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Sample records for gase2 thin-film solar

  1. Annealing enhancement effect by light illumination on proton irradiated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakita, Shirou; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Kushiya, Katsumi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the high radiation tolerance of copper indium gallium di-selenide (CIGS) thin-film solar cells by conducting in situ measurements of short circuit current and open circuit voltage of CIGS thin-film solar cells during and after proton irradiation under short circuit condition. We found that the annealing rate of proton-induced defects in CIGS thin-film solar cells under light illumination with an AM0 solar simulator is higher than that under dark conditions. The activation energy of proton-induced defects in the CIGS thin-film solar cells with (without) light illumination is 0.80 eV (0.92 eV), which implies on enhanced defect annealing rate in CIGS thin-film solar cells due to minority-carrier injection. (author)

  2. Solar control on irradiated Ta2O2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydogan, N. D.; Zayim, E. Oe.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films consisting of Ta 2 O 5 have been used in industry in applications related to thin-film capacitors, optical waveguides, and antireflection coatings on solar cells. Ta 2 O 5 films are used for several special applications as highly refractive material and show different optical properties depending on the deposition methods. Sol-gel technique has been used for the preparation of Ta 2 O 5 thin films. Ta 2 O 5 thin films were prepared by sol-gel proses on glass substrates to obtain good quality films. These films were exposed to gamma radiation from Co-60 radioisotope. Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were placed against the source and irradiated for 8 different gamma doses; between 0.35 and 21.00 kGy at room temperature. Energetic gamma ray can affect the samples and change its colour. On the other hand some of the Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were irradiated with beta radiation from Sr-90 radioisotope. The effect of gamma irradiation on the solar properties of Ta 2 O 5 films is compared with that of beta irradiation. The solar properties of the irradiated thin films differ significantly from those of the unirradiated ones. After the irradiation of the samples transmittance and reflectance are measured for solar light between 300 and 2100 nm, by using Perkin Elmer Lambda 9 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer. Change in the direct solar transmittance, reflectance and absorptance with absorbed dose are determined. Using the optical properties, the redistribution of the absorbed component of the solar radiation and the shading coefficient (SC) are calculated as a function of the convective heat-transfer coefficient. Solar parameters are important for the determination of the shading coefficient. When the secondary internal heat transfer factor (qi), direct solar transmittance (□ e ), and solar factor (g) are known, it is possible to determine shading coefficient via the dose rates. The shading coefficient changes as the dose rate is increased. In this study, the shading

  3. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  4. Thin film solar cells from earth abundant materials growth and characterization of Cu2(ZnSn)(SSe)4 thin films and their solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further developm

  5. Development of CIGS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Gade, Vivek S.; Kadam, Ankur A.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Kulkarni, Sachin S.; Bet, Sachin M.

    2005-01-01

    Research and development of CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2-y S y (CIGSS) thin-film solar cells on ultralightweight flexible metallic foil substrates is being carried out at FSEC PV Materials Lab for space applications. Earlier, the substrate size was limited to 3 cm x 2.5 cm. Large-area sputtering systems and scrubber for hydrogen selenide and sulfide have been designed and constructed for preparation of CIGSS thin-films on large (15 cm x 10 cm) substrates. A selenization/sulfurization furnace donated by Shell (formerly Siemens) Solar has also been refurbished and upgraded. The sputtering target assembly design was modified for proper clamping of targets and effective cooling. A new design of the magnetic assembly for large-area magnetron sputtering sources was implemented so as to achieve uniform deposition on large area. Lightweight stainless steel foil and ultralightweight titanium foil substrates were utilized to increase the specific power of solar cells. Sol-gel derived SiO 2 layers were coated on titanium foil by dip coating method. Deposition parameters for the preparation of molybdenum back contact layers were optimized so as to minimize the residual stress as well as reaction with H 2 S. Presently large (15 cm x 10 cm) CuIn 1-x Ga x S 2 (CIGS2) thin film solar cells are being prepared on Mo-coated titanium and stainless steel foil by sulfurization of CuGa/In metallic precursors in diluted Ar:H 2 S(4%). Heterojunction partner CdS layers are deposited by chemical bath deposition. The regeneration sequence of ZnO/ZnO:Al targets was optimized for obtaining consistently good-quality, transparent and conducting ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer by RF magnetron-sputter deposition. Excellent facilities at FSEC PV Materials Lab are one of its kinds and could serve as a nucleus of a small pilot plant for CIGSS thin film solar cell fabrication

  6. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  7. Progress in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For some time, the chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInSe2 and its alloy with Ga and/or S [Cu(InGaSe2 or Cu(InGa(Se,S2], commonly referred as CIGS, have been leading thin-film material candidates for incorporation in high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. CuInSe2-based solar cells have shown long-term stability and the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film solar cells, reaching 20%. A variety of methods have been reported to prepare CIGS thin film. Efficiency of solar cells depends upon the various deposition methods as they control optoelectronic properties of the layers and interfaces. CIGS thin film grown on glass or flexible (metal foil, polyimide substrates require p-type absorber layers of optimum optoelectronic properties and n-type wideband gap partner layers to form the p-n junction. Transparent conducting oxide and specific metal layers are used for front and back contacts. Progress made in the field of CIGS solar cell in recent years has been reviewed.

