaign sheds light on the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sarah N; Honea, Joy C

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how differences in male and female views about intimate partner violence (IPV) contributed to divergent responses to a prevention campaign conducted in the western USA. The study examines focus groups (n = 22) and in-depth interview data (n = 13) collected during campaign development to shed light on quantitative results indicating that women (but not men) increased their perceived severity of domestic violence and awareness of services from pre-test to post-test, while male attitudes moved in the opposite direction. Results of the qualitative study provide the basis for the authors' conclusions about why reactions differed: (1) men's unwillingness to view abuse within a gender context limits men's ability to accept the inequity in statistically demonstrated male and female roles as perpetrators and victims; (2) male resentment of existing gender stereotypes contributed to a rejection of campaign messages that utilised gender prevalence statistics to depict images showing men as perpetrators and women as victims; and (3) victim blaming attitudes contributed to resistance to empathy for victims depicted in the campaign. The authors offer suggestions for future campaigns that foster agency among both perpetrators and survivors while confronting the structural barriers to enacting change.

  11. The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.; Hershbein, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research on the US gender gap in wages describes its correlates, but little is known about why women changed their career paths in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper explores the role of “the Pill” in altering women’s human capital investments and its ultimate implications for life-cycle wages. Using state-by-birth-cohort variation in legal access, we show that younger access to the Pill conferred an 8 percent hourly wage premium by age 50. Our estimates imply that the Pill can account for 10 percent of the convergence of the gender gap in the 1980s and 30 percent in the 1990s. PMID:23785566

  12. Wage Dispersion, Public Sector Wages and the Stagnating Danish Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Oaxaca, Ronald L.; Smith, Nina

    1998-01-01

    The gender wage gap in Denmark has virtually stagnated since the early 70s. This study examines whether this stagnation is mainly due to a changing wage dispersion or to changing prices on observed and unobserved skills. Since about half the female labour force is employed in the public sector....... These techniques are applied to a sample of Danish wage earners in the period 1983-94. The decomposition results suggest different explanations behind the stagnation of the gender wage gap in the public and private sectors. The development in average public sector wages is calculated assuming observed......, the impact of the changing wage structure between the public and private sectors is investigated. The analysis is based on the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce decomposition applied to a pooled wage regression model. The equivalence between the former and the Oaxaca-Ransom generalized wage decomposition is established...

  13. Exploring the gender gap in the conceptual survey of electricity and magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel; Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John; Michaluk, Lynnette; Traxler, Adrienne

    2017-12-01

    The "gender gap" on various physics conceptual evaluations has been extensively studied. Men's average pretest scores on the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation are 13% higher than women's, and post-test scores are on average 12% higher than women's. This study analyzed the gender differences within the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) in which the gender gap has been less well studied and is less consistent. In the current study, data collected from 1407 students (77% men, 23% women) in a calculus-based physics course over ten semesters showed that male students outperformed female students on the CSEM pretest (5%) and post-test (6%). Separate analyses were conducted for qualitative and quantitative problems on lab quizzes and course exams and showed that male students outperformed female students by 3% on qualitative quiz and exam problems. Male and female students performed equally on the quantitative course exam problems. The gender gaps within CSEM post-test scores, qualitative lab quiz scores, and qualitative exam scores were insignificant for students with a CSEM pretest score of 25% or less but grew as pretest scores increased. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that a latent variable, called Conceptual Physics Performance/Non-Quantitative (CPP/NonQnt), orthogonal to quantitative test performance was useful in explaining the differences observed in qualitative performance; this variable was most strongly related to CSEM post-test scores. The CPP/NonQnt of male students was 0.44 standard deviations higher than female students. The CSEM pretest measured CPP/NonQnt much less accurately for women (R2=4 % ) than for men (R2=17 % ). The failure to detect a gender gap for students scoring 25% or less on the pretest suggests that the CSEM instrument itself is not gender biased. The failure to find a performance difference in quantitative test performance while detecting a gap in qualitative performance

  14. Gender Pay Gap Lower in Large Cities than in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Busch; Elke Holst

    2008-01-01

    For years, the difference between the gross hourly earnings of women and of men has remained constant for German white-collar employees at about 30 percent. It is obvious that regional factors play an important role in explaining this difference. In rural areas, the gender pay gap is especially pronounced (2006: 33 percent) while in metropolitan areas it is considerably lower than the average (2006: 12 percent). This more favorable ratio is mainly due to the increased employment opportunities...

  15. New workplace practices and the gender wage gap: can the new economy be the great equalizer?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap in wages in the manufacturing sector. We use a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Our estimates from a difference-in-differences model of wages and work practices show that the wage gains from adopti...

  16. Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the Hellenic Maritime Sector 1995 - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis S. E.; Stamatopoulos T. V.; Thalassinos E.

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Gender wage gap has already been researched in the Hellenic (Greek) economy or within its public and private aggregate sectors, but, this was the first study ever done, especially for the maritime sector. Traditionally in Hellas, maritime industry income is the biggest one after tourism, while both industries covered approximately 30% of GDP or financed more than 35% of the trade balance deficit, during the last decade. We also investigated the correlation and dependence of...

