Sample records for gelsemium

  1. [Non-alkaloid constituents of Gelsemium elegans]. (United States)

    Zhang, Binfeng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao


    To study the non-alkaloid chemical constituents of Gelsemium elegans. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as tamarixin (1), tamarixetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), scopolin (3), scopoletin (4), uradine (5), caffeic acid (6), caffeic acid ethyl ester (7), ferulic acid ethyl ester (8), ethyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside (9), and ethyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside (10). Compounds 1-3,5-10 are firstly isolated from this plant and compounds 1, 2, and 5-10 are isolated from the genus Gelsemium for the first time.

  2. Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides from Gelsemium elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua; Qing Chun Zhao; Jia Yang; Guo Bing Shi; Li Jun Wu; Tao Guo


    Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides,gelsemiunoside A and B,were isolated from the whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.Furthermore,gelsemiunoside A and B were shown a potent cytotoxic activity by suppressing the proliferation of A375-S2 cells.

  3. Advance research of Gelsemium elegans%钩吻的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩; 俞昌喜


    钩吻是马钱科植物葫蔓藤(Gelsemiume legans Benth.)的全草。药用钩吻分为两种,一种是北美钩吻(G.sempervirens Air),产于美洲;另一种是中国钩吻(Gelsemium elegansBenth.),产于亚洲,主要分布在我国浙江、福建、广东、广西、湖南、贵州、云南等地。

  4. Antianxiety Activity of Methanol Extract of Gelsemium sempervirens (Linn. Ait.

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    Garg Vandana


    Full Text Available Background: Despite significant advances in understanding and management of neuropsychiatric disorders during past few decades, anxiety and depression, still remains the leading cause of deaths, primarily for want of effective and safe treatment of these ailments. Approximately, two third of the anxious or depressed patients respond to the currently available treatment but the magnitude of improvement is still disappointingPurpose of Study: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antianxiety activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Linn. Ait. Various doses (50,100, 150, 200mg/kg of plant extracts viz., of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water were administered orally to Swiss Albino Mice before evaluating their behavioural pattern. Diazepam (2.5 mg/kg was used as standard drug.Result: The methanol extract of G. sempervirens (150 mg/kg increased the mean time spent, mean number of arms entries in the open arms of elevated plus maze (EPM and decreased the mean time spent in the closed arms. The locomotor activity of methanol extract was not affected to the same extent as observed for diazepam.Conclusion: The results suggested that methanol extract of G. sempervirens possess anxiolytic effects with no sedative activity when compared to diazepam.

  5. 钩吻(Gelsemium elegans)生物碱结构类型增补探讨%Investigation on the additional alkaloid-types on Gelsemium elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振; 杨小生; 邸迎彤; 何红平; 郝小江


    根据对亚洲钩吻(Gelsemium elegans)的化学研究结果,探讨将已知5种生物碱骨架类型扩展为9种,其中新增补并命名为Geleboline-type,Gelselegine-type,Gelsemamide-type,以及首次报道在亚洲钩吻中得到的Yohimbane-type类型.%According to a series ol the results ol the chemical research on Gelsemiumelegam ,the alkaloid-types were added from live to nine types,including three additional types that named as Geleboline-type,Gelselegine-type,Gelse-mamide-type,and Yohimbane-type that was reported at the first time on G. elegans.

  6. Two New Koumine-Type Indole Alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth.

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    Huanhuan Gao


    Full Text Available Two new indole alkaloids, 21-oxokoumine (1 and furanokoumine (2, were isolated from the roots of Gelsemium elegans Benth together with three known compounds. The structures of the two novel compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, CD and molecular modeling. Compound 1 is the first instance of a koumine-type alkaloid with a carbonyl at the C-21 position, while compound 2 possesses a tetrahydrofuran ring located on C-20 and C-21.