  8. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  9. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  10. Nanomechanical properties of GaSe thin films deposited on Si(1 1 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Luo, Chih-Wei; Ku, Shin-An; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GaSe thin films are grown by PLD. ► Structural properties of GaSe thin films are measured by XRD. ► Hardness and Young’s modulus of GaSe thin films are measured by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The correlations between the crystalline structure and mechanical properties of GaSe thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation techniques. The GaSe thin films were deposited on Si(1 1 1) substrates deposited at various deposition temperatures using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The XRD results indicate that all the GaSe thin films are pure hexagonal phase with highly (0 0 0 l)-oriented characteristics. Nanoindentation results revealed apparent discontinuities (so-called multiple “pop-in” events) in the load-displacement curve, while no discontinuity was observed in the unloading segment of the load-displacement curve. The hardness and Young’s modulus of GaSe thin films determined by the continuous stiffness measurements (CSM) method indicated that both mechanical parameters increased with the increasing deposition temperature with the hardness and the Young’s modulus being increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 1.8 ± 0.1 GPa and from 39.6 ± 1.2 to 68.9 ± 2.7 GPa, respectively, as the deposition temperature was raised from 400 to 475 °C. These results suggest that the increased grain size might have played a prominent role in determining the mechanical properties of the PLD-derived GaSe thin films.

  11. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films solar cells synthesized by electrodeposition route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ma, Tuteng; Wei, Ming; Liu, Weifeng; Jiang, Guoshun; Zhu, Changfei

    2012-06-01

    An electrodeposition route for preparing Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for thin film solar cell absorber layers is demonstrated. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films are prepared by co-electrodeposition Cu-Zn-Sn metallic precursor and subsequently annealing in element selenium atmosphere. The structure, composition and optical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film with high crystalline quality was obtained, the band gap and absorption coefficient were 1.0 eV and 10-4 cm-1, which is quite suitable for solar cells fabrication. A solar cell with the structure of ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4/Mo/glass was fabricated and achieved an conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  12. Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by a precursor solution paste for thin film solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Woo; Ismail, Agus; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Woong; Yoon, Sungho; Min, Byoung Koun

    2013-05-22

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a very promising semiconductor material when used for the absorber layer of thin film solar cells because it consists of only abundant and inexpensive elements. In addition, a low-cost solution process is applicable to the preparation of CZTS absorber films, which reduces the cost when this film is used for the production of thin film solar cells. To fabricate solution-processed CZTS thin film using an easily scalable and relatively safe method, we suggest a precursor solution paste coating method with a two-step heating process (oxidation and sulfurization). The synthesized CZTS film was observed to be composed of grains of a size of ~300 nm, showing an overall densely packed morphology with some pores and voids. A solar cell device with this film as an absorber layer showed the highest efficiency of 3.02% with an open circuit voltage of 556 mV, a short current density of 13.5 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor of 40.3%. We also noted the existence of Cd moieties and an inhomogeneous Zn distribution in the CZTS film, which may have been triggered by the presence of pores and voids in the CZTS film.

  13. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  14. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  15. Chemical bath deposition of thin semiconductor films for use as buffer layers in CuInS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    A CulnS 2 thin film solar cell is a multilayered semiconductor device. The solar cells discussed have a layer sequence Mo/CulnS 2 /buffer/i-ZnO/ZnO:Ga, where a heterojunction establishes between the p-type absorber and the n-type front contact. Conventionally the buffer consists of CdS, deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Apart from providing process oriented benefits the buffer layer functions as a tool for engineering the energy band line-up at the heterojunction interface. Motivated through environmental concern and EU legislation it is felt necessary to substitute this potentially toxic layer by an alternative, Cd-free component. This thesis investigates the suitability of various Zn- and In-compounds, in particular In(OH,O) x S y , as alternative buffer layer materials using CBD. Initial experiments were carried out depositing Zn-based compounds from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the layers, the solution and the processed solar cells was performed. This thesis focuses on the investigation of the CBD process chemistry for the deposition of In-compound thin films. A careful study of the morphology and composition of the deposited thin films was conducted using electron microscopy (SEM, HREM), elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical transmission spectroscopy. This allowed conclusions concerning the nucleation and film growth mechanism from the chemical bath. Connections between bath chemistry, different growth phases, layer morphology and solar cell performance were sought and an improved deposition process was developed. As a result, Cd-free CulnS 2 thin film solar cells with efficiencies of up to 10.6%) (total area) could be produced. Overall the substitution of CdS is shown to be possible by different alternative compounds, such as Zn(OH,O) x S y or In(OH,O) x S y . In the case of In(OH,O) x S y , an understanding of the CBD process and the effect of different growth phases on the resulting solar cell

