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Sample records for gaseous effluent monitoring

  1. Legal provisions governing gaseous effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de

  2. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  3. Monitoring of released radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, M.; Keta, S.; Nagai, S.; Kano, M.; Ishihara, N.; Moriyama, T.; Ogaki, K.; Noda, K.

    2009-01-01

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started its active tests with spent fuel at the end of March 2006. When spent fuels are sheared and dissolved, radioactive gaseous effluent and radioactive liquid effluent such as krypton-85, tritium, etc. are released into the environment. In order to limit the public dose as low as reasonably achievable in an efficient way, RRP removes radioactive material by evaporation, rinsing, filtering, etc., and then releases it through the main stack and the sea discharge pipeline that allow to make dispersion and dilution very efficiently. Also, concerning the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent to be released into the environment, the target values of annual release have been defined in the Safety Rule based on the estimated annual release evaluated at the safety review of RRP. By monitoring the radioactive material in gaseous exhaust and liquid effluent RRP controls it not to exceed the target values. RRP reprocessed 430 tUpr of spent fuel during Active Test (March 2006 to October 2008). In this report, we report about: The outline of gaseous and liquid effluent monitoring. The amount of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent during the active test. The performance of removal of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents. The impact on the public from radioactive effluents during the active test. (author)

  4. Estimation of radionuclide releases in atmosphere from Cernavoda NPP based on continuous gaseous effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, E.; Murgoci, S.; Popescu, I.; Ibadula, R.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous effluents from Cernavoda NPP is performed to assess the environmental impact of the plant operation. The results of the monitoring program are used to evaluate the population doses in order to ensure that the emissions of radionuclides in air are below regulatory limits and radiation doses are maintained ALARA. It complements, but is independent from the Operational Environmental Monitoring Program for Cernavoda NPP. Gaseous effluent monitors provide continuous indication of the radioactivity content in atmospheric emissions. Except for noble gases, these monitors also collect samples for later detailed analysis in the station Health Physics Laboratory. This paper presents the main equipment and the results of the gaseous effluents monitoring program in order to assess the impact of Cernavoda NPP operation and to predict the future releases as function of radionuclides concentrations in CANDU systems, based on the identified trends.(author)

  5. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  6. Sampling and monitoring of carbon-14 in gaseous effluents from nuclear facilities - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.

    1988-12-01

    C-14 compounds produced in the coolant may be released mainly together with off-gas and waste water from the coolant purification and treatment system. In reactors the release of C-14 will occur mainly in gaseous effluents and only a few percent in liquid effluents. Reported releases from BWRs range from 260 to 670 GBq/GW(e) x year and from 90 to 430 GBq/GW(e) x year for PWRs. At BWRs the condenser air ejector contributes the main inplant release pathway, whereas in PWRs the off-gas treatment vents are the main pathway for C-14 release. C-14 sampling methods depend generally on the C-14 being in the form of CO 2 . The off-gas discharges from BWRs are mainly in the form of CO 2 whereas in PWRs a major fraction of the released C-14 is in the form of hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide (generally 80-100%). Sampling systems in PWRs should therefore be equipped with a catalytic oxidizer to convert all C-14 to CO 2 before trapping. The purpose of this study is to provide information on the techniques available for sampling and monitoring C-14

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems

  8. Behaviour of radioiodine in gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.J.

    1968-01-01

    Because of the different chemical forms in which radioiodine occurs in the gaseous state, it is important when designing efficient filters to know the chemical forms which may be present in the effluent gases when various operations are being carried out and to know the effect of different gaseous environments on the filtration efficiency. To obtain this information it is necessary to have available reliable means of characterizing different chemical forms and to sample gaseous effluents when these operations are being carried out. This paper describes the use for identifying molecular iodine of metallic screens in a multi-component sampling pack in different gaseous environments. Using multi-component sampling packs, the fractionation of iodine nuclides between different chemical forms was measured in the effluent gases escaping from an in-pile test loop in which the fuel was deliberately ruptured by restricting the flow of coolant. Sequential samples were taken for six hours after the rupture and it was possible to follow during this period the individual behaviours of 13 '1I, 133 I and 135 I. Simultaneous samples were also obtained of the noble gases in the effluent gas stream and of the iodine nuclides in the loop coolant. Similar experiments have been carried out with a view to characterizing the different chemical behaviour of radioiodine as it is released from a variety of operations in the nuclear industry including the cutting of fuel sections in metallurgical examination caves and an incinerator. (author)

  9. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  10. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  11. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  12. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  13. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three processes are discussed for separating tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems: separation in the gas phase using Pd-25 wt percent Ag alloy diffusion membranes; electrolytic separation in the aqueous phase using ''bipolar'' electrodes; and the countercurrent exchange of tritium-containing hydrogen gas with water on catalytic surfaces combined with separation by direct electrolysis

  14. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  15. Control of semivolatile radionuclides in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An up-to-date review is presented of the subject, combining the results of laboratory studies on control of the most important semivolatile radionuclides in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities and the results of operating experience in that area. Ruthenium is the most significant semivolatile contaminant in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities. Volatilization of ruthenium can be reduced by various means, in particular by adding reductants. Volatilized ruthenium can be retained by adsorbents such as silica gel and ferric-oxide-based materials. Decontamination factors in the order of 10 3 have been obtained with these adsorbents under optimum conditions. Volatilized ruthenium can also be removed by other equipment such as condensers and scrubbers. Experience with high-level liquid waste solidification plants has shown that, in general, ruthenium volatilization is in the order of 10% or more unless special treatment is undertaken. There is little experience with ruthenium adsorbers in plants. Silica gel seems to have performed best, with ruthenium decontamination factors of about 10 2 to 10 3 . However, feed-to-stack ruthenium decontamination factors of 10 9 or more have been obtained even without ruthenium adsorbers. Other semivolatiles are relatively insignificant under normal conditions because of a low level of volatilization potential or mass or activity in the inventory. Moreover, owing to particulate formation, they can be easily removed without specific equipment

  16. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Removal or reduction of tritium content in a wide variety of effluent streams has been extensively studied in the United States. This paper specifically reviews three processes involving tritium separation in the gaseous phase and the aqueous phase. Diffusion through a selective Pd-25Ag alloy membrane at temperatures up to 600 0 C and at pressures up to 700 kg/cm 2 has resulted in successful separation of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures with an associated separation factor of 1.65 (and gives a calculated separation factor for hydrogen-tritium mixtures of 2.0). Use of a single palladium bipolar membrane in an electrolysis system has been found to yield a hydrogen-deuterium separation factor of 4 and a hydrogen-tritium factor of 6 to 11 without the production of gaseous hydrogen. Finally, countercurrent catalytic exchange between tritium-containing hydrogen gas and water has yielded a separation factor of 6.3. The specific advantages of each of these systems will be discussed in terms of their potential applications. In all cases, further investigations are necessary to scale the systems to handle large quantities of feed material in a continuous mode and to minimize energy requirements. Such separative systems must necessarily be cascaded to yield gaseous or aqueous product streams suitable for recycling to the tritium producing systems, for storage or for discharge to the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Operational experience of gaseous effluent treatment at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.; Detilleux, E.

    1977-01-01

    The EUROCHEMIC fuel reprocessing plant applies the PUREX flow sheet. Two particular features of the plant influence gaseous and liquid effluents: chemical decanning and the ability to process a wide range of fuels, uranium metal or oxide, having an initial enrichment typical of power reactors (up to 5%) or material testing reactors (up to 93%). The ventilation circuits, treatment plant and monitoring equipment for gaseous releases are briefly described. No retention facilities for rare gases, tritium, or carbon-14 are provided. The releases are monitored for krypton-85, iodine-131, alpha and beta-gamma aerosols and tritium. Between 1966 and 1974 the plant processes about 200 tonnes of power reactor fuel, from which about 0.7 tonnes of plutonium and 1.5 tonnes of highly enriched uranium were separated. The most important points in the operation of the gas cleaning equipment are indicated: efficiency, operational reliability, incidents, etc.. Actual discharges as measured are compared with the limits set in the operation licence. Using the atmospheric diffusion coefficients, the dose commitment is estimated. The low level liquid effluents are passed, after neutralization, to the treatment plant of the Belgian nuclear center CEN/SCK. However, if the activity exceeds the limit set by the CEN/SCK, the effluents are concentrated by evaporation and stored on the EUROCHEMIC site. (orig.) [de

  18. Monitoring of noble gas radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous radionuclides in the effluents of nuclear facilities is an essential requirement in effluent management programs. Since there is no practical way of removing noble gas radioisotopes from air at release pathways, their accurate monitoring is essential for providing appropriate environmental protection. Emitted γ dose-rate is the limiting factor for concentration-time integral of noble gas in gaseous effluents of reactor facilities. The external exposure to the public from a semi-infinite cloud is directly proportional to both the noble gas isotope concentration and the integrated γ energy per disintegration. Both can be directly measured in gaseous effluent pathways with a suitable detector. The capability of NaI(T1), CaF 2 (Eu) and plastic scintillation detectors to measure the γ-Ci.MeV content of noble gas releases was experimentally evaluated. The combination of CaF 2 (Eu) detector in a pressurized through-flow chamber, with a charge integrating scaler well complied with both γ energy response and detection sensitivity requirements. Noble gas source terms and effluent monitoring criteria are discussed, theoretical and experimental results are presented and a practical, on-line noble gas monitoring system is described

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  20. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  1. Detection of gaseous fission products in water - a method of monitoring fuel sheathing failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, P. R.; Whittier, A. C.

    1959-05-15

    The gaseous activities stripped from samples of effluent coolant from the NRU fuel elements tested in the central thimble of the NRX reactor (NRU loop) and from the NRX main effluent have been investigated. The activities obtained from the NRU loop can be attributed to gaseous fission products only. Design data have been obtained for a 'Gaseous Fission Product Monitor' to be installed for use with the NRU reactor. It is expected that this monitor will have high sensitivity to activity indicative of an incipient fuel element sheath failure. No qualitative determination of the various gaseous activities obtained from the NRX effluent has been made. A strong component of 25 {+-}1 seconds half-life is not consistent with O-19. Limited information concerning sheath failures in NRX was obtained. Of six failures observed in parallel with the installed delayed neutron monitors, three of these gave pre-warnings and in each case the gaseous fission product monitor showed a substantially greater sensitivity. An experiment in which small samples of uranium, inserted into the NRX reactor, could be exposed at will to a stream of water showed the behaviour of the two types of monitors to be similar. However, a number of signals were detected only by the gaseous fission product monitor. These can be attributed to its sensitivity to relatively long lived fission products. (author)

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the efferent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  3. CY-1981 effluent monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkus, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    The effluent monitoring programs at ICPP for calendar year 1981 are summarized. During the year, five significant occurrences or unplanned releases occurred. These are briefly described and tabulated. In none of the instances were the applicable Radiation Concentration Guides (RCG's) exceeded. A graphic summary of the total airborne, liquid and solid releases during CY-1981 is presented. Liquid waste activity was higher than anticipated due to various processing factors throughout the year. Solid waste jumped dramatically in December due to shipment of end-prices from the EBR-II fuel which was processed during the Electrolytic campaign

  4. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  5. An improved calibration technique for measurement of 41Ar activity in gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, M.T.; Raghunath, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the methods used generally for the calibration of a gaseous effluent monitoring system is to estimate the efficiency of the detector system with a point source of 22 Na. The uncertainty in this method is the assumption that a point source kept at a distance from the detector and a volume source nearer the detector will have the same efficiency. To overcome this problem, a technique of using 22 Na in liquid form has been standardised. The uncertainties in the strength of the liquid source is avoided by proper intercomparison of the same with a reference standard traceable to a primary standard. The NaI system has been calibrated for estimating the 41 Ar activity from the peak area counts in the MCA and SCA systems respectively. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab

  6. Monitoring and removal of gaseous carbon-14 species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was developed for the monitoring of low level carbon-14 in nuclear power station areas and gaseous effluent. Gaseous carbon compounds (hydrocarbons and CO) are catalytically oxidized to CO 2 , which is then absorbed on solid Ca(OH) 2 at elevated temperatures. The 14 C collected is quantitatively liberated by thermal decomposition of CaCO 3 as CO 2 , which is either measured directly by flow-through detectors or absorbed in alkali hydroxide followed by liquid scintillation counting. The method can also be used for the removal of gaseous 14 C. The Ca 14 CO 3 can be immobilized in concrete for long term disposal. Ca(OH) 2 is an inexpensive absorber. It is selective for CO 2 and has high capacity and efficiency for its absorption and retention. A theoretical evaluation of thee optium conditions for CO 2 absorption and liberation is discussed and experimental investigations are described. There is good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental findings

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontag, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plant is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The UO 3 Plant is located in the south-central portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The plant consists of two primary processing buildings and several ancillary facilities. The purpose of the UO 3 Plant is to receive uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant, concentrate it, convert the UNH to uranium trioxide (UO 3 ) powder by calcination and package it for offsite shipment. The UO 3 Plant has been placed in a standby mode. There are two liquid discharges, and three gaseous exhaust stacks, and seven building exhausters that are active during standby conditions

  8. Effluent monitoring: Its purpose and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of effluent monitoring is described in terms of the primary objectives, the most important of which is to verify that the facility is functioning as it was designed and that the waste treatment and effluent control systems are performing as planned and expected. The object of a monitoring programme should be periodically re-examined to ensure that the programme serves a contemporary purpose. The value of the effluent monitoring programme is determined by the extent to which users of the monitoring data, i.e. the operator, the regulating authorities and the public, accept the result as indicating that the plant is operating safely, and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The credibility of the monitoring results is therefore the most important factor determining the value of an effluent monitoring programme. (author)

  9. Radioactive effluents, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acox, T.A.; Hary, L.F.; Klein, L.S.

    1983-03-01

    Radioactive discharges from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed and tabulated. Tables indicate both the location of the discharge and the nuclides discharged. All discharges for 1982 are well below the Radioactive Concentration Guide limits specified in DOE Order 5480.1, Chapter XI. 1 figure

  10. Monitoring of the release of gaseous and aerosol-bound radioactive materials. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    KTA 1503 contains requirements on technical installations and supplementary organizational measures considered necessary in order to monitor the release of gaseous and aerosol-bound radioactive materials. It consists of part 1: Monitoring of the release of radioactive materials together with stack gas during normal operation; part 2: Monitoring of the release of radioactive materials together with stack gas in the event of incidents; part 3: Monitoring of radioactive materials not released together with stack gas. The concept on which this rule is based is to ensure that in the case of incidents during which the result of effluent monitoring remains meaningful, such monitoring can be reliably performed. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Netzer, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    At the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant the ambient atmosphere and all effluent streams are sampled and analyzed regularly for conformance to applicable environmental standards. Although neither the State of Ohio nor the federal government has established standards for fluorides in the ambient atmosphere or in vegetation, these parameters also are monitored because fluoride compounds are used extensively in the gaseous diffusion process. Radioactivity is measured in air, water, food, soil, and sediments; and radiation doses are calculated for the public. All public radiation doses are well within federal standards. Non-radioactive effluent parameters either comply with federal standards, or there are projects planned to allow compliance. A disposal facility to remove chromium from recirculating cooling water blowdown will begin operation in June 1976. Also, pH adjustment facilities for liquid effluents and electrostatic precipitators for a coal-fired steam plant are planned for the near future

  12. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acox, T.A.; Anderson, R.E.; Hary, L.F.; Klein, L.S.; Vausher, A.L.

    1982-04-01

    At the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant all effluent streams are sampled regularly and analyzed to assess compliance with applicable environmental standards. Radioactivity is measured in air, water, food, soil, and sediments; and radiation doses to the public are calculated. All public radiation doses from process effluents are well within Department of Energy and US EPA standards. Non-radioactive effluents either presently comply with federal standards or will comply upon completion of planned projects. The environmental impact of effluents from cleaning and decontamination operations has been reduced through flow reduction and improved chemical treatment. CY-1981 was the first full year under a new National Pollutant Discharge. Elimination System (NPDES) permit for liquid effluents; compliance with the permit's discharge limits did not present any significant problems. Engineering is proceeding on projects to be constructed through 1985 to further reduce the impact of liquid effluents. A new licensed sanitary landfill utilizing the area fill method went into operation in July 1981. Although neither the State of Ohio nor the federal government has established standards for fluoride in the atmosphere or in vegetation, fluorides are monitored because they are used extensively in the gaseous diffusion process

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Camilleri, A.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Camilleri, A; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  17. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  18. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1977-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  19. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  1. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992

  2. Test of active coal capacity for retaining gaseous effluents contaminated by 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeanu, Catalina; Cruceru, Madalina; Neacsu, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the retaining capacity of the active coal of the filters for gaseous effluents contaminated by 131 I. The active coal filters are design for equipping ventilation installations of nuclear plants in which radioactive iodine and combination of it were produced and handled. Such active coal filters are provided also to sorbonnes for radiochemical and physical handling of radioactive iodine. Testing the retaining capacity of active coal for filters is an obvious step, particularly, when the material was stored long time after preparation

  3. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January-December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  5. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Dahl, N.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  7. Gaseous radioactive effluent restrictions, measurement, and minimization at a PET/cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plascjak, P.S.; Kim, K.K.; Googins, S.W.; Meyer, W.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In the US, restrictions on the release of radioactive effluents from PET (positron emission tomography)/cyclotron facilities are typically imposed by State regulatory agencies and may be based on various methodologies and limits published by numerous agencies. This work presents suitable effluent concentration limits for various chemical forms of radioisotopes routinely produced in PET/cyclotron facilities. They were determined by application of metabolic models defined by ICRP 53 and ICRP 26/30 which will result in compliance with effective dose equivalent limits of 100 mrem per year at the release point. The NIH Cyclotron Facility effluent air monitoring system, environmental dosimetry program, and simple, effective systems for radioactive effluent minimization are also described. (orig.)

  8. Characteristics and applications of small, portable gaseous air pollution monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Grant R; Salmond, Jennifer A; Vanos, Jennifer K

    2017-04-01

    Traditional approaches for measuring air quality based on fixed measurements are inadequate for personal exposure monitoring. To combat this issue, the use of small, portable gas-sensing air pollution monitoring technologies is increasing, with researchers and individuals employing portable and mobile methods to obtain more spatially and temporally representative air pollution data. However, many commercially available options are built for various applications and based on different technologies, assumptions, and limitations. A review of the monitor characteristics of small, gaseous monitors is missing from current scientific literature. A state-of-the-art review of small, portable monitors that measure ambient gaseous outdoor pollutants was developed to address broad trends during the last 5-10 years, and to help future experimenters interested in studying gaseous air pollutants choose monitors appropriate for their application and sampling needs. Trends in small, portable gaseous air pollution monitor uses and technologies were first identified and discussed in a review of literature. Next, searches of online databases were performed for articles containing specific information related to performance, characteristics, and use of such monitors that measure one or more of three criteria gaseous air pollutants: ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. All data were summarized into reference tables for comparison between applications, physical features, sensing capabilities, and costs of the devices. Recent portable monitoring trends are strongly related to associated applications and audiences. Fundamental research requires monitors with the best individual performance, and thus the highest cost technology. Monitor networking favors real-time capabilities and moderate cost for greater reproduction. Citizen science and crowdsourcing applications allow for lower-cost components; however important strengths and limitations for each application must be addressed

  9. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  10. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2002-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the I milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron (authors)

  13. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia, (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  15. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  16. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E. L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  18. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the I milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron (authors)

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). The Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant and UO 3 facility effluent monitoring plan determinations were prepared by Los Alamos Technical Associates, Richland, Washington. The Plutonium Finishing Plant, Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, T Plant, Tank Farms, Low Level Burial Grounds, and 222-S Laboratory determinations were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation of Richland, Washington. The B Plant Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determination was prepared by ERCE Environmental Services of Richland, Washington

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  6. A study on the diffusion of gaseous radioactive effluents based on the statistical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Goung Jin

    1998-01-01

    A diffusion model of radioactive gaseous effluents is improved to apply for domestic nuclear power plants. Up to now, XOQDOQ computer code package developed by U. S NRC has been used for the assessment of radioactive plume dispersion by normal operation of domestic nuclear power plants. XOQDOQ adopts the straight-line Gaussian plume model which was basically derived for the plane terrain. However, since there are so many mountains in Korea, the several shortcomings of XOQDOQ are improved to consider the complex terrain effects. In this work, wind direction change is considered by modifying the wind rose frequency using meteorological data of the local weather stations. In addition, an effective height correction model, a plume reduction model due to plume penetration into mountain, and a wet deposition model are adopted for more realistic assessments. The proposed methodology is implemented in Yonggwang nuclear power plants, and can be used for other domestic nuclear power plants

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. A radioactive noble gas quantitative analysis of gaseous effluents from NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Georgiev, K.; Mavrodiev, V.; Kikarin, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes of argon, krypton and xenon comprise a substantial part of the gaseous emission of a NPP. A quantitative determination of their specific activity in the controlled area and the gaseous effluents requires a special sampling technique, as well as measurement method. The zeolites and the activated charcoals have a differentiated behaviour towards radioisotopes of argon, krypton and xenon. The isotope fractionation is often a problem, especially with argon and xenon. Some additional difficulties arise due to the irreproductibility of temperature and atmospheric moisture. The present paper describes a method for a spectrometric determination of radioactive noble gases after the cryogenic sampling developed at the Radiochemical laboratory of the Sofia University. The quality control of the method, as well as some special difficulties in its performing are discussed. The estimated minimum detectable activity is 5-10 Bq/m 3 for radioactive noble gases with half-life > 1 hour and sampling time for (resp. gamma-spectrometry) 1 hour. (author)

  10. Methodology of adjustment point in the post treatment of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet G, J.; Molina, G.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology to determine the adjustment points of the monitoring system of gaseous discharges is based on the stipulations of the 10CFR20, which are expressed in terms of limit concentrations for the outstanding radionuclides, and of dose limits for the individuals members of the public. Besides the points of liberation properly said, like they are the chimneys of the reactor buildings and of turbine, the points of adjustment of the monitoring instrumentation that watches in real time the discharge of the Treatment system of output gases, to the HVAC of the waste building; they also undergo to the same methodology, with the approaches previously described. (Author)

  11. Monitoring gaseous exchange: implications for nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan; Wilson, Michael

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether a relationship exists between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 and PETCO2 respectively) in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and what the implications it has for nursing care. PaCO2 and PETCO2 are indicators of ventilatory adequacy which is an important aspect of respiratory function. These measures of carbon dioxide tension are obtained via invasive and non-invasive monitoring tools. Measurement of PETCO2 has only recently been introduced into ICUs and its usefulness in these environments is open to debate. A population of 30 intubated patients had 214 simultaneous measurements of PaCO2 and PETCO2 taken over a period of 10 months. The findings indicate that, despite strong significant correlations, PETCO2 cannot be used safely as a substitute for PaCO2 as the arterial/end-tidal carbon dioxide gradient is not constant, nor does capnography provide a consistently reliable indicator of PaCO2.

  12. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  13. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  15. Radiation treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents for contaminant removal. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The Technical Meeting on Radiation Processing of Gaseous and Liquid Effluents conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-10 September 2004, discussed and evaluated issues related to the status and future trends in radiation application for environmental protection. Five experts from Bulgaria, India, the Republic of Korea, Poland, and the United States of America were invited to provide their experiences in this field. Twenty cost-free participants and observers - from Bulgaria, India, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine -joined the meeting, and 15 papers in total were presented. Research and development in radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents is undertaken in three fields: electron beam flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification and sewage sludge sterilization. Wastewater or sludge treatment and flue gas purification all differ from technological points of view, but they are common services and applications of environmental radiation technology applications, based mostly on electron accelerators. The technical meeting discussed new development in the field of radiation applications in environmental service, especially the status and prospects of radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents. Progress in the field of electron accelerators and gamma sources is crucial for routine application of the technology. Cost reduction and improvement of technical reliability are substantial especially for high power of accelerators and high activity of the sources needed for environmental applications. Environmental applications were carefully reviewed in accordance with the existing regulations and state of the art knowledge. The comparison with conventional commercial technologies was addressed as well. In flue gas treatment, applicability of the technology using different fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil, etc.) was reviewed. The elaborated materials cover the technical and economical evaluation of the technologies. The possible applications of

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  18. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous effluents from nuclear-powered merchant ships (NMS-GEFF code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardile, F.P.; Bangart, R.L.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMCO) is currently preparing guidelines concerning the safety of nuclear-powered merchant ships. An important aspect of these guidelines is the determination of the releases of radioactive material in effluents from these ships and the control exercised by the ships over these releases. To provide a method for the determination of these releases, the NRC staff has developed a computerized model, the NMS-GEFF Code, which is described in the following chapters. The NMS-GEFF Code calculates releases of radioactive material in gaseous effluents for nuclear-powered merchant ships using pressurized water reactors

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  20. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs

  1. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWR-GALE Code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangart, R.L.; Bell, L.G.; Boegli, J.S.; Burke, W.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Minns, J.L.; Stoddart, P.G.; Weller, R.A.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-12-01

    The calculational procedures described in the report reflect current NRC staff practice. The methods described will be used in the evaluation of applications for construction permits and operating licenses docketed after January 1, 1979, until this NUREG is revised as a result of additional staff review. The BWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment

  2. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 222-S Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems against applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. The current operation of the 222-S facilities includes the provision of analytical and radiological chemistry services in support of Hanford Site processing plants. The emphasis is on waste management, chemical processing, environmental monitoring effluent programs at B Plant, the Uranium Oxide Plant, Tank Farms, the 242-A Evaporator, the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility, the Plutonium Finishing Plant, process development/impact activities, and essential materials. The laboratory also supplies analytical services in support of ongoing waste tank characterization

  3. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.J.; Brendel, D.F.; Shields, K.D.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The primary purpose of the N Reactor Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP), during standby, is to ensure that the radioactive effluents are properly monitored and evaluated for compliance with the applicable DOE orders and regulatory agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. A secondary purpose of the FEMP is to ensure that hazardous wastes are not released, in liquid effluents, to the environment even though the potential to do so is extremely low. The FEMP is to provide a monitoring system that collects representative samples in accordance with industry standards, performs analyses within stringent quality control (QC) requirements, and evaluates the data through the use of comparative analysis with the standards and acceptable environmental models

  4. Effluent controls and environmental monitoring programs for uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Controls will reduce gaseous, particulate, and liquid discharges. Monitoring programs are used to determine effectiveness. The controls and programs discussed are used at Cotter Corporation's Canon City Mill in Colorado. 3 refs

  5. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  6. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  7. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  8. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  9. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January - December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate

  10. Radioactive effluent monitoring at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Effluent and Radiation Measurements Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently upgraded capabilities in the field of monitoring and analysis of radioactive airborne and liquid effluents using the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. The techniques and equipment used include remotely-operated, computer-based Ge(Li) spectrometers which obtain data on a real-time basis. Permanent record files are maintained of both the effluent release values and the gamma-ray data from which the release values are calculated. Should values for release levels ever be challenged, the gamma-ray spectral information for any measurement can be recalled and analyzed as needed. Daily effluent release reports are provided to operating personnel which contributes to prompt correction of any operational problems. Monthly, quarterly, and annual reports are compiled which provide inventories of the radionuclides released. A description of the effluent monitoring, reporting and records system developed at INEL for this application will be presented

  11. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  12. Rapid monitoring of gaseous radionuclides using a portable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.; Tsai, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    A field gamma ray spectrometer, consisting of a portable high purity germanium detector, portable multichannel analyser, and a notebook computer, was used to conduct in situ rapid scanning of radioactive Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes in the air around a nuclear facility. The portable gamma ray spectrometer was calibrated using Ar, Kr, and Xe radioisotopes, activated in a research reactor and released in a sealed chamber. The unit was further tested inside the reactor containment to monitor the concentration of 41 Ar. In a typical one hour field measurement, the detection limits for some rare gas radionuclides corresponded to dose rates around 0.1 nSv.h -1 , which is far less than the dose rate induced by derived air concentrations imposed by the authority. The dose rate due to ground level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides dispersed from a source, such a nuclear facility or nuclear test, can be monitored in a short period using the portable unit. (Author)

  13. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  14. High sensitivity on-line monitor for radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Toshimi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan); Ishizuka, Akira; Abe, Eisuke; Inoue, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Doi, Akira

    1983-04-01

    A new approach for a highly sensitive effluent monitor is presented. The free flow type monitor, which consists of a straightener, nozzle, monitoring section and ..gamma..-ray detector, is demonstrated to be effective in providing long term stability. The 160 start-and-stop cycles of effluent discharge were repeated in a 120-h testing period. Results showed a background increase was not observed for the free flow type monitor. The background count rate was calibrated to the lowest detection limit to be 2.2 x 10/sup -2/ Bq/ml for a 300 s measurement time.