  7. Cellular and transcriptional responses of SH-SY5Y human neurocytes following in vitro exposure to Gelsemium sempervirens

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    Ilaria Pierpaola Dal PrÃÂ


    Full Text Available Background: Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s. is a highly toxic plant but is employed at low doses and/or high dilutions as an anxiolytic and antidepressant. Previous investigations in our laboratory [1,2] have shown a significant anxiolytic-like activity of Gelsemium s., using emotional response models in laboratory mice. Although there is some biochemical evidence of a possible role of neurosteroid metabolism [3], the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of Gelsemium s. at the level of nervous system are largely unknown. To help determine these pathways, we used human neurocytes (SH-SY5Y cell line treated in vitro with different dilutions of Gelsemium s. and evaluated their vitality and gene expression changes. Methods: The drugs were produced by Boiron Laboratoires, Lyon (F, starting from a whole-plant-hydroalcoholic extract of Gelsemium s. Solutions 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 8C and 29C (C= centesimal dilution/dynamization prepared in 30% ethanol/distilled water were provided in 30-ml glass bottles, wrapped in aluminium foil and were stored in the dark at room temperature in a metal cupboard. Control solutions (“placebo” were serially diluted/dynamized 30% ethanol/distilled water. Before each experiment, 0.05 ml samples of Gelsemium s. and placebo were added to 5 ml of distilled sterile and apyrogenic water in a 15 ml Falcon polystyrene plastic tube, closed and shaken in mechanical shaker DinaA for 7.5 sec (150 strokes to obtain the final 2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 9C and 30C succussed dilutions, with ethanol concentration of 0.3% (v/v (final 0.03% in the assay system. Human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y was grown in DMEM-F12 medium (Lonza, with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, penicillin (100 units/ml and streptomycin (100 mg/ml. To assess cell viability and metabolism, 20,000 cells per well were seeded in 96 microplate wells in 200 μl of medium. After overnight incubation, 22 μl of drug or

  8. Chemical Studies on Alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans%马钱科植物钩吻(Gelsemium elegans)的化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振; 乐意; 刘力; 黄筑艳


    研究钩吻(Gelsemium elegans)根茎的化学成分.采用色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过理化及波谱鉴定化学结构.经钩吻甲醇提取物的酸碱处理后的总碱分离得到13个生物碱,分别为五种结构类型,3个Sarpagine-type生物碱:Gardnerine(1),Koumidine(2),N-methoxyanhydrovo-basinediol(3);3个Humantenine-type生物碱:Humantenine(4),Humantenirine(5),Rankinidine(6),3个Gelsedine-type生物碱:Gelsedine(7),Gelsenicine(8),19-Oxo-gelsenicine(9),2个Koumine-type生物碱:Koumine(10),19S-Kouminol(11);2个Gelsemine-type生物碱:Gelsernine(12),Gelesevirine(13).这五种类型构成钩吻生物碱的基础生源途径.

  9. Mice behavioural models with pooled data analysis of Gelsemium studies and new findings about Ignatia and Aconitum

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    Anita Conforti


    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of three different homeopathic medicines in several dilutions/dynamizations on mice, using validated models which explore anxiety-like and emotional symptoms. Two complete series of investigations were performed in order to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens; furthermore, we investigated Ignatia amara and Aconitum napellus in the same model systems. Methods: Mice of CD1 strain were randomized in different cages (minimum 8 mice per treated group in each experiment and treatment solutions were coded in such a way that all protocols were carried out fully in blind. The indicated compounds at various centesimal dilutions/dynamizations, a control solution (the solvent vehicle of drugs, which was succussed before administration or the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight diluted in the same succussed solvent were delivered intraperitoneally (0.3 ml/mice for 9 days. A series of changes of animal behavior were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD choice test and the Open-Field (OF exploration test. Two series of studies with little technical differences, exploiting a total of 14 separate experiments, were carried out with Gelsemium, five complete experiments with Ignatia and four complete experiments with Aconitum. Results: In both series of experiments Gelsemium showed anxiolytic-like effects using both OF test (permanence and movement in centre area of field and LD test (time spent in lit area and number of light-dark transitions. However, due to high variability of animal responses and possibly to some minor differences in protocols, those effects reached the threshold of statistical significance only in OF in the first series and only in LD in the second series. Cumulative analysis of the two series demonstrated a highly significant (p<0.0001 effect of Gelsemium 5CH,7CH, and 30CH in OF parameters and of Gelsemium 5CH, 9CH, and 30CH in LD parameters. In OF the