  17. Estimation of the Effects of Statistical Discrimination on the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    How much of the gender wage gap can be attributed to statistical discrimination? Applying an employer learning model and Instrumental Variable (IV) estimation strategy to Japanese panel data, I examine how women's generally weak labor force attachment affects wages when employers cannot easily observe an individual's labor force intentions. To overcome endogeneity issues, I use survey information on individual workers' intentions to continue working after having children and Japanese panel da...

  18. The influence of family constellation on education considering age-gap and gender of siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Kuba, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Biological and social factors determines human personality. Birth order and its influence rank among strong phenotype forming factors. Practical application of the knowledge is complicated due the lack of evidence in this area in the Czech Republic. In our study, we focused on the role of age-gap between siblings and the role of gender on the birth order in education. Proportion of firstborns in various group of biology students were analysed. We found significantly higher proportions of firs...

  19. Innovative Solutions for Companies to Reduce Gender Gaps (UK Study Case)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei ANGHELUTA; Larisa MIHOREANU; Carmen COSTEA

    2016-01-01

    For many years the gender gap has been a complex reality having economic implications and social decisiveness. No matter the percentage recently decreased, we still confront with social discriminations. In this paper we focused on the UK labour market so we developed a case study for a logistics company, using classification of the employees in different pay bands. Based on this study we created a state of the art human resource tool that can be applied worldwide and that help firms to analys...

  20. Child-related Career Interruptions and the Gender Wage Gap in France

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique MEURS; Ariane PAILHE; Sophie PONTHIEUX

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the extent of the effects of children and child-related time out of the labor market on the gender wage gap in France, with special attention to its impact on the accumulation and composition of human capital. Measuring this impact requires detailed information on the individuals‟ activity history that is rarely available. The French survey "Families and Employers" (Ined, 2005) provides this information. We first look at men's and women's wage determinants, inclu...

  1. Comparing apples with oranges: revisiting the gender wage gap in an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Plasman; Salimata Sissoko Ndeye

    2005-01-01

    Using a rich and comparable micro-data set, we analyse international differences in gender pay gaps in the private sector for a sample of five European economies: Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Using different methods, we examine how wage structure, differences in the distribution of measured characteristics, occupational and industrial segregation contribute to explain the pattern of international differences. Furthermore, we take into account indirect discrimination influencing...

  2. Size and Causes of the Occupational Gender Wage-gap in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijter, Judith M. P. de; Doorne-Huiskes, Anneke van; Schippers, Joop J.

    2003-01-01

    Research from the United States consistently shows that female-dominated occupations generally yield lower wages than male-dominated occupations. Using detailed occupational data, this study analyses the size andcauses of this occupational genderwage-gap in the Dutch labourmarket using multi-levelmodelling techniques.The analyses showthat bothmen andwomen earn lowerwages if they are employed in female-dominated occupations. This especially indicates the signi¢cance of gender inWestern labour ...

  3. The gender pay gap for private sector employees in Canada and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Drolet, Marie; Mumford, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses British and Canadian linked employer-employee data to investigate the importance of the workplace for the gender wage gap. Implementing a novel decomposition approach, we find high levels of unexplained wage inequality in the private sector of both countries, which is related to women receiving relatively lower wages within workplaces than do men. Whilst this inequality is partially offset by women, on average, receiving a workplace specific return which is relatively higher t...

  4. Do you get what you ask? The gender gap in desired and realised wages

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanika Meriküll; Pille Mõtsmees

    2015-01-01

    This paper will study the gender wage gap in desired wages, realised wages and reservation wages. The notion of desired wages shows workers� first bet to potential employers during the job-search process. Two datasets are employed, the electronic job-search portal database, where individuals signal their desired wages, and the labour force survey, where realised wages and reservation wages are reported. The Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition is implemented to investigate the contribution of charac...

  5. Globalization: A Woman's Best Friend? Exporters and the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Ann Bøler; Beata Javorcik; Karen Helene Ulltveit-Moe

    2015-01-01

    While the impact of globalization on income inequality has received a lot of attention, little is known about its effect on the gender wage gap (GWG). This study argues that there is a systematic difference in the GWG between exporting firms and non-exporters. By the virtue of being exposed to higher competition, exporters require greater commitment and flexibility from their employees. If commitment is not easily observable and women are perceived as less committed workers than men, exporter...

  6. Globalization: a woman’s best friend? Exporters andthe gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Ann Bøler; Beata Javorcik; Karen Helene Ulltveit-Moe

    2015-01-01

    While the impact of globalization on income inequality has received a lot of attention, little is known about its effect on the gender wage gap (GWG). This study argues that there is a systematic difference in the GWG between exporting firms and non-exporters. By the virtue of being exposed to higher competition, exporters require greater commitment and flexibility from their employees. If commitment is not easily observable and women are perceived as less committed workers than men, exporter...