  16. Sputtered molybdenum thin films and the application in CIGS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhu, H., E-mail: hongbing1982@hotmail.com; Liang, X.; Zhang, C.; Li, Z.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, L.; Mai, Y., E-mail: yaohuamai@hbu.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mo thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The dynamic deposition rate increases with the increasing discharge power. • The surface structure of Mo films varies with discharge power and working pressure. • High efficiency CIGS thin film solar cell of 15.2% has been obtained. - Abstract: Molybdenum (Mo) thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering with different discharge powers and working pressures for the application in Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells as back electrodes. Properties of these Mo thin films are systematically investigated. It is found that the dynamic deposition rate increases with the increasing discharge power while decreases with the increasing working pressure. The highest dynamic deposition rate of 15.1 nm m/min is achieved for the Mo thin film deposited at the discharge power of 1200 W and at the working pressure of 0.15 Pa. The achieved lowest resistivity of 3.7 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm is attributed to the large grains in the compact thin film. The discharge power and working pressure have great influence on the sputtered Mo thin films. High efficiency of 12.5% was achieved for the Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells with Mo electrodes prepared at 1200 W and low working pressures. By further optimizing material and device properties, the conversion efficiency has reached to 15.2%.

  17. Thin film solar cells: research in an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoff, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) and Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) as the sunlight-absorbing layer.

  18. Progress in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in those materials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbers made from earth abundant, environment benign materials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and has attracted considerable interest recently. Significant progress in this relatively new research area has been achieved in the last three years. Over 130 papers on CZTS have been published since 2007, and the majority of them are on the preparation of CZTS thin films by different methods. This paper, will review the wide range of techniques that have been used to deposit CZTS semiconductor thin films. The performance of the thin film solar cells using the CZTS material will also be discussed.

  19. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  20. Ion beam analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karydas, A.G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens Greece (Greece); Streeck, C. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Radovic, I. Bogdanovic [Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb (Croatia); Kaufmann, C.; Rissom, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Jaksic, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb (Croatia); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E. N. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Elemental depth profiles for various CIGS thin films were quantitatively determined. • Pure absorbers, complete cell and bilayer solar cells were prepared and analyzed. • Synergistic PIXE and RBS analysis of thin solar cells using alpha beam particles. • High energy alpha beam resolved completely the Indium depth profile. • Synchrotron based Reference Free GIXRF quantitative analysis validated IBA results. - Abstract: The present work investigates the potential of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques such as the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using helium ions to provide quantitative in-depth elemental analysis of various types of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films. These films with a thickness of about 2 μm are used as absorber layers in photovoltaic devices with continuously increasing the performance of this technology. The preparation process generally aims to obtain an in-depth gradient of In and Ga concentrations that optimizes the optoelectronic and electrical properties of the solar cell. The measurements were performed at directly accessible single or double layered CIGS absorbers and at buried absorbers in completed thin film solar cells. The IBA data were analyzed simultaneously in order to derive best fitted profiles that match all experimental RBS and PIXE spectra. For some samples elemental profiles deduced form synchrotron based, reference free grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis were compared with the IBA results and an overall good agreement was observed within quoted uncertainties.

  1. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  2. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Lin, Xianzhong; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Wolf, Christian; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Klenk, Reiner

    2016-02-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  3. Ecofriendly and Nonvacuum Electrostatic Spray-Assisted Vapor Deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anower; Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2015-10-14

    Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films have been deposited by a novel, nonvacuum, and cost-effective electrostatic spray-assisted vapor deposition (ESAVD) method. The generation of a fine aerosol of precursor solution, and their controlled deposition onto a molybdenum substrate, results in adherent, dense, and uniform Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) films. This is an essential tool to keep the interfacial area of thin film solar cells to a minimum value for efficient charge separation as it helps to achieve the desired surface smoothness uniformity for subsequent cadmium sulfide and window layer deposition. This nonvacuum aerosol based approach for making the CIGSSe film uses environmentally benign precursor solution, and it is cheaper for producing solar cells than that of the vacuum-based thin film solar technology. An optimized CIGSSe thin film solar cell with a device configuration of molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrate/CIGSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO shows the photovoltaic (j-V) characteristics of Voc=0.518 V, jsc=28.79 mA cm(-2), fill factor=64.02%, and a promising power conversion efficiency of η=9.55% under simulated AM 1.5 100 mW cm(-2) illuminations, without the use of an antireflection layer. This demonstrates the potential of ESAVD deposition as a promising alternative approach for making thin film CIGSSe solar cells at a lower cost.