  15. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year 24 tabs., 7 figs.; Glossary; Appendices

  16. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors)

  18. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year

  19. An estimation of exposure from gaseous and volatile radioactive effluents released from EWA reactor between 1971 and 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipiak, B.; Nowicki, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper gives an estimation of radiation doses for individuals due to gaseous radioactive effluents released from EWA reactor between 1971 and 1975. The doses were estimated for three organs, three groups of people: adults, teenagers and children and for three of the most important exposure paths: the external radiation from a passing cloud, inhalation and from milk ingestion. The results of calculations indicate that the radiation doses received by individuals living in the vicinity of EWA reactor were much below the limit doses or those due to the background radiation. (author)

  20. Atomics International environmental monitoring and facility effluent annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at Atomics International (AI) is performend by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Unit of the Health, Safety, and Radiation Services Department. Soil, vegetation, and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from AI sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on site for monitoring airborne radioactivity and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from AI facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituents in surface water discharged to unrestricted areas are determined. This report summarizes and discusses monitoring results for 1976. The results of a special soil plutonium survey performed during the year are also summarized

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  2. Radioactive and electron microscope analysis of effluent monitor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent air sampling at nuclear power plant often leads to the question ''How representative is the sample of the effluent stream?'' Samples from radiation monitors are typically obtained at great distances from the sample nozzle because of high background concerns under postulated accidents. Sample line plateout during normal effluent sampling becomes the major concern. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection raised a concern that monitors were not collecting representative samples per ANSI standard N13.1. A comprehensive 2-yr study at Beaver Valley was performed during normal effluent releases in two phases: 1) weekly charcoal and glass fiber filter samples were analyzed for radioactivity for 6 months, and 2) nuclepore membrane filter samples were analyzed by electron microscope for 4- and 6-h periods. A specially designed test nozzle was directly inserted into an effluent stream for comparison with the radiation monitor samples. Particle behavior characteristics can be determined during effluent releases using a simple test probe. While particle plateout was the major purpose of the study, other particle behavior characteristics were evident and equally as important. Particle travel through long sample lines can also lead to (a) agglomeration or the coagulation of smaller particles to form larger ones, (b) particle splitting or fracturing upon impact with the sample line interior walls, and (c) resuspension of large particles in sample lines

  3. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements.

  4. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, V.G.; Barnett, Brent B.; Olson, Phillip M.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  5. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Moeller, M.P.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum three years. A variety of liquid wastes are generated in processing treatment, and disposal operations throughout the Hanford Site. The Tank Farms Project serves a major role in Hanford Site waste management activities as the temporary repository for these wastes. Stored wastes include hazardous components regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and as by-product material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. A total of 177 single- and double-shell tanks (SST and DST) have been constructed in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. These facilities were constructed to various designs from 1943 to 1986. The Tank Farms Project is comprised of these tanks along with various transfer, receiving, and treatment facilities

  7. Analysis of Process Gases and Trace Contaminants in Membrane-Aerated Gaseous Effluent Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin Michael; Meyer, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    In membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs), hollow fibers are used to supply oxygen to the biofilms and bulk fluid. A pressure and concentration gradient between the inner volume of the fibers and the reactor reservoir drives oxygen mass transport across the fibers toward the bulk solution, providing the fiber-adhered biofilm with oxygen. Conversely, bacterial metabolic gases from the bulk liquid, as well as from the biofilm, move opposite to the flow of oxygen, entering the hollow fiber and out of the reactor. Metabolic gases are excellent indicators of biofilm vitality, and can aid in microbial identification. Certain gases can be indicative of system perturbations and control anomalies, or potentially unwanted biological processes occurring within the reactor. In confined environments, such as those found during spaceflight, it is important to understand what compounds are being stripped from the reactor and potentially released into the crew cabin to determine the appropriateness or the requirement for additional mitigation factors. Reactor effluent gas analysis focused on samples provided from Kennedy Space Center's sub-scale MABRs, as well as Johnson Space Center's full-scale MABRs, using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques. Process gases, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrous oxide, were quantified to monitor reactor operations. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) GC-MS analysis was used to identify trace volatile compounds. Compounds of interest were subsequently quantified. Reactor supply air was examined to establish target compound baseline concentrations. Concentration levels were compared to average ISS concentration values and/or Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels where appropriate. Based on a review of to-date results, current trace contaminant control systems (TCCS) currently on board the ISS should be able to handle the added load from bioreactor systems without the need

  8. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  9. General principles governing sampling and measurement techniques for monitoring radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1978-01-01

    An explanation is given of the need to monitor the release of radioactive gases and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the ICRP recommendations and on the interest in this problem shown by the larger international organizations. This is followed by a description of the classes of radionuclides that are normally monitored in this way. The characteristics of monitoring 'in line' and 'by sample taking' are described; the disadvantages of in line monitoring and the problem of sample representativity are discussed. There follows an account of the general principles for measuring gaseous and liquid effluents that are applied in the techniques normally employed at nuclear facilities. Standards relating to the specifications for monitoring instruments are at present being devised by the International Electrotechnical Commission, and there are still major differences in national practices, at least as far as measurement thresholds are concerned. In conclusion, it is shown that harmonization of practices and standardization of equipment would probably help to make international relations in the field more productive. (author)

  10. Study on radioactive release of gaseous and liquid effluents during normal operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Quan; Zhou Jing; Liu Yu

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of pressurized water reactors plant during normal operation are an important content of environmental impact assessment and play a significant role in the design of nuclear power plant. According to the design characters of AP1OOO radioactive waste management system and the study on the calculation method and the release pathways, the calculation model of the gaseous and liquid radioactive releases during normal operation for AP1OOO are established. Base on the established calculation model and the design parameters of AP1000, the expected value of gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of AP1OOO is calculated. The results of calculation are compared with the limits in GB 6249-2011 and explain the adder that is included tu account for anticipated operational occurrences, providing a reference for environmental impact assessment of pressurized water reactor. (authors)

  11. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring indoor and in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, Nicolae; Sofalca, Nicolae; Balteanu, Ovidiu-Ioan; Stefan, Ioana-Iuliana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe an improved real-time tritium monitoring system designed for Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant of National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation, Rm. Valcea, Romania. The system consists of three fixed tritium-in-air monitors which measure continuously tritium-in-air concentration (in both species: vapour and gas) in working areas and gaseous effluents. Portable tritium monitors with ionization chamber, and tritium-in-air collector combined with liquid scintillation counter method are also used to supplement fixed instrument measurements. The main functions of tritium monitoring system are: to measure tritium-in air concentration in working areas and gaseous effluents; to alarm the personnel if tritium concentration thresholds are exceeded; to integrate tritium activity released to the environment during a week and to cut off normal ventilation when the activity threshold is exceeded and start the air cleaning system. Now, several especial functions have been added, so that by using appropriate conversion factors, the tritium monitoring system is able to estimate the effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished. Another new function has been added by coupling tritium-in-air monitoring system with control access system. This is very useful for quick estimation of tritium doses. For routine dosimetric survey, one the internal dose for individuals by measuring tritium in urine is estimated. With all these features our tritium monitoring system is really a safety system for personnel and for environment. (authors)

  12. Effluent and environmental monitoring of Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, T.; De Waele, C.; Gallagher, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Environmental Protection Program has been gathering environmental monitoring data at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for over 60 years. The comprehensive effluent and environmental monitoring program at CRL consists of more than 600 sampling locations, including the Ottawa River, with approximately 60,000 analyses performed on air and liquid effluent parameters each year. Monitoring for a variety of radiological and non-radiological parameters is regularly conducted on various media, including ambient air, foodstuff (e.g. milk, fish, garden produce, large game, and farm animals), groundwater, Ottawa River water and other surface water on and off-site. The purpose of the monitoring program is to verify that past and current radiological and non-radiological emissions derived from AECL operations and activities, such as process water effluent into the Ottawa River, are below regulatory limits and demonstrate that CRL operations do not negatively affect the quality of water on or leaving the site. In fact, ongoing program reports demonstrate that radiological emissions are well below regulatory limits and have been declining for the past five years, and that non-radiological contaminants do not negatively affect the quality of water on and off the site. Two updated Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for Effluent and Environmental monitoring have come into effect and have resulted in some changes to the AECL Program. This presentation will discuss effluent and surface water monitoring results, the observed trends, the changes triggered by the CSA standards, and a path forward for the future. (author)

  13. Controlled decomposition and oxidation: A treatment method for gaseous process effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinley, Roger J. B., Sr.

    1990-01-01

    The safe disposal of effluent gases produced by the electronics industry deserves special attention. Due to the hazardous nature of many of the materials used, it is essential to control and treat the reactants and reactant by-products as they are exhausted from the process tool and prior to their release into the manufacturing facility's exhaust system and the atmosphere. Controlled decomposition and oxidation (CDO) is one method of treating effluent gases from thin film deposition processes. CDO equipment applications, field experience, and results of the use of CDO equipment and technological advances gained from the field experiences are discussed.

  14. Control of the aerozol-gaseous effluents at the Novovoronezh NPP and study of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, M.A.; Sedov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    The system of dosimetric control of environment in the vicinity of the Novovoronezh NPP (NVNPP) is described. Annual values of gaseous- aerozol radioactive effluents (including their isotope composition) during the operation of the two NVNPP WWER-440 reactors since 1972 up to 1979 are presented. Concentrations of radioactive substances (total and separately by 30 Sr and 137 Cs isotopes) in the air as well as dose rates of the population in the control region of the NV NPP from 1965 up to 1979 are given. It is concluded that essential statistical material characterizing the environment state that testifies to the absence of harmful NPP effect on the environment objects and population is accumulated during 15 year NVNPP operation [ru

  15. Order of 4 august 1989 on licensing the release of gaseous radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 3 and 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of gaseous radioactive effluents from Units 3 and 4 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible [fr

  16. Decree No 74-945 of 6 November 1974 concerning gaseous radioactive effluent releases from large nuclear installations and nuclear installations located on the same site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the licensing for the release of gaseous wastes from nuclear installations as well as the technical supervision of such operations. It does not apply to the transport of radioactive effluents which is governed by the regulations on the transport of dangerous goods. (NEA) [fr

  17. Graphic overview system for DOE's effluent and environmental monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.; Elle, D.R.

    1980-03-01

    The Graphic Overview System is a compilation of photos, maps, overlays, and summary information of environmental programs and related data for each DOE site. The information consists of liquid and airborne effluent release points, on-site storage locations, monitoring locations, aerial survey results, population distributions, wind roses, and other related information. The relationships of different environmental programs are visualized through the use of colored overlays. Trends in monitoring data, effluent releases, and on-site storage data are also provided as a corollary to the graphic display of monitoring and release points. The results provide a working tool with which DOE management (headquarters and field offices) can place in proper perspective key aspects of all environmental programs and related data, and the resulting public impact of each DOE site

  18. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower ampersand instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing

  19. Application of wet effluent diffusion denuder for measurement of uptake coefficient of gaseous pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Motyka, K.; Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2011), s. 519-523 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1A3/148/08; GA MŽP SP/1A3/55/08; GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : collection efficiency * wet effluent diffusion denuder * uptake coefficient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2011

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-03-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities

  2. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  4. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Herman, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  6. Fenceline water quality monitoring of effluents from BARC establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathibha, P.; Kothai, P.; Saradhi, I.V.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater generated from various sources (industrial, residential, rain water runoff etc.,) is either discharged into water bodies or reused/recycled for various purposes. Continuous monitoring of the wastewater is necessary to check whether these effluents are meeting the stringent limits proposed for discharge into water bodies or recycled/reused. Monitoring of these effluents also helps in designing the wastewater treatment system required to meet the standards. In this paper, water quality monitoring carried out during each quarter of the year 2005 for the effluents discharged from different utilities of BARC into Trombay bay is presented. The results indicate that the Bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are in the range of 7.9 to 38.9 mg/l and 29.4 to 78.9 mg/l respectively. The nitrates and sulphates are in the range of 0.5 to 7.2 mg/l and 7.8 to 52.3 mg/l respectively. The water quality data of the parameters analyzed are well within the limits stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board. (author)

  7. Rapid monitoring of gaseous fission products in BWRs using a portable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Wei-Wen; Lee, Cheng-Jong; Chen, Chen-Yi; Chung, Chien

    1996-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative determination of gaseous radionuclides is the most difficult task in the field of environmental monitoring for radiation. Although the identification of each gaseous radionuclide is relatively straightforward using its decayed gamma ray as an index, the quantitative measurement is hampered by the time-consuming sample collection procedures, in particular for the radioactive noble gaseous fission products of krypton and xenon. In this work, a field gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of a high-purity germanium detector, portable multichannel anlayzer, and a notebook computer was used to conduct rapid scanning of radioactive krypton and xenon in the air around a nuclear facility

  8. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  9. Design of a PWR gaseous effluent treatment system combining delay-storage vessels, volume-reduction and activated-charcoal beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuyt, G.; Glibert, R.; Lahaye, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The usual technique for the treatment of gaseous effluents is to store them in radioactive decay tanks and to carry out a range of operations such as recycling, volume-reduction and discharge. Although presenting undeniable advantages, this technique has a number of weaknesses which have become apparent with experience. This paper describes and analyses a system designed to alleviate these difficulties and to permit greater flexibility in gaseous effluent treatment, especially for power stations in the load-following mode of operation, by means of a combination of storage techniques and retention of short-lived isotopes in activated charcoal beds. The attractiveness of the proposed system is apparent from an analysis of operational, maintenance, safety and cost aspects. (author)

  10. Beta-ray depth dose in tissue equivalent material due to gaseous radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadt, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The magnitude of the absorbed dose to skin from beta particles emitted by the radionuclides in gaseous effluents from boiling water nuclear power reactors is investigated in this dissertation. Using the radionuclide release patterns of F. Brutschy and the beta dosimetry methods of M. Berger, an equation is derived which gives the dose rate in rads per day when the total radionuclide concentration is one microcurie per gram of air. The coefficients in the equation are presented for a wide range of reactor gas hold-up times (48 minutes to 6 days) and plume environmental transit time (0.5 to 60 minutes). The beta dose rates at the skin surface are found to range from 3.9 to 26.7 rads per day. An upper limit of the relative standard deviation in the dose rate is estimated to be 30 percent. The techniques used to develop the equation are applied to data from the Millstone Nuclear Power Station obtained during the summer of 1972. The beta dose at a site 1.7 miles from the reactor is determined to have been 675 millirads per year at the skin surface and 476 millirads per year at a depth of 200 micrometers. At a site 5.1 miles from the reactor these dose rates were 138 and 100 millirads per year respectively

  11. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1998. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year approved by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the LHSTC

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y; Mokhber-Shahin, L

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1998. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year approved by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the LHSTC.

  13. Environmental and Effluent Monitoring at ANSTO Sites, 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Ferris,; Markich, S J

    2004-10-01

    This report presents the results of environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) from January 2002 to June 2003. Potential effective dose rates to the general public from airborne discharges from the LHSTC site were less than 0.01 mSv/year, well below the 1 mSv/year dose rate limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission. The effective dose rates to hypothetical individuals potentially exposed to radiation in routine liquid effluent discharges from the LHSTC were recently calculated to be less than 0.001 mSv/year. This is much less than dose rates estimated for members of public potentially exposed to airborne emissions. The levels of tritium detected in roundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than the Australian drinking water guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and NSW EPA limits, respectively. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and the NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose experienced by members of the Australian public. (authors)

  14. Management Aspects of Implementing the New Effluent Air Monitoring Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Davis, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The revision to ANSI/HPS N13.1,'Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities,' went into effect in January 1999 - replacing the 1969 version of the standard. There are several significant changes from the old version of the standard. The revised standard provides a new paradigm where representative air samples can be collected by extracting the sample from a single point in air streams where the contaminants are well mixed. The revised standard provides specific performance criteria and requirements for the various air sampling processes - program structure, sample extraction, transport, collection, effluent and sample flow measurement, and quality assurance. A graded approach to sampling is recommended with more stringent requirements for stacks with a greater potential to emit. These significant changes in the standard will impact the air monitoring programs at some sites and facilities. The impacts on the air monitor design, operation, maintenance, and quality control processes are discussed.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Lavey, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure lonq-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontage, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Geiger, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified. in. A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.J.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updates as a minimum every three years

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  2. Evaluation of the use of activated carbon for the filtration of gaseous effluents generated in the production of the radiopharmaceutical FDG-18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, R.S.; Goulart, A.S.; Flores, M.R.; Saibt, M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaseous rejects generated in the production of FDG- 18 F are produced mainly during the irradiation of the enriched water (H2O 18 ) within the niobium / target body at the cyclotron accelerator and during the process of FDG- 18 F synthesis in the synthesizer modules within the cell hot. In order to reduce the levels of gaseous effluents emitted, activated carbon filters are used in the exhaust system. These have the ability to adsorb the 18 F gaseous molecules generated in the synthesis. This work aims to quantify the efficiency of the activated carbon filters in relation to the dose rate before and after the passage of the gases through the filtration system. To quantify the values in the exhaust system, two radiation detectors were used, in the equivalent dose rate mode in μSv/h. To evaluate the values obtained, graphs of the levels before and after the filtration system were generated. These graphs were compared to each other, relating the values found. The generated graphs showed a high efficiency in the filtration of gaseous effluents. Several dose rate peaks are presented in the exhaust system during FDG- 18 F synthesis, however after the passage of the gases through the filters these peaks become values very close to the Background values

  3. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2004 to June 2005. Effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. This estimated maximum potential dose is less than 24% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The levels of tritium detected in groundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below both the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and Sydney Water limits for acceptance of trade wastewater to sewer. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of ∼1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  4. Effect of air infiltration in the reactor refrigerant on the radiation measurement systems of gaseous effluents treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla, S.; Padilla, I.

    1991-01-01

    The system of treatment of gassy effluents of the CLV, well-known as the off-gas this gifted one in turn of a mensuration system and registration (monitoring) that consists of diverse established radiation monitors in the discharge point to the atmosphere and in other intermediate points of the process. The purpose of the monitoring system is to maintain continually informed to the operators about the effectiveness of the treatment system, to take registrations of the total quantity of liberated radioactive materials and to give warning by means of an alarm system of any abnormal situation that could end in an approach to the limits marked by the technical specifications. In September 1989 an event happened in the one that the high alarms corresponding to the post-treatment of the off-gas were activated. For this situation the personnel proceeded to diminish the power of the reactor to be able to investigate the causes that gave place to the event. It was observed that the alarms of the monitor were activated by significant infiltrations of air in the primary circuit of the refrigerant, for what it was proceeded to enlarge the scales of the implied monitor or to reduce the sensibility of their readings

  5. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2005 to June 2006. Estimated effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. The maximum potential dose was 23% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The median tritium concentrations detected in groundwater and surface waters at the LHSTC were typically less than 2% of those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of -1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  6. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the open-quotes Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967close quotes, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure

  7. Monitoring and management of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Yang, Lili; Meng, De; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to regulate tritium nuclides from the nuclear power plant effluent, the paper briefly analyzes the main source of tritium, and the regulatory requirements associated with tritium in our country and the United States. The monitoring methods of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent are described, and the purpose to give some advice to our national nuclear power plant about the effluent of tritium monitoring and management.

  8. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia.

  9. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brendel, D.F.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The Fuel Fabrication Facility in the Hanford 300 Area supported the production reactors from the 1940's until they were shut down in 1987. Prior to 1987 the Fuel Fabrication Facility released both airborne and liquid radioactive effluents. In January 1987 the emission of airborne radioactive effluents ceased with the shutdown of the fuels facility. The release of liquid radioactive effluents have continued although decreasing significantly from 1987 to 1990

  11. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate.

  12. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  17. The determination of Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting in gaseous effluents of an incineration facility, FERAB, and the Karlsruhe Nuclear Reprocessing Plant, WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1983-03-01

    Although the concentration of Pu-241 in nuclear fuel to be reprocessed is high, there are only few results published about the emission of Pu-241 with gaseous and liquid effluents. Nearly no information is available, too, about the environmental contamination of nuclear installations by Pu-241. Therefore a procedure was developed to measure Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting. Sample preparation was performed by electroplating of plutonium on stainless steel planchets. To correct the selfabsorption the linear dependence of counting efficiency in the liquid scintillation counter and the resolution in the α-spectrometer was used. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Standardization of radioactive gaseous waste radiation monitoring equipment from the International Electrotechnical Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1983-01-01

    After having introduced the works performed by the International Electrotechnical Commission, the authors report on the results of the studies carried out to achieve the standardization of the radiation monitoring equipment concerning the control of the gaseous waste from nuclear installations. The authors present the most interesting aspects of the regulations and recommendations, which include not only a description of the minimum permissible levels of sensitivity for the monitors, but also a description of the set of assays to be established in order to verify the level of performance of the monitors

  19. Development of on-line uranium enrichment monitor of gaseous UF6 for uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuesheng; Liu Guorong; Jin Huimin; Zhao Yonggang; Li Jinghuai; Hao Xueyuan; Ying Bin; Yu Zhaofei

    2013-01-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor was developed to measure the enrichment of UF 6 , flowing through the processing pipes in uranium enrichment plant. A Nal (Tl) detector was used to measure the count rates of the 185.7 keV γ-ray emitted from 235 U, and the total quantity of uranium was determined from thermodynamic characteristics of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. The results show that the maximum relative standard deviation is less than 1% when the measurement time is 120 s or more and the pressure is more than 2 kPa in the measurement chamber. Uranium enrichment of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in the output end of cascade can be monitored continuously by using the device. It should be effective for nuclear materials accountability verifications and materials balance verification at uranium enrichment plant. (authors)

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K Area Spent Fuel. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    The scope of this document includes program plans for monitoring and characterizing radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials discharged in the K Area effluents. This FEMP includes complete documentation for both airborne and liquid effluent monitoring systems that monitor radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous pollutants that could be discharged to the environment under routine and/or upset conditions. This documentation is provided for each K Area facility that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials that could impact public and employee safety and the environment. This FEW describes the airborne and liquid effluent paths and the associated sampling and monitoring systems of the K Area facilities. Sufficient information is provided on the effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against requirements may be performed. Adequate details are supplied such that radioactive and hazardous material source terms may be related to specific effluent streams which are, in turn, related to discharge points and finally compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary

  2. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  3. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  4. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  5. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  6. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The 284-E and 284-W Power Plants are coal-fired plants used to generate steam. Electricity is not generated at these facilities. The maximum production of steam is approximately 159 t (175 tons)/h at 101 kg (225 lb)/in 2 . Steam generated at these facilities is used in other process facilities (i. e., the B Plant, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, 242-A Evaporator) for heating and process operations. The functions or processes associated with these facilities do not have the potential to generate radioactive airborne effluents or radioactive liquid effluents, therefore, radiation monitoring equipment is not used on the discharge of these streams. The functions or processes associated with the production of steam result in the use, storage, management and disposal of hazardous materials

  7. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring indoors and in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, N.; Sofalca, N; Balteanu, O.; Srefan, I.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to tritium is an important health hazard in any tritium processing facility so that implementing a real-time tritium monitoring system is necessary for its operation in safety conditions. The tritium processing facility operators need to be informed at any time about the in-air tritium concentration indoors or in the stack effluents, in order to detect immediately any leaks in tritium containments, or any releases inside the buildings or to the environment. This information is very important for adopting if necessary protection measures and correcting actions as quickly as possible. In this paper we describe an improved real-time tritium monitoring system designed for the Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant of National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation, Rm. Valcea, Romania. The design of the Radiological Safety System implemented for the ICIT Water Detritiation Pilot Plant is intended to provide the maximum safety level based on the ALARA concept. The main functions of tritium monitoring system are: - monitoring the working areas and gaseous effluents by determination of the tritium-in-air activity concentration; - local and remote data display; - assessing of environment dose equivalent rates and dose equivalents in the working environment (for personnel exposure control and work planning); - assessing the total tritium activity released to the environment through ventilation exhaust stack; - safety functions, i.e., local and remote, locking/unlocking personnel access, process shut-down in emergency conditions and start of the air cleaning systems. With all these features our tritium monitoring system is really a safety system adequate for personnel and environmental protection. (authors)

  8. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes

  9. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Padijcah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W. Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor 235 U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF 6 flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities

  10. Biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for ultrahigh-sensitive gaseous formaldehyde monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Gessei, Tomoko; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2010-10-15

    An ultrahigh-sensitive fiber-optic biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for continuous monitoring of indoor formaldehyde was constructed and tested. The bio-sniffer measures gaseous formaldehyde as fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is the product of formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) reaction. The bio-sniffer device was constructed by attaching a flow cell with a FALDH immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. The excitation light was introduced to an optical fiber probe, and fluorescence emission of neighboring NADH, which was produced by applying formaldehyde vapor to the FALDH membrane, was concentrically measured with a photomultiplier tube. Assessment of the bio-sniffer was carried out using a standard gas generator. Response, calibration range and selectivity to other chemical substances were investigated. Circulating phosphate buffer, which contained NAD+, available for continuous monitoring of formaldehyde vapor. The calibration range of the bio-sniffer was 2.5 ppb to 10 ppm, which covers the guideline value of the World Health Organization (80 ppb). High selectivity to other gaseous substances due to specific activity of FALDH was also confirmed. Considering its high sensitivity, a possible application of the bio-sniffer is continuous indoor formaldehyde monitoring to provide healthy residential atmosphere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  12. Proposed radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Carlton, W.H.; Blunt, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring a radiological air monitoring program, however, there is no parallel guidance for radiological liquid monitoring. For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, there are no existing applicable federal regulations, DOE orders, or DOE guidance documents that specify at what levels continuous monitoring, continuous sampling, or periodic confirmatory measurements of radioactive liquid effluents must be made. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify and document liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company has proposed that a graded, dose-based approach be established, in conjunction with limits on facility radionuclide inventories, to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each potential liquid radioactive effluent point. The graded approach would be similar to--and a conservative extension of--the existing, agreed-upon SRS/EPA-IV airborne effluent monitoring approach documented in WSRC's NESHAP Quality Assurance Project Plan. The limits on facility radionuclide inventories are based on--and are a conservative extension of--the 10 CFR 834, 10 CFR 20, and SCR 61-63 annual limits on discharges to sanitary sewers. Used in conjunction with each other, the recommended source category criteria levels and facility radionuclide inventories would allow for the best utilization of resources and provide consistent, technically justifiable determinations of radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements

  13. Decision no 2009-DC-0157 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of the base nuclear installation n. 29 operated by the CIS Bio International on the district of Saclay (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of a base nuclear installation. Tables present the limits for radioactive liquid effluents (iodine, rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) and the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (SO 2 , H 2 S, VOCs)

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Input Parameters for the Dose Assessment from Gaseous Effluents due to the Normal Operation of Jordan Research and Training Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub; Han, Moonhee

    2015-01-01

    In this study, therefore, the sensitivity analysis of input variables for the dose assessment was performed for reviewing the effect of each parameter on the result after determining the type and range of parameters that could affect the exposure dose of the public. (Since JRTR will be operated by the concept of 'no liquid discharge,' the input parameters used for calculation of dose due to liquid effluents are not considered in the sensitivity analysis.) In this paper, the sensitivity analysis of input parameters for the dose assessment in the vicinity of the site boundary due to gaseous effluents was performed for a total of thirty-five (35) cases. And, detailed results for the input variables that have an significant effect are shown in Figures 1 through 7, respectively. For preparing a R-ER for the operating license of the JRTR, these results will be updated by the additional information and could be applied to predicting the variation trend of the exposure dose in the process of updating the input parameters for the dose assessment reflecting the characteristics of the JRTR site

  15. Methodology of adjustment point in the post treatment of gaseous effluents; Metodologia del punto de ajuste en el post tratamiento de efluentes gaseosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizuet G, J.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jvg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The methodology to determine the adjustment points of the monitoring system of gaseous discharges is based on the stipulations of the 10CFR20, which are expressed in terms of limit concentrations for the outstanding radionuclides, and of dose limits for the individuals members of the public. Besides the points of liberation properly said, like they are the chimneys of the reactor buildings and of turbine, the points of adjustment of the monitoring instrumentation that watches in real time the discharge of the Treatment system of output gases, to the HVAC of the waste building; they also undergo to the same methodology, with the approaches previously described. (Author)

  16. Continuously tritium monitoring of the pipe of liquid effluents at the Cea Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pira, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This report is oriented toward the radiation protection of environment that is an essential component of radiation protection. It is necessary to detect any solid, liquid or gaseous abnormal release and to find its origin. The present study bears on a detection instrument in continuously to find tritium in liquid effluents of the Cea Cadarache. After having study the functioning principle of this device, an evaluation of its performances has been realised ( back noise, yield, detection limit) and to a checking in real conditions of utilization. (N.C.)

  17. Lessons learned from a review of post-accident sampling systems, high range effluent monitors and high concentration particulate iodine samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Knox, W.H.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Post-accident sampling systems (PASS), high range gaseous effluent monitors and sampling systems for particulates and iodine in high concentrations have been reviewed at twenty-one licensee sites in Region I of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission which includes fifteen BWR's and fourteen PWR's. Although most of the installed PASS met the criteria, the highest operational readiness was found in on-line systems that were also used for routine sampling and analysis. The detectors used in the gaseous effluent monitors included external ion chambers, GM tubes, organic scintillators and Cd-Te solid state crystals. Although all were found acceptable, each had its own inherent limitations in the conversion of detector output to the time varying concentration of a post-accident mixture of noble gases. None of the installed particulate and iodine samplers fully met all of the criteria. Their principal limitations included a lack of documentation showing that they could obtain a representative sample and that many of them would collect of an excessive amount of activity at the design criteria. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Model, parameter and code of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluent under normal operation from nuclear power plant with 600 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong

    1998-06-01

    The model of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluence under normal operation from a nuclear power plant with 600 MWe is established to give a mathematical expression of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor under mixing release condition based on quality assessment of radiological environment for 30 years of Chinese nuclear industry. In calculation, the impact from calm and other following factors have been taken into account: mixing layer, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and buildings. The doses caused from the following exposure pathways are also given by this model: external exposure from immersion cloud and ground deposition, internal exposure due to inhalation and ingestion. The code is named as ROULEA. It contains four modules, i.e. INPUT, ANRTRI, CHIQV and DOSE for calculating 4-dimension joint frequency, annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor and doses

  19. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Liger-Belair

    Full Text Available In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC, all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

  20. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

  1. Monitoring quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent : report of a monitoring program and recommendations for certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Vo Minh Son,; Duong Nhut Long,; Bosma, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent was monitored by means of monthly sampling during a study conducted on four striped catfish farms located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The study was undertaken to test the practical implications of the standards and guidelines with regard to

  2. Risk-Based Radioactive Liquid Effluent Monitoring Requirements at the U. S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring radiological air emissions monitoring programs. However, there are no parallel regulations for radiological liquid effluent monitoring programs. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, a graded, risk-basked approach has been established to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each liquid discharge point

  3. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  4. Examination of vegetation around a nuclear plant emitting gaseous fluorides in order to detect fluorine pollution; Utilisation des vegetaux pour detecter la pollution fluoree autour d'une usine susceptible d'emettre des effluents gazeux fluores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teulon, Francoise; Bonnaventure, J. P. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Pierrelatte, Section de Protection contre les Radiations (France)

    1971-08-15

    Fluorine pollution (chronic or occasional) around a plant rejecting gaseous fluoride effluents can be detected from vegetation samples by chemical analysis. Systematic monitoring allows the effects and gravity of the pollution to be estimated. The analytical method used consists of a double distillation (in phosphoric acid and perchloric acid) followed by a spectro-colorimetric analysis (alizarine-complexon-lanthane). This method of control allows both the efficiency of the trapping installations and also the appearance of effluents at unexpected places to be checked, In the event of an accident it is possible to determine the advisability of prohibiting the consumption of locally grown produce by humans or fodder by cattle. Research conducted in order to determine the relation between visible, damage to certain vegetables (tomatoes, haricot beans and sorghum) and their fluorine contents demonstrated that such a relation appears above all at the level of the leaves; chemical analysis may thus be used to confirm or reject information obtained on the basis of visual evidence [French] La detection d'une pollution fluoree (chronique ou accidentelle) autour d'une usine susceptible d'emettre des effluents gazeux fluores peut etre avantageusement realisee par un reseau de prelevements vegetaux suivis de dosages chimiques. Une surveillance systematique permet une evaluation des consequences et du degre de gravite de la pollution. La methode d'analyse consiste en une double distillation (dans l'acide phosphorique et l'acide perchlorique) suivie d'une spectrocolorimetrie (alizarine-complexon-lanthane). Ce mode de controle permet non seulement de verifier si les installations de piegeage sont efficaces mais egalement de localiser des points d'emission imprevus. En cas d'accident, on peut egalement juger de l'opportunite d'interdire la consommation des legumes par les habitants ou du fourrage par le betail des environs. Enfin, des etudes experimentales ont ete realisees pour

  5. Continuously tritium monitoring of the pipe of liquid effluents at the Cea Cadarache; Controle en continu du tritium de la conduite des effluents liquides du CEA Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pira, Y

    2004-07-01

    This report is oriented toward the radiation protection of environment that is an essential component of radiation protection. It is necessary to detect any solid, liquid or gaseous abnormal release and to find its origin. The present study bears on a detection instrument in continuously to find tritium in liquid effluents of the Cea Cadarache. After having study the functioning principle of this device, an evaluation of its performances has been realised ( back noise, yield, detection limit) and to a checking in real conditions of utilization. (N.C.)

  6. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation

  7. Operational experience with two tritium-effluent-monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynie, J.S.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two new tritium stack monitoring systems were designed and built. The operational experience of a wide-range detector with a useful range of a few μCi/m 3 to 10 8 μCi/m 3 , and a second monitoring system using an improved Kanne chamber and a new electrometer, called a Model 39 Electrometer-Chargemeter are discussed. Both tritium chambers have been designed to have a reduced sensitivity to tritium contamination, a fast response, and an integrating chargemeter with digital readout for easy conversion to microcuries. The calibration of these monitors and advantages of using these chambers over conventional systems are discussed

  8. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1981 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auyong, M.; Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report gives methods and results of the 1981 radiation monitoring program at LLL for both radioactive and non-radioactive contamination from gaseous and liquid effluents. Off-site monitoring includes various radionuclides but especially tritium in the ecosystems

  9. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited monitoring tritiated water in air and water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Tepley, N.W

    1978-01-01

    Current on-line methods of monitoring effluents for tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) measure concentrations in air above 250 nCi/m 3 (approx. 10 kBq/m 3 ) and in water above 1 uCi/kg (approx. 40 kBq/kg). Some of the problems encountered in such monitoring are the presence of fission and activation products in the effluents and, particularly in water monitoring, the often dirty quality of the sample. In a new design of monitor, HTO is collected directly from air by a flow of liquid scintillator (LS). For water monitoring a flow of air continuously samples the water and transports HTO to the LS. The key features of the new design are that the high detection efficiency of LS is realizable, that the rate of use of LS is only approx. 2 mm 3 /s, that the controlled evaporation and metering of air provides the low flow of HTO needed for mixing with LS, and that accurate metering of a dirty effluent is not needed. The sensitivities for detecing tritium on-line are improved by at least an order of magnitude

  10. Monitoring of gaseous elemental mercury in central Antarctica at Dome Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dommergue A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS, we are monitoring gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 at the Dome Concordia Station to improve our understanding of atmospheric Hg in the Antarctic atmosphere. This French-Italian facility is located in one of the coldest places on the planet and is situated on the vast Antarctic Plateau at an elevation of 3320 m. Continuous measurements began on December 7, 2011 and are ongoing. The median value calculated over the period (n=24506 is approximately 0.9 ng/m3 and values range from <0.1 ng/m3 up to 2.3 ng/m3. Preliminary results suggest that the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer is a very reactive place during the periods when sunlight is present. A combination of fast and efficient oxidation processes with snow photochemistry lead to a dynamic record of Hg(0 unlike any other location. Our improved understanding of these processes will help to better constrain the cycle of Hg in the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports

  12. Processing and monitoring liquid, radioactive effluents from the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.; Huppert, K.L.; Winter, M.

    1977-01-01

    The Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) serves as a demonstration plant for the processing of highly-irradiated uranous oxide. The high active waste concentrates find interim storage at the WAK until they are solidified at a later stage. In contrast to this, the slightly- and the medium-active liquid wastes are transported to the decontamination facility of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe, where they are immediately processed. These liquid wastes contain about 1 per thousand of the activity inventary of the fuel elements processed. Monitoring of the radioactive waste water of the WAK is carried out by the Nuclear Research Centre's department radiation protection and safety. (orig.) [de

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  14. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG ampersand G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG ampersand G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits

  15. Summarization of radioactive effluent monitoring in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station 1994-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Junjie; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the radioactive effluent monitoring systems, measurement and quality control methods used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station from its commercial operation in 1994. The main work and experiences for the management of effluent release are discussed and analyzed. The radwaste data appear declining trend and are far blow the annual limit approved by the national Environmental Protection Bureau since 1995. The normalized release (unit GBq/GWa) of 9 years is as follows: liquid nuclides (except tritium) 11.1, liquid tritium 1.91 x 10 4 , noble gas 2.03 x 10 4 , halogen 0.13, aerosol 7.57 x 10 -3 . For 110m Ag, the average release from 1998 to 2002 has been reduced to 1/7 of the quantity in 1997

  16. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DB Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  17. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  18. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought

  19. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  20. A new stack effluent monitoring system at the Risoe Hot Cell plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes a new stack effluent monitoring system that has been installed at the Hot Cell facility. It is an integrating iodine/particulate system consisting of a γ-shielded flow house in which a continous air sample from the ventilation channel ia sucked through coal and glass filter papers. Activity is accumulated on the filter papers and a thin plastic scintillator detects the β-radiation from the trapped iodine or particulate activity. The stack effluent monitoring system has a two-step regulating function as applied to the ventilation system, first switching it to a recirculating mode, and finally to building-seal after given releases of 131 I. The collection efficiency for iodine in form of elementary iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I) has been determined experimentally. The unwanted response from a noble gas release has also been determined from experiments. The noble gas response was determined from puff releases of the nuclide 41 Ar in the concrete cells. It is concluded that the iodine/particulate system is extremely sensitive and that it can easily detect iodine or particulate releases as low as a few MBq. A gamma monitor placed in connection with the iodine/particulate system detects Xe/Kr-releases as low as a few tens of MBq per second. (author)

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP

  2. On-line liquid-effluent monitoring of sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Cate, J.L.; Rueppel, D.W.; Huntzinger, C.J.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic on line sewage effluent monitoring system has been developed. A representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the site is monitored for pH, radiation, and metals as it passes through a detection assembly. This assembly consists of an industrial pH probe, NaI radiation detectors, and an x-ray fluorescence metal detector. A microprocessor collects, reduces and analyzes the data to determine if the levels are acceptable by established environmental limits. Currently, if preset levels are exceeded, a sample of the suspect sewage is automatically collected for further analysis, and an alarm is sent to a station where personnel can be alerted to respond on a 24-hour basis. Since at least four hours pass before LLNL effluent reaches the treatment plant, sufficient time is available to alert emergency personnel, evaluate the situation, and if necessary arrange for diversion of the material to emergency holding basins at the treatment plant. Information on the current system is presented, and progress is reported in developing an on-line tritium monitor as an addition to the assembly

  3. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  4. Environmental monitoring standardization of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mili

    1993-01-01

    China has established some environmental monitoring standards of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Up to date 33 standards have been issued; 10 to be issued; 11 in drafting. These standards cover sampling, gross activities measurement, analytical methods and management rules and so on. They involve with almost all nuclear fuel cycle facilities and have formed a complete standards system. By the end of the century, we attempt to draft a series of analytical and determination standards in various environmental various medium, they include 36 radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (3 tabs.)

  5. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche; Arrete du 10 janvier 2003 autorisant l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs a poursuivre les rejets d'effluents gazeux et liquides pour l'exploitation du centre de stockage de dechets radioactifs de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  6. Order of 30 March 1988 on licensing of gaseous radioactive effluent releases by the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the documents and information the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre must provide to the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) and lays down the permissible effluent release limits for the Centre [fr

  7. Monitoring of low-level radioactive liquid effluent in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeishi, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    The Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP), the first reprocessing plant in Japan, has discharged low-level liquid wastes to the Pacific Ocean since the start of its operation in 1977. We have performed liquid effluent monitoring to realize an appropriate radioactive discharge control. Comparing simple and rapid analytical methods with labor-intensive radiochemical analyses demonstrated that the gross-alpha and gross-beta activities agreed well with the total activities of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu) and major beta emitters (e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs), respectively. The records of the radioactive liquid discharge from the TRP showed that the normalized discharges of all nuclides, except for 3 H, were three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from the Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. This was probably due to the installation of multistage evaporators in the liquid waste treatment process in 1980. The annual public doses for a hypothetical person were estimated to be less than 0.2 μSv y -1 from the aquatic pathway. Plutonium radioactivity ratios ( 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu) of liquid effluents were determined to be 1.3-3.7, while those of the seabed sediment samples collected around the discharge point were 0.003-0.059, indicating no remarkable accumulation of plutonium in the regional aquatic environment. Thus, we concluded that there were no significant radiological effects on the public and the aquatic environment during the past 30-year operation of the TRP. (author)

  8. An automated, self-verifying system for monitoring uranium in effluent streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, R.J.; Pickett, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear facilities such as nuclear fuel fabrication plants, a constant vigil is required to ensure that the concentrations of uranium in process or waste streams do not exceed required specifications. The specifications may be dictated by the process owner, a regulatory agency such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Agency or Environmental Protection Agency, or by criticality safety engineering criteria. Traditionally, uranium monitoring in effluent streams has been accomplished by taking periodic samples of the liquid stream and determining the concentration by chemical analysis. Despite its accuracy, chemical sampling is not timely enough for practical use in continuously flowing systems because of the possibility that a significant quantity of uranium may be discharged between sampling intervals. To completely satisfy regulatory standards, the liquid waste stream must be monitored for uranium on a 100% basis. To this end, an automated, radioisotopic liquid-waste monitoring system was developed by GE Nuclear Energy as an integral part of the uranium conversion and waste recovery operations. The system utilizes passive gamma-ray spectroscopy and is thus a robust, on-line, and nondestructive assay for uranium. The system provides uranium concentration data for process monitoring and assures regulatory compliance for criticality safety. A summary of the principles of system operation, calibration, and verification is presented in this paper

  9. Monitoring of the radioactive liquid effluents discharged from IPEN-CNEN/SP. Optimization of the procedures adopted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The main purpose of a radioactive liquid effluents monitoring of a nuclear installation is to determine the amount of radioactivity discharged to the environment, as well as, to verify if this activity is below the authorized discharge limits established by the competent authority. Although this control has been established on a routine basis since the beginning of operation of the nuclear installations available at IPEN, the growing of such facilities in the last years has implied in an increase in the number of samples to be analyzed. The aim of this work is, therefore, to optimize the procedures adopted in the Environmental Monitoring Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP for the activity measurement of the liquid effluents discharged to the environment. Since these effluents are discharged to Pinheiros river, which presents a high dilution factor, a study is also carried out in order to verify if the activity present can be measured by the equipment available. (author)

  10. Order of the 4 March 2014 on the homologation of the decision nr 2014-DC-4016 of the Nuclear Safety Authority of the 16 January 2014 defining the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the basic nuclear installations nr 124, 125, 126 and 137 exploited by EDF-SA in Cattenom (Moselle district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This order issued by the French Ministry of ecology, sustainable development and energy is based on a decision taken by the ASN. It concerns the management of pollutions and of the impact of a nuclear installation on the environment: applicable limits of gaseous (notably carbon 14, tritium, rare gases, iodines), chemical, and liquid effluent release. Tables indicate the maximum concentrations

  11. The application of land-based computerized spectrometers for effluent monitoring aboard nuclear powered ships. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamykowski, E.A.

    1975-12-01

    This report assesses the applicability of computer-based, Ge(Li) detector spectroscopy systems as effluent monitors aboard nuclear powered ships. A survey of the principal commercial spectrometers, in light of the expected shipboard use, indicates these systems may be employed for automatic radioisotope analysis in a seagoing environment if adequate protective measures are adopted

  12. Decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (IBN n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  13. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Under contract DE-AC21-92MC29116, SRI International will develop a unique new instrument that will be capable of providing real-time (< l minute), quantitative, chemical characterization of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated from DOE waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be capable of detecting and identifying volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and transuranic species released during waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be unique in its ability to detect and quantify in real-time these diverse pollutants in both vapor and particulate form. The instrument to be developed under this program will consist of several major components: (1) an isokinetic sampler capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures (up to 500 K) and flow rates; (2) a high pressure to low pressure transition and sampling region that efficiently separates particles from vapor-phase components for separate, parallel analyses; (3) two small mass spectrometers, one optimized for organic analysis using a unique field ionization source and one optimized for particulate characterization using thermal pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization (EI); and (4) a powerful personal computer for control and data acquisition

  14. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    SRI International will develop a unique new instrument that will be capable of providing real-time (<1 minute), quantitative, chemical characterization of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated from DOE waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be capable of detecting and identifying volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and transuranic species released during waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be unique in its ability to detect and quantify in real-time these diverse pollutants in both vapor and particulate form. The instrument to be developed under this program will consist of several major components: (1) an isokinetic sampler capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures (up to 500 K) and flow rates; (2) a high pressure to low pressure transition and sampling region that efficiently separates particles from vapor-phase components for separate, parallel analyses; (3) two small mass spectrometers, one optimized for organic analysis using a unique field ionization source and one optimized for particulate characterization using thermal pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization (EI); and (4) a powerful personal computer for control and data acquisition. Initially, the instrument will be developed for targeted use in conjunction with the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 site. Ultimately, the instrument will be designed to operate in the field at any cleanup site, located close to the stack or process vent, providing the plant operations personnel with real-time information and alarm capabilities. In addition, this instrument will be very broadly applicable for cleanup or sampling, for example, any time contaminated soil is moved or disturbed

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  16. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations

  17. Some considerations on the use of gamma spectrometry for Kr-85 determination at gaseous effluents in the nuclear industry and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with GeLi semiconductor detector for measured the 0.514 KeV gamma radiation of Kr-B5 la explored, The detection limit of Kr-85 for a measuring time is 4.10 - 4 μCi with a counting time of 1000 minutes in a GeLi detector with a 20% efficiency relative to the INa (Tl). It is concluded that the use of gamma ray spectrometry for measuring the Kr-85 is not useful for environmental samples, but it can be used for the Kr-85 effluents control in Nuclear Stations. (Author) 26 refs

  18. Usage Proposal of a common urban decorative tree (Salix alba L.) to monitor the dispersion of gaseous mercury: A case study from Turda (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, J M; Cacovean, H; Higueras, P

    2018-02-01

    Closure of chloralkali plants poses a risk of abandonment of important sources of gaseous mercury. In this work, an assessment has been made of the potential for pollution from one of these plants in the proximity of a densely populated town in central Romania. The work involved a comparison between two major types of monitoring survey: biomonitoring using leaves of a tree common in urban environments; and LUMEX-based gaseous mercury analysis. For biomonitoring, 21 samples from Salix alba L. trees were taken in Turda area. Atmospheric monitoring included two mobile surveys and one at a fixed location. The results from both monitoring systems show similarities in gaseous mercury dispersion patterns, with high mercury contents clearly related to the presence of the chloralkali plant. Particularly high levels were measured in the following situations: (i) in a 'smog' area related with thermal inversion and (ii) during dusk. Direct monitoring suffered from limitations in acquiring information, especially in a medium-long time range, but biomonitoring provided these data and is capable of covering studies on temporary trends or comparative assessments between European cities with contrasting gaseous mercury sources. The thermal speciation of mercury contents indicates that the whole fraction of mercury in leaves corresponds to organic mercury. This finding implies a non-reversible uptake process, which in turn ensures the applicability of this technique to biomonitor long-term exposure. As a conclusion, the assessment of gaseous mercury pollution based on biomonitoring using S. alba has proven to be a useful, reliable and cost-effective methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study of the annual doses to man from routine gaseous effluent releases of the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 (PNPP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriel, M.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Individual and population integrated doses from radioactive gaseous releases of the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant 1 (PNPP-1) were calculated using a modified GASPAR Code. Input data consisted of meteorological and site data gathered from the PNPP-1 Final Analysis Report (FASR) population and agricultural data from the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO). Usage factors were calculated based on Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) recommended dietary allowances for Filipinos. Results of population integrated dose calculations were used in identifying the critical nuclides, the critical body organs, and the critical pathway. Results from individual dose calculation were used in determining compliance with the dose limits set forth in Appendix D of Part 7 Code of Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) regulations. (Author). 23 tabs.; 5 figs

  20. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.R.; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH 3 , CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  1. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, M.R., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@ars.usda.gov; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require

  2. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  3. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  4. Dynamic containment of gaseous effluents in the auxiliary buildings and reinjection of liquid effluents from these buildings back into the reactor building for 900 MWe PWRs under accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, F.; Collinet, J.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-04-01

    Examination of the lessons to be learned from the accident of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant on 20 March 1979 led the French Safety Authorities and EDF (Electricite de France) to adopt a series of measures intended to improve the performance of the containment of French PWRs, especially in the event of accident. Among the measures adopted, two of them contribute to the upgrading of the containment of nuclear island buildings, by reducing radioactivity constraints inside these buildings and by limiting radioactive releases into the environment. These are: (1) dynamic containment of auxiliary buildings likely to be contaminated following an accident, (2) reinjection back into the reactor building of liquid effluents arising in the auxiliary buildings. In this paper we shall discuss, for each measure, the approach to the problem and describe the arrangements made to arrive at a satisfactory solution [fr

  5. Decision no 2009-DC-0158 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installation n. 29 operated by the CIS Bio International on the district of Saclay (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installation operated by CIS Bio International in Saclay. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control and their transfer, the limit values for different compounds and species, the control of environment around the site, the information of authorities and of population

  6. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method; Aplicacion del metodo de concentracion separacion y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85 en muestras ambientales y en efluentes gaseosos de la industria nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M c; Perez, M M

    1983-07-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs.