  7. Gaps in knowledge: tracking and explaining gender differences in health information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manierre, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Self-directed health information seeking has become increasingly common in recent years, yet there is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that females are more likely to engage in information seeking than males. Previous research has largely ignored the significance of this difference as both an empirical and a theoretical finding. The current study has two goals, seeking to track this sex gap over time and to test explanations for its existence. The three explanations tested are based in past findings of gendered division of childcare labor, gendered reactivity to illness, and gendered perceived risk of illness. These were tested using multiple dependent variables from both repeated cross sectional data and 2012 data from the Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Results show that females are significantly more likely to look for cancer information, information in general, and information over the Internet over time than males, though the gap may be closing in the case of cancer information. The three explanations also received little clear support though perceived risk of getting cancer acted as a mediator through which men may be less likely to look for cancer information. Based on this analysis it is clear that a sex gap in information seeking is present and theories of masculinity and health may hold promise in some contexts but additional explanations are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental interventions to address the STEM gender gap: exploring intended and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S; Coyle, Emily F

    2014-01-01

    Women and girls in the United States continue to be underrepresented in STEM, particularly in engineering and technology fields. This gap has been attracting recent attention from those motivated to ensure that girls and women have access to a full range of personally satisfying careers as well as from those concerned with developing a rich talent pool to meet national workforce needs. This chapter is focused on interventions that have been designed to address this STEM gender gap. We begin by documenting the STEM gender gap and then review change mechanisms emerging from theories of gender development that may be harnessed in intervention efforts. In addition, we pro vide a taxonomy of intervention goals which we then use to organize an illustrative review of sample interventions. After commenting on some of the findings and limitations of past work, we offer suggestions for enhancing the systematic evaluation of intervention programs that include careful selection of comparison groups, a broad array of STEM outcome measures, assessment of potentially unintended consequences, and meta-analyses.

  9. Gender gap in parents' financing strategy for hospitalization of their children: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Lamanna, Francesca; Klasen, Stephan

    2010-03-01

    The 'missing women' dilemma in India has sparked great interest in investigating gender discrimination in the provision of health care in the country. No studies, however, have directly examined discrimination in health-care financing strategies in the case of severe illness of sons versus daughters. In this paper, we hypothesize that households who face tight budget constraints are more likely to spend their meager resources on hospitalization of boys rather than girls. We use the 60th round of the Indian National Sample Survey (2004) and a multinomial logit model to test this hypothesis and to throw some light on this important but overlooked issue. The results reveal that boys are much more likely to be hospitalized than girls. When it comes to financing, the gap in the usage of household income and savings is relatively small, while the gender gap in the probability of hospitalization and usage of more onerous financing strategies is very high. Ceteris paribus, the probability of boys to be hospitalized by financing from borrowing, sale of assets, help from friends, etc. is much higher than that of girls. Moreover, in line with our theoretical framework, the results indicate that the gender gap intensifies as we move from the richest to poorest households. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publications by physical therapy faculty members: a productivity puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Regina R; Chevan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of peer-reviewed article publication by faculty in higher education show men publish more than women. Part of the difference in publishing appears to be attributable directly to gender. Gender differences in publishing productivity have not been explored in physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of gender on peer-reviewed publication productivity in physical therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using survey methods. A survey was administered to a random sample of 881 physical therapy faculty members; 459 responses were used for analysis. Men were more likely than women to be married, have children, hold a PhD degree, be tenured or on a tenure track, and hold the position of department chair. There was a significant difference in peer-reviewed publication rates between male and female respondents. Negative binomial regression models revealed that female gender was a negative predictor of peer-reviewed publication, accounting for between 0.51 and 0.58 fewer articles per year for women than for men over the course of a career. Reasons for the gender differences are not clear. Factors such as grant funding, laboratory resources, nature of collaborative relationships, values for different elements of the teaching/research/service triad, and ability to negotiate the academic culture were not captured by our model. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publishing productivity may have implications for individuals and the profession of physical therapy and should be subject to further exploration.

  11. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Biddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australian Census, this paper provides an analysis across three dimensions of socioeconomic disparity: Indigeneity, gender, and geography. This paper also explores the development of a similar gender-related index as a tool to enable a relative ranking of the performance of Indigenous males and females at the regional level across a set of socioeconomic outcomes.The initial findings suggest that although there is a substantial development gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the development loss from gender-related inequality for Indigenous Australians is relatively small. Higher life expectancy and education attainment for Indigenous females balances out their slightly lower earnings to a large extent. At the regional level, Indigenous females tend to fare better than Indigenous males for the set of indicators chosen; and, this is particularly true in capital cities.

  12. Stepping out of the caveman's shadow: nations' gender gap predicts degree of sex differentiation in mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Marcel; Mitura, Klaudia

    2012-10-01

    An influential explanation for gender differences in mating strategies is that the sex-specific reproductive constraints faced by human ancestors shaped these differences. Other theorists have emphasized the role of societal factors, hypothesizing, for example, that gender differences in mate preferences should wane in gender-equal societies. However, findings have been ambiguous. Using recent data and a novel measure of gender equality, we revisited the role of gender parity in gender differentiation for mate preferences. In the first study, 3,177 participants from 10 nations with a gradually decreasing Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) provided online ratings of the desirability of mate attributes with reportedly evolutionary origins. In the second study, GGI scores were related to gender differences in mate preferences previously reported for 8,953 participants from 31 nations (Buss, 1989). Both studies show that gender differences in mate preferences with presumed evolutionary roots decline proportionally to increases in nations' gender parity.