  4. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  5. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  6. Ternary Precursors for Depositing I-III-VI2 Thin Films for Solar Cells via Spray CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, K. K.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Jin, M. H.-C.; Harris, J. D.; Duraj, S. A.; Smith, M.; Scheiman, D.; Bohannan, E. W.; Switzer, J. A.; Buhro, W. E.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors (SSP's) can be used in either a hot or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor, for depositing CuInS2, CuGaS2, and CuGaInS2 at reduced temperatures (400 to 450 C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic (PV) devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures.

  7. Recent progress in Si thin film technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yukinori; Nakano, Shoichi; Tsuda, Shinya

    1991-11-01

    Progress in Si thin film technology 'specifically amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film' for solar cells is summarized here from fabrication method, material, and structural viewpoints. In addition to a-Si, primary results on poly-Si thin film research are discussed. Various applications for a-Si solar cells are mentioned, and consumer applications and a-Si solar cell photovoltaic systems are introduced. New product developments include see-through solar cells, solar cell roofing tiles, and ultra-light flexible solar cells. As for new systems, air conditioning equipment powered by solar cells is described. Looking to the future, the proposed GENESIS project is discussed.

  8. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  9. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  10. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lan; Lin Xianzhong; Ennaoui Ahmed; Wolf Christian; Lux-Steiner Martha Ch.; Klenk Reiner

    2016-01-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating ...

  11. The film thickness dependent thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiudi; Xu Gang, E-mail: xiudixiao@163.com; Xiong Bin; Chen Deming; Miao Lei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrates, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (China)

    2012-03-15

    The monolayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of thin film after annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C in air were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectrophotometer. It revealed that the particle shape, size, and distribution across the film were greatly changed before and after annealing. The surface plasmon resonance absorption and thermal stability of the film were found to be strongly dependent on the film thickness, which was believed to be associated with the evolution process of particle diffusion, agglomeration, and evaporation during annealing at high temperature. When the film thickness was smaller than 90 nm, the film SPR absorption can be attenuated until extinct with increasing annealing time due to the evaporation of Ag particles. While the film thickness was larger than 120 nm, the absorption can keep constant even after annealing for 64 h due to the agglomeration of Ag particles. On the base of film thickness results, the multilayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag solar selective thin films were prepared and the thermal stability test illustrated that the solar selectivity of multilayer films with absorbing layer thickness larger than 120 nm did not degrade after annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C for 70 h in air. It can be concluded that film thickness is an important factor to control the thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers.

  12. Rapid fabrication of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by pulsed fibre laser for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Aseel; Alhabradi, Mansour; Chen, Qian; Liu, Hong; Guo, Wei; Curioni, Michele; Cernik, Robert; Liu, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm and a pulse width of milliseconds can be applied to generate mesoporous nanocrystalline (nc) TiO2 thin films on ITO coated glass in ambient atmosphere, by complete vaporisation of organic binder and inter-connection of TiO2 nanoparticles, without thermally damaging the ITO layer and the glass substrate. The fabrication of the mesoporous TiO2 thin films was achieved by stationary laser beam irradiation of 1 min. The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with the laser-sintered TiO2 photoanode reached higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.20% for the TiO2 film thickness of 6 μm compared with 2.99% for the furnace-sintered. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the laser sintering under the optimised condition effectively decreased charge transfer resistance and increased electron lifetime of the TiO2 thin films. The use of the fibre laser with over 40% wall-plug efficiency offers an economically-feasible, industrial viable solution to the major challenge of rapid fabrication of large scale, mass production of mesoporous metal oxide thin film based solar energy systems, potentially for perovskite and monolithic tandem solar cells, in the future.

  13. Cu2SixSn1-xS3 Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering For Low-Cost Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang; Liu, Fang-Yang; Lai, Yan-Qing; Li, Jie; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2SixSn1-xS3 thin films for thin film solar cell absorbers using the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Energy dispersive spectrometer and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate that Cu2Si1-xSnxS3 thin films can be synthesized successfully by partly substituting Si atoms for Sn atoms in the Cu2SnS3 lattice, leading to a shrinkage of the lattice, and, accordingly, by 2θ shifting to larger values. The blue shift of the Raman peak further confirms the formation of Cu2SixSn1-xS3. Environmental scanning electron microscope analyses reveal a polycrystalline and homogeneous morphology with a grain size of about 200-300 nm. Optical measurements indicate an optical absorption coefficient of higher than 104 cm-1 and an optical bandgap of 1.17±0.01 eV.