  7. Clinical Validation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Imipenem in Spent Effluent in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Aiping; Li, Zhe; Yu, Junxian; Li, Ren; Cheng, Sheng; Duan, Meili; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem could be performed with spent effluent instead of blood sampling collected from critically ill patients under continuous renal replacement therapy. A prospective open-label study was conducted in a real clinical setting. Both blood and effluent samples were collected pairwise before imipenem administration and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after imipenem administration. Plasma and effluent imipenem concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of blood and effluent samples were calculated. Eighty-three paired plasma and effluent samples were obtained from 10 patients. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the imipenem concentrations in plasma and effluent was 0.950 (Pimipenem concentration ratio was 1.044 (95% confidence interval, 0.975 to 1.114) with Bland-Altman analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters tested in paired plasma and effluent samples with Wilcoxon test. Spent effluent of continuous renal replacement therapy could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem instead of blood sampling in critically ill patients.

  8. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  9. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  10. Europe-wide survey of estrogenicity in wastewater treatment plant effluents: the need for the effect-based monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Barbora; Erseková, Anita; Hilscherová, Klára; Loos, Robert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Ludek

    2014-09-01

    A pan-European monitoring campaign of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was conducted to obtain a concise picture on a broad range of pollutants including estrogenic compounds. Snapshot samples from 75 WWTP effluents were collected and analysed for concentrations of 150 polar organic and 20 inorganic compounds as well as estrogenicity using the MVLN reporter gene assay. The effect-based assessment determined estrogenicity in 27 of 75 samples tested with the concentrations ranging from 0.53 to 17.9 ng/L of 17-beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Approximately one third of municipal WWTP effluents contained EEQ greater than 0.5 ng/L EEQ, which confirmed the importance of cities as the major contamination source. Beside municipal WWTPs, some treated industrial wastewaters also exhibited detectable EEQ, indicating the importance to investigate phytoestrogens released from plant processing factories. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples by instrumental methods above their limits of quantification of 10 ng/L, and none of the other analysed classes of chemicals showed correlation with detected EEQs. The study demonstrates the need of effect-based monitoring to assess certain classes of contaminants such as estrogens, which are known to occur at low concentrations being of serious toxicological concern for aquatic biota.

  11. Decision no 2009-DC-0155 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of base nuclear installations n. 18, 35, 40, 49, 50, 72, 77 and 101 operated by the Atomic Energy Commissariat (CEA) in its Saclay Centre, located on the districts of Saclay, Saint-Aubin and Villiers-le-Bacle (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of base nuclear installations of the Saclay Centre operated by the Atomic Energy Commissariat (CEA). Tables present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (HCl, HF, NOx, CO, and so on), as well as limits for thermal releases

  12. Decision no 2010-DC-0183 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from some specific base nuclear installations. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control, and the information of authorities and of population

  13. Gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous nebulae are large, tenuous clouds of ionized gas that are associated with hot stars and that emit visible light because of the energy that they receive from the ultraviolet radiation of the stars. Examples include H II regions, planetary nebulae, and nova/supernova remnants. The emphasis is on the physical processes that occur in gaseous nebulae as opposed to a study of the objects themselves. The introduction discusses thermodynamic vs. steady-state equilibrium and excitation conditions in a dilute radiation field. Subsequent sections take up important atomic processes in gaseous nebulae (particle--particle collision rates, radiative interaction rates, cross sections), the ionization equilibrium (sizes of H II regions, ionization of the heavier elements), kinetic temperature and energy balance (heating of the electrons, cooling of the electrons), and the spectra of gaseous nebulae (line fluxes in nebulae). 7 figures, 5 tables

  14. Long-term sub second-response monitoring of gaseous ammonia in ambient air by positive inhaling ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Weiguo; Chen, Chuang; Li, Mei; Peng, Liying; Li, Hang; Liu, Jiwei; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2017-12-01

    A real-time dynamic measurements of ammonia (NH 3 ) is crucial for understanding the atmospheric nucleation process. A novel method was developed for on line monitoring at the sub-second time scale for the gaseous ammonia in ambient air for months, based on a positive inhaling ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with a 63 Ni ion source. The selective detection of NH 3 was achieved using a high resolution IMS with an optimization of the drift tube temperature above 150°C. This method improved the peak-to-peak resolution significantly, thus avoided the interferences of the adjacent peaks to the quantitative analysis of NH 3 . The time resolution of the IMS was less than 0.1s at a data averaging of 10 times. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved at sub-ppb level while a linear response of peak intensity versus concentration of NH 3 in the range of 10-60ppb and 60-400ppb were obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSD), the confidence level and the errors were 1.06%, 95% and ± 0.21ppb by measuring 100ppb NH 3 for 100 times. The effect of ambient humidity could be greatly reduced by using the drift temperature of over 150°C. At last, the application of measuring the NH 3 concentration evolutions of Dalian city was performed from June 19 to December 3 in 2015. The results illustrated a potential method of using IMS for a real-time measuring atmospheric NH 3 at an unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity with long-term stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the use of activated carbon for the filtration of gaseous effluents generated in the production of the radiopharmaceutical FDG-{sup 18}F; Avaliação do uso de carvão ativado para filtração de efluentes gasosos gerados na produção do radiofármaco FDG-{sup 18}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, R.S.; Goulart, A.S.; Flores, M.R.; Saibt, M., E-mail: rafael@nucleorad.com.br [NUCLEORAD Soluções em Proteção Radiológica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Gaseous rejects generated in the production of FDG-{sup 18}F are produced mainly during the irradiation of the enriched water (H2O{sup 18}) within the niobium / target body at the cyclotron accelerator and during the process of FDG-{sup 18}F synthesis in the synthesizer modules within the cell hot. In order to reduce the levels of gaseous effluents emitted, activated carbon filters are used in the exhaust system. These have the ability to adsorb the {sup 18}F gaseous molecules generated in the synthesis. This work aims to quantify the efficiency of the activated carbon filters in relation to the dose rate before and after the passage of the gases through the filtration system. To quantify the values in the exhaust system, two radiation detectors were used, in the equivalent dose rate mode in μSv/h. To evaluate the values obtained, graphs of the levels before and after the filtration system were generated. These graphs were compared to each other, relating the values found. The generated graphs showed a high efficiency in the filtration of gaseous effluents. Several dose rate peaks are presented in the exhaust system during FDG-{sup 18}F synthesis, however after the passage of the gases through the filters these peaks become values very close to the Background values.

  16. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  17. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals

  18. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals

  19. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counce-Brown, D. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Environmental Report for 1990, is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  20. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report. Calendar Year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations

  1. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  2. Retention of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Mailen, J.C.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Retention of gaseous fission products during fuel reprocessing has, in the past, been limited to a modest retention of 131 I when processing fuels decayed less than about 180 days. The projected rapid growth of the nuclear power industry along with a desire to minimize environmental effects is leading to the reassessment of requirements for retention of gaseous fission products, including 131 I, 129 I, 85 Kr, 3 H, and 14 C. Starting in the late 1960s, a significant part of the LMFBR reprocessing development program has been devoted to understanding the behavior of gaseous fission products in plant process and effluent streams and the development of advanced systems for their removal. Systems for iodine control include methods for evolving up to 99% of the iodine from dissolver solutions to minimize its introduction and distribution throughout downstream equipment. An aqueous scrubbing system (Iodox) using 20 M HNO 3 as the scrubbing media effectively removes all significant iodine forms from off-gas streams while handling the kilogram quantities of iodine present in head-end and dissolver off-gas streams. Silver zeolite is very effective for removing iodine forms at low concentration from the larger-volume plant off-gas streams. Removal of iodine from plant liquid effluents by solid sorbents either prior to or following final vaporization appears feasible. Krypton is effectively released during dissolution and can be removed from the relatively small volume head-end and dissolver off-gas stream. Two methods appear applicable for removal and concentration of krypton: (1) selective absorption in fluorocarbons, and (2) cryogenic absorption in liquid nitrogen. The fluorocarbon absorption process appears to be rather tolerant of the normal contaminants (H 2 O, CO 2 , NOsub(x), and organics) present in typical reprocessing plant off-gas whereas the cryogenic system requires an extensive feed gas pretreatment system. Retention of tritium in a reprocessing plant is

  3. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  4. Order of the 15. of September 2010 approving the decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (INB n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  5. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  6. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPORAL GROUNDWATER MONITORING VARIABILITY IN MW66 AND NEARBY WELLS, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2012-08-28

    Evaluation of disposal records, soil data, and spatial/temporal groundwater data from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 7 indicate that the peak contaminant concentrations measured in monitoring well (MW) 66 result from the influence of the regional PGDP NW Plume, and does not support the presence of significant vertical transport from local contaminant sources in SWMU 7. This updated evaluation supports the 2006 conceptualization which suggested the high and low concentrations in MW66 represent different flow conditions (i.e., local versus regional influences). Incorporation of the additional lines of evidence from data collected since 2006 provide the basis to link high contaminant concentrations in MW66 (peaks) to the regional 'Northwest Plume' and to the upgradient source, specifically, the C400 Building Area. The conceptual model was further refined to demonstrate that groundwater and the various contaminant plumes respond to complex site conditions in predictable ways. This type of conceptualization bounds the expected system behavior and supports development of environmental cleanup strategies, providing a basis to support decisions even if it is not feasible to completely characterize all of the 'complexities' present in the system. We recommend that the site carefully consider the potential impacts to groundwater and contaminant plume migration as they plan and implement onsite production operations, remediation efforts, and reconfiguration activities. For example, this conceptual model suggests that rerouting drainage water, constructing ponds or basin, reconfiguring cooling water systems, capping sites, decommissioning buildings, fixing (or not fixing) water leaks, and other similar actions will potentially have a 'direct' impact on the groundwater contaminant plumes. Our conclusion that the peak concentrations in MW66 are linked to the regional PGDP NW Plume does not imply that

  7. Effective equivalent dose in the critical group due to release of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John W.A. dos; Varandas, Luciana R.; Souza, Denise N.; Souza, Cristiano B.F.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N.; Mattos, Marcos Fernando M.; Moraes, Jose Adenildo T.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure that the emissions of radioactive material by liquid and gaseous pathways are below applicable limits it is necessary to evaluate the effective equivalent dose in the critical group, which is a magnitude that takes into consideration the modeling used and the terms radioactive activity source. The calculation of this dose considers each radionuclide released by the activity of Nuclear plant, liquid and gaseous by, and the sum of the values obtained is controlled so that this dose does not exceed the goals of the regulatory body, the CNEN and the goals established by the Nuclear power plant. To hit these targets various controls are used such as: controls for effluent monitors instrumentation, environmental monitoring programs, effluent release controls and dose calculation in the environment. According to the findings, it is concluded that during the period of operation of the plants, this dose is below of the required limits

  8. Microscale diffusion analysis of gaseous radioactive effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Kwang Phil; Jeong, Guy Soo; Lee, Kwang Hee; Choi, Yong Seok; An, Jin Young [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The state-of-the art review and relevant data bases have been made in this study. Microscale wind-field model has been made and applied to the site= of a target domestic plant - Younggwang units. Following researches have been made; - Review of modeling status in U.S.A., European countries, and Japan, those theoretical backgrounds, and experimental activities - Graphical display of topographical grid data in the surrounding with the Younggwang N.P.P. and basic investigation of the surrounding geography - Survey of site meteorological data of the Younggwang N.P.P.; precipitation distribution, yearly average wind direction and joint frequency, seasonal wind rose, distribution of seasonal sea and land breeze, joint frequency with respect to the atmospheric stability, mixing height - Presentation of a draft to update the existing Korea real-time dose assessment system, FADAS and to interface to the AWS(Automatic Weather System) of the Korea Meteorology Administration. - Establishment of nested-grid system with micro- and macro- scale cells around the Younggwang nuclear power plant -Consideration of solar radiation effect by using land-use map -Analysis of wind field in the region of 30 x 30 km n the Younggwang site (Author) 67 refs., 20 tabs., 28 figs.

  9. Prefiltration of gaseous effluents in plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Pourprix, M.

    1991-01-01

    The dismantling techniques and mainly the thermal cutting tools can create large amounts of airbone dust, possibly contaminated in the case of the cutting of radioactive materials. Among the secondary solid emissions, the aerosols constitute the most mobile part which can disseminate contamination in the cell where the cutting operation takes place and in the ventilation ducts up to the HEPA filters. An optimised prefiltration coupled with a captation device at the aerosol generating source allows to avoid the dissemination of the contamination, to increase the life of HEPA filters and thus to reduce the amount of solid wastes. The object in this work was to select one or several cleaning devices, selection that can be done from the knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of the gas and aerosols to deal with, the available cleaning devices and the implied facility

  10. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  11. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring. Quarterly report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Purpose of the instrument is for real-time (<1 min), ppB analysis of gaseous/particulate pollutants (VOCs, PAHs, heavy metals, transuranics) from DOE waste cleanup. It will consist of an isokinetic sampler, a pressure transition and sampling region for parallel analyses, two small mass spectrometers (one for organic analysis using field ionization, one [ion trap] for particulates using pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization), and a personal computer. A dimethylsilicone membrane will be used for the organic vapors. A forward-backward coincidence method will be used in the laser scattering particle detector. The instrument will be easily transportable to DOE waste sites, such as waste storage tanks

  12. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers; Bilan 2000 et reglementation et methode. Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  13. Continuous monitoring of bisulfide variation in microdialysis effluents by on-line droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaocui; Xu, Lei; Wu, Tongbo; Xu, Anqin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate a novel fluorescent sensor for real-time and continuous monitoring of the variation of bisulfide in microdialysis effluents by using a nanoparticle-glutathione-fluorescein isothiocyanate (AuNP-GSH-FITC) probe coupled with on-line droplet-based microfluidic chip. The AuNP-GSH-FITC fluorescent probe was firstly developed and used for bisulfide detection in bulk solution by quantitative real-time PCR, which achieved a linear working range from 0.1 μM to 5.0 μM and a limit of detection of ~50 nM. The response time was less than 2 min. With the aid of co-immobilized thiol-polyethylene glycol, the probe exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility in high salinity solutions, including artificial cerebrospinal fluids (aCSF). By adding 0.1% glyoxal to the probe solution, the assay allowed quantification of bisulfide in the presence of cysteine at the micro-molarity level. Using the AuNP-GSH-FITC probe, a droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor was further constructed for online monitoring of bisulfide variation in the effluent of microdialysis. By using fluorescence microscope-charge-coupled device camera as the detector, the integrated microdialysis/microfluidic chip device achieved a detection limit of 2.0 μM and a linear response from 5.0 μM to 50 μM for bisulfide in the tested sample. The method was successfully applied for the on-line measurement of bisulfide variation in aCSF and serum samples. It will be a very useful tool for tracking the variation of bisulfide or hydrogen sulfide in extracellular fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring in room and effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidica, N.; Sofalca, N.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [National Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopes Technologies, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The conceptual design of the radiological safety system based on real time-in-air monitoring in room and effluents is intended to provide the maximum achievable safety level, basing no the ALARA concept. the capabilities of this system are not only to inform any time personnel about tritium in air concentration level, but it will be able to: initiate the shut down procedure and drain off the plant, as well to start the Air cleaning System when the tritium-in-air concentration exceed pre-established threshold; estimate tritium effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, or during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished; estimate tritium effective dose and instantly record and update individual effective doses, using a special computer application called 'dose record'; lock access into the radiological area for individuals when tritium dose rate in the monitoring area will exceed the pre-established thresholds, or when any individual dose data provided by 'dose records' application ask for, or for other protection consideration; calculate the total tritium activity released to the environment (per day, week, or month). (N.C.)

  15. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring in room and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, N.; Sofalca, N.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.

    2006-01-01

    The conceptual design of the radiological safety system based on real time-in-air monitoring in room and effluents is intended to provide the maximum achievable safety level, basing no the ALARA concept. the capabilities of this system are not only to inform any time personnel about tritium in air concentration level, but it will be able to: initiate the shut down procedure and drain off the plant, as well to start the Air cleaning System when the tritium-in-air concentration exceed pre-established threshold; estimate tritium effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, or during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished; estimate tritium effective dose and instantly record and update individual effective doses, using a special computer application called 'dose record'; lock access into the radiological area for individuals when tritium dose rate in the monitoring area will exceed the pre-established thresholds, or when any individual dose data provided by 'dose records' application ask for, or for other protection consideration; calculate the total tritium activity released to the environment (per day, week, or month). (N.C.)

  16. Groundwater monitoring plan: 200 Areas treated effluent disposal facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-04-01

    This groundwater monitoring plan provides information that supports the US Department of Energy's application (DOE-RL 1994) for waste water discharge permit No. WA-ST-4502 from the State of Washington, under the auspices of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The monitoring plan has two functions: (1) to summarize the results of a 3-yr characterization of the current hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the discharge site and (2) to provide plans for evaluating the effects of the facility's operation on groundwater quality and document compliance with applicable groundwater quality standards. Three wells were drilled to define the stratigraphy, evaluate sediment characteristics, and establish a groundwater monitoring net work for the discharge facility. These wells monitor groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient in the uppermost aquifer. This report proposes plans for continuing the monitoring of groundwater quality and aquifer characteristics after waste water discharges begin

  17. Technical Orders of 10 August 1976 on the limits and procedures applicable to radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Seven technical Orders by the competent Ministers (mainly the Ministers of Health, of Industry and Research, of the Quality of Life) lay down the procedures, conditions and limits applicable to gaseous and liquid radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations. These Orders of 10 August were published on 12 September 1976 in the Official French Gazette and were made in implementation of the Decree of 6 November 1974 on gaseous radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations and the Decree of 31 December 1974 on liquid radioactive effluent discharges from nuclear installations. Apart from the general rules for setting limits and methods for effluent discharges, they specify the measures for environmental monitoring and for control by the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations. Certain of them contain the general rules for liquid or gaseous effluent discharges from all nuclear installations, while others lay down the rules proper to light water nuclear power plants. Other types of reactor ie. fast breeders are not yet subject to such regulations. (N.E.A.) [fr

  18. Decision no 2009-DC-0156 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installations n. 18, 35, 40, 49, 50, 72, 77 and 101 operated by the Atomic Energy Commissariat (CEA) in its Saclay Centre, located on the districts of Saclay, Saint-Aubin and Villiers-le-Bacle (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from some specific base nuclear installations. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control and their transfer, the limit values for different compounds and species, the control of environment around the site, the information of authorities and of population

  19. Decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Commented tables in appendix present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  20. Order of the 17. of June 2010 approving the decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, 74 and 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Tables present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  1. Decision no 2010-DC-0189 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of the Flamanville 1 (IBN n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from three nuclear reactors. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control, the control of the environment (air, soil, surface and underground water, sampling point implantation), the information of authorities and of population

  2. Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Poremba, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive gaseous wastes that are discharged from the facilities of the Rockwell Hanford Operations. Data on alpha and beta emissions during 1978 are presented where relevant to the gaseous effluent. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes produced within the 200 Areas by other Hanford contractors

  3. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  5. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations

  6. Regular control of monitors for effluents from nuclear power plant stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1979-01-01

    The report describes a test procedure for emission monitoring devices for nuclear power plants. The follosing procedures are described, inspection, determination of the air flow through the stack, measurement and adjustment of the flow in the stack loop, measurement and adjustment of flow and density in the measuring loop, calibration of the gas detector, efficiency of sampling of methyliodide and aerosol. (K.K.)

  7. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  8. Hybrid monitoring of environmental radioactivity as a perspective approach to rapid control and prediction of environmental contamination due to NPP wastes and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.A.; Zhernov, V.S.; Makarov, Yu.A.; Matveev, V.V.; Ryzhov, N.V.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Skatkin, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Conseptucal model of the system of hybride monitoring of environmental radioactivity due to NPP wastes and effluents is proposed. The model a combination of measuring and simulating monitoring, provides correlation of methods and aims of simulation of environmental contamination spread methods and means of monitoring of its factual distribution in space, methods of separation of technogeneous signals from natural radiation background and provision of the given degree of reliability of results of information processing, in particular periodic coorection, model adaptation according to the factual measurement data

  9. 1993 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1993 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy

  10. 1985 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1985 at the Bettis Laboratory are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensure that all environmental releases during 1985 were in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continued to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy

  11. 1992 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1992 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1992 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy

  12. 1993 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1993 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy.

  13. 1992 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1992 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1992 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy.

  14. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  15. Regulating Effluents From India’s Textile Sector: New Commands and Compliance Monitoring for Zero Liquid Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grönwall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 large parts of India had experienced failing monsoons for two consecutive years. Textiles production was a natural target in the quest for solutions when re-distribution of water between sectors became imperative, and it seemed likely that the zero liquid discharge (ZLD approach would be mainstreamed nationwide. However, when amended standards for discharge of effluents were enacted it was without strict requirements for reuse of water in-house; the legislator chose to make ZLD applicable only to large units and refrained from making it mandatory. The carrying capacity of the environment in sensitive or otherwise critical areas may henceforth be taken into account by the executive, but the textile sector’s wastewater is not yet regarded the resource that a circular economy calls for. This paper examines the command-side of regulation by shedding light on the applicable law, the reform steps taken in 2014–16 and how judicial interventions influenced these. It also seeks to contribute to the understanding of enforcement control by discussing what role court-established committees are playing in implementation and monitoring of compliance, based on an in-depth case study of Tirupur, India’s ‘knit city’.

  16. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindin, S.G.; Roberts, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for exchanging isotopes (particularly tritium) between water and gaseous hydrogen. Isotope depleted gaseous hydrogen and water containing a hydrogen isotope are introduced into the vapour phase in a first reaction area. The steam and gaseous hydrogen are brought into contact with a supported metal catalyst in this area in a parallel flow at a temperature range of around 225 and 300 0 C. An effluent flow comprising a mixture of isotope enriched gaseous hydrogen and depleted steam is evacuated from this area and the steam condensed into liquid water [fr

  17. Quantitative real-time monitoring of dryer effluent using fiber optic near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S C; Walker, D S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time quantitation of the solvents evaporating from a dryer. The vapor stream in the vacuum line of a dryer was monitored in real time using a fiber optic-coupled acousto-optic tunable filter near-infrared (AOTF-NIR) spectrometer. A balance was placed in the dryer, and mass readings were recorded for every scan of the AOTF-NIR. A partial least-squares (PLS) calibration was subsequently built based on change in mass over change in time for solvents typically used in a chemical manufacturing plant. Controlling software for the AOTF-NIR was developed. The software collects spectra, builds the PLS calibration model, and continuously fits subsequently collected spectra to the calibration, allowing the operator to follow the mass loss of solvent from the dryer. The results indicate that solvent loss can be monitored and quantitated in real time using NIR for the optimization of drying times. These time-based mass loss values have also been used to calculate "dynamic" vapor density values for the solvents. The values calculated are in agreement with values determined from the ideal gas law and could prove valuable as tools to measure temperature or pressure indirectly.

  18. Reduction of releases of radioactive effluents from light-water-power-reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Itakura, T.; Kanai, T.

    1977-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Commission established the dose objectives to the population around the light-water-reactors in May, 1975, based on the ''ALAP'' concept. These values are respectively, 5 mrems per year for total body and 15 mrems per year for thyroid of an individual in the critical group in the environs, due to both gaseous and liquid effluents from LWRs in one site. The present paper describes the implications of the dose objective values, control measures which have been adopted to reduce releases of radioactive materials and related technical developments in Japan. The main control measures for reduction of radioactive gaseous effluents are an installation of a charcoal gas holdup system for decay of noble gases and a supply of clean steam for the gland seal of a turbine in BWR, and a storage tank system allowing decay of noble gases in PWR. For liquid effluents are taken measures to re-use them as the primary coolant. Consequently, the amounts of radioactivity released to the environment from any LWR during normal operation have been maintained under the level to meet the above dose objective values. For research reactors, reduction of release of effluents has also been carried out in a similar way to LWRs. In order to establish the techniques applicable for further reduction, studies are being made on the control measures to reduce leakage of radioiodine, an apparatus for removal of krypton, the treatment of laundry waste and measures to remove the crud in the primary coolant. Presentation is also made on the energy-integrated gas monitor for gaseous effluent and systems of measuring γ dose from radioactive cloud descriminating from natural background, which have been developed for effective monitoring thus reduced environmental dose

  19. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  20. Effluent Monitoring System Design for the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Mun, Kyeong Jun; Cho, Jang Hyung; Jo, Jeong Hee

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. Also the IAC recommended maximization of space utilization and construction cost saving. After GA(General Arrangement) is made a decision, it is necessary to evaluate the radiation analysis of every controlled area in the proton accelerator research center such as accelerator tunnel, Klystron gallery, beam experimental hall, target rooms and ion beam application building to keep dose rate below the ALARA(As Low As Reasonably achievable) objective. Our staff has reviewed and made a shielding design of them. In this paper, According to accelerator operation mode and access conditions based on radiation analysis and shielding design, we made the exhaust system configuration of controlled area in the proton accelerator research center. Also, we installed radiation monitor and set its alarm value for each radiation area

  1. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  2. Development and validation of spectroscopic methods for monitoring density changes in pressurized gaseous and supercritical fluid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Marc A; Wallen, Scott L

    2002-04-15

    The further development of new processes utilizing liquid or supercritical CO2 as a solvent will benefit from the rational design of new CO2-philes. Understanding solvation structures and mechanisms of these molecules is an important part of this process. In such studies, determining the change in density as a function of the measured thermodynamic conditions (pressure and temperature) provides an excellent means of directly monitoring the solution conditions in the detection volume for a given technique. By integrating spectroscopic peaks, changes in area can be used to determine changes in analyte concentration in the detection volume, and thus, it should be possible to monitor the system density in situ. In the present study, we examine the utility of Raman and NMR spectroscopy as a means of following changes in solution density conditions and validate this approach in pure fluids and gases (N2 and CO2) and supercritical fluid mixtures (acetaldehyde vapor in N2). In addition, we present the design of a simple, inexpensive cell for conducting Raman and NMR measurements under moderate pressure conditions.

  3. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  4. Studies for improvement of regulatory control on the radioactive effluent released from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, H. M.; Song, M. C.; Lee, K. H.; Jang, J. K.; Chun, J. K.; Jeong, K. H.