  13. Personality and the gender gap in self-employment: a multi-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    What role does personality play in the pervasive gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe? This two-study analysis focuses on self-employment in the working population and underlying gender differences in personality characteristics, thereby considering both single trait dimensions as well as a holistic, configural personality approach. Applying the five-factor model of personality, Study 1, our main study, investigates mediation models in the prediction of self-employment status utilizing self-reported personality data from large-scaled longitudinal datasets collected in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., and Australia (total N = 28,762). Study 2 analyzes (observer-rated) Big Five data collected in 51 cultures (total N = 12,156) to take a more global perspective and to explore the pancultural universality of gender differences in entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Across the four countries investigated in Study 1, none of the major five dimension of personality turned out as a consistent and robust mediator. In contrast, the holistic, configural approach yielded consistent and robust mediation results. Across the four countries, males scored higher on an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile, which in turn predicted self-employment status. These results suggest that gender differences in the intra-individual configuration of personality traits contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe. With the restriction of limited representativeness, the data from Study 2 suggest that the gender difference in the entrepreneurship-prone personality profile (males score higher) is widespread across many cultures, but may not exist in all. The results are discussed with an emphasis on implications for research and practice, which a particular focus on the need for more complex models that incorporate the role of personality.

  14. Personality and the Gender Gap in Self-Employment: A Multi-Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    What role does personality play in the pervasive gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe? This two-study analysis focuses on self-employment in the working population and underlying gender differences in personality characteristics, thereby considering both single trait dimensions as well as a holistic, configural personality approach. Applying the five-factor model of personality, Study 1, our main study, investigates mediation models in the prediction of self-employment status utilizing self-reported personality data from large-scaled longitudinal datasets collected in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., and Australia (total N = 28,762). Study 2 analyzes (observer-rated) Big Five data collected in 51 cultures (total N = 12,156) to take a more global perspective and to explore the pancultural universality of gender differences in entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Across the four countries investigated in Study 1, none of the major five dimension of personality turned out as a consistent and robust mediator. In contrast, the holistic, configural approach yielded consistent and robust mediation results. Across the four countries, males scored higher on an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile, which in turn predicted self-employment status. These results suggest that gender differences in the intra-individual configuration of personality traits contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe. With the restriction of limited representativeness, the data from Study 2 suggest that the gender difference in the entrepreneurship-prone personality profile (males score higher) is widespread across many cultures, but may not exist in all. The results are discussed with an emphasis on implications for research and practice, which a particular focus on the need for more complex models that incorporate the role of personality. PMID:25089706

  15. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  16. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  17. Self-Regulation Strategies in Achievement Settings: Culture and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurman, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Investigated culture and gender differences in a self-regulation task. College students in Singapore and Israel completed anagram-solving task that let them select levels of difficulty to maximize achievement. There were cultural differences in attained scores. Women preferred significantly easier tasks, though there was no gender difference in…

  18. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  19. A Professor Like Me: The Influence of Instructor Gender on College Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Florian; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Many wonder whether teacher gender plays an important role in higher education by influencing student achievement and subject interest. The data used in this paper help identify average effects from male and female college students assigned to male or female teachers. We find instructor gender plays only a minor role in determining college student…

  20. Exploring the gender gap in the conceptual survey of electricity and magnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Henderson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The “gender gap” on various physics conceptual evaluations has been extensively studied. Men’s average pretest scores on the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation are 13% higher than women’s, and post-test scores are on average 12% higher than women’s. This study analyzed the gender differences within the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM in which the gender gap has been less well studied and is less consistent. In the current study, data collected from 1407 students (77% men, 23% women in a calculus-based physics course over ten semesters showed that male students outperformed female students on the CSEM pretest (5% and post-test (6%. Separate analyses were conducted for qualitative and quantitative problems on lab quizzes and course exams and showed that male students outperformed female students by 3% on qualitative quiz and exam problems. Male and female students performed equally on the quantitative course exam problems. The gender gaps within CSEM post-test scores, qualitative lab quiz scores, and qualitative exam scores were insignificant for students with a CSEM pretest score of 25% or less but grew as pretest scores increased. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that a latent variable, called Conceptual Physics Performance/Non-Quantitative (CPP/NonQnt, orthogonal to quantitative test performance was useful in explaining the differences observed in qualitative performance; this variable was most strongly related to CSEM post-test scores. The CPP/NonQnt of male students was 0.44 standard deviations higher than female students. The CSEM pretest measured CPP/NonQnt much less accurately for women (R^{2}=4% than for men (R^{2}=17%. The failure to detect a gender gap for students scoring 25% or less on the pretest suggests that the CSEM instrument itself is not gender biased. The failure to find a performance difference in quantitative test performance while detecting a gap in

  1. Closing achievement gaps with a utility-value intervention: Disentangling race and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M; Canning, Elizabeth A; Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-11-01

    Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the 2 may be confounded and interact. This research therefore investigates the independent and interactive effects of race and social class as moderators of an intervention designed to promote performance, measured by grade in the course. In a double-blind randomized experiment conducted over 4 semesters of an introductory biology course (N = 1,040), we tested the effectiveness of a utility-value intervention in which students wrote about the personal relevance of course material. The utility-value intervention was successful in reducing the achievement gap for FG-URM students by 61%: the performance gap for FG-URM students, relative to continuing generation (CG)-Majority students, was large in the control condition, .84 grade points (d = .98), and the treatment effect for FG-URM students was .51 grade points (d = 0.55). The UV intervention helped students from all groups find utility value in the course content, and mediation analyses showed that the process of writing about utility value was particularly powerful for FG-URM students. Results highlight the importance of intersectionality in examining the independent and interactive effects of race and social class when evaluating interventions to close achievement gaps and the mechanisms through which they may operate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Educator Gender and Student Achievement in Algebra I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Curtis