  14. Single source precursors for fabrication of I-III-VI{sub 2} thin-film solar cells via spray CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.A.; Banger, K.K.; Jin, M.H.-C.; Harris, J.D.; Cowen, J.E.; Bohannan, E.W.; Switzer, J.A.; Buhro, W.E.; Hepp, A.F

    2003-05-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors can be used in either a hot, or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition reactor, for depositing CuInS{sub 2}, CuGaS{sub 2} and CuGaInS{sub 2} at reduced temperatures (400-450 sign C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures.

  15. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  16. Solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon on ZnO:Al for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.; Conrad, E.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Gorka, B.; Haenel, T.; Lee, K.Y.; Rau, B.; Ruske, F.; Weber, T.; Gall, S.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin), Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Berginski, M.; Huepkes, J. [Institute of Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The suitability of ZnO:Al thin films for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cell fabrication was investigated. The electrical and optical properties of 700 -nm-thick ZnO:Al films on glass were analyzed after typical annealing steps occurring during poly-Si film preparation. If the ZnO:Al layer is covered by a 30 nm thin silicon film, the initial sheet resistance of ZnO:Al drops from 4.2 to 2.2 {omega} after 22 h annealing at 600 C and only slightly increases for a 200 s heat treatment at 900 C. A thin-film solar cell concept consisting of poly-Si films on ZnO:Al coated glass is introduced. First solar cell results will be presented using absorber layers either prepared by solid-phase crystallization (SPC) or by direct deposition at 600 C. (author)

  17. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licai Wang

    1999-07-01

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  18. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these chara...

  19. High-temperature fabrication of Ag(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films for applications in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianfeng [International Center for Science and Engineering Programs, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Akira [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Molecular beam epitaxy was used to fabricate Ag(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (AIGS) thin films. To improve the diffusion of Ag, high-temperature deposition and high-temperature annealing methods were applied to fabricate AIGS films. The as-grown AIGS thin films were then used to make AIGS solar cells. We found that grain size and crystallinity of AIGS films were considerably improved by increasing the deposition and annealing temperature. For high-temperature deposition, temperatures over 600 C led to decomposition of the AIGS film, desorption of In, and deterioration of its crystallinity. The most appropriate deposition temperature was 590 C and a solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 4.1% was obtained. High-temperature annealing of the AIGS thin films showed improved crystallinity as annealing temperature was increased and film decomposition and In desorption were prevented. A solar cell based on this film showed the highest conversion efficiency of 6.4% when annealed at 600 C. When the annealing temperature was further increased to 610 C, the performance of the cell deteriorated due to loss of the out-of-plane Ga gradient. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Analysis of the High Conversion Efficiencies β-FeSi2 and BaSi2 n-i-p Thin Film Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.Sh.; Lee, K.W.; Tseng, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Both β-FeSi 2 and BaSi 2 are silicides and have large absorption coefficients; thus they are very promising Si-based new materials for solar cell applications. In this paper, the dc I-V characteristics of n-Si/i-βFeSi 2 /p-Si and n-Si/i-BaSi 2 /p-Si thin film solar cells are investigated by solving the charge transport equations with optical generations. The diffusion current densities of free electron and hole are calculated first. Then the drift current density in the depletion regions is obtained. The total current density is the sum of diffusion and drift current densities. The conversion efficiencies are obtained from the calculated I-V curves. The optimum conversion efficiency of n-Si/i-βFeSi 2 /p-Si thin film solar cell is 27.8% and that of n-Si/i-BaSi 2 /p-Si thin film solar cell is 30.4%, both are larger than that of Si n-i-p solar cell (η is 20.6%). These results are consistent with their absorption spectrum. The calculated conversion efficiency of Si n-i-p solar cell is consistent with the reported researches. Therefore, these calculation results are valid in this work.