    2005-05-01

    This report contains the second-year results of the research project titled 'Studies for Improvement of Regulatory Control on the Radioactive Effluent Released from Nuclear Facilities' and mainly provides technical and strategic approaches to improve performance of regulatory control on the gaseous effluent released from domestic nuclear facilities. The main result contained here includes overview and technical bases of radioactive gaseous effluent control (Chapter 1), reconsideration of the sensitivity requirements for measurement of radioactivity in gaseous effluent sample (Chapter 2), uncertainty analysis of the calculated radioactivity in gaseous effluent (Chapter 3), and improvement of quantification method of noble gas releases (Chapter 4). In addition, analysis of the impact due to combined sampling of particulate from multiple release points (Chapter 5), comparison of domestic nuclear reactors gaseous effluent data to foreign PWRs (Chapter 6), standardized sampling technique for collection of gaseous tritium (Chapter 7), and application of Xe-133 equivalent concept to gaseous effluent control (Chapter 8) are also provided. As a whole, this report provides a generic approach to improve the performance of regulatory control on the gaseous effluent. Therefore, actual enforcement of the recommendations should be preceded by establishment of a series of action plans reflecting on the site- and facility-specific design and operational features

  5. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  6. Graphic displays on PCs of gaseous diffusion models of radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Ortega, E. del

    1993-01-01

    The well-known MESOI program has been modified and improved to adapt it to a PC/AT with VGA colour monitor. Far from losing any of its powerful characteristics to calculate the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of gaseous radioactive effluents discharged to the atmosphere, it has been enhanced to allow graphic viewing of concentrations, wind speed and direction and puff locations in colour, all on a background map of the site. The background covers a 75 x 75 km square and has a graphic grid density of 421 x 421 pixels. This means that effluent concentration is represented approximately every 170 metres in the 'clouded-area'. Among the modifications and enhancements made, the following are of particular interest: 1. A new subroutine called NUBE has been added, which calculates the distribution of effluent concentration of activity in a grid of 421 x 421 pixels. 2. Several subroutines have been added to obtain graphic displays and printouts of the cloud, wind field and puff locations. 3. Graphic display of the geographic plane of the area surrounding the effluent release point. 4. Off-line preparation of meteorological and topographical data files necessary for program execution. (author)

  7. Generation of gaseous tritium standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The determination of aqueous and non-aqueous tritium in gaseous samples is one type of determination often requested of radioanalytical laboratories. This determination can be made by introducing the sample as a gas into a sampling train containing two silica gel beds separated by.a catalytic oxidizer bed. The first bed traps tritiated water. The sample then passes into and through the oxidizer bed where non-aqueous tritium containing species are oxidized to water and other products of combustion. The second silica gel bed then traps the newly formed tritiated water. Subsequently, silica gel is removed to plastic bottles, deionized water is added, and the mixture is permitted to equilibrate. The tritium content of the equilibrium mixture is then determined by conventional liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For many years, the moisture content of inert, gaseous samples has been determined using monitors which quantitatively electrolyze the moisture present after that moisture has been absorbed by phosphorous pentoxide or other absorbents. The electrochemical reaction is quantitative and definitive, and the energy consumed during electrolysis forms the basis of the continuous display of the moisture present. This report discusses the experimental evaluation of such a monitor as the basis for a technique for conversion of small quantities of SRMs of tritiated water ( 3 HOH) into gaseous tritium standards ( 3 HH)

  8. High-resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Ekman, Drew R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to control water or treated wastewater effluent at 5, 20, and 100% levels for 21 d, using an on-site, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. Both sex-specific and non-sex-specific responses were observed in the mucus metabolome, the latter suggesting the induction of general compensatory pathways for xenobiotic exposures. Altogether, 85 statistically significant treatment-dependent metabolite changes were observed out of the 310 total endogenous metabolites that were detected (156 of the 310 were annotated). Partial least squares-regression models revealed strong covariances between the mucus metabolomes and up-regulated hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts reported previously for these same fish. These regression models suggest that mucus metabolomic changes reflected, in part, processes by which the fish biotransformed xenobiotics in the effluent. In keeping with this observation, we detected a phase II transformation product of bisphenol A in the skin mucus of male fish. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the utility of mucus as a minimally invasive matrix for simultaneously assessing exposures and effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:788-796. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  9. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  10. A real-time positron monitor for the estimation of stack effluent releases from PET medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar.

    2002-01-01

    Large activities of short-lived positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are routinely manufactured by modern Medical Cyclotron facilities for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. During radiochemical processing, a substantial fraction of the volatile positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are released into the atmosphere. An inexpensive, fast response positron detector using a simple positron-annihilation chamber has been developed for real-time assessment of the stack release of positron emitting effluents at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron. The positron detector was calibrated by using a 3.0 ml (1.50 MBq) aliquot of 18 FDG and interfaced to an industrial standard datalogger for the real-time acquisition of stack release data

  11. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Development of gaseous photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokanai, F.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Okada, T.

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing gaseous photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with alkali photocathode combined with micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The potential advantage of the gaseous PMT is that it can achieve a very large effective area with adequate position and timing resolutions. In addition, it will be easily operated under a very high magnetic field, compared with the conventional vacuum-based PMT. To evaluate the gaseous PMTs filled with Ne and Ar based gas mixture, we have developed gaseous PMTs with an alkali photocathode combined with MPGDs such as a glass capillary plate, GEM, and Micromegas detector. We describe the recent development of the gaseous PMTs, particularly the production of the photocathode, gas gain, ion and photon feedbacks, quantum efficiency, and the characteristics in the magnetic field environment. (author)

  13. Progress in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring - Proceedings of the technical days organised by the SFRP Environment Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Dominique; Calvez, Marianne; Rivasseau, Corinne Cea; Monfort, Marguerite; Manificat, Guillaume; Pierrard, Olivier; Couvez, Celine; Masson, Olivier; Bruno, Valerie; Renaud, Philippe; Genova, Zhana; Reynal, Nathalie; Le Coz, Eric; Tchilian, Nathalie; Diana, Jean-Jacques; Beguinel, Philippe; Cortes, Pierre; Puydarrieux, Stephane; Brun, Thierry; Devin, Patrick; Clavel, Benoit; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Gontier, Gilles; Delloye, Thierry; Mailliat, Alain; Ferreri, Giovanni; LECLERC, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    The Environment Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the progress made in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Environment monitoring at the global, national and local scale: historical overview (Dominique CALMET, CEA); 2 - Evolution of radioactivity monitoring in the environment from 1960 to the present day (Guillaume MANIFICAT, IRSN); 3 - Euratom's legal framework (Zhana GENOVA, CTE); 4 - Main regulatory changes during the last decade (Nathalie REYNAL, ASN); 5 - Progress of standardization works on radioactive effluent emissions control and environment monitoring (Philippe BEGUINEL, BNEN); 6 - From operators' self-monitoring to ASN's inspections: a many components control system (Eric LE COZ, ASN); 7 - Control of effluents and emissions management at CEA Centres (Marianne CALVEZ, CEA); 8 - Liquid and gaseous effluents of ITER experimental facility: description and impacts (Pierre CORTES, IO); 9 - Effluents and emissions management strategy at AREVA NC La Hague facility (Stephane PUYDARRIEUX, AREVA); 10 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities ongoing deconstruction: from dimensioning to real effluents (Benoit CLAVEL, EDF); 11 - Radionuclides decontamination process for liquid effluents using micro-algae at the laboratory scale (Corinne RIVASSEAU, CEA); 12 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear medicine services: management, monitoring and impact measurement methods (Nathalie TCHILIAN, ASN); 13 - Evolution history of effluents management and environment monitoring at the Solvay La Rochelle site (Thierry DELLOYE, SOLVAY); 14 - Different international approaches in effluents management and monitoring: example of French and German gaseous effluents - regulation, analyses, accounting rules (Jean-Jacques DIANA, ASN); 15 - Environment

  14. USERDA effluent data collection and reporting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elle, D.R.; Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effluent and environmental monitoring has been conducted at United States Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly United States Atomic Energy Commission) facilities and sites virtually since the inception of atomic energy research and development. In 1971, computer systems were developed that permitted storage of information and data characterizing each effluent and onsite discharge point and relevant information on sources, effluent treatment and control systems, and discharge data, and serve as ERDA's computer-based management information systems for compiling waste discharge control and monitoring data on radioactivity released as airborne or liquid effluents or liquid discharges to onsite retention basins at ERDA facilities. The information systems and associated data outputs have proved to be an effective internal management tool for identifying effluent control problem areas and for surveying an agencywide Radioactive Effluent Reduction Program. The trend data facilitate the detection of gradual changes in the effectiveness of waste treatment systems, and errors or oversights in monitoring and data handling. Other computer outputs are useful for identifying effluent release points that have significantly higher or lower concentrations or quantities in the discharge stream than were measured the previous year. The year-to-year trend reports and the extensive computer edit and error checks have improved the reliability of the reported effluent data. Adoption of a uniform, centralized reporting system has improved the understanding and credibility of effluent data, and has allowed management to evaluate the effectiveness of effluent control practices at ERDA facilities. (author)

  15. A database system for the control of radioactive effluents generated by the IPEN-CNEN/SP installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    A PC-compatible database system has been developed in order to optimize the control of liquid and gaseous effluents generated by the installations of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The system implements source-term generation, optimizes the discharge control of the effluents and allows several ways for the retrieval of data concerning to the effluents. (author)

  16. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  17. ANCCLI Scientific Committee - Opinion related to the modification request for the authorisation of water takings and releases of liquid and gaseous effluents of the Cruas-Meysse CNPE made by EDF under Article 26 of Decree nr 2007-1557 of the 2 November 2007. Study performed at the request of the Cruas-Meysse CLI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first makes some comments on modification requests made by the operator (EDF) and on the related prescription projects. Five modifications have been proposed: 1) the implementation of an anti-tartar treatment for condenser cooling circuits by continuous acid vaccination and by complementary point acid injection, 2) the implementation of a treatment against biofouling and pathogen micro-organisms in condenser cooling circuits by massive chlorination under controlled pH, 3) the evolution of the secondary circuit chemical conditioning with the implementation of an 'intermediate pH'-type conditioning and/or an ethanolamine-based conditioning, 4) the taking of head-race channel dredging and pumping station de-silting operations into account, 5) other modifications related to effluent release authorisations (tritium volume activity in tanks, low limit of Rhone flow rate for the release of liquid radioactive effluents, limits of copper and zinc releases due to condenser wear). Some comments are then made about the monitoring of the environment, and about some prescription projects which are beyond the operator's request regarding release limits and the follow-up procedure related to the modification of release authorisations

  18. A Model to Reproduce the Response of the Gaseous Fission Product Monitor (GFPM) in a CANDU{sup R} 6 Reactor (An Estimate of Tramp Uranium Mass in a Candu Core)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostofian, Sara; Boss, Charles [AECL Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga Ontario L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    In a Canada Deuterium Uranium (Candu) reactor, the fuel bundles produce gaseous and volatile fission products that are contained within the fuel matrix and the welded zircaloy sheath. Sometimes a fuel sheath can develop a defect and release the fission products into the circulating coolant. To detect fuel defects, a Gaseous Fission Product Monitoring (GFPM) system is provided in Candu reactors. The (GFPM) is a gamma ray spectrometer that measures fission products in the coolant and alerts the operator to the presence of defected fuel through an increase in measured fission product concentration. A background fission product concentration in the coolant also arises from tramp uranium. The sources of the tramp uranium are small quantities of uranium contamination on the surfaces of fuel bundles and traces of uranium on the pressure tubes, arising from the rare defected fuel element that released uranium into the core. This paper presents a dynamic model that reproduces the behaviour of a GFPM in a Candu 6 plant. The model predicts the fission product concentrations in the coolant from the chronic concentration of tramp uranium on the inner surface of the pressure tubes (PT) and the surface of the fuel bundles (FB) taking into account the on-power refuelling system. (authors)

  19. Technical review of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant non-radiological effluent and environmental monitoring program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    Based on information reviewed in July 1985, Y-12 has some very strong areas such as chain-of-custody forms and compliance work on the new NPDES permit. The recommendations are divided into eighteen categories. Each recommendation is also divided into major or minor categories as an indication of the resources estimated to complete this recommendation. The areas needing the most improvement are air monitoring, QA/QC, field procedures, documentation, groundwater sampling, spill prevention control and countermeasures plan and biological monitoring. Recommendations are tabulated by category and by priority.

  20. Construction and calibration of a simple scintillation counter for monitoring radioactive gases in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.S.

    1984-07-01

    A report is given of the practical construction, laboratory calibration and simple-in-situ calibration check of scintillation detectors used for monitoring radioactive inert gases in gaseous effluents. The βγ-ray and γ-ray detectors are identical except for an absorber which is placed over the window of the γ-ray detector after calibration. The construction and calibration of both detectors is therefore identical. (author)

  1. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  2. Importance of benthonic marine flora monitoring in the liquid effluent discharge form Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloise, G.C.; Araujo Costa, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant use sea water to condenser the steam of the secondary circuit. This water capted from Itaorna bay is chlorined and discharged more heater in Piraquara de Fora small bay. The temperature, chlorinade concentration, marine flora and fauna are monitored frequently with the intend of value the impact caused by this discharge to marine environment. The macroscopic marines algae is very sensible to environment temperature variations, constitutes on of the main rink in the food chain and stay every time attach at the bottom. Because of this facts they are considered an important bio indicators. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Gaseous waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Masanobu; Uchiyama, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Kimura, Masahiro; Kawabe, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Gaseous waste recombiners 'A' and 'B' are connected in series and three-way valves are disposed at the upstream and the downstream of the recombiners A and B, and bypass lines are disposed to the recombiners A and B, respectively. An opening/closing controller for the three-way valves is interlocked with a hydrogen densitometer disposed to a hydrogen injection line. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas generated by radiolysis in the reactor are extracted from a main condenser and caused to flow into a gaseous waste processing system. Gaseous wastes are introduced together with overheated steams to the recombiner A upon injection of hydrogen. Both of the bypass lines of the recombiners A and B are closed, and recombining reaction for the increased hydrogen gas is processed by the recombiners A and B connected in series. In an operation mode not conducting hydrogen injection, it is passed through the bypass line of the recombiner A and processed by the recombiner B. With such procedures, the increase of gaseous wastes due to hydrogen injection can be coped with existent facilities. (I.N.)

  4. Experiences in radioactive gaseous effluent management in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Matsui, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Ikezawa, Y.; Hirayama, K.; Kokubu, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Japan Research Reactor-II (JRR-2), the main source of 41 Ar generation is the exhaust air from the horizontal experimental holes and the pneumatic tubes. For the horizontal experimental holes, the flow of exhaust air through the holes was decreased by improving the airtightness, and a decay duct of capacity 2.4 m 3 was installed in the middle of the exhaust line. In consequence, the release rate of 41 Ar was reduced by 6-8%. For the pneumatic tubes, a mechanical shutter was installed in the tube. The shutter stops the exhaust air flow, except when the pneumatic tube is used. Prior to the use, the activated air in the tube is led to a decay tank. As a result, the 41 Ar release rate was reduced by 10-20%. By the above means, the yearly exposure at the site boundary was reduced to 0.36 mR from 2.6 mR. In Hot Laboratory for metallurgical examination of spent fuel, the exhaust filtration system consists of filters in the cave, i.e. frame trap, prefilter, HEPA filter, and the main filter system, i.e. prefilter, two-stage HEPA filter and charcoal filter (the charcoal filter is by-passed to lengthen its life when radioiodine is not released). Values of removal efficiency and the dispersion factor for iodine were 80% and 4.4x10 - 3 and for cesium 97% and 3.5x10 - 3 , respectively. The exhaust filtration system in Radioactive Waste Incineration Plant consists of a two-stage ceramic filter installed immediately after the incinerator, air cooler, two-stage HEPA filter and final scrubber. The decontamination factor of the two-stage ceramic filter is 1x10 6 for particulate matter, when measured with radioactive particles from burning of simulated contaminants with 75 mCi of 137 Cs. The decontamination factor of the HEPA filter after the ceramic filter is about 10 3 . The overall decontamination factor for the plant is estimated to be more than 10 6

  5. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000

  6. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999

  7. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  8. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  9. Gaseous diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, G.A.; Shacter, J.

    1978-01-01

    A gaseous diffusion system is described comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of the diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof

  10. Quality Assurance Program Plan for FFTF effluent controls. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamans, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan is specific to environmental related activities within the FFTF Property Protected Area. The activities include effluent monitoring and Low Level Waste Certification

  11. Examination of vegetation around a nuclear plant emitting gaseous fluorides in order to detect fluorine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teulon, Francoise; Bonnaventure, J. P.

    1971-08-01

    Fluorine pollution (chronic or occasional) around a plant rejecting gaseous fluoride effluents can be detected from vegetation samples by chemical analysis. Systematic monitoring allows the effects and gravity of the pollution to be estimated. The analytical method used consists of a double distillation (in phosphoric acid and perchloric acid) followed by a spectro-colorimetric analysis (alizarine-complexon-lanthane). This method of control allows both the efficiency of the trapping installations and also the appearance of effluents at unexpected places to be checked, In the event of an accident it is possible to determine the advisability of prohibiting the consumption of locally grown produce by humans or fodder by cattle. Research conducted in order to determine the relation between visible, damage to certain vegetables (tomatoes, haricot beans and sorghum) and their fluorine contents demonstrated that such a relation appears above all at the level of the leaves; chemical analysis may thus be used to confirm or reject information obtained on the basis of visual evidence [fr

  12. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  13. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations

  14. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  15. Radiological environmental monitoring program for Angra I: basis and methodology proposed for executing the requirements of the regulatory member and to assure the population safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Dezordi, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented, applyed to Angra-1, a methodology for implanting the monitoring program of the vicinity level radiation exposure to the installation. The method considers two kinds of radioactive effluents in the environment: gaseous (in the atmosphere) and liquid (in the marine aquatic environment). It is based on the generation and ordering of the important relation: radiation exposure pathway/radionuclide group. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Alpha contaminated liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Mattia, B.; Bianchini, E.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1987-01-01

    The present report takes into consideration the possibility to carry out an in-line control of activity in liquid streams of fuel cycle nuclear plants, epecially for waste streams. The instrument developed for this purpose, has been characterized by means of static and dinamic measurements with Pu and Am bearing solutions. The results so far obtained show that the minimum detectable Pu amount is about .01mg/l and that it is possible to apply such a technique as alarm system able to detect the overcoming of a present threshold of actinides concentrations. The report also presents an approach to the spectra deconvolution in order to determine the amount of single isotopes

  17. Determination of calibration factors for field measurements of liquid and gaseous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, M.T.; Ravi, T.; Raghunath, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    While working out the procedures for calibration and activity estimation of 41 Ar gaseous effluent earlier, it was felt necessary to obtain similar factors for liquid and gas activity measurements for other energies also. The paper describes the work done towards this and the conversion factors and minimum detectable levels established. (author). 3 tabs., 1 ref

  18. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  19. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffeman, E. N.

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  20. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N. [Nikhef, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: d77@nikhef.nl

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a {sup 55}Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  1. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55 Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated

  2. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  3. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  4. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  5. Gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    In a gaseous waste processing device, if activated carbon is charged uniformly to a holdup tower, the amount of radioactive rare gases held in a first tower at the uppermost stream is increased to greater than that in other towers at the downstream since the radioactive rare gases decay in the form of an exponential function. Then in the present invention, the entire length of a plurality of activated carbon holdup towers connected in series is made longer than that of the towers in the downstream. As a result, since the amount of radioactive rare gases held in each of the holdup towers is made uniform, even if any one of connecting pipelines is ruptured, the amount of radioactive rare gases flown out is uniform. Only the body length of the holdup tower is changed because it is economical in view of the design and the manufacture of the vessel, and the cross section of the portion in which activated carbons are filled is made identical to keep the optimum flow rate of the rare gases. Thus, the radioactivity releasing amount can be minimized upon occurrence of an accident. (N.H.)

  6. Regulatory review of releases from HIFAR of radioactive airborne effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, D.J.; Macnab, D.I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) was set up by legislation in 1992 as an independent Commonwealth corporate body reporting to the Minister for Health and Family Services. Its functions include monitoring and reviewing the safety of nuclear plant owned or operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The NSB sets requirements for authorisation of the operation of the HIFAR research reactor, and may impose restrictions and conditions on its operation. The authorisation for the operation of HIFAR includes a requirement for arrangements for the treatment, safe storage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes from the reactor. The objective is to establish conditions which would ensure that radiation exposure to plant personnel and the public from radioactive wastes are within acceptable limits and that releases are maintained as low as reasonably achievable. The NSB has developed expectations based on international best practice, against which to review HIFAR's arrangements for satisfying the requirement and achieving the objective. Arrangements for the release of airborne radioactive effluent from HIFAR were reviewed by the NSB as part of an overall review of the upgrade of safety documentation for HIFAR. The NSB's expectations for the review were drawn from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards (Safety Series No 115-I) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Recommendations for Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (1995). These expectations included a hierarchy of primary dose limits, stack discharge limits and reference levels for HIFAR aimed at ensuring that radiation doses to the public due to airborne effluent are less than the national dose limits and ANSTO's dose constraints, and are as low as reasonably achievable. An approach favoured by the operator is to work directly to a primary dose limit using an airborne dispersion computer program to

  7. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  8. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System's pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System

  9. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for the separation of gaseous isotopes by electrophoresis assisted by convective countercurrent flow and to an apparatus for use in the process. The invention is especially applicable to heavy water separation from steam; however, it is to be understood that the invention is broadly applicable to the separation of gaseous isotopes having different dipole moments and/or different molecular weights. (author)

  11. Understanding the transformation, speciation, and hazard potential of copper particles in a model septic tank system using zebrafish to monitor the effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sijie; Taylor, Alicia A; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Kinsinger, Nichola M; Ueng, William; Walker, Sharon L; Nel, André E

    2015-02-24

    Although copper-containing nanoparticles are used in commercial products such as fungicides and bactericides, we presently do not understand the environmental impact on other organisms that may be inadvertently exposed. In this study, we used the zebrafish embryo as a screening tool to study the potential impact of two nano Cu-based materials, CuPRO and Kocide, in comparison to nanosized and micron-sized Cu and CuO particles in their pristine form (0-10 ppm) as well as following their transformation in an experimental wastewater treatment system. This was accomplished by construction of a modeled domestic septic tank system from which effluents could be retrieved at different stages following particle introduction (10 ppm). The Cu speciation in the effluent was identified as nondissolvable inorganic Cu(H2PO2)2 and nondiffusible organic Cu by X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), and Visual MINTEQ software. While the nanoscale materials, including the commercial particles, were clearly more potent (showing 50% hatching interference above 0.5 ppm) than the micron-scale particulates with no effect on hatching up to 10 ppm, the Cu released from the particles in the septic tank underwent transformation into nonbioavailable species that failed to interfere with the function of the zebrafish embryo hatching enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the addition of humic acid, as an organic carbon component, could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in Cu toxicity in our high content zebrafish embryo screening assay. Thus, the use of zebrafish embryo screening, in combination with the effluents obtained from a modeled exposure environment, enables a bioassay approach to follow the change in the speciation and hazard potential of Cu particles instead of difficult-to-perform direct particle tracking.

  12. Effluents and releases of tritium from Novo-Voronezh-5 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, A.G.; Mekhedov, B.N.; Podporinova, L.E.; Popov, S.V.; Shalin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Results of systematic measurements of tritium concentration within technological systems of reactor of Novo-Voronezh NPP conducted to evaluate tritium effluents and releases and radiation doses to population from these effluents and releases are given. It is shown that 68% concerning tritium total amount were disposed into sewerage while 17% - through vent tube and 15% - with water and steam from secondary circuit systems. Standartized tritium effluents from WWER-1000 reactor for 5 year run constitute 15±1.9 GBq/MWxyear and it corresponds to mean value of effluents for foreign NPPs. Tritium concentration in the atmosphere constituted according to calculations (4.1-20)x10 -5 Bq/l. Conclusion is made about insignificant dose to population from tritium gaseous effluents. Detail study is necessary for dose connected with tritium contained in water effluents

  13. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  14. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based drilling muds ...

  15. Radioactive effluents from CANDU 6 reactors during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, C.R.; Allsop, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    During routine operation of a CANDU 6 reactor, various gaseous, liquid, and solid radioactive wastes are generated. The layout of the CANDU 6 reactor and the design of its systems ensure that these are minimized, but small quantities of gaseous and liquid wastes are continually discharged at very low concentrations. This report discusses the make-up of these chronically generated gaseous and liquid effluents. From a safety perspective, the doses to individual members of the public resulting from radioactive wastes chronically discharged from CANDU 6 reactors have been negligible. Similarly, doses to the regional and global populations have been negligible, generally less than 0.001% of background. While far below regulatory limits, releases of tritium, noble gases and gross β - -γ have been the most radiologically significant emissions, while radioiodine and particulates have had the greatest potential to deliver public dose. (author). 8 refs., 16 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  17. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances

  18. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances

  19. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  20. Public doses estimation based on effluents data and direct measurements of Tritium in environmental samples at Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, E.; Popescu, I.; Simionov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The release of any potential radioactive pollutant to the environment during routine operation of a Nuclear Power Plant should be the subject of appropriate controls and assessments. The layout of the Candu reactor and the design of its systems ensure that the radioactive waste quantities are minimized, but small amounts of radioisotopes are continuously discharged at very low concentrations through gaseous and liquid effluents. Radioprotection of the public is based on the principles recommended by ICRP, the protection being mainly achieved by control of the sources of exposure. Source monitoring provide a means of assessing the radiation exposure of population groups, critical groups and individual members of the public. The assessed doses are used to demonstrate the compliance with authorized dose limits - 1 mSv / year in our case - but can also be used for optimization purposes

  1. The effects of brewery effluent discharge on the water quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effluent discharge into the river significantly altered the water quality. Monitoring of effluent discharge into the aquatic environment and strict adherence to regulatory limits will halt further degradation of the environment. Key words: Water, sediment physico-chemistry, distribution coefficient, effluent discharge, tropical river ...

  2. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  3. Gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Stockpiled coal undergoes atmospheric oxidation and desorption processes during open air storage. These processes release gases to the environment which may effect health and safety by their toxicity and flammability. In extreme cases, this could lead to a fire. This report discusses gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles. It covers gas emission mechanisms, and gas sampling and testing methods, before examining in more detail the principal gases that have been emitted. It concludes that there is limited research in this area and more data are needed to evaluate the risks of gaseous emissions. Some methods used to prevent coal self-heating and spontaneous combustion can be applied to reduce emissions from coal stockpiles.