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated educators strive to ensure the achievement of all their students. Much research has been done to determine which factors may lead to success in the classroom, particularly that of the math classroom. As the study of mathematics is fundamental for many careers, a solid foundation is vital for students. This study examined whether or not…

  3. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  4. Parental Characteristics and the Achievement Gap in Mathematics: Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoraka, Mohammad; Arnold, Robert; Kim, Eun Sook; Salinitri, Geri; Kromrey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    One of the most salient problems in education is the achievement gap. The researchers investigated the effects of parental education and parental occupations in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, or medical professions (STEMM) on the achievement gap in mathematics. Because students were nested within schools, two-level Hierarchical…

  5. Special Education--Non-Special Education Achievement Gap in Math: Effects of Reporting Methods, Analytical Techniques, and Reclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Wu, Yi-Chen; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulations indicate that the achievement gap must be closed between subgroups, including the gap between special education and non-special education students. We explored the ways in which achievement trends are influenced by three methods of reporting (cross-sectional, cohort-static, and cohort-dynamic). We also investigated (a) the ways…

  6. An Examination of Effective Practice: Moving Toward Elimination of Achievement Gaps in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study of middle school science teachers explored the relationship between effective science instruction, as defined by the National Science Education Standards (NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996), and student achievement in science. Eleven teachers participated in a three year study of teacher effectiveness, determined by the LSC Classroom Observation Protocol (Horizon Research, Inc. in Local Systemic Change Classroom Observation Protocol. May 1, 2002) and student achievement, which was assessed using the Discovery Inquiry Test in Science. Findings in this study revealed the positive impact that effective science teachers have on student learning, eliminating achievement gaps between White and Non-White students. Case studies of three teachers, both effective and ineffective explore the beliefs and experiences that influence teachers to change, or not to change practice. This study provides justification for teaching science effectively to narrow achievement gaps in science and provides insight to stakeholders in science education as to how to support teachers in becoming more effective, through addressing existing teacher beliefs and providing experiences that challenge those beliefs.

  7. Discrimination, Harassment, and Gendered Health Inequalities: Do Perceptions of Workplace Mistreatment Contribute to the Gender Gap in Self-reported Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnois, Catherine E; Bastos, João L

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which discrimination and harassment contribute to gendered health disparities. Analyzing data from the 2006, 2010, and 2014 General Social Surveys ( N = 3,724), we ask the following: (1) To what extent are perceptions of workplace gender discrimination and sexual harassment associated with self-reported mental and physical health? (2) How do multiple forms of workplace mistreatment (e.g., racism, ageism, and sexism) combine to structure workers' self-assessed health? and (3) To what extent do perceptions of mistreatment contribute to the gender gap in self-assessed health? Multivariate analyses show that among women, but not men, perceptions of workplace gender discrimination are negatively associated with poor mental health, and perceptions of sexual harassment are associated with poor physical health. Among men and women, perceptions of multiple forms of mistreatment are associated with worse mental health. Gender discrimination partially explains the gender gap in self-reported mental health.

  8. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajogbeje Oke James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  9. A matter of priorities? Exploring the persistent gender pay gap in hospital medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A Charlotta; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Whelan, Chad T; Hinami, Keiki

    2015-08-01

    Gender earnings disparities among physicians exist even after considering differences in specialty, part-time status, and practice type. Little is known about the role of job satisfaction priorities on earnings differences. To examine gender differences in work characteristics and job satisfaction priorities, and their relationship with gender earnings disparities among hospitalists. Observational cross-sectional survey study. US hospitalists in 2010. Self-reported income, work characteristics, and priorities among job satisfaction domains. On average, women compared to men hospitalists were younger, less likely to be leaders, worked fewer full-time equivalents, worked more nights, reported fewer daily billable encounters, more were pediatricians, worked in university settings, worked in the Western United States, and were divorced. More hospitalists of both genders prioritized optimal workload among the satisfaction domains. However, substantial pay ranked second in prevalence by men and fourth by women. Women hospitalists earned $14,581 less than their male peers in an analysis adjusting for these differences. The gender earnings gap persists among hospitalists. A portion of the disparity is explained by the fewer women hospitalists compared to men who prioritize pay. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Suturing the gender gap: Income, marriage, and parenthood among Japanese Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Taka, Fumiaki; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kinoshita, Koichi; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2016-05-01