  10. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments

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    Paolo Bellavite


    Full Text Available Gelsemium sempervirens is used in homeopathy for treating patients with anxiety related symptoms, however there have been few experimental studies evaluating its pharmacological activity. We have investigated the effects of homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens on mice, using validated behavioral models. Centesimal (CH dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens, the reference drug diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or a placebo (solvent vehicle were intraperitoneally delivered to groups of mice of CD1 strain during 8 days, then the effects were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD choice test and by the Open-Field (OF exploration test, in a fully blind manner. In the LD test, the mean time spent in the illuminated area by control and placebo-treated animals was 15.98%, for mice treated with diazepam it increased to 19.91% (P = .047, while with G. sempervirens 5 CH it was 18.11% (P = .341, non-significant. The number of transitions between the two compartments increased with diazepam from 6.19 to 9.64 (P < .001 but not with G. Sempervirens. In the OF test, G. sempervirens 5 CH significantly increased the time spent and the distance traveled in the central zone (P = .009 and P = .003, resp., while diazepam had no effect on these OF test parameters. In a subsequent series of experiments, G. sempervirens 7 and 30 CH also significantly improved the behavioral responses of mice in the OF test (P < .01 for all tested variables. Neither dilutions of G. sempervirens affected the total distance traveled, indicating that the behavioral effect was not due to unspecific changes in locomotor activity. In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a diminution of thigmotaxis or neophobia.

  11. Chemical constituents of aerial parts of Gelsemium elegans%钩吻地上部分的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋萍; 张彬锋; 俞桂新; 王峥涛


    Objective: To study the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Gelsemium elegans. Method: Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography, as well as semiprep arative HPLC, and their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic methods, such as NMR and MS. Result: Sixteen compounds were obtained and identiffed from G. elegans, including nine alkaloids: koumine(1), gelsenicine(2), 19-(Z)-akuammidine(3), gelsemoxonine(4), gelsemin(5 ), gelsevirine ( 6 ), humantenine ( 7 ), 11-methoxygelsemamide ( 8 ) and gelegamine D ( 9 ). Three megastigmane glycosides:(3R, 5S, 6S, 7E, 9R) -megastigman-7-ene-3, 5, 6, 9-tetrol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 10 ), ( 6R, 7E, 9R) -9-hydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O- [ α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6) -β-D-glucopyranoside ] ( 11 ) and (6S, 7E, 9R) -6, 9-dihydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O- [ α-L-arabinopyranosyl- (1→6) -β-D-glucopyranoside ] ( 12 ). Two flavone C-glycosides: orientin ( 13 ) and isorientin (14); one iridoid glycoside, sweroside ( 15 ) and one fructoside, n-butyl-α-D-fructofuranoside (16). Conclusion: Compounds 10-16 were isolated from the genus Gelsemium for the first time.%目的:研究钩吻Gelsemium elegans地上部分的化学成分.方法:运用各种柱色谱方法和半制备型HPLC技术进行分离纯化,并根据NMR,MS等波谱方法和理化数据对化合物进行结构鉴定.结果:从钩吻中分离鉴定了16个化合物,其中9个生物碱类成分,koumine(1),gelsenicine(2),19-(Z)-akuammidine(3),gelsemoxonine(4),gelsemine(5),gelsevirine(6),humantenine(7),11-methoxygelsemamide(8)和gelegamine D(9);3个megastigmane型苷类化合物,(3R,5S,6S,7E,9R)-me-gastigman-7-ene-3,5,6,9-tetrol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(10),(6R,7E,9R)-9-hydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside](11)和(6s,7E,9R)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside](12);2