  4. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  5. Raffinate treatment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acox, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Raffinate solutions, which contain uranium, technetium, nitrates, and lesser amounts of heavy metals, are produced in the decontamination and uranium recovery operations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These solutions are presently being placed in temporary storage until three treatment facilities are constructed which will produce an environmentally acceptable effluent from the raffinate. These facilities are: (1) The Heavy Metals Precipitation Facility; (2) The Technetium Ion Exchange Facility; and (3) The Biodenitrification Pilot Plant. When the facilities are completed, the raffinate will be treated in 500 gallon batches. The first treatment is the heavy metals precipitation by caustic addition and filtering. The effluent proceeds to the ion exchange columns where the technetium is removed by adsorption onto a strongly basic, anion exchange resin which has been converted to the hydroxyl form. Following ion exchange, the solution is transported to the biodenitrification pilot plant. The biodenitrification column is a fluidized-bed using bacteria-laden coal particles as the denitrifying media. The resulting effluent should meet the limits established by the US EPA for all metals and nitrate. Technetium will be 98+% removed and the uranium concentration will be less than one milligram per liter. 13 references

  6. Simulation of ammoniacal nitrogen effluent using feedforward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammoniacal nitrogen in domestic wastewater treatment plants has recently been added as the monitoring parameter by the Department of Environment, Malaysia. It is necessary to obtain a suitable model for the simulation of ammonical nitrogen in the effluent stream of sewage treatment plant in order to meet the new ...

  7. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... Abstract. Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. The essence of such ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  9. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  10. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs

  11. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    G EFFLUENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF IKPOBA RIVE. BENIN CITY, NIGERIA ... l purposes to communities rse such as ... treat in order for it to meet the aforeme of the communities. It is therefore i ..... Substituting and integrating yields the following equations ..... Purification Potentials of Small Tropical Urban. Stream: A ...

  12. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous isotopes are separated from a mixture in a vertically elongated chamber by subjecting the mixture to a nonuniform transverse electric field. Dielectrophoretic separation of the isotopes is effected, producing a transverse temperature gradient in the chamber, thereby enhancing the separation by convective countercurrent flow. In the example given, the process and apparatus are applied to the production of heavy water from steam

  13. Stress corrosion in gaseous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miannay, Dominique.

    1980-06-01

    The combined influences of a stress and a gaseous environment on materials can lead to brittleness and to unexpected delayed failure by stress corrosion cracking, fatigue cracking and creep. The most important parameters affering the material, the environment, the chemical reaction and the stress are emphasized and experimental works are described. Some trends for further research are given [fr

  14. The management plan of liquid effluent in Korean advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, H. S.; Jeong, D. W.; Jeong, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Non-radioactive liquid effluent in Korean Advanced Light Water Reactor is transferred and treated in centralized waste treatment facility after the radioactivity in effluent is checked within power block. The liquid effluent from centralized waste treatment facility will be discharged by way of discharge canal in order to be in the sufficient condition. As a result of investigating the radiation monitoring design in accordance with 20 provisions by Korean Regulatory Authority, each effluent radiation monitoring with 20 provisions by Korean Regulatory Authority, each effluent radiation monitoring design satisfies the regulatory guideline. In relation to sampling and analyses, most systems satisfy the regulatory guideline except for some effluents from turbine building. And, though sampling and analyses are performed after radioactivity is monitored at each system in turbine building, these exceptions in turbine building effluents are expected to cause no significant problems because radioactivity is monitored by direct or indirect methods prior to release from turbine building. Integrated monitoring on liquid effluent from the centralized waste water treatment facility is not necessary because radiation monitoring, sampling and analyses on each system within power block are performed, and operational effectiveness compared with cost according to adding the radiation monitoring equipment is too low. So, whether the radiation monitoring in this effluent is reflected on design or not is planned to be determined through discussion with regulatory authority

  15. Dose apportionment using statistical modeling of the effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are always operated under the guidelines stipulated by the regulatory body. These guidelines basically contain the technical specifications of the specific power plant and provide the knowledge of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluent into the environment through atmospheric and aquatic route. However, operational constraints sometimes may violate the technical specification due to which there may be a failure to satisfy the stipulated dose apportioned to that plant. In a site having multi facilities sum total of the dose apportioned to all the facilities should be constrained to 1 mSv/year to the members of the public. Dose apportionment scheme basically stipulates the limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent released into the environment. Existing methodology of dose apportionment is subjective in nature that may result the discharge limit of the effluent in atmospheric and aquatic route in an adhoc manner. Appropriate scientific basis for dose apportionment is always preferable rather than judicial basis from the point of harmonization of establishing the dose apportionment. This paper presents an attempt of establishing the discharge limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent first on the basis of the existing value of the release of the same. Existing release data for a few years (for example 10 years) for any nuclear power station have taken into consideration. Bootstrap, a resampling technique, has been adopted on this data sets to generate the population which subsequently provide the corresponding population distribution of the effluent release. Cumulative distribution of the population distribution obtained is constructed and using this cumulative distribution, 95th percentile (upper bound) of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluents is computed. Dose apportioned for a facility is evaluated using this estimated upper bound of the release limit. Paper describes the detail of the bootstrap method in evaluating the

  16. Radioactive gases monitor system: tritium, radon, noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, J.Z.; Matatagui, E.

    2015-01-01

    A system for monitoring the radioactive gases tritium, radon and noble gases is described. We present the description of the sensor and the associated electronics that have been developed to monitor the presence of radioactive gases in air or other gaseous effluents. The system has a high sensitivity and a wide range of operation. The sensor is an ionization chamber, featuring the internal circulation of the gas to monitor and the associated electronics has a resolution better than 10 E-15A (fA). It allows the detection of the individual pulses that are produced during the alpha decay of radon and its daughter elements. The measurement system is made up of a commercial data acquisition system connected to a computer. The acquired data is presented on a graphical display and it is stored for later processing and analysis. We have a system that is of simple construction and versatile. Here we present the experimental results. (authors) [es

  17. Novel gaseous detectors for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, M.; Fonte, P.; Francke, T.; Iacobaeus, C.; Ostling, J.; Peskov, V.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested prototypes of two new types of gaseous detectors for medical imaging purposes. The first one is called the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID). It is oriented on monitoring and the precise alignment of the therapeutic cancer treatment beam (pulsed gamma radiation) with respect to the patient's tumor position. The latest will be determined from an X-ray image of the patient obtained in the time intervals between the gamma pulses. The detector is based on a 'sandwich' of hole-type gaseous detectors (GEM and glass microcapillary plates) with metallic gamma and X-ray converters coated with CsI layers. The second detector is an X-ray image scanner oriented on mammography and other radiographic applications. It is based on specially developed by us high rate RPCs that are able to operate at rates of 10 5 Hz/mm 2 with a position resolution better than 50 μm at 1 atm. The quality of the images obtained with the latest version of this device were in most cases more superior than those obtained from commercially available detectors

  18. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuca, C.; Stochioiu, A.; Sahagia, M.; Gurau, D.; Dragusin, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes. - Highlights: • The DELs for gaseous and liquid effluents in decommissioning were studied. • The impact on the environment and critical group was assessed. • Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the radionuclide composition. • Based on the dosimetry models, the values of conservative DELs were calculated. • The DELs are compliant for gases, not for liquids; require the treatment as rad-waste

  19. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  20. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  1. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  2. Monitoring the impact of urban effluents on mineral contents of water and sediments of four sites of the river Ravi, Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Hafiz Abdullah; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the impact of urban effluents on the concentrations of selected minerals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Hg) in river Ravi before and after its passage through Lahore city. Water and sediment samples were collected from three lowly to highly polluted downstream sites (Shahdera (B), Sunder (C), and Balloki (D)) alongside the least polluted upstream site (Siphon (A)) during high and low river flow seasons. All the mineral concentrations increased up to site C but stabilized at site D, showing some recovery as compared to the third sampling site. The trend of mean mineral concentration was significantly higher during the low than the high flow season at all the sites. The mean Hg concentrations approached 0.14 and 0.12 mg/l at site A which increased (%) up to 107 and 25% at site B, 1,700 and 1,317% at site C, and 1,185 and 1,177% at site D during low and high river flows, respectively. All mineral concentrations were much higher in the sediment than the water samples. Mean Cd (917%), Cr (461%), Cu (300%), Fe (254%), Pb (179%), Zn (170%), Mn (723%), Ni (853%), and Hg (1,699%) concentrations were higher in riverbed sediments sampled from site C in comparison with the sample collected at site A during low flow season. The domestic and industrial discharges from Lahore city have created undesirable water qualities during the low river flow season. As majority of the mineral levels in the river Ravi were higher than the permissible and safe levels, this is of immediate concern for riverine fish consumers and the users of water for recreation and even irrigation. The use of these waters may pose health risks, and therefore, urgent intervention strategies are needed to minimize river water pollution and its impact on fish-consuming communities of this study area and beyond.

  3. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CONCAWE effluent speciation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonards, P.; Comber, M.; Forbes, S.; Whale, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2010-09-15

    In preparation for the implementation of the EU REACH regulation, a project was undertaken to transfer the high-resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to a laboratory external to the petroleum industry (Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the VU University of Amsterdam). The method was validated and used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. The report describes the technology transfer and the approaches used to demonstrate the successful transfer and application of the GCxGC methodology from analysing petroleum products to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon blocks in refinery effluents. The report describes all the methods used for all the determinations on the effluent samples along with an overview of the results obtained which are presented in summary tables and graphs. These data have significantly improved CONCAWE's knowledge of what refineries emit in their effluents. A total of 111 Effluent Discharge Samples from 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe were obtained in the period June 2008 to March 2009. These effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including COD, BOD), oil in water, BTEX and volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbon speciation determinations and other hydrocarbon analyses are also reported. The individual refinery analytical results are included into this report, coded as per the CONCAWE system. These data will be, individually, communicated to companies and refineries. The report demonstrates that it is feasible to conduct a research programme to investigate the fate and effects of hydrocarbon blocks present in discharged refinery effluents.

  5. Effluent treatment plant and decontamination centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, has a number of plants and laboratories, which generate Radioactive Liquid Waste and Protective Wears. Two facilities have been established in late 1960s to cater to this requirement. The Centre, on the average generates about 50,000 m"3 of active liquid effluents of varying specific activities. The Effluent Treatment Plant was setup to receive and process radioactive liquids generated by various facilities of BARC in Trombay. It also serves a single-point discharge facility to enable monitoring of radioactive effluents discharged from the Trombay site. About 120-150 Te of protective wears and inactive apparel are generated annually from various radioactive facilities and laboratories of BARC. In addition, contaminated fuel assembly components are generated by DHRUVA and formerly by CIRUS. These components require decontamination before its recycle to the fuel assembly process. The Decontamination Centre, setup in late 1960s, is mandated to carry out the above mentioned decontamination activities

  6. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999; Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA. Bilan et reglementation et methode 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  7. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  8. Electron beam gaseous pollutants treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Emission of gaseous pollutants, mostly during combustion of fossil fuels, creates a threat to the environment. New, economical technologies are needed for flue gas treatment. A physico-chemical basis of the process using electron beam for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds are presented in this report. Development of the process and its upscaling has been discussed. (author)

  9. Gaseous diffusion -- the enrichment workhorse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Construction of the first large-scale gaseous diffusion facility was started as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943. This facility, code named ''K-25,'' began operation in January 1945 and was fully on stream by September 1945. Four additional process buildings were later added in Oak Ridge as the demand for enriched uranium escalated. New gaseous diffusion plants were constructed at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, during this period. The three gaseous diffusion plants were the ''workhorses'' which provided the entire enriched uranium demand for the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. As the demand for enriched uranium for military purposes decreased during the early 1960s, power to the diffusion plants was curtailed to reduce production. During the 1960s, as plans for the nuclear power industry were formulated, the role of the diffusion plants gradually changed from providing highly-enriched uranium for the military to providing low-enriched uranium for power reactors

  10. Treatment and processing of the effluents and wastes (other than fuel) produced by a 900 MWe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud

    1983-01-01

    Effluents produced by a 900 MWe power plant, are of three sorts: gaseous, liquid and solid. According to their nature, effluents are either released or stored for decaying before being released to the atmosphere. The non-contaminated reactor coolant effluents are purified (filtration, gas stripping) and treated by evaporation for reuse. Depending upon their radioactive level, liquid waste is either treated by evaporation or discharged after filtration. Solid waste issuing from previous treatments (concentrates, resins, filters) is processed in concrete drums using an encapsulation process. The concrete drum provides biological self-protection consistent with the national and international regulations pertaining to the transport of radioactive substance. Finally, the various low-level radioactive solid waste collected throughout the plant, is compacted into metal drums. Annual estimates of the quantity of effluents (gaseous, liquid) released in the environment and the number of drums (concrete, metal) produced by the plant figure in the conclusion

  11. Evaluation of genotoxicity of liquid effluents from gas washing systems by means of bioassay Trad-MCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra Carla Fattori Ergesse; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2007-01-01

    In the gas washing systems the gaseous emissions from a facility are forced through an absorbing liquid preventing pollutants to be dispersed into the atmosphere. In the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo/Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), the gas washing are used to control the emissions from the uranium enrichment facilities. Uranium. fluoride, ammonia and hydrogen fluoride are the main contaminants, all heavily toxic. Biological assays, using plants or other living organisms, have been used to assess genotoxic agents in the environment. Among the bioassays using plants, the Trad-MCN has been used extensively, as it allows the evaluation of liquid or gaseous contaminants. The species Tradescantia pallida (Rose) was exposed in a dynamic system to liquid effluents from CEA. A positive control was the exposure to formaldehyde 10% in water, known as a very toxic solution, and the negative control was the exposure to filtered air. The protocol established by Ma (1983) for hybrid clones and validated for the T. pallida by Guimaraes (2003) was used to perform the Trad-MCN assays. Only preparations containing early tetrads were scored. In that context, the present study objectifies to evaluate, by the Trad-MCN bioassay, the genotoxicity of the solution from the gas washing and, also, evaluate the efficiency of that system. The results obtained show that the T. pallida is a sensitive bioindicator for the pollutants tested and can be useful for in vitro environmental monitoring under controlled conditions. (author)

  12. Evaluation of genotoxicity of liquid effluents from gas washing systems by means of bioassay Trad-MCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra Carla Fattori Ergesse [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Monitoracao Ambiental], E-mail: alessandra@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; Alves, Edenise Segala [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Anatomia], E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    In the gas washing systems the gaseous emissions from a facility are forced through an absorbing liquid preventing pollutants to be dispersed into the atmosphere. In the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo/Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), the gas washing are used to control the emissions from the uranium enrichment facilities. Uranium. fluoride, ammonia and hydrogen fluoride are the main contaminants, all heavily toxic. Biological assays, using plants or other living organisms, have been used to assess genotoxic agents in the environment. Among the bioassays using plants, the Trad-MCN has been used extensively, as it allows the evaluation of liquid or gaseous contaminants. The species Tradescantia pallida (Rose) was exposed in a dynamic system to liquid effluents from CEA. A positive control was the exposure to formaldehyde 10% in water, known as a very toxic solution, and the negative control was the exposure to filtered air. The protocol established by Ma (1983) for hybrid clones and validated for the T. pallida by Guimaraes (2003) was used to perform the Trad-MCN assays. Only preparations containing early tetrads were scored. In that context, the present study objectifies to evaluate, by the Trad-MCN bioassay, the genotoxicity of the solution from the gas washing and, also, evaluate the efficiency of that system. The results obtained show that the T. pallida is a sensitive bioindicator for the pollutants tested and can be useful for in vitro environmental monitoring under controlled conditions. (author)

  13. Method and device for processing aqueous effluents containing tritiated water, electrode used in that device and its fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.; Giroux, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this process an electrolyte, such as sodium hydroxide, is added to the effluent and the solution is electrolysed to obtain gaseous tritium. The electrolytic cell includes a cathode made with a metal facilitating tritium diffusion, e.g. Pd-Ag alloy. The cathode constitutes a separation wall between the electrolysed solution and a compartment where tritium is recovered after diffusion through the cathode. Application is made for tritium recovery in effluents coming from spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  14. Separation of tritium from reprocessing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Doyen, W.; Harnie, R.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Monsecour, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    For several years tritium retention has been studied at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK/CEN; initially attention was focused on the removal of tritium from gaseous reprocessing effluents. If tritium can be released from the spent fuel into the gaseous phase before any aqueous operation, adsorption on molecular sieves after some isotopic dilution with hydrogen and after complete conversion to (tritiated) water is the most practical collection method. A once-through 15 m 3 .h -1 oxidation-adsorption unit with a closed regeneration system and with a decontamination factor of 1000 at total (tritiated) hydrogen and water inlet concentrations down to 1000 vpm (parts per million by volume) has been constructed and tested at SCK/CEN and it is described in the text. If no special head-end treatment is used an appropriate liquid management inside the reprocessing plant restricts the volume of tritiated aqueous effluents to about 3 m 3 per tonne of LWR fuel processed. However, for further reduction an isotope separation process becomes necessary. SCK/CEN is developing the ELEX process, which is a combination of water ELectrolysis and tritium EXchange between hydrogen and water, the exchange being promoted by a hydrophobic catalyst. For electrolysis under normal conditions an elementary tritium separation factor of 11.6 with a standard deviation of 6% was obtained. As concerns the exchange step a hydrophobic catalyst has been developed which yields for the flow rates used at atmospheric pressure and at 20 0 C an overall exchange rate constant of 9 mol.s -1 .m -3 in a countercurrent trickle-bed reactor. At present an integrated bench scale de-tritiation unit is being built for further tests and for a dynamic demonstration of the ELEX process

  15. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. III. Concentration and genotoxicity of mercury in the industrial effluent and contaminated water of Rushikulya estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K K; Lenka, M; Panda, B B

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic mercury pollution of the Rushikulya estuary in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India was monitored over a period from October 1987 to May 1989. The concentrations of aquatic mercury in the water samples taken from the effluent channel and from different sites along the course of the estuary covering a distance of 2 km were periodically recorded and ranged from 0 to 0.5 mg/l. The bioconcentration and genotoxicity of aquatic mercury in the samples were assessed by the Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay. The frequency of cells with MNC was highly correlated not only with bioconcentrated mercury (root mercury) but also with the levels of aquatic mercury. The threshold assessment values such as effective concentration fifty (EC50) for root growth, lowest effective concentration tested (LECT), and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for induction of MNC in Allium MNC assay for the present aquatic industrial mercury were determined to be 0.14, 0.06 and 0.02 mg/l, respectively.

  16. Environmental monitoring of the Kozloduy NPP: 20 year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksiev, A; Tsochev, S; Dimitrov, M; Avramov, V [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radiation monitoring system of the Kozloduy NPP is described and the assessment of the environmental impact of the power plant is presented. Measurements are carried out in 36 control points distributed in 3 areas: radiation protected area (3 km diameter), radiation controlled area (12 km) and surveillance area (100 km). Comparison of radiation monitoring data for 1993 with data recorded in the pre-operational period (1972-74) show that no significant changes can be detected in the activity of {sup 90} Sr and gross beta activity. An increase in Cs-137 activity (38 Bq/kg d.w. versus 7 Bq/kg d.w.) is found in the soil and bottom sediments in the Danube river, which is attributed to Chernobyl accident. The Kozloduy NPP operation is continuously monitored for release of artificial radionuclides by gaseous and liquid effluents. It is reported that the average population exposure in the 30 km area due to liquid effluents is 3-4.10{sup -4} man Sv/a. A system for automated continuous radiation monitoring in 10 control stations is available in case of radiation accidents. It is supplemented by a mobile laboratory. Meteorological measurements are carried out by automatic station MC-10 and a second station is under construction. 21 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Environmental monitoring of the Kozloduy NPP: 20 year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksiev, A.; Tsochev, S.; Dimitrov, M.; Avramov, V.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation monitoring system of the Kozloduy NPP is described and the assessment of the environmental impact of the power plant is presented. Measurements are carried out in 36 control points distributed in 3 areas: radiation protected area (3 km diameter), radiation controlled area (12 km) and surveillance area (100 km). Comparison of radiation monitoring data for 1993 with data recorded in the pre-operational period (1972-74) show that no significant changes can be detected in the activity of 90 Sr and gross beta activity. An increase in Cs-137 activity (38 Bq/kg d.w. versus 7 Bq/kg d.w.) is found in the soil and bottom sediments in the Danube river, which is attributed to Chernobyl accident. The Kozloduy NPP operation is continuously monitored for release of artificial radionuclides by gaseous and liquid effluents. It is reported that the average population exposure in the 30 km area due to liquid effluents is 3-4.10 -4 man Sv/a. A system for automated continuous radiation monitoring in 10 control stations is available in case of radiation accidents. It is supplemented by a mobile laboratory. Meteorological measurements are carried out by automatic station MC-10 and a second station is under construction. 21 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  19. 200 Area TEDF effluent sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaconis, W.C.; Ballantyne, N.A.; Boom, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    This sampling analysis sets forth the effluent sampling requirements, analytical methods, statistical analyses, and reporting requirements to satisfy the State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST4502 for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. These requirements are listed below: Determine the variability in the effluent of all constituents for which enforcement limits, early warning values and monitoring requirements; demonstrate compliance with the permit; and verify that BAT/AKART (Best Available Technology/All know and Reasonable Treatment) source, treatment, and technology controls are being met

  20. Guide for effluent radiological measurements at DOE installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Corbit, C.D.

    1983-07-01

    Effluent monitoring and reporting programs are maintained at all US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that may: (1) discharge significant concentrations of radioactivity in relation to applicable standards, or (2) discharge quantities of radioactivity that have potential health and safety or other environmental significance. This Guide is intended to provide supplemental guidance to DOE Orders on methods, procedures, and performance criteria to bring more comparable rationale to DOE facility effluent measurement programs and promote compliance with applicable standards and provide the DOE Office of Operational Safety (OOS) and Operations Offices with an additional tool for evaluating effluent measurement programs at DOE facilities

  1. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.W.; Gallegos, G.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K.; Biermann, A.H.; Hoppes, W.G.; Fields, B.C.; Gouveia, F.J.; Berger, R.L.; Miller, F.S.; Rueppel, D.W.; Sims, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    The primary tasks of the environmental monitoring section (EMS) Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are: effluent monitoring of air, sewer, and NPDES water. Surveillance monitoring of soil, vegetation and foodstuff, water, air particulate, and air tritium. Radiation monitoring, dose assessment, emergency response, quality assurance, and reporting. This report describes LLNL and the monitoring plan

  2. Effluent releases at the TRIGA reactor facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittemore, W L [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1974-07-01

    The principal effluent from the operating TRIGA reactors in our facility is argon-41. As monitored by a recording gas and particulate stack monitor, the values shown in the table, the Mark III operating 24 hours per day for very long periods produced the largest amount of radioactive argon. The quantity of 23.7 Ci A-41 when diluted by the normal reactor room ventilation system corresponded to 1.45 x 10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/cc. As diluted in the roof stack stream and the reactor building wake, the concentration immediately outside the reactor building was 25% MPC for an unrestricted area. The continued dilution of this effluent resulted in a concentration of a few percent MPC at the site boundary (unrestricted area) 350 meters from the reactor. (author)

  3. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  4. IRSN's expertise about nuclear medicine hospital effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This brief note aims at presenting the radioactivity follow up of hospital effluents performed by the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). This follow up concerns the radioactive compounds and radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, and principally technetium 99 and iodine 131. The IRSN has developed a network of remote measurement systems for the monitoring of sewers and waste water cleaning facilities. Data are compiled in a data base for analysis and subsequent expertise. (J.S.)

  5. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  6. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  7. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  8. Liquid effluent at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    This short paper reviews the liquid effluent treatment at the Dounreay site. The significant reductions in volume and activity discharged from the site to the environment have been achieved over the many years of operation, and some of the techniques are highlighted. The Regulator interaction and the effect on the environment is discussed, while some of the requirements of the Regulator are presented. (author)

  9. The treatment of effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.; Rodier, J.; Robien, E. de; Fernandez, N.

    1964-01-01

    For several years the French Atomic Energy Commission has been studying with interest problems presented by radio-active effluents. Since high activities have not yet received a definite solution we will deal only, in this paper, with the achievements and research concerning low and medium activity effluents. In the field of the achievements, we may mention the various effluent treatment stations which have been built in France; a brief list will be given together with an outline of their main new features. Thus in particular the latest treatment stations put into operation (Grenoble, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cadarache) will be presented. From all these recent achievements three subjects will be dealt with in more detail. 1 - The workshop for treating with bitumen the sludge obtained after concentration of radionuclides. 2 - The workshop for treating radioactive solid waste by incineration. 3 - A unit for concentrating radio-active liquid effluents by evaporation. In the field of research, several topics have been undertaken, a list will be given. In most cases the research concerns the concentration of radionuclides with a view to a practical and low cost storage, a concentration involving an efficient decontamination of the aqueous liquids in the best possible economic conditions. For improving the treatments leading to the concentration of nuclides, our research has naturally been concerned with perfecting the treatments used in France: coprecipitation and evaporation. In our work we have taken into account in particular two conditions laid down in the French Centres. 1 - A very strict sorting out of the effluents at their source in order to limit in each category the volume of liquid to be dealt with. 2 - The necessity for a very complete decontamination due to the high population density in our country. In the last past we present two original methods for treating liquid effluents. 1 - The use of ion-exchange resins for liquids containing relatively many salts. The

  10. PWR-GALE, Radioactive Gaseous Release and Liquid Release from PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The PWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment. 2 - Method of solution: GALE calculates expected releases based on 1) standardized coolant activities derived from ANS Standards 18.1 Working Group recommendations, 2) release and transport mechanisms that result in the appearance of radioactive material in liquid and gaseous waste streams, 3) plant-specific design features used to reduce the quantities of radioactive materials ultimately released to the environs, and 4) information received on the operation of nuclear power plants. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The liquid release portion of GALE uses subroutines taken from the ORIGEN (CCC-217) to calculate radionuclide buildup and decay during collection, processing, and storage of liquid radwaste. Memory requirements for this part of the program are determined by the large nuclear data base accessed by these subroutines

  11. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de, E-mail: mcostac@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  12. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de

    2017-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  13. Monitoring of low level environmental gamma exposure by the centralized radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Obata, Kazuichi; Kokubu, Morinobu; Itoh, Naoji

    1981-07-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a centralized automatic radiation monitoring system developed 20 years ago has recently been improved to monitor low level gamma radiation more accurately in normal operation of the nuclear facilities and to detect abnormal radioactive releases more effectively. The present state of the system is described. This system puts together environmental monitoring data such as gamma exposure rate (20 points), radioactive concentration in the air (4 points) and in water (2 drains), and meteorological items (14 including wind directions, wind speeds, solar radiation and air temperatures at a observation tower of 40 m height). Environmental monitoring around the JAERI site is carried out effectively using the system. Data processing system consists of a central processing unit, a magnetic disk, a magnetic tape, a line printer and a console typewriter. The data at respective monitoring points are transmitted to the central monitoring room by wireless or telephone line. All data are printed out and field in magnetic disk and magnetic tape every 10 minutes. When the emergency levels are exceeded, however, the data are automatically output on a line printer every 2 minute. This system can distinguish very low gamma exposure due to gaseous effluents, about 1 mR/y, from the background. Even in monthly exposures, calculated values based on the data of release amount and meteorology are in good agreement with the measured ones. (author)

  14. Rockwell Hanford Operations effluents and solid waste burials during calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.B.; Aldrich, R.C.; Shay, R.S.; Voigt, L.J.