    In Japan, gender inequality between males and females in the medical profession still exists. We examined gender gaps in surgeons' incomes. Among 8,316 surgeons who participated in a 2012 survey by the Japan Surgical Society, 546 women and 1,092 men within the same postgraduation year were selected randomly with a female-to-male sampling ratio of 1:2 (mean age, 36 years; mean time since graduation, 10.6 years). Average annual income was 9.2 million JPY for women and 11.3 million JPY for men (P men remained 1.5 million JPY greater after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, number of children, number of beds, current position, and working hours (Model 1). In Model 2, in which 2 statistical interaction terms between annual income and gender with marital status and number of children were added together with variables in Model 1, both interactions became significant, and the gender effect became nonsignificant. For men, average annual income increased by 1.1 million JPY (P women, annual income decreased by 0.73 million JPY per child (P = .0005). Male surgeons earn more than female surgeons, even after adjusting for other factors that influenced a surgeon's salary. In addition, married men earn more than unmarried men, but no such trend is observed for women. Furthermore, as the number of children increases, annual income increases for men but decreases for women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Closing the gender leadership gap: a multi-centre cross-country comparison of women in management and leadership in academic health centres in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Ellen; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutiérrez-Lobos, Karin; Steinböck, Sandra; von Knorring, Mia; Buchan, Alastair M; Brommels, Mats

    2017-01-06

    Women's participation in medicine and the need for gender equality in healthcare are increasingly recognised, yet little attention is paid to leadership and management positions in large publicly funded academic health centres. This study illustrates such a need, taking the case of four large European centres: Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany), Karolinska Institutet (Sweden), Medizinische Universität Wien (Austria), and Oxford Academic Health Science Centre (United Kingdom). The percentage of female medical students and doctors in all four countries is now well within the 40-60% gender balance zone. Women are less well represented among specialists and remain significantly under-represented among senior doctors and full professors. All four centres have made progress in closing the gender leadership gap on boards and other top-level decision-making bodies, but a gender leadership gap remains relevant. The level of achieved gender balance varies significantly between the centres and largely mirrors country-specific welfare state models, with more equal gender relations in Sweden than in the other countries. Notably, there are also similar trends across countries and centres: gender inequality is stronger within academic enterprises than within hospital enterprises and stronger in middle management than at the top level. These novel findings reveal fissures in the 'glass ceiling' effects at top-level management, while the barriers for women shift to middle-level management and remain strong in academic positions. The uneven shifts in the leadership gap are highly relevant and have policy implications. Setting gender balance objectives exclusively for top-level decision-making bodies may not effectively promote a wider goal of gender equality. Academic health centres should pay greater attention to gender equality as an issue of organisational performance and good leadership at all levels of management, with particular attention to academic enterprises

  12. Early Childhood Behavior Problems and the Gender Gap in Educational Attainment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti

    2016-01-01

    Why do men in the United States today complete less schooling than women? One reason may be gender differences in early self-regulation and prosocial behaviors. Scholars have found that boys' early behavioral disadvantage predicts their lower average academic achievement during elementary school. In this study, I examine longer-term effects: Do…

  13. The Gender Gap in Youth Sports: Too Many Urban Girls Are Being Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Don

    2009-01-01

    The last several decades have witnessed a large increase in the number of girls who participate in sports in the United States. Today an estimated 8 million third- through 12th-grade girls and 12 million boys participate in organized and team sports. While much progress has been made toward achieving gender equity in youth sports, too many girls…

  14. Gender Gaps in Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills in Early Primary Grades : Evidence from Rural Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Nozomi; Jung, Haeil; Pradhan, Menno; Hasan, Amer; Kinnell, Angela; Brinkman, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines gender gaps in cognitive and non-cognitive skills among a sample of more than 10,000 children between the ages of 6 and 9 in rural Indonesia. In terms of cognitive skills, the analysis finds evidence of gender gaps favoring girls at each age in test scores of language (0.158-0.252 standard deviations) and mathematics (0.155-0.243 standard deviations) in the early years ...

  15. Analyzing Trends in the U.S. and Danish Gender Wage Gaps in the 1980s and 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in US and Danish gender wage gaps in the 1980s and 1990s are analysed within the framework of simple auto-regressive time-series models. Results show a saturation effect in the wage progress of women in Denmark at a level of 85% but no similar signs of stabilization in the USA. Also......, no evidence is found that business cycle variables can explain the development of the gender wage gap in either country during this time period....

  16. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  17. Enhancing the Employability of Chinese International Students: Identifying Achievements and Gaps in the Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows what achievements have been made by existing studies on graduate employability, and what gaps need to be filled in this field. It starts with a retrospective account of the changing concept of employability, followed by a presentation of the practices that have been used to support graduate employability enhancement in different countries. Moreover, this article gives a critical review of Chinese contexts of graduate labour market. Last but not least, limitations of existing studies are identified, which reflect an expectation for future research on graduate employability to meet the demand of an increasingly international dimension of higher education.

  18. The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States: The Importance of Money versus People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    Using two single-cohort longitudinal surveys, the NLS72 and the NELS88, I investigate the impact of four noncognitive traits--self-esteem, external locus of control, the importance of money/work and the importance of people/family--on wages and on the gender wage gap among these young workers. I find that gender differences in these noncognitive…

  19. Why do women still earn less than men? Decomposing the Dutch gender pay gap, 1996-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, E.; Plantenga, J.; Vlasblom, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite major improvements in women’s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the

  20. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a

  1. The mobility gap between older men and women: the embodiment of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, M V; Alvarado, B E; Guerra, R; Gómez, J F; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J M