  12. Gelsemium elegans Poisoning: A Case with 8 Months of Follow-up and Review of the Literature

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    Zhou Zhou


    Full Text Available BackgroundGelsemium elegans (G. elegans is a toxic plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is highly poisonous due to its strong respiratory depressive effect. However, G. elegans poisoning cases have not been summarized comprehensively and are rarely reported in English journals. Furthermore, none of the present reports present prognosis in detail.Case presentationA 26-year-old female was found comatose at home and brought to the hospital with deep coma, hypoxia, and acidosis. After mechanical ventilation for hours, the patient recovered from coma with sequelae of impaired short-term memory, disorientation, and childish behaviors. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed bilateral hippocampus and basal ganglia damage due to hypoxia. During 8 months of follow-up, both her symptoms and brain MRI scan improved significantly.ConclusionG. elegans is highly toxic. Although patients may die within 30 min due to its strong respiratory depressive effect, they can survive with timely respiratory support and enjoy gradual improvement without delayed postanoxic encephalopathy.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Gelsemine and Gelsemium sempervirens Activity on Neurosteroid Allopregnanolone Formation in the Spinal Cord and Limbic System

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    Christine Venard


    Full Text Available Centesimal dilutions (5, 9 and 15 cH of Gelsemium sempervirens are claimed to be capable of exerting anxiolytic and analgesic effects. However, basic results supporting this assertion are rare, and the mechanism of action of G. sempervirens is completely unknown. To clarify the point, we performed a comparative analysis of the effects of dilutions 5, 9 and 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine (the major active principle of G. sempervirens on allopregnanolone (3α,5α-THP production in the rat limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala or H-A and spinal cord (SC. Indeed, H-A and SC are two pivotal structures controlling, respectively, anxiety and pain that are also modulated by the neurosteroid 3α,5α-THP. At the dilution 5 cH, both G. sempervirens and gelsemine stimulated [3H]progesterone conversion into [3H]3α,5α-THP by H-A and SC slices, and the stimulatory effect was fully (100% reproducible in all assays. The dilution 9 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine also stimulated 3α,5α-THP formation in H-A and SC but the reproducibility rate decreased to 75%. At 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine, no effect was observed on 3α,5α-THP neosynthesis in H-A and SC slices. The stimulatory action of G. sempervirens and gelsemine (5 cH on 3α,5α-THP production was blocked by strychnine, the selective antagonist of glycine receptors. Altogether, these results, which constitute the first basic demonstration of cellular effects of G. sempervirens, also offer interesting possibilities for the improvement of G. sempervirens-based therapeutic strategies.

  14. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles by ethanolic extracts of Phytolacca decandra, Gelsemium sempervirens, Hydrastis canadensis and Thuja occidentalis induce differential cytotoxicity through G2/M arrest in A375 cells. (United States)

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Das, Durba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman


    The capability of crude ethanolic extracts of certain medicinal plants like Phytolacca decandra, Gelsemium sempervirens, Hydrastis canadensis and Thuja occidentalis used as homeopathic mother tinctures in precipitating silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver nitrate has been explored. Nanoparticles thus precipitated were characterized by spectroscopic, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, atomic force and transmission electron microscopic analyses. The drug-DNA interactions of silver nanoparticles were analyzed from data of circular dichroism spectroscopy and melting temperature profiles using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) as target. Biological activities of silver nanoparticles of different origin were then tested to evaluate their effective anti-proliferative and anti-bacterial properties, if any, by exposing them to A375 skin melanoma cells and to Escherichia coli C, respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed differences in their level of anti-cancer and anti-bacterial potentials. The nanoparticles of different origin interacted differently with CT-DNA, showing differences in their binding capacities. Particle size differences of the nanoparticles could be attributed for causing differences in their cellular entry and biological action. The ethanolic extracts of these plants had not been tested earlier for their possible efficacies in synthesizing nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution that had beneficial biological action, opening up a possibility of having therapeutic values in the management of diseases including cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 胡蔓藤中非生物碱类成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅲ)%Isolation and identification of the non-alkaloid constituents from whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆春; 华威; 付艳辉; 杜占权; 郭涛; 吴立军