  1. Analysis of the High Conversion Efficiencies β-FeSi2 and BaSi2 n-i-p Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Sheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both β-FeSi2 and BaSi2 are silicides and have large absorption coefficients; thus they are very promising Si-based new materials for solar cell applications. In this paper, the dc I-V characteristics of n-Si/i-βFeSi2/p-Si and n-Si/i-BaSi2/p-Si thin film solar cells are investigated by solving the charge transport equations with optical generations. The diffusion current densities of free electron and hole are calculated first. Then the drift current density in the depletion regions is obtained. The total current density is the sum of diffusion and drift current densities. The conversion efficiencies are obtained from the calculated I-V curves. The optimum conversion efficiency of n-Si/i-βFeSi2/p-Si thin film solar cell is 27.8% and that of n-Si/i-BaSi2/p-Si thin film solar cell is 30.4%, both are larger than that of Si n-i-p solar cell (η is 20.6%. These results are consistent with their absorption spectrum. The calculated conversion efficiency of Si n-i-p solar cell is consistent with the reported researches. Therefore, these calculation results are valid in this work.

  2. High efficiency copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanikant, Ray Jayminkumar

    pressure of 10-5 mbar. The thickness of the film was kept 1 mum for the solar cell device preparation. Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) is carried out of CIGS thin film at 500 °C for 2 minutes in the argon atmosphere. Annealing process mainly improves the grain growth of the CIGS and, hence the surface roughness, which is essential for a multilayered semiconductor structure. Thin layer of n-type highly resistive cadmium sulphide (CdS), generally known as a "buffer" layer, is deposited on CIGS layer by thermal and flash evaporation method at the substrate temperature of 100 °C. The CdS thin film plays a crucial role in the formation of the p-n junction and thus the solar cell device performance. The effect of CdS film substrate temperature ranging from 50 °C to 200 °C is observed. At the 100 °C substrate temperature, CdS thin film shows the near to 85 % of transmission in the visible region and resistivity of the order of greater then 20 x 109 Ocm, which are the essential characteristics of buffer layer. The bi-layer structure of ZnO, containing 70 nm i-ZnO and 500 nm aluminum (Al) doped ZnO, act as a transparent front-contact for CIGS thin film solar cell. These layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering. i-ZnO thin film acts as an insulating layer, which prevents the recombination of the photo-generated carries and also minimizes the lattice miss match defects between CdS and Al-ZnO. The resistivity of iZnO and Al-ZnO is of the order of 1012 Ocm and 10-4 Ocm, respectively. Al-ZnO thin films act as transparent conducting top electrode having transparency of about 85 % in the visible region. On Al-ZnO layer the finger-type grid pattern of silver (Ag), 200 nm thick, is deposited for the collection of photo-generated carriers. The thin film based multilayered structure Mo / CIGS / CdS / i-ZnO / Al-ZnO / Ag grid of CIGS solar cell is grown one by one on a single glass substrate. As-prepared CIGS solar cell device shows a minute photovoltaic effect. For the further

  3. The effect of aeration and solar intensity power on photocatalytic degradation of textile industrial wastewater using TiO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassim, N.F.; Ku Hamid, K.H.; Azizan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solar photo catalytic degradation of the textile industry wastewater using TiO 2 thin films was studied. This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of aeration and solar intensity power on decreasing of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). A serpentine flow photo catalytic reactor was developed for this purpose. TiO 2 thin films photo catalyst supported on the stainless steel 304 substrates were prepared using sol-gel dip coating method. The results of thin films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). XRD result showed that the prepared thin films gave the anatase crystallite formation whilst SEM demonstrated the macro pores were formed. Finally, the aeration and solar intensity power factors are considered to be responsible for the photo catalytic degradation. (Author)

  4. Advances in copper-chalcopyrite thin films for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Jess; Gaillard, Nicolas; Rocheleau, Richard; Miller, Eric [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Post 109, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Promising alternatives to crystalline silicon as the basic building block of solar cells include copper-chalcopyrite thin films such as copper indium gallium diselenide, a class of thin films exhibiting bandgap-tunable semiconductor behavior, direct bandgaps and high absorption coefficients. These properties allow for the development of novel solar-energy conversion configurations like ultra-high efficiency multi-junction solar cells utilizing combinations of photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical junctions for hydrogen production. This paper discusses the current worldwide status as well as the development and optimization of copper-chalcopyrite thin films deposited onto various substrate types for different photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical applications at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. (author)

  5. 13.7%-efficient Zn(Se,OH){sub x}/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin-film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Berlin (Germany); Blieske, U.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Bereich Festkoerperphysik, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) and related semiconducting compounds have demonstrated their high potential for high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. The highest efficiency for CIGS based thin-film solar cells has been achieved with CdS buffer layers prepared by a solution growth method known as chemical based deposition (CBD). With the aim of developing Cd-free chalcopyrite-based thin-film solar cells, Zn(Se,OH){sub x} buffer layers were deposited by CBD on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSS). A total-area conversion efficiency of 13.7% was certified by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. The CIGSS absorber was fabricated by Siemens Solar Industries (California). For device optimisation, the thickness and good surface coverage were controlled by XPS-UPS photoemission spectroscopy. A Zn(Se,OH){sub x} thickness below 7 nm has been found to be optimum for achieving a homogeneous and compact buffer film on CIGSS, with open-circuit photovoltage V{sub oc} = 535 mV, fill factor FF = 70.76% and a high short-circuit photocurrent density J{sub sc} 36.1 mA cm{sup -2}. (Author)