    2015-01-01

    To present the study design and baseline results of the longitudinal International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) on gender differences in physical performance and mobility disability prevalence in five diverse societies. Data are from surveys on random samples of people aged 65-74 years at Canadian (Kingston, Ontario; Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec), Mediterranean (Tirana, Albania) and Latin American sites (Natal, Brazil; Manizales, Colombia) (N=1995). Mobility disability was defined as reporting difficulty in walking 400m or climbing stairs. Activities of daily living (ADL) disability was based on any self-reported difficulty in five mobility-related ADLs. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) was used to assess physical performance. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios. Age-adjusted prevalence of low SPPB, mobility disability and ADL disability were higher in women than in men in all sites except for Kingston. After adjustment for education and income, gender differences in SPPB and ADL disability attenuated or disappeared in Saint-Hyacinthe and Manizales but remained large in Tirana and Natal and mobility disability remained more frequent in women than in men at all sites except Kingston. After further adjustment by chronic conditions and depressive symptoms, gender differences in mobility remained large at all sites except Kingston but only in Tirana did women have significantly poorer physical performance than men. Results provide evidence for gender as a risk factor to explain poorer physical function in women and suggest that moving toward gender equality could attenuate the gender gap in physical function in old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Women deans' perceptions of the gender gap in American medical deanships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberstone, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    : Women account for 16% of deans of American medical schools. To investigate this gender gap, female deans were interviewed about the barriers facing women advancing toward deanships. The author conducted semi-structured interviews with eight women deans. Interviews were analyzed using provisional coding and sub coding techniques. Four main themes emerged during the interviews: (1) the role of relationships in personal and career development, (2) leadership challenges, (3) barriers between women and leadership advancement, and (4) recommendations for improvement. Recommendations included allocating resources, mentorship, career flexibility, faculty development, updating the criteria for deanships, and restructuring search committees. The barriers identified by the deans are similar to those found in previous studies on female faculty and department chairs, suggesting limited improvement in gender equity progress.

  3. Parenting, self-control, and the gender gap in heavy drinking: the case of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkovar, Ekaterina V; Broidy, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Drawing on Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory linking parenting to deviant behavior via development of self-control, the authors assess the association between parenting styles, self-control ability, and frequent alcohol use separately for males and females. The authors' findings from a random sample of 440 Russian respondents provide mixed support for self-control theory. Contrary to the theory, but in line with extant research, the authors failed to uncover significant gender differences in childhood upbringing or establish a strong link between parenting techniques and self-control. Furthermore, whereas parental upbringing appears to increase the likelihood of frequent drinking among men, self-control does not mediate this relationship but rather acts as an independent predictor of men's alcohol abuse. Finally, the relatively modest contribution of self-control differences to the gender gap in frequent drinking suggests that higher alcohol consumption among men likely stems from alternative, possibly context-embedded factors.

  4. On Different Tracks? Gender, Professional Strategies, and Early Career Wage Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Grönlund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding notion in labor market theory is that women accommodate family responsibilities in their occupational and job choices. Utilizing a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2400, the article explores whether men and women differ in their professional strategies and if such differences produce early career wage gaps. Findings based on OLS regressions show that women express dual commitment to work and family; compared with men, they value ‘family-friendly’ work-conditions higher but do not value wages and career lower. Parenthood is not related to lower levels of career focus, but neutralizes occupational differences in family focus for women. Despite the select sample, women have lower wages than men, but the wage gap is not explained by different prioritization of family/career. The findings suggest that assumptions about gendered skill investments must be empirically scrutinized and theories further developed.

  5. Computer self-efficacy - is there a gender gap in tertiary level introductory computing classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Gibbs

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between introductory computing students, self-efficacy, and gender. Since the use of computers has become more common there has been speculation that the confidence and ability to use them differs between genders. Self-efficacy is an important and useful concept used to describe how a student may perceive their own ability or confidence in using and learning new technology. A survey of students in an introductory computing class has been completed intermittently since the late 1990\\'s. Although some questions have been adapted to meet the changing technology the aim of the survey has remain unchanged. In this study self-efficacy is measured using two self-rating questions. Students are asked to rate their confidence using a computer and also asked to give their perception of their computing knowledge. This paper examines these two aspects of a person\\'s computer self-efficacy in order to identify any differences that may occur between genders in two introductory computing classes, one in 1999 and the other in 2012. Results from the 1999 survey are compared with those from the survey completed in 2012 and investigated to ascertain if the perception that males were more likely to display higher computer self-efficacy levels than their female classmates does or did exist in a class of this type. Results indicate that while overall there has been a general increase in self-efficacy levels in 2012 compared with 1999, there is no significant gender gap.

  6. Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Examining the Gender Pay Gap across the Wage Distribution in Urban China, 1987-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei; Li, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Using 1987, 1996, and 2004 data, we show that the gender pay gap in the Chinese urban labor market has increased across the wage distribution, and the increase was greater at the lower quantiles. We interpret this as evidence of the “sticky floor” effect.We use the reweighting and recentered influence function projection method proposed by Firpo, Fortin, Lemieux (2005) to decompose gender pay differentials across the wage distribution. We find that the gender differences in the return to labo...

  7. Globalization and culture shaping the gender gap: A comparative analysis of urban Latin America and East Asia (1970 - 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Enriqueta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present: 1. The available data on comparative gender inequality at the macroeconomic level and 2. Gender inequality measures at the microeconomic and case study level. We see that market openness has a significant effect on the narrowing of the human capital gender gap. Globalization and market openness stand as factors that improve both the human capital endowments of women and their economic position. But we also see that the effects of culture and religious beliefs are ver...