    目的 研究胡蔓藤(Gelsemium elegans Benth.)中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱和ODS柱色谱进行分离,Sephadex LH-20及制备液相进行纯化,根据理化性质和光谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离鉴定了8个化合物,分别为(+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol(1)、cleomiscosin C(2)、cleomiscosin A(3)、3,4-二羟基苯甲醛(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl aldehyde,4)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,5)、1-D-咖啡酰基奎宁酸(1-O-caffeoylquinic acid,6)、4-O-咖啡酰基奎宁酸(4-O-caffeoylquinic acid,7)、1-O-咖啡酰基奎宁酸甲酯(1-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester,8).结论 化合物1-8为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  16. Research and development on Gelsemium elegans Benth.%钩吻研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志航; 邬静; 孙志良






    Background: Despite significant advances in understanding and management of neuropsychiatric disorders during past few decades, anxiety and depression, still remains the leading cause of deaths, primarily for want of effective and safe treatment of these ailments. Approximately, two third of the anxious or depressed patients respond to the currently available treatment but the magnitude of improvement is still disappointing Purpose of Study: The aim of the present study was to investigate the...

  18. Research and Development on Enterotoxin of Gelsemium Elegans benth%钩吻毒素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易金娥; 袁慧



  19. 胡蔓藤化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Gelsemium elegans Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华威; 郭涛; 张琳; 吴立军; 赵庆春


    目的 对胡蔓藤中的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20及制备液相色谱进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离鉴定了5个化合物,分别为滨蒿内酯(1)、二(2-乙基己基)邻苯二甲酸酯(2)、3β-羟基-27-(Z)-桂皮酰基-12-烯-28-羧基乌苏酸(3)、3β-羟基-27-(E)-桂皮酰基-12-烯-28-羧基乌苏酸(4)、钩藤酸E(5).结论 化合物1~5为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  20. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Infantile ViralMyocarditis with Puerarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Puerarin is an ingredient isolated from the total flavone of dry root of Leguminous plant Gelsemium elegans, which could dilate the blood vessel, particularly dilate the coronary artery, improve the blood flow of ischemic area, slow down heart rate, lower the oxygen consumption of myocardium and resist arrhythmia.(1-4) Based on its pharmacologic property, the authors used it in the treatment of infantile viral myocarditis, and obtained satisfactory efficacy, and reported as follows.

  1. Pharmacological effect of gelsemine on anxiety-like behavior in rat. (United States)

    Meyer, Laurence; Boujedaini, Naoual; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe G


    The chemical compound gelsemine is the major active principle of the yellow jasmine (Gelsemium) that is generally claimed as possessing anxiolytic properties based on empirical and indirect knowledge. Surprisingly, gelsemine effect on anxiety has until now received only little attention. Here, we used the well-validated method for anxiety assessment, the elevated plus-maze combined with video-tracking, to measure gelsemine action on rat anxiety-like behavior. Rats were intraperitoneally injected (500μl/daily/7days) with gelsemine (10(-6), 10(-10) or 10(-14)M) or control solution. Diazepam (DZP) was used as positive standard anxiolytic and additional controls were naive rats similarly manipulated except being injected. Gelsemine or diazepam treatment did not affect the number of closed arm entries and rears illustrating the rat general activity. In contrast, gelsemine (10(-6) to 10(-10)M) or DZP increased dose-dependently the number of entries and the percent of time spent in the open arms indicating that gelsemine is an anxiolytic. Consistently, we observed that gelsemine (10(-6) to 10(-10)M) or DZP also decreased dose-dependently the percent of protected stretched attend postures, an ethological index of anxiety-like state. Altogether, our results constitute a solid set of fundamental data directly demonstrating anxiolytic properties of gelsemine. The report also opens new perspectives for the development of safe and effective gelsemine- or Gelsemium-based strategies against pathological anxiety.