  6. Generation of electrical defects in ion beam assisted deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, H.; Puttnins, S.; Daume, F.; Rahm, A.; Otte, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorber layers for thin film solar cells have been manufactured on polyimide foil in a low temperature, ion beam assisted co-evaporation process. In the present work a set of CIGS thin films was produced with varying selenium ion energy. Solar cell devices have been manufactured from the films and characterized via admittance spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage profiling to determine the influence of the selenium ion energy on the electric parameters of the solar cells. It is shown that the impact of energetic selenium ions in the CIGS deposition process leads to a change in the activation energy and defect density and also in the spatial distribution of electrically active defects. For the interpretation of the results two defect models are taken into account.

  7. Band gap grading and photovoltaic performance of solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)S2 thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, So Hyeong; Han, Noh Soo; Park, Yong Jin; Park, Seung Min; An, Hee Sang; Kim, Dong-Wook; Min, Byoung Koun; Song, Jae Kyu

    2014-12-28

    The photophysical properties of CuInxGa1-xS2 (CIGS) thin films, prepared by solution-based coating methods, are investigated to understand the correlation between the optical properties of these films and the electrical characteristics of solar cells fabricated using these films. Photophysical properties, such as the depth-dependent band gap and carrier lifetime, turn out to be at play in determining the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. A double grading of the band gap in CIGS films enhances solar cell efficiency, even when defect states disturb carrier collection by non-radiative decay. The combinational stacking of different density films leads to improved solar cell performance as well as efficient fabrication because a graded band gap and reduced shunt current increase carrier collection efficiency. The photodynamics of minority-carriers suggests that the suppression of defect states is a primary area of improvement in CIGS thin films prepared by solution-based methods.

  8. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  9. High efficiency thin-film solar cells for space applications: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leest, R.H. van

    2017-01-01

    In theory high efficiency thin-film III-V solar cells obtained by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique offer excellent characteristics for application in space solar panels. The thesis describes several studies that investigate the space compatibility of the thin-film solar cell design developed

  10. Large Area Thin Film Silicon: Synergy between Displays and Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film silicon technology has changed our society, owing to the rapid advance of its two major application fields in communication (thin-film displays) and sustainable energy (thin-film solar cells). Throughout its development, advances in these application fields have always benefitted each

  11. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film

  12. Preparation of CulnS2 Thin Films on the Glass Substrate by DC Sputtering for Solar Cell Component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Darsono

    2007-01-01

    The CuInS 2 alloys were deposited on glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. A CuInS 2 alloy target was made from Cu, In, Se powder with impurity of 99.998%. The deposition process was done with the following process parameter variations: deposition time and substrate temperature were the range of 15 to 45 min and 150 to 300 ℃, the gas pressure was kept at 1.4x10 -1 Torr. The purpose of the research is to obtain the solar cell component of CuInS 2 thin films. The electrical and optical properties measurement has been done by four-point probe and UV-Vis. Crystal structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that minimum resistance of CuInS 2 thin films is 35.7 kΩ and optical transmittance is 14.7 %. The crystal structure of CuInS 2 is oriented at (112) plane and by Touc-plot method was obtained that the band gap energy of thin films is 1.45 eV. It could be concluded that the CuInS 2 thin film can be used as a solar cell component. (author)

  13. Disorder improves nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, U. W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de; Smeets, M.; Meier, M.; Bittkau, K.; Merdzhanova, T.; Smirnov, V.; Carius, R.; Rau, U. [IEK5—Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Michaelis, D.; Waechter, C. [Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik, Albert Einstein Str. 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    We present a systematic experimental study on the impact of disorder in advanced nanophotonic light-trapping concepts of thin-film solar cells. Thin-film solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared on imprint-textured glass superstrates. For periodically textured superstrates of periods below 500 nm, the nanophotonic light-trapping effect is already superior to state-of-the-art randomly textured front contacts. The nanophotonic light-trapping effect can be associated to light coupling to leaky waveguide modes causing resonances in the external quantum efficiency of only a few nanometer widths for wavelengths longer than 500 nm. With increasing disorder of the nanotextured front contact, these resonances broaden and their relative altitude decreases. Moreover, overall the external quantum efficiency, i.e., the light-trapping effect, increases incrementally with increasing disorder. Thereby, our study is a systematic experimental proof that disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light-trapping concepts employing grating couplers in thin-film solar cells. The result is relevant for the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasi periodic textures.