  8. Analyzing the changing gender wage gap based on multiply imputed right censored wages

    OpenAIRE

    Gartner, Hermann; Rässler, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    "In order to analyze the gender wage gap with the German IAB-employment register we have to solve the problem of censored wages at the upper limit of the social security system. We treat this problem as a missing data problem. We regard the missingness mechanism as not missing at random (NMAR, according to Little and Rubin, 1987, 2002) as well as missing by design. The censored wages are multiply imputed by draws of a random variable from a truncated distribution. The multiple imputation is b...

  9. Analyzing the changing gender wage gap based on multiply inputed right censored wages

    OpenAIRE

    Gartner, Hermann; Rässler, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the gender wage gap with the German IAB-employment sample we have to solve the problem of censored wages at the upper limit of the social security system. We treat this problem as a missing data problem. We regard the missingness mechanism as not missing at random (NMAR, according to Little and Rubin, 1987, 2002) as well as missing by design. The censored wages are multiply imputed by draws of a random variable from a truncated distribution. The multiple imputation is base...

  10. How the Human Capital Model Explains Why the Gender Wage Gap Narrowed

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores secular changes in women?s pay relative to men?s pay. It shows how the human capital model predicts a smaller gender wage gap as male-female lifetime work expectations become more similar. The model explains why relative female wages rose almost unabated from 1890 to the early-1990s in the United States (with the exception of about 1940-1980), and why this relative wage growth tapered off since 1993. In addition to the US, the paper presents evidence from nine other countr...

  11. Estimation of the gender pay gap in London and the UK - an econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Theseira; Leticia Veruete-McKay

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the gender pay gap in London and the UK based on Labour Force Survey data 2002/03. Our approach decomposes the mean average wages of men and women into two parts (a) Differences in individual and job characteristics between men and women (such as age, number of children, qualification, ethnicity, region of residence, working in the public or private sector, working part-time or full-time, industry, occupation and size of company) (b) Unequal treatment and/or unexplained factors. S...

  12. Joan Robinson Meets Harold Hotelling: A Dyopsonistic Explanation of the Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Hirsch

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative explanation of the gender pay gap resting on a simple Hotelling-style dyopsony model of the labor market. Since there are only two employers equally productive women and men have to commute and face travel cost to do so. We assume that a fraction of the women have higher travel cost, e.g., due to more domestic responsibilities. Employers exploit that women are less inclined to commute to their competitor and offer lower wages to women. Since women's labor su...

  13. Major Matters: Exploration of the Gender Wage Gap among STEM Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kyung Min

    2016-01-01

    The gender pay gap has been a persistent issue in American workplaces, and the STEM fields have been no exception (Carnevale, Smith & Melton, 2011). For example, in the Silicon Valley, the heart of high-tech industries, the median salary of workers with a bachelor’s degree was approximately $90,000 for men and $56,000 for women (Silicon Valley Institute for Regional Studies, 2015). Such observations are likely to discourage many young women from pursuing careers in STEM.The majority of STEM w...

  14. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  15. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues; Solange Cassia Inforzato de Souza; Flavio Kaue Fiuza-Moura; Katy Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul). We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The ...

  16. The Danish Gender Wage Gap in the 1980s: A Panel Data Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    In Denmark the equal pay act was put into force in 1976, but the relative pay of female workers is still considerably below the level of male workers in most occupational and educational groups, and the decline of the aggregate gender wage gap seems to have stagnated since the late 1970s....... In this study different explanations of this evidence are investigated empirically based on the estimation of a human capital model on a panel sample of Danish wage earners observed during the period 1979-1990. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  17. Shifting the Physical Inactivity Curve Worldwide by Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inacio Crochemore M; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Brown, Wendy J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program. Absolute and relative gender differences were calculated for countries according to four HDI categories. The potential effects of increasing women's activity levels on achievement of the WHO physical inactivity target were computed. Overall inactivity prevalence was higher in women (27%) than in men (20%). Women were more inactive than men in all except eight countries. Absolute gender differences [median 7.5% (range -10.1 to 33.2)] did not vary by HDI category, but there was a small negative correlation between relative gender difference in inactivity and HDI (rho -0.19; p = 0.02), which was mostly influenced by three outlier countries with low HDI. A decrease in inactivity levels of 4.8% points among women across the world would achieve the WHO target of reducing global levels of inactivity by 10%. Gender differences in the prevalence of physical inactivity were highly variable, both within and across categories of HDI. Interventions which result in small changes in inactivity prevalence in women would achieve the 2025 WHO global target for inactivity, without any change to the prevalence in men.

  18. Independent Reading: The Relationship of Challenge, Non-Fiction and Gender to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2008-01-01

    To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…

  19. Learned Helplessness and Psychological Adjustment: Effects of Age, Gender and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…

  20. A Comparison of Single Gender and Coeducational Classrooms, Student Engagement, and Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Myra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the academic achievement in reading among students enrolled in single-gender and coeducational classes, as well as the impact of teachers' perceptions on the outcome of academic achievement. The study used a mixed-method approach to address this purpose. This study reported…