  2. Assessing Jasminum grandiflorum L. authenticity by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and effects on physiological enzymes and oxidative species. (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Grosso, Clara; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B


    The dried flower buds of Jasminum grandiflorum L. are widely consumed as infusion and used in traditional medicine for psychiatric disorders. It is important to have a well-established method for the chemical characterization of J. grandiflorum since there are resemblances with a toxic species, Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Jaume Saint-Hilaire. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis allowed identifying six phenolic compounds for the first time. Moreover, the evaluation of in vitro activity against central nervous system (CNS) related enzymes was undertaken for the first time, as well as against reactive species in order to support the efficacy towards CNS disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antitumor activity of two gelsemine metabolites in rat liver microsomes. (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Chun; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Guo, Tao; Zhao, Ming-Hong; Yan, Ming; Shi, Guo-Bing; Wu, Li-Jun


    Gelsemine is one of the major alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth., which has been used as an antitumor remedy in clinic. In this paper, metabolism of gelsemine has been investigated in vitro in phenobarbital-treated rat liver microsomes. The metabolites of gelsemine were separated and evaluated using the flash silica gel column, preparative HPLC, using NMR and MS methods. According to the spectral data, two metabolites, M1 and M2, were identified as 4-N-demethylgelsemine and 21-oxogelsemine, respectively. By the MTT method in vitro, the antitumor activities between gelsemine and its metabolites were compared in the HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. Moreover, the main metabolic pathway was further proposed.

  4. 3种植物提取物对蝶蛹金小蜂的触杀毒性及对其寄生效果的影响%Contact Toxicity of Three Plant Extracts to Pteromalus puparum L.and Influence on Its Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦德卫; 黎柳锋; 曾涛; 曾宪儒; 于永浩; 王助引


    采用药膜法,以高效氯氰菊酯为对照药剂,测定了鸦胆子Brucea javanica(L.)Merr.、番荔枝Annona squamosa L.、葫蔓藤Gelsemium elegans Benth 3种植物的氯仿萃取物对蝶蛹金小蜂Pteromalus puparum L.的触杀毒性以及对产卵寄生效果的影响.结果表明,3种植物提取物对蝶蛹金小蜂成虫触杀毒性较低,处理24h死亡率分别为13.2%、8.2%、2.0%;对蝶蛹金小蜂的产卵寄生效果亦无不良影响.而化学农药高效氯氰菊酯对蝶蛹金小蜂的触杀毒性极高,处理3h死亡率达到100%,该药剂处理寄主蛹后对蝶蛹金小蜂的产卵寄生效果有较大影响,其出蜂蛹率仅为对照的1/6.%The contact toxicity of chloroform extracts of Bruceajavanica (L.) Merr., Annona squamosa L.and Gelsemium elegans Benth to Pteromalus puparum L.were evaluated in laboratory by the method of dry film bioassay, and influence of the plant extracts on the parasitism of the wasp was also tested, with the chemical pesticide beta-cypermethrin as control.Results showed that the three plant extracts were safe to P.puparum and did not affect its parasitic effect.The mortality of the wasp 24 h after being treated with the three plant extracts were 13.2%, 8.2% and 2.0%, respectively.Beta-cypermethrin had significant contact toxicity to the wasp and the mortality reached 100% 3 h after treatment.Betacypermethrin also reduced the wasp's ability to parasitize host pupae, rate of treated host pupae from which wasps emerged was only one sixth of that of plant-extracts treated pupae.