    1987-07-01

    The quantities of solid, liquid, or gaseous wastes buried or discharged during calendar year 1986 are monitored and reported in this document. Discharge concentrations were compared to more restrictive Rockwell administrative control values for compliance; two gaseous streams and two liquid streams exceeded Rockwell limits. 24 refs., 3 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  16. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials

  17. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive gaseous waste processing device used in BWR power plants. A heater is disposed to the lower portion of a dryer for dehydrating radioactive off gases. Further, a thermometer is disposed to a coolant return pipeway on the exit side of the cooling portion of the dryer and signals sent from the thermometer are inputted to an automatic temperature controller. If the load on the dryer is reduced, the value of the thermometer is lowered than a set value, then an output signal corresponding to the change is supplied from the automatic temperature controller to the heater to forcively apply loads to the dryer. Therefore, defrosting can be conducted completely without operating a refrigerator, and the refrigerator can be maintained under a constant load by applying a dummy load when the load in the dryer is reduced. (I.N.)

  18. Trace emissions from gaseous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) was amended in 1990 to include the development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for certain stationary sources by November 2000. MACT emissions standards would affect process heaters and industrial boilers since combustion processes are a potential source for many air toxins. The author noted that one of the problems with MACT is the lack of a clear solid scientific footing which is needed to develop environmentally responsible regulations. In order to amend some of these deficiencies, a 4-year, $7 million research project on the origin and fate of trace emissions in the external combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons was undertaken in a collaborative effort between government, universities and industry. This collaborative project entitled the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) Project 92-19 produced basic information and phenomenological understanding in two important areas, one basic and one applied. The specific objectives of the project were to measure emissions while operating different full-scale burners under various operating conditions and then to analyze the emission data to identify which operating conditions lead to low air toxic emissions. Another objective was to develop new chemical kinetic mechanisms and predictive models for the formation of air toxic species which would explain the origin and fate of these species in process heaters and industrial boilers. It was determined that a flame is a very effective reactor and that trace emissions from a typical gas-fired industry burner are very small. An unexpected finding was that trace emissions are not affected by hydrocarbon gaseous fuel composition, nor by the use of ultra low nitrous oxide burners. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Gomes, L.R.; Schröder, B.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid (BA) was proven using the experimental technique called the "in vacuum sublimation/vaporization Calvet microcalorimetry drop method". To overcome known experimental shortfalls, the gaseous phase heat capacity of BA monomer was estimated by ab initio

  20. Vibration signature analysis of compressors in the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbarger, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous operation of several thousand axial-flow and centrifugal compressors is vital to the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. Vibration signature analysis using a minicomputer-based Fast Fourier Transform Analyzer is being applied to the evaluation and surveillance of compressor performance at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Three areas of application include: (1) new blade design and prototype compressor evaluation; (2) corrective and preventive maintenance of machinery components; and (3) evaluation of machinery health. The present system is being used to monitor signals from accelerometers mounted on the load-bearing housings of 16 on-line compressors. These signals are transmitted by hard-wire to the analyzer for daily monitoring. A program for expansion of this system to monitor more than a thousand compressors and automation of the signature comparison process is planned for all three gaseous diffusion plants operated for the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. (auth)

  1. On-line vibration and analysis system at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herricks, D.M.; Strunk, W.D.

    1987-11-01

    The enrichment facility in Paducah, KY uses a unique hard-wired vibration monitoring and analysis system for gaseous diffusion equipment. The axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors used in uranium enrichment range in size from 6 feet in diameter to less than one foot in diameter. These compressors must operate smoothly and safely, without breech of containment, since the working fluid of gaseous diffusion is gaseous UF 6 . The condition of 1925 compressors is monitored by use of the 2500 point vibration analysis system. Since the failure mechanisms of the compressors are well known and documented, only one accelerometer per machine is needed for most machines. The system is completely automated and can generate spectra or broadband levels in either acceleration or velocity units. Levels are stored for historical review. The analyst can, via a custom telecommunications link, view and analyze data from all monitored points with an office PC. 4 figs

  2. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindin, S. G.; Roberts, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst

  3. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  4. Management of radioactive effluents from research Reactors and PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodke, S.B.; Surender Kumar; Sinha, P.K.; Budhwar, R.K.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is mainly based on pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). In addition we have research reactors namely Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva at Trombay. The operation and maintenance activities of these reactors generate radioactive liquid waste. These wastes require effective management so that the release of radioactivity to the environment is well within the authorized limits. India is self reliant in the design, erection, commissioning and operation of effluent management system for nuclear reactors. Segregation at source based on nature of effluents and radioactivity content is the first and foremost step in the over all management of liquid effluents. The effluents from the power reactors contain mainly activation products like 3 H. It also contains fission products like 137 Cs. Containment of these radionuclide along with 60 Co, 90 Sr, 131 I plays an important part in liquid waste management. Treatment processes for decontamination of these radionuclide include chemical treatment, ion exchange, evaporation etc. Effluents after treatment are monitored and discharged to the nearby water body after filtration and dilution. The concentrates from the processes are conditioned in cement matrix and disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) co-located at each site. Some times large quantity of effluents with higher radioactivity concentration may get generated from the abnormal operation such as failure of heat exchangers. These effluents are handled on a campaign basis for which adequate storage capacity is provided. The treatment is given taking into consideration the required decontamination factor (DF), capacities of available treatment process, discharge limits and the availability of the dilution water. Similarly large quantities of effluents may get generated during fuel clad failure incident in reactors. In such situation, as in CIRUS large volume of effluent containing higher radioactivity are generated and are managed by delay

  5. Radioactivity monitoring programme of Krsko nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklavzic, U.; Martincic, R.; Kanduc, M.; Lulic, S.; Kovac, J.; Breznik, B.

    1996-01-01

    As a successor to the preoperational surveillance programme, the regular offsite radioactivity monitoring programme (RMP) of the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was implemented in 1982, when the power plant formally commenced operating. Observations collected during the first years of its operation were later also the basis for setting up the official 'Regulatory guide on monitoring of nuclear installations', issued not earlier than in 1986. The basic criterion which governed the selection of measuring methods, sampling techniques and locations, was the extent to which the data obtained could serve for the realistic assessment of the committed dose to a member of the population, and later on to members of a representative (critical) group. To be able to differentiate the radioactivity released through the liquid and gaseous effluents of the NPP from other radiation sources (natural radioactivity, global contamination), and especially because of the varying radiotoxicity of different radionuclides, in principle monitoring in the environment, as at the source, had to provide activity data for each individual radionuclide appearing in the effluents. Therefore, as early as 1982 the programme attributed the main weight to high resolution gamma spectrometry, combined with specific radiochemical analytical methods (e.g. 90 Sr/ 89 Sr, 3 H, 14 C, alpha spectrometry of Pu isotopes) which together made feasible determination of individual specific activities of the most significant man-made and natural radionuclides. By weighting the specific activities of the radionuclides identified and measured in the media surveyed by dose factors for intake, the quantity 'B' - the so-called 'radiological burden', was calculated and introduced in the yearly-summary tables. Expressed in relative units, from which the committed dose could be readily calculated, the burden B very lucidly disclosed the relative importance of different artificial pollutants and natural radioactivity present in

  6. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In a radioactive gaseous waste processing device, a dehumidifier in which a lot of hollow thread membranes are bundled and assembled is disposed instead of a dehumidifying cooling device and a dehumidifying tower. The dehumidifier comprises a main body, a great number of hollow thread membranes incorporated in the main body, a pair of fixing members for bundling and fixing both ends of the hollow thread membranes, a pair of caps for allowing the fixing members to pass through and fixing them on both ends of the main body, an off gas flowing pipe connected to one of the caps, a gas exhaustion pipe connected to the other end of the cap and a moisture removing pipeline connected to the main body. A flowrate control valve is connected to the moisture removing pipeline, and the other end of the moisture removing pipeline is connected between a main condensator and an air extraction device. Then, cooling and freezing devices using freon are no more necessary, and since the device uses the vacuum of the main condensator as a driving source and does not use dynamic equipments, labors for the maintenance is greatly reduced to improve economical property. The facilities are reduced in the size thereby enabling to use space effectively. (N.H.)

  7. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  8. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  9. The regulation of radioactive effluent release in France (mainly from large nuclear installations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Jean.

    1978-01-01

    In parallel with the licensing system for construction and operation of classified or so-called large nuclear installations (INB) there are in France regulations for the release of radioactive effuents from such installations. The regulations applicable to installations other than INBs are not specifically of a nuclear nature, while those covering INBs, which are analysed in this study, in particular, cover effluent release in liquid or gaseous form. The licensing and control procedures for such release are analysed in detail. (NEA) [fr

  10. Radiation monitoring data on the power-up test of HTTR. Results up to 20 MW operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Nakazawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji

    2002-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Power-up test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode. After that the Power-up test in the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between January 16, 2001 and June 10, 2001. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Power-up test in the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW. The followings were concluded from these radiation monitoring data. The monitoring of radioactive gaseous effluents and the radiation protection for the works will be easy to do and the exposure dose of the workers will be kept the low level. (author)

  11. Monitoreo de emisiones de material particulado de chimeneas de generadores de vapor de la industria azucarera en Tucumán, R. Argentina Monitoring of effluent particulate matter emitted by sugarcane factory stacks in Tucumán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las moliendas en los años 2008, 2009, 2010 y 2011, se realizaron mediciones de las concentraciones de material particulado total (MPT en las emisiones de chimeneas de calderas de la industria azucarera, en Tucumán, R. Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue monitorear la evolución de la concentración y emisión de MPT y observar la influencia de los sistemas de filtrado instalados en las chimeneas de las mencionadas unidades. Se ilustran los datos de las emisiones de MPT obtenidas en los años indicados, con valores promedio por caldera de 58,5 kg/h, 33,6 kg/h, 47,6 kg/h y 33,9 kg/h, respectivamente. Asimismo, este estudio muestra un seguimiento minucioso de un grupo de calderas bagaceras, para determinar la evolución de las emisiones en función de las variables de operación características de esas calderas. Los resultados demostraron la influencia del mantenimiento y de la correcta operación de los equipos de filtrado en la calidad de los gases que fluyen por las chimeneas. Se estudió la influencia de los índices característicos de diseño de los lavadores de gases en la concentración de partículas. Se observó que se ha logrado un menor impacto ambiental a lo largo del tiempo analizado.Total particulate matter (TPM concentrations were measured in stack fumes from sugar factory steam generating boilers in Tucumán in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The objective of this work was to monitor the evolution of TPM concentrations and emissions and observe the efficiency of filtration systems used in sugarcane factory stacks. Average values of 58.5 kg/h, 33.6 kg/h, 47.6 kg/h and 33.9 kg/h were obtained in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Bagasse boilers were also meticulously surveyed to obtain data of the evolution of emissions in relation to specific operation variables of the boilers. Data concerning the quality of effluent gasses from the stacks demonstrated the influence of maintaining and correctly using filtration

  12. Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  14. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program

  15. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective effects in ... Lung water content and cell count were estimated by standard protocols. ... It reversed LPS-induced oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increase in total antioxidant ...

  16. Purifying hydrocarbons in the gaseous stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-02-01

    Gaseous tar oils are subjected, at temperatures of 320 to 380/sup 0/C, to the action of a mixture of activated carbon mixed with powdered metal which removes the sulfur contamination from the substance to be purified.

  17. Automated sampling and control of gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan; Keyser, John

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we describe a method that automates the sampling and control of gaseous fluid simulations. Several recent approaches have provided techniques for artists to generate high-resolution simulations based on a low-resolution simulation

  18. The conditions of gaseous fuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Face to the actual situation of petrol and gas oil in France, the situation of gaseous fuels appears to be rather modest. However, the aim of gaseous fuels is not to totally supersede the liquid fuels. Such a situation would imply a complete overturn which has not been seriously considered yet. This short paper describes the essential conditions to promote the wider use of gaseous fuels: the intervention of public authorities to adopt a more advantageous tax policy in agreement with the ''Clean Air''law project, a suitable distribution network for gaseous fuels, a choice of vehicles consistent with the urban demand, the development of transformation kits of quality and of dual-fuel vehicles by the car manufacturers. (J.S.)

  19. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  20. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  1. 7th International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    James, David

    1994-01-01

    The Seventh International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, U. S. A. , on April 24-28, 1994. The symposium continued the interdisciplinary character and comprehensive approach of the preceding six symposia. Gaseous DielecIries VII is a detailed record of the symposium proceedings. It covers recent advances and developments in a wide range of basic, applied and industrial areas of gaseous dielectrics. It is hoped that Gaseous DielecIries VII will aid future research and development in, and encourage wider industrial use of, gaseous dielectrics. The Organizing Committee of the Seventh International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics consisted of G. Addis (U. S. A. ), L. G. Christophorou (U. S. A. ), F. Y. Chu (Canada), A. H. Cookson (U. S. A. ), O. Farish (U. K. ), I. Gallimberti (Italy) , A. Garscadden (U. S. A. ), D. R. James (U. S. A. ), E. Marode (France), T. Nitta (Japan), W. Pfeiffer (Germany), Y. Qiu (China), I. Sauers (U. S. A. ), R. J. Van Brunt (U. S. A. ), and W. Zaengl...

  2. Automated biomonitoring: living sensors as environmental monitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruber, D; Diamond, J

    1988-01-01

    Water quality continues to present problems of global concern and has resulted in greatly increased use of automated biological systems in monitoring drinking water, industrial effluents and wastewater...

  3. PM10 and gaseous pollutants trends from air quality monitoring networks in Bari province: principal component analysis and absolute principal component scores on a two years and half data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemical composition of aerosols and particle size distributions are the most significant factors affecting air quality. In particular, the exposure to finer particles can cause short and long-term effects on human health. In the present paper PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm), CO, NOx (NO and NO2), Benzene and Toluene trends monitored in six monitoring stations of Bari province are shown. The data set used was composed by bi-hourly means for all parameters (12 bi-hourly means per day for each parameter) and it’s referred to the period of time from January 2005 and May 2007. The main aim of the paper is to provide a clear illustration of how large data sets from monitoring stations can give information about the number and nature of the pollutant sources, and mainly to assess the contribution of the traffic source to PM10 concentration level by using multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS). Results Comparing the night and day mean concentrations (per day) for each parameter it has been pointed out that there is a different night and day behavior for some parameters such as CO, Benzene and Toluene than PM10. This suggests that CO, Benzene and Toluene concentrations are mainly connected with transport systems, whereas PM10 is mostly influenced by different factors. The statistical techniques identified three recurrent sources, associated with vehicular traffic and particulate transport, covering over 90% of variance. The contemporaneous analysis of gas and PM10 has allowed underlining the differences between the sources of these pollutants. Conclusions The analysis of the pollutant trends from large data set and the application of multivariate statistical techniques such as PCA and APCS can give useful information about air quality and pollutant’s sources. These knowledge can provide useful advices to environmental policies in

  4. Filtration device for active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-01-01

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter

  5. Decree of January 11, 2016 bearing homologation of the decision nr 2015-DC-0536 by the Nuclear Safety Authority of December 22, 2015 defining threshold values of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from base nuclear installations nr 33 (UP2-400), 38 (STE2 et AT1), 47 (ELAN II B), 80 (HAO), 116 (UP3-A), 117 (UP2-800) and 118 (STE3 effluent processing station) exploited by AREVA NC on the La Hague site (Manche district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortureux, M.

    2016-01-01

    After having mentioned the various related and reference legal texts, this legal publication specifies the various threshold values which must be applied to liquid and gaseous releases of nuclear installations located in La Hague for a better control and management of pollutions and of the impact of these installations on the environment. Threshold values are thus specified for various compounds and species, and the document also mentions AREVA's publications which indicate the actual release levels and state that these levels are within the accepted limits

  6. Techniques to limit gaseous releases in case of reactor accident. Choice criteria - present solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Lavie, Jean-Marie

    1964-10-01

    Within the frame of the study of radiological risks associated with a reactor accident in order to define the required responses, this study comprises, on the one hand, an analysis of the different accident types in order to select typical accidents, and on the other hand, a site-based analysis to define the maximum admissible radioactivity release for a given site. The determination of minimum required coefficient of risk reduction results from a compromise between the choice of reactor configuration type and the efficiency of purification devices, while taking into account minimum characteristics of the enclosure mechanical strength, local release conditions, and nature of gaseous effluents to be processed. After a review of available containment techniques, the author applies this analysis method to the different French reactor types. He gives a brief description of adopted solutions for the most typical French reactors in terms of characteristics of venting and filtration devices. As data quality is a crucial requirement, the author outlines the need for further studies regarding fission product emission and transfer, the purification of gaseous effluents and their diffusion in the atmosphere [fr

  7. Isotope exchange between gaseous hydrogen and uranium hydride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Buffleben, George M.; Johnson, Terry A.; Robinson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isotope exchange between hydrogen gas and uranium hydride powder can be rapid and reversible. • Gas–solid exchange rate is controlled by transport within ∼0.7 μm hydride particles. • Gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes using uranium hydride is feasible. - Abstract: Isotope exchange between gaseous hydrogen and solid uranium hydride has been studied by flowing hydrogen (deuterium) gas through packed powder beds of uranium deuteride (hydride). We used a residual gas analyzer system to perform real-time analysis of the effluent gas composition. We also developed an exchange and transport model and, by fitting it to the experimental data, extracted kinetic parameters for the isotope exchange reaction. Our results suggest that, from approximately 70 to 700 kPa and 25 to 400 °C, the gas-to-solid exchange rate is controlled by hydrogen and deuterium transport within the ∼0.7 μm diameter uranium hydride particles. We use our kinetic parameters to show that gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen and deuterium using uranium hydride could be feasible

  8. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility: Overview of STF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (STF) constructed at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site is a basic research tool for studying the dynamics of accidental releases of various hazardous liquids. This Facility is designed to (1) discharge, at a controlled rate, a measured volume of hazardous test liquid on a prepared surface of a dry lake bed (Frenchman Lake); (2) monitor and record process operating data, close-in and downwind meteorological data, and downwind gaseous concentration levels; and (3) provide a means to control and monitor these functions from a remote location. The STF will accommodate large and small-scale testing of hazardous test fluid release rates up to 28,000 gallons per minute. Spill volumes up to 52,800 gallons are achievable. Generic categories of fluids that can be tested are cryogenics, isothermals, aerosol-forming materials, and chemically reactive. The phenomena that can be studied include source definition, dispersion, and pool fire/vapor burning. Other capabilities available at the STF include large-scale wind tunnel testing, a small test cell for exposing personnel protective clothing, and an area for developing mitigation techniques

  9. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Airborne effluent control at fuel enrichment, conversion, and fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities generate gaseous wastes that must be treated prior to being discharged to the atmosphere. Since all three process and/or handle similar compounds, they also encounter similar gaseous waste disposal problems, the majority of which are treated in a similar manner. Ventilation exhausts from personnel areas and equipment off-gases that do not contain corrosive gases (such as HF) are usually passed through roughening and/or HEPA filters prior to release. Ventilation exhausts that contain larger quantities of particles, such as the conversion facilities' U 3 O 8 sampling operation, are passed through bag filters or cyclone separators, while process off-gases containing corrosive materials are normally treated by sintered metal filters or scrubbers. The effectiveness of particle removal varies from about 90 percent for a scrubber alone to more than 99.9 percent for HEPA filters or a combination of the various filters and scrubbers. The removal of nitrogen compounds (N 2 , HNO 3 , NO/sub x/, and NH 3 ) is accomplished by scrubbers in the enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities. The conversion facility utilizes a nitric acid recovery facility for both pollution control and economic recovery of raw materials. Hydrogen removal from gaseous waste streams is generally achieved with burners. Three different systems are currently utilized by the conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication plants to remove gaseous fluorides from airborne effluents. The HF-rich streams, such as those emanating from the hydrofluorination and fluorine production operations of the conversion plant, are passed through condensers to recover aqueous hydrofluoric acid

  11. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  12. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  13. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors have significant advantages as energy sources for closed-cycle power systems. The advantages arise from the removal of temperature limits associated with conventional reactor fuel elements, the wide variety of methods of extracting energy from fissioning gases, and inherent low fissile and fission product in-core inventory due to continuous fuel reprocessing. Example power cycles and their general performance characteristics are discussed. Efficiencies of gaseous fuel reactor systems are shown to be high with resulting minimal environmental effects. A technical overview of the NASA-funded research program in gaseous fuel reactors is described and results of recent tests of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)-fueled critical assemblies are presented.

  14. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  15. Significance of population centers as sources of gaseous and dissolved PAHs in the lower Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed A; Muir, Derek C G; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-07-15

    Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were used to measure concentrations of gaseous and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air and water throughout the lower Great Lakes during summer and fall of 2011. Atmospheric Σ15PAH concentrations ranged from 2.1 ng/m3 in Cape Vincent (NY) to 76.4 ng/m3 in downtown Cleveland (OH). Aqueous Σ18PAH concentrations ranged from 2.4 ng/L at an offshore Lake Erie site to 30.4 ng/L in Sheffield Lake (OH). Gaseous PAH concentrations correlated strongly with population within 3-40 km of the sampling site depending on the compound considered, suggesting that urban centers are a primary source of gaseous PAHs (except retene) in the lower Great Lakes region. The significance of distant population (within 20 km) versus local population (within 3 km) increased with subcooled liquid vapor pressure. Most dissolved aqueous PAHs did not correlate significantly with population, nor were they consistently related to river discharge, wastewater effluents, or precipitation. Air-water exchange calculations implied that diffusive exchange was a source of phenanthrene to surface waters, while acenaphthylene volatilized out of the lakes. Comparison of air-water fluxes with temperature suggested that the significance of urban centers as sources of dissolved PAHs via diffusive exchange may decrease in warmer months.

  16. Aerosol ionization gas analyzer for continious detection of toxic compounds in industrial gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groze, Kh.; Dering, Kh.; Gleizberg, F.

    1979-01-01

    In is noted that the problem of the environment protection as well as protection of the personnel at their working places against influence of harmful substances in air, demands continious measuring of an increasing number of harmful substances with provision of high sensitivity and accuracy of measurements. The demands are listed to the gas analyzers developed for these purposes: flexibility towards solution of different problems of measurement; great number of the substances to be measured; acceptable threshold of determination of different substances concentration in air and small measurement error; simplicity of maintanance and technical service and high reliability in exploitation; economy of fabrication and application. The data are given for the aerosol ionization gas analyzer which, in many cases, met the requirements listed. In the gas analyzer described, the analysed substance is converted for measuring its concentration into an aerosol by means of the aerosol generator, especially designed for this substance or group of substances. The produced aerosol is introduced into an ionization chamber with build-in radiation source and caused decrease of the ionization current in it. According to the decrease of the ionization current, concentration of the harmful substance in air is determined. Characteristics and possibilities of the gas analyzer exploitation are given and discussed on the base of the results of determination of some harmful substances concentrations in air in the laboratory conditions and in the real conditions of industrial production and in the health protection system [ru

  17. Detection of gaseous effluents from partly crystalline polymer tubes for chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, J.; Henkhaus, R.; Buss, R.

    1980-01-01

    In case of polymer tubes which lead aggressive, liquid media and additionally have to sustain a mechanical load possibly at clevated temperatures a leakage can occur in the gas phase due to the permeability of the material. The paper describes a detection method for a quantitative analysis of the medium which desorbes on the outside of the tube wall. As examples the systems polypropylene/acetic acid and polyethylene/acetic acid were chosen. An inert carrier gas leads the desorbed medium to a conductivity cell which registers the conductivity as a function of time. The measured conductivity is directly proportional to the quantity of medium desorbed by the examined part of the tube. (orig.) [de

  18. Treatment of gaseous effluents by using surface discharge plasma in continuous reactors: Process modelling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi , Aymen ,; Bouzaza , Abdelkrim; Wolbert , Dominique

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In the present work, the oxidation of isovaleraldehyde, a typical pollutant of indoor air, is investigated by using two different plasma DBD reactors: cylindrical and planar reactor. The study of the influence of the specific energy shows that its increment is accompanied by an increase of the removal efficiency. In fact, when specific energy extends three times, the removal efficiency is increased from 5 to 40%. Moreover an increase of the specific energy induces a hi...

  19. Dynamical instability of a charged gaseous cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss dynamical instability of a charged dissipative cylinder under radial oscillations. For this purpose, we follow the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to evaluate linearized perturbed equation of motion. We formulate perturbed pressure in terms of adiabatic index by applying the conservation of baryon numbers. A variational principle is established to determine characteristic frequencies of oscillation which define stability criteria for a gaseous cylinder. We compute the ranges of radii as well as adiabatic index for both charged and uncharged cases in Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that dynamical instability occurs in the presence of charge if the gaseous cylinder contracts to the radius R*.

  20. Entrapment process of radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagneraud, Francis; Gagneraud, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    Process for collecting chemically inert gaseous radioactive waste in melted substances, whereby the gaseous waste is injected under pressure in a molten substance to its saturation point followed by fast cooling. This substance is constituted of glass, ceramics, metallurgical drosses and slag masses in fusion. Its cooling is carried out by quenching by means of running water or a gas fluid, or by casting into vessels with great thermal inertia such as cast iron or similar, before recovery and confinement in receptacles for storage [fr

  1. Gaseous Electronics Tables, Atoms, and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2011-01-01

    With the constant emergence of new research and application possibilities, gaseous electronics is more important than ever in disciplines including engineering (electrical, power, mechanical, electronics, and environmental), physics, and electronics. The first resource of its kind, Gaseous Electronics: Tables, Atoms, and Molecules fulfills the author's vision of a stand-alone reference to condense 100 years of research on electron-neutral collision data into one easily searchable volume. It presents most--if not all--of the properly classified experimental results that scientists, researchers,

  2. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in the municipal wastewater system: effect of hospital effluent and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Suvi; Morris, Carol; Morris, Dearbhaile; Cormican, Martin; Cummins, Enda

    2014-01-15

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is increasing worldwide and remains a significant medical challenge which may lead to antimicrobial redundancy. The contribution of hospital effluent to the prevalence of resistance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is not fully understood. AMR bacteria contained in hospital effluent may be released into the aquatic and soil environments after WWTP processing. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the extent hospital effluent contributes to contamination of these environments by comparing two WWTPs, one which receives hospital effluent and one which does not. AMR Escherichia coli were monitored in the two WWTPs. A model was developed using these monitored values to predict the effect of hospital effluent within a WWTP. The model predicted levels of AMR E. coli in the aquatic environment and potential bather exposure to AMR E. coli. The model results were highly variable. WWTP influent containing hospital effluent had a higher mean percentage of AMR E. coli; although, there appeared to be no within treatment plant effect on the prevalence of AMR E. coli. Examination of WWTP sludge showed a similar variation. There appeared to be no consistent effect from the presence of hospital effluent. The human exposure assessment model predicted swimmer intake of AMR E. coli between 6 and 193CFU/100ml sea water. It appears that hospital effluent is not the main contributing factor behind the development and persistence of AMR E. coli within WWTPs, although resistance may be too well-developed to identify an influence from hospital effluent. Mitigation needs to focus on the removal of already present resistant bacteria but for new or hospital specific antimicrobials focus needs to be on their limited release within effluents or separate treatment. © 2013.