  5. Toxic compounds in honey. (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua


    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  6. Koumine Attenuates Lipopolysaccaride-Stimulated Inflammation in RAW264.7 Macrophages, Coincidentally Associated with Inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihang Yuan


    Full Text Available Medicinal herbal plants have been commonly used for intervention of different diseases and health enhancement worldwide. Koumine, an alkaloid monomer found abundantly in Gelsemium plants, can be effectively used as an anti-inflammatory medication. In this study, the mechanisms associated with the preventative effect of koumine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Koumine induced a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein, concomitant reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO and reduction of the levels of interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and IL-1β. Furthermore, koumine decreased the phosphorylation of p65 and inhibited nuclear factor κ Bα (IκBα proteins, resulting in lower production of nuclear factor (NF-κB transactivation. Koumine also induced a decrease in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK and p38 in RAW264 cells. In conclusion, these findings reveal that koumine decreases the productions of pro-inflammatory mediators though the suppression of p38 and ERK MAPK phosphorylation and the inhibition of NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells.

  7. Nephroprotective effect of gelsemine against cisplatin-induced toxicity is mediated via attenuation of oxidative stress. (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Zhu, Weiping; Jia, Ning


    Cisplatin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species leads to acute nephrotoxicity limiting its use in the treatment of various cancers. Gelsemine, an alkaloid isolated from Gelsemium elegans, is known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. This study was aimed to investigate as to whether gelsemine can serve as a protective agent against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups, each with 6 rats. Group 1 served as control and received the vehicles (peanut oil for 14 days and 0.9 % saline on day 14 for gelsemine and cisplatin respectively). Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin on day 14. Group 3 and 4 were pretreated with two different doses of gelsemine in addition to cisplatin, and group 5 and 6 received only gelsemine. The effects of gelsemine on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were examined by measuring anti-oxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage in the kidneys, a well-established model of oxidative damage. Pretreatment of rats with gelsemine caused a significant attenuation of cisplatin-induced DNA and oxidative damages. The blockade of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity was accompanied by increased production and/or activity of anti-oxidants, both enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (GSH). The biomarkers of kidney malfunctioning, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were ameliorated. The results of the present study suggest that gelsemine effectively suppressed cisplatin-induced renal injury by improving redox status.

  8. Integrative Nanomedicine: Treating Cancer With Nanoscale Natural Products (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Koithan, Mary; Banerji, Prasanta; Banerji, Pratip; Jain, Shamini; Ives, John


    Finding safer and more effective treatments for specific cancers remains a significant challenge for integrative clinicians and researchers worldwide. One emerging strategy is the use of nanostructured forms of drugs, vaccines, traditional animal venoms, herbs, and nutraceutical agents in cancer treatment. The recent discovery of nanoparticles in traditional homeopathic medicines adds another point of convergence between modern nanomedicine and alternative interventional strategies. A way in which homeopathic remedies could initiate anticancer effects includes cell-to-cell signaling actions of both exogenous and endogenous (exosome) nanoparticles. The result can be a cascade of modulatory biological events with antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. The Banerji Protocols reflect a multigenerational clinical system developed by homeopathic physicians in India who have treated thousands of patients with cancer. A number of homeopathic remedy sources from the Banerji Protocols (eg, Calcarea phosphorica; Carcinosin—tumor-derived breast cancer tissue prepared homeopathically) overlap those already under study in nonhomeopathic nanoparticle and nanovesicle tumor exosome cancer vaccine research. Past research on antineoplastic effects of nano forms of botanical extracts such as Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja, and Ruta as well as on homeopathic remedy potencies made from the same types of source materials suggests other important overlaps. The replicated finding of silica, silicon, and nano-silica release from agitation of liquids in glassware adds a proven nonspecific activator and amplifier of immunological effects. Taken together, the nanoparticulate research data and the Banerji Protocols for homeopathic remedies in cancer suggest a way forward for generating advances in cancer treatment with natural product–derived nanomedicines. PMID:24753994

  9. Experimental induced wound cicatrisation after highly diluted products treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorly de Freitas Buchi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin is an attractive target to study extracellular matrix, due to abundance in Connective tissue. In cases of injuries the first step is an inflammatory reaction and subsequent the healing that involves several changes in the matrix. These changes are fundamental to inflammatory cells activities allowing healing. Highly diluted products were shown to facilitate inflammatory mediators and to activate immune cells in vivo and in vitro, thus it can be effective to wound healing. Aims: This study aims to evaluate highly diluted products effects on inflammation and cicatrization process. Methodology: Three compounds (M8 (Aconitum napellus 20dH, Arsenicum album 18dH, Asa foetida 20dH, Calcarea carbonica 16dH, Conium maculatum 17dH, Ipecacuanha 13dH, Phosphorus 20dH, Rhus toxicodendron 17dH, Silicea 20dH, Sulphur 24dH, Thuja occidentalis 19dH, M1 (Chelidonium majus 20dH, Cinnamon 20dH, Echinaceae purpurea 20dH, Gelsemium sempervirens 20dH plus all M8 compounds and Curcuma cH30 – simple product, were manipulated as a gel and applied on mice dorsal flank after incision and suture (approximately 1 cm and three points, for 3 consecutive days. After the treatments the scars were evaluated macroscopically, the animals were killed, the skin samples collected, fixed and processed for Hematoxilin-Eosin (HE and Masson Tricromic (to observe the collagen fibers type I. The slices were analyzed and images collected by a light microscope Olympus BX51 with camera attached Olympus DP72. Results: It was observed a higher and faster rate of tissue epithelization in the treated groups after three days of gel-product application. This could be observed in lower rates in the control group (no treatment - Figure 1 and 2. Regeneration and organization of connective tissue were proportional to epithelization the treated groups. We also observed evidences of changes in amount of neutrophils and fibroblasts, resulting in changes in the

  10. Polymeric nanoparticle encapsulation of a naturally occurring plant scopoletin and its effects on human melanoma cell A375%天然植物化学成分东莨菪亭聚合物纳米胶囊的制备及其对人黑色素瘤A375细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh; Soumya Sundar Bhattacharyya; Saili Paul; Naoual Boujedaini


    Objective:We formulated nano-encapsulation of a naturally occurring coumarin-scopoletin(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin,HMC,C10H8O4),isolated from plant Gelsemium sempervirens having anticancer potentials,with a bio-adhesive agent-polylactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA)and tested if its cellular uptake,bioavailability and apoptotic(anticancer)potentials could thus be increased vis-à-vis unencapsulated HMC.Methods:A375 melanoma cancer cells were used for testing cellular entry and anticancer potentials of HMC and nano-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin(NHMC)through several standard protocols.Characterization of NHMC was done by dynamic light scattering for determination of particle size,polydispersity index(PDI),and zeta potential.Surface morphology of nanoparticles was determined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.Results:HMC was encapsulated with more than 85% entrapment efficiency,the average particle size of NHMC being less than 110 nm and a PDI 0.237,which resulted in enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability.NHMC showed a faster cellular uptake(15 min)than its unencapsulated counterpart (30 min).Study of signal molecules through mRNA expressions revealed that NHMC caused down-regulation of cyclin-D1,proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA),survivin and Stat-3,and up-regulation of p53 and caspase-3,that in turn induced a greater number of apoptosis vis-à-vis unencapsulated HMC.Conclusion:The formulation yielded small-sized NHMC by biodegradable PLGA that took less time for cellular entry,and caused more apoptosis to cancer cells,but apparently had negligible cytotoxicity against normal skin cells.Nano-encapsulation of bioactive plant ingredients can be a strategy worth trying for designing effective chemopreventive drug products.%目的:东莨菪亭(7-羟基-6甲氧基香豆素,化学式C10H8O4,简称HMC)是从常绿钩吻(Gelsemium Semperuirens)中提取的一种天然香豆素类化合物,被认为具有抗癌活性.本研究将HMc制