  3. Hydric effluents; Os efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the hydric pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the hydric emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  4. Environmental monitoring handbook for coal conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; DeCicco, S.G. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    The primary objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) coal conversion program are to demonstrate the environmental acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability of various technologies for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels from coal. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook for Coal Conversion Facilities will help accomplish the objective of environmental acceptability by guiding the planning and execution of socioeconomic and environmental monitoring programs for demonstration facilities. These programs will provide information adequate to (1) predict, insofar as is possible, the potential impacts of construction and operation of a coal conversion plant, (2) verify the occurrence of these or any other impacts during construction and operation, (3) determine the adequacy of mitigating measures to protect the environment, (4) develop effluent source terms for process discharges, and (5) determine the effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Although useful in a variety of areas, the handbook is intended primarily for contractors who, as industrial partners with DOE, are building coal conversion plants. For the contractor it is a practical guide on (1) the methodology for developing site- and process-specific environmental monitoring programs, (2) state-of-the-art sampling and analytical techniques, and (3) impact analyses.To correspond to the phases of project activity, the subject matter is divided into four stages of monitoring: (1) a reconnaissance or synoptic survey, (2) preconstruction or baseline, (3) construction, and (4) operation, including process monitoring (prepared by Radian Corp., McLean, Va.). For each stage of monitoring, guidelines are given on socioeconomics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, air quality and meteorology, surface and groundwater quality, geohydrology and soil survey, and surface water hydrology.

  5. Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) implementation, Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, W.; Akers, D.W.

    1985-06-01

    A review of the Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was performed. The principal review guidelines used were NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and Draft 7'' of NUREG-0472, Revision 3, ''Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Pressurized Water Reactors.'' Draft submittals were discussed with the Licensee by the NRC staff until all items requiring changes to the Technical Specifications were resolved. The Licensee then submitted final proposed RETS to the NRC which were evaluated and found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines. The proposed Offsite Dose Calculation Manual and the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Manual were reviewed and generally found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines

  6. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1975. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring conducted during 1975 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, soil, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1975. The Beaver Valley Power Station was under construction during the report year, and therefore, made no radioactive releases. Additional analyses of the effluent from the reactor portion of Shippingport were performed to ensure that the water quality standards specified by Energy Research and Development Administration Manual Chapter 0510 and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been met. The results of environmental monitoring described by this report show that Shippingport operations and the pre-operational phase of the Beaver Valley Power Station have not adversely affected the surrounding environment

  7. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-01, which allows Radiological Effect Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft from (NUREG-0471 and -0473) for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. Also included for completeness are: (1) radiological environmental monitoring program guidance previously which had been available as a Branch Technical Position (Rev. 1, November 1979); (2) existing ODCM guidance; and (3) a reproduction of generic Letter 89-01

  8. The Gaseous Phase as a Probe of the Astrophysical Solid Phase Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Isnard, Robin; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire, E-mail: gregoire.danger@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR-CNRS 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France)

    2017-09-10

    In support of space missions and spectroscopic observations, laboratory experiments on ice analogs enable a better understanding of organic matter formation and evolution in astrophysical environments. Herein, we report the monitoring of the gaseous phase of processed astrophysical ice analogs to determine if the gaseous phase can elucidate the chemical mechanisms and dominant reaction pathways occurring in the solid ice subjected to vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) irradiation at low temperature and subsequently warmed. Simple (CH{sub 3}OH), binary (H{sub 2}O:CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}), and ternary ice analogs (H{sub 2}O:CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}) were VUV-processed and warmed. The evolution of volatile organic compounds in the gaseous phase shows a direct link between their relative abundances in the gaseous phase, and the radical and thermal chemistries modifying the initial ice composition. The correlation between the gaseous and solid phases may play a crucial role in deciphering the organic composition of astrophysical objects. As an example, possible solid compositions of the comet Lovejoy are suggested using the abundances of organics in its comae.

  9. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  10. Attachment of gaseous fission products to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1985-01-01

    Accidents may occur in which the integrity of fuel cladding is breached and volatile fission products are released to the containment atmosphere. In order to assess the magnitude of the subsequent radiological hazard it is necessary to know the transport behaviour of such fission products. It is frequently assumed that the fission products remain in the gaseous phase. There is a possibility, however, that they may attach themselves to particles and hence substantially modify their transport properties. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the conditions under which gaseous fission products may be attached to aerosol particles. Specific topics discussed are: the mass transfer of a gaseous fission product to an isolated aerosol particle in an infinite medium; the rate at which the concentration of fission products in the gas phase diminishes within a container as a result of deposition on a population of particles; and the distribution of deposited fission product between different particle sizes in a log-normal distribution. It is shown that, for a given mass, small particles are more efficient for fission product attachment, and that only small concentrations of such particles may be necessary to achieve rapid attachment. Conditions under which gaseous fission products are not attached to particles are also considered, viz, the competing processes of deposition onto the containment walls and onto aerosol particles, and the possibility of the removal of aerosols from the containment by various deposition processes, or agglomeration, before attachment takes place. (author)

  11. Respiratory system. Part 2: Gaseous exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair

    This article, which isthe last in the life sciences series and the second of two articles on the respiratory system, describes gaseous exchange in the lungs, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and internal and external respiration. The article concludes with a brief consideration of two conditions that affect gas exchange and transport: carbon monoxide poisoning and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. Technological aspects of gaseous pixel detectors fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Salm, Cora; Smits, Sander M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Melai, J.; Chefdeville, M.A.; van der Graaf, H.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated gaseous pixel detectors consisting of a metal punctured foil suspended in the order of 50μm over a pixel readout chip by means by SU-8 insulating pillars have been fabricated. SU-8 is used as sacrificial layer but metallization over uncrosslinked SU-8 presents adhesion and stress

  13. Uranium enrichment by the gaseous diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    After a brief description of the process and technology (principle, stage constitution, cascade constitution, and description of a plant), the author gives the history of gaseous diffusion and describes the existing facilities. Among the different enrichment processes contemplated in the USA during and after the last world war, gaseous diffusion has been the only one to be developed industrially on a wide scale in the USA, then in the UK, in the USSR and in France. The large existing capacities in the USA provided the country with a good starting base for the development of a light-water nuclear power plant programme, the success of which led to a shortfall in production means. France and the USA, possessing the necessary know-how, have been able to undertake the realization of two industrial programmes: the CIP-CUP programme in the USA and the Eurodif project in France. Current plans still call for the construction of several plants by 1990. Can the gaseous diffusion process meet this challenge. Technically, there is no doubt about it. Economically, this process is mainly characterized by large energy consumption and the necessity to build large plants. This leads to a large investment, at least for the first plant. Other processes have been developed with a view to reducing both energy and capital needs. However, in spite of continuous studies and technological progress, no process has yet proved competitive. Large increments in capacities are still expected to come from gaseous diffusion, and several projects taking into account the improvements in flexibility, automatization, reliability and reduced investment, are analysed in the paper. Combining new facilities with existing plants has already proved to be of great interest. This situation explains why gaseous diffusion is being further investigated and new processes are being studied. (author)

  14. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  15. Liquid and gaseous wastes from pressurised water reactors: International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive effluents releases from ninety-four PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data have been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities responsible or authorities in order to constitute a data bank. However for the comparison, reactors for which commercial operation starts before July 1974, have been excluded. As far as the main comparative results are concerned, the averages of tritium activity per energy production unit for liquid releases are ranging between 1840 GBq/TWh and 3000 GBq/TWh and two groups of countries may be noted: those for which the results are around 2000 GBq/TWh as Frg, Japan and Switzerland and those which have an activity level around 3000 GBq/TWh as Belgium, France and Sweden. The United States are between these two groups. A factor which may provide an explanation for these discrepancies concerns practices for primary circuit: recycling it, leads to a lower tritium activity for releases and to a higher tritium activity concentration in the primary circuit. Excluding tritium, mean liquid activities per reactor are widely varying from one country to another: - lower than 0,05 GBq in Japan and in Switzerland; - from one thousand to two thousand times higher in France, Sweden and the United States. Discrepancies for gaseous activities are narrower: a factor of 40 in noble gases activities and a factor of 25 for halogens and aerosols activities. In conclusion, for activities of the tritium liquid as well as activities of all other types of radionuclides, countries can be shared in two groups according the activity level - For the lowest: FRG, Japan and Switzerland; - For the highest: Belgium, France and Sweden

  16. Liquid and gaseous wastes from pressurised water reactors: international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive effluents releases from ninety-four PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data have been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities responsible or authorities in order to constitute a data bank. However for the comparison, reactors for which commercial operation starts before July 1974, have been excluded. As far as the main comparative results are concerned, the averages of tritium activity per energy production unit for liquid releases are ranging between 1840 GBq/TWh and 3000 GBq/TWh and two groups of countries may be noted: those for which the results are around 2000 GBq/TWh as FRG, Japan and Switzerland and those which have an activity level around 3000 GBq/TWh as Belgium, France and Sweden. The United States are between these two groups. A factor which may provide an explanation for these discrepancies concerns practices for primary circuit: recycling it, leads to a lower tritium activity for releases and to a higher tritium activity concentration in the primary circuit. Excluding tritium, mean liquid activities per reactor are widely varying from one country to another: - lower than 0,05 GBq in Japan and in Switzerland; - from one thousand to two thousand times higher in France, Sweden and the United States. Discrepancies for gaseous activities are narrower: a factor of 40 in noble gases activities and a factor of 25 for halogens and aerosols activities. In conclusion, for activities of the tritium liquid as well as activities of all other types of radionuclides, countries can be shared in two groups according the activity level - For the lowest: FRG, Japan and Switzerland; - For the highest: Belgium, France and Sweden

  17. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassery, A. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  18. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  2. Monitoring Gaseous and Particulate Air Pollutants near Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High traffic volume and traffic congestion on Nigerian roads have led to increase in the concentration of pollutants in the air t posing health risks for human population. This study investigates air quality due to vehicular emissions in some busy roads in Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. Air pollutants such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, ...

  3. 291-B-1 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The B Plant 291-B-1 main stack exhausts gaseous effluents to the atmosphere from the 221-B Building canyon and cells, the No. 1 Vessel Ventilation System (VVS1), the 212-B Cask Station cell ventilation system, and, to a limited capacity, the 224-B Building. VVS1 collects offgases from various process tanks in 221-B Building, while the 224-B system maintains a negative pressure in out-of-service, sealed process tanks. B Plant Administration Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, Section 5.30 requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 291-B-1 (System Number B977A) at B Plant. The system is functional and performing satisfactorily

  4. Limitation of radioactive discharges from NPP based on radionuclide specific monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucina, I.; Malatova, I.; Vidlakova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous and liquid discharges from nuclear power plants based on particulate-iodine-gas measurements and gross beta or gamma plus tritium measurements is being improved by performing radionuclide specific measurements using semiconductor gamma and beta spectrometers and radiochemical methods. A new concept of regulatory effluent limits is being developed. The activities of all the relevant radionuclides discharged during a years, multiplied by the appropriate Sv/Bq conversion coefficient based on a standard multi-pathway model, are summed up, and the effective dose is compared with the new limit. Such limits should be laid down as the per capita collective commitment effective dose in the plant surroundings for atmospheric discharges, and as the committed effective dose to a critical group member for the hydrospheric releases

  5. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  6. On-line measurement of gaseous iodine species during a PWR severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykal, I.; Doizi, D. [CEA, DEN, Departement de Physico-chimie, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Perrin, A. [CNRS-University of Paris Est and Paris 7, Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, 94010 Creteil, (France); Vincent, B. [University of Burgundy, Laboratoire de physique, CNRS UMR 5027, 9, Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex, (France); Manceron, L. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Mejean, G. [University of Joseph Fourier in Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique-CNRS UMR 5588, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, (France); Ducros, G. [CEA Cadarache, CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Combustibles, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex, (France)

    2015-07-01

    A long-range remote sensing of severe accidents in nuclear power plants can be obtained by monitoring the online emission of volatile fission products such as xenon, krypton, caesium and iodine. The nuclear accident in Fukushima was ranked at level 7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale by the NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) according to the importance of the radionuclide release and the off-site impact. Among volatile fission products, iodine species are of high concern, since they can be released under aerosols as well as gaseous forms. Four years after the Fukushima accident, the aerosol/gaseous partition is still not clear. Since the iodine gaseous forms are less efficiently trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems than aerosol forms, it is of crucial importance to monitor them on-line during a nuclear accident, in order to improve the source term assessment in such a situation. Therefore, we propose to detect and quantify these iodine gaseous forms by the use of highly sensitive optical methods. (authors)

  7. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  8. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  9. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  10. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1992 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: narrative, summaries, and conclusions (Part 1) and data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are to: (1) report 1992 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, (2) provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, (3) provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, (4) provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and (5) provide general information on plant quality assurance

  11. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counce-Brown, D. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    This calendar year 1990 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the summary, discussion, and conclusions (Part 1) and the data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are as follows: report 1990 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (when appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance.

  12. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  13. Biodenitrification of gaseous diffusion plant aqueous wastes: stirred bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 30 kilograms of nitrates per day are discarded in the raffinates (acid wastes) of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's X-705 Uranium Recovery and Decontamination Facility. A biodenitrification process employing continuous-flow, stirred-bed reactors has been successfully used to remove nitrates from similar acid wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Laboratory studies have been made at Portsmouth to characterize the X-705 raffinates and to test the stirred-bed biodenitrification process on such raffinates. Raffinates which had been previously characterized were pumped through continuous-flow, stirred-bed, laboratory-scale reactors. Tests were conducted over a period of 146 days and involved variations in composition, mixing requirements, and the fate of several metal ions in the raffinates. Tests results show that 20 weight percent nitrates were reduced to a target nitrate effluent concentration of 100 μg/ml with a 99.64 percent efficiency. However, the average denitrification rate achieved was only 33% of that demonstrated with the Y-12 stirred-bed system. These low rates were probably due to the toxic effects of heavy metal ions on the denitrifying bacteria. Also, most of the uranium in the raffinate feed remained in the biomass and calcite, which collected in the reactor. This could cause criticality problems. For these reasons, it was decided not to make use of the stirred-bed bioreactor at Portsmouth. Instead, the biodenitrification installation now planned will use fluidized bed columns whose performance will be the subject of a subsequent report

  14. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  15. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  16. Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors for Cryogenic Temperature Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2007-01-01

    There are several proposals and projects today for building LXe Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) for dark matter search. An important element of these TPCs are the photomultipliers operating either inside LXe or in vapors above the liquid. We have recently demonstrated that photosensitive gaseous detectors (wire type and hole-type) can operate perfectly well until temperatures of LN2. In this paper results of systematic studies of operation of the photosensitive version of these detectors (combined with reflective or semi-transparent CsI photocathodes) in the temperature interval of 300-150 K are presented. In particular, it was demonstrated that both sealed and flushed by a gas detectors could operate at a quite stable fashion in a year/time scale. Obtained results, in particular the long-term stability of photosensitive gaseous detectors, strongly indicate that they can be cheap and simple alternatives to photomultipliers or avalanche solid-state detectors in LXe TPC applications.

  17. Basic processes and trends in gaseous detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Almost a century after the invention of the proportional counter, a large research effort is still devoted to better understand the basic properties of gaseous detectors, and to improve their performances and reliability, particularly in view of use at the high radiation levels expected at LHC. In the first part of the lectures, after a brief introduction on underlying physical phenomena, I will review modern sophisticated computational tools, as well as some classic "back of the envelope" analytical methods, available today for estimating the general performances of gaseous detectors. In the second part, I will analyze in more detail problems specific to the use of detectors at high rates (space charge, discharges, aging), and describe the recent development of powerful and perhaps more reliable devices, particularly in the field of position-sensitive micro-pattern detectors.

  18. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  19. Trends and new developments in gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069485

    2004-01-01

    Almost one century ago the method of particle detection with gaseous detectors was invented. Since then they have been exploited successfully in many experiments using a wide variety of different applications. The development is still going on today. The underlying working principles are today well understood and with the help of modern simulation techniques, new configurations can be easily examined and optimized before a first experimental test. Traditional wire chamber ensembles demonstrate that they are still up to date and are well prepared to meet also the challenges of LHC. Applications will be discussed using TPCs in high multiplicity environments with standard Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) as readout as well as drift tubes in a muon spectrometer for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment. Triggered by the evolving printed circuit technology, a new generation of gaseous detectors with very high position resolution and rate capability has emerged. Two representatives (MICROMEGAS, GEM) have p...

  20. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a "substance" approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a "matrix" approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals (replacement of

  1. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  2. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  3. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  4. A new gaseous gap conductance relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Yovanovich, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    A new relationship for predicting the gaseous gap conductance between the fuel and clad of a nuclear fuel rod is derived. This relationship is derived from purely analytical considerations and represents a departure from approaches taken in the past. A comparison between the predictions from this new relationship and experimental measurements is presented and the agreement is very good. Predictions can be generated relatively quickly with this relationship making it attractive for fuel pin analysis codes

  5. Growth of planetisimals in a gaseous ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourigan, K.

    1981-01-01

    The aggregation of planetesimals in a gaseous ring leads to the development of a dominant body amongst the planetesimal population. The presence of the gas in the form of a differentially rotating ring serves to constrain the orbits of the planetesimals and grains to within a thin toroidal region through the action of gas drag. This situation allows for the efficient aggregation of bodies and, as a result of the low resultant relative velocites, the minimization of collisional fragmentation effects

  6. 2 π gaseous flux proportional detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E.A.; Costello, E.D.; Di Carlo, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    A counting system has been developed in order to measure carbon-14 samples obtained in the course of a study of a plasmapheresis treatment for diabetic children. The system is based on the use of a 2π gaseous flux proportional detector especially designed for the stated purpose. The detector is described and experiment results are given, determining the characteristic parameters which set up the working conditions. (Author) [es

  7. EURODIF: the uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    During the seventies the nuclear power programme had an extremely rapid growth rate which entailed to increase the world uranium enrichment capacity. EURODIF is the largest undertaking in this field. This multinational joint venture built and now operates and enrichment plant using the gaseous diffusion process at Tricastin (France). This plant is delivering low enriched uranium since two years and has contracted about 110 million SWU's till 1990. Description, current activity and prospects are given in the paper. (Author) [pt

  8. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  9. Towards zero discharge by integrated effluent treatment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Ashish Kumar; Pattnaik, Sambhu Prasad; Pati, Ganeswar; Saha, Sushant; Viswanath, Kowtha

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Talcher houses two Organo-phosphorus Solvent Production Plants namely, 60 MTPY TBP Plant engaged in the production of Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate and Versatile Solvent Production Plant (VSPP) capable of producing various Organo Phosphorus Solvents namely, 100 MTPY D2EHPA (Di-2-Ethyl Hexyl Phosphoric Acid), or 40 MTPY TAPO (Tri-Alkyl Phosphine Oxide) or TOPO (Tri-n-Octyl Phosphine Oxide) or DNPPA (Di-Nonyl Phenyl Phosphoric Acid). These solvents have important application for separation duties in front and back end of nuclear fuel cycle and also in conventional hydrometallurgy for separation metals like Ni, Cu, Zn, Co etc., both of these plants are first of their kind in India designed by the Heavy Water Board, Mumbai with R and D inputs from BARC. The two plants employ esterification (1) process between PCl 3 / and a suitable oxo-alcohol followed by hydrolysis, neutralization and product purification. The second and third steps find large usage of Water, which eventually surface as liquid effluent. All the gaseous emissions from plants, mostly HCl gas are traded off for Saline Water as liquid effluent by scrubbing the same with Sodium Hydroxide Solution

  10. Control verification radioactive effluent discharges to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, D.E.; Czerniczyniec, M.A.; Amado, V.A.; Curti, A.R.; Lee Gonzáles, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The National Law of Nuclear Activity No. 24,804 establishes that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) will be responsible for the function of regulation and control of nuclear activity, grant, suspend and revoke licenses, permits or authorizations and to issue regulatory standards on radiation and nuclear safety. According to the latter the ARN has issued a set of rules that make up the regulatory framework for nuclear activity. This includes the standards that determine the radiological criteria for controlling the release of radioactive effluents which were established to protect members of the public. In the process of licensing a facility, the ARN determines the authorized discharge of gaseous and liquid effluents which must comply with the installation values. These annual values are understood as an operating restriction (OR) and arise from the activity of each relevant radionuclide present in the discharge. For this is taken as a reference the level of optimized discharge considering an appropriate margin of flexibility to ensure public protection without interfering with the operation of the installation. This paper presents the results of the review of the above criteria and methodology for calculating the RO adopted by the RNA present. [es

  11. Siting considerations for radioactivity in reactor effluents during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.M.; Strom, P.O.

    1975-01-01

    In selecting a proper site for a nuclear power station, the consideration of radioactivity released in effluents can be handled in a straightforward manner using the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission's proposed Appendix I to 10 CFR 50, which gives numerical guidelines for design objectives for meeting the criterion ''as low as practicable'' for radioactive material in light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor effluents. By relating the release of radioactive material, the site meteorological conditions, and site boundary distance through appropriate dose models, the suitability of a given site can be determined. ''Rules of thumb'' for comparing anticipated releases to design objectives can be constructed for rapid assessment using the maximum permissible concentration values of 10 CFR 20 as dose factors. These rules of thumb tend to underpredict the allowed releases except in the case of radiocesium in liquids. For gaseous releases, these rules of thumb can be made up in convenient nomogram form for a quick assessment of allowed releases based on local site meteorological conditions. (U.S.)

  12. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  13. Improved technique for in situ measurement of radioactivity in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasundar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Ravi, T.; Sundaram, V.M.; Raghunath, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    As a pre-requisite for handling and disposal of radioactive liquid effluents, they should be categorized according to their chemical nature and the type and level of radioactivity. A continuous monitoring of these effluents is necessary to assess the discharged activity and to detect any unusually large increase in the activity level. It may also be required to assess the beta, gamma specific activities in the effluents independently instead of just combined beta-gamma activity as is generally done. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs

  14. A Population Study of Gaseous Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaras, A.; Waldmann, I. P.; Zingales, T.; Rocchetto, M.; Morello, G.; Damiano, M.; Karpouzas, K.; Tinetti, G.; McKemmish, L. K.; Tennyson, J.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    We present here the analysis of 30 gaseous extrasolar planets, with temperatures between 600 and 2400 K and radii between 0.35 and 1.9 R Jup. The quality of the HST/WFC3 spatially scanned data combined with our specialized analysis tools allow us to study the largest and most self-consistent sample of exoplanetary transmission spectra to date and examine the collective behavior of warm and hot gaseous planets rather than isolated case studies. We define a new metric, the Atmospheric Detectability Index (ADI) to evaluate the statistical significance of an atmospheric detection and find statistically significant atmospheres in around 16 planets out of the 30 analyzed. For most of the Jupiters in our sample, we find the detectability of their atmospheres to be dependent on the planetary radius but not on the planetary mass. This indicates that planetary gravity plays a secondary role in the state of gaseous planetary atmospheres. We detect the presence of water vapour in all of the statistically detectable atmospheres, and we cannot rule out its presence in the atmospheres of the others. In addition, TiO and/or VO signatures are detected with 4σ confidence in WASP-76 b, and they are most likely present in WASP-121 b. We find no correlation between expected signal-to-noise and atmospheric detectability for most targets. This has important implications for future large-scale surveys.

  15. The discharge of radioactive effluents from the nuclear power programme into western waters of Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is presented of the British nuclear power programme and the types of radioactive effluent that arise from the power stations and from the Windscale reprocessing plant. Routes by which these effluents could affect human populations, and radiation dose limits which have been laid down, are discussed. The discharge of permitted amounts of activity into western coastal waters of Great Britain, and the requirements for monitoring the discharges, are described. (U.K.)

  16. Natural and Synthetic Estrogens in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent and the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    isotopes (12C, 13C) is used routinely to identify synthetic steroid doping in athletics and livestock applications. 36 Chapter 4 will present...Suri (2009). "Presence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in surface water of agricultural, suburban and mixed- use areas." Environmental Monitoring...halogenated estrogens at picomolar levels in wastewater effluent and coastal seawater. The method was validated using treated effluent from the

  17. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p water bodies.

  18. Air sampling program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive air sampling program has been developed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for monitoring the concentrations of radioactive aerosols present in the atmosphere on plantsite as well as in the environs. The program is designed to minimize exposures of employees and the environment to airborne radioactive particulates. Five different air sampling systems, utilizing either filtration or impaction, are employed for measuring airborne alpha and beta-gamma activity produced from 235 U and 234 Th, respectively. Two of the systems have particle selection capabilities: a personal sampler with a 10-mm nylon cyclone eliminates most particles larger than about 10 microns in diameter; and an Annular Kinetic Impactor collects particulates greater than 0.4 microns in diameter which have a density greater than 12-15 gm/cm 3 . A Hi-Volume Air Sampler and an Eberline Model AIM-3 Scintillation Air Monitor are used in collecting short-term samples for assessing compliance with ''ceiling'' standards or peak concentration limits. A film-sort aperture IBM card system is utilized for continuous 8-hour samples. This sampling program has proven to be both practical and effective for assuring accurate monitoring of the airborne activity associated with plant operations

  19. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  20. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional treatment of effluents from these small-scale, low-volume operations, which discharge relatively dilute effluents infrequently, might not be cost-effective. Keywords: aquaculture–environment interaction, earthen ponds, effluent characterisation, K-means clustering, t ilapia, water quality. African Journal of Aquatic ...