  14. Optoelectronic properties of R-F magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd2SnO4) thin films for CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadheepan, K.; Thamilselvan, M.; Kim, Kyunghae; Yi, Junsin; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of “as-prepared” Cd 2 SnO 4 thin films ideal for thin film solar cells. • Lowest value of resistivity with high mobility attained for the as-prepared Cd 2 SnO 4 films. • Maximum transmittance of 93% in the visible range for the as-prepared films. • Effect of substrate temperature on the scattering mechanism of TCO. - Abstract: The influence of substrate temperature on the microstructural behavior, optical, electrical properties and on the scattering mechanism of charge carriers were studied for the as-prepared radio-frequency (R-F) magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd 2 SnO 4 ) thin films. Films prepared at the substrate temperature of 300 °C were found to be polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) plane. Well pronounced Moss–Burstein shift, in the transmittance spectra with dispersions in the optical band gap from 3.07 to 3.30 eV, was observed at substrate temperatures between 25 and 300 °C. Optical property of high visible transmittance was retained by the films. Analysis of the electrical properties on the prepared crystalline Cd 2 SnO 4 films showed a calculated resistivity of 10 −3 –10 −4 Ω cm, with n-type carrier density in the range of 10 19 –10 20 cm −3 and the charge carrier mobility in the range of 63–30 cm 2 /V s. The effects of structural, compositional and optical properties on the scattering mechanism of charge carrier are elaborated and reported to be an experimental evidence for the theoretical predictions. The results revealed the essential DC electrical conduction behavior, which is ideal for the fabrication of Cd 2 SnO 4 -based CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells

  15. Quadruple-Junction Thin-Film Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.

    2017-01-01

    The direct utilization of sunlight is a critical energy source in a sustainable future. One of the options is to convert the solar energy into electricity using thin-film silicon-based solar cells (TFSSCs). Solar cells in a triple-junction configuration have exhibited the highest energy conversion

  16. In and Ga Codoped ZnO Film as a Front Electrode for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Phong Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped ZnO thin films have attracted much attention in the research community as front-contact transparent conducting electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells. The prerequisite in both low resistivity and high transmittance in visible and near-infrared region for hydrogenated microcrystalline or amorphous/microcrystalline tandem thin film silicon solar cells has promoted further improvements of this material. In this work, we propose the combination of major Ga and minor In impurities codoped in ZnO film (IGZO to improve the film optoelectronic properties. A wide range of Ga and In contents in sputtering targets was explored to find optimum optical and electrical properties of deposited films. The results show that an appropriate combination of In and Ga atoms in ZnO material, followed by in-air thermal annealing process, can enhance the crystallization, conductivity, and transmittance of IGZO thin films, which can be well used as front-contact electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Zn(O,OH)S and AgInS2 layers to be used in thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, W.; Arredondo, C. A.; Gordillo, G.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper AgInS2 and Zn(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized and characterized. AgInS2 layers were grown by co-evaporation from metal precursors in a two-step process, and, Zn(O,OH)S thin films were deposited from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, sodium citrate and ammonia. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that AgInS2 thin films grown with chalcopyrite structure, and the as-grown Zn(O,OH)S thin films were polycrystalline. It was also found that the AgInS2 films presented p-type conductivity, a high absorption coefficient (greater than 104 cm-1) and energy band-gap Eg of about 1.95 eV, Zn(O,OH),S thin films presented Eg of about 3.89 eV. Morphological analysis showed that under this synthesis conditions Zn(O,OH),S thin films coated uniformly the absorber layer. Additionally, the Zn(O,OH)S kinetic growth on AgInS2 layer was studied also. Finally, the results suggest that these layers possibly could be used in one-junction solar cells and/or as top cell in a tandem solar cell.

  18. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chunfeng; Luo, Jingting; Lan, Huabin; Fan, Bo; Peng, Huanxin; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Huibin; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Liang, Guangxing; Fan, Ping

    2018-01-01

    We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc) and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells. PMID:29495612

  19. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc, short-circuit current (Jsc and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells.

  20. Refractive index extraction and thickness optimization of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ElAnzeery, H.; El Daif, O.; Buffière, M.; Oueslati, S.; Ben Messaoud, K.; Agten, D.; Brammertz, G.; Guindi, R.; Kniknie, B.; Meuris, M.; Poortmans, J.

    2015-01-01

    Cu2nSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells are promising emergent photovoltaic technologies based on low-bandgap absorber layer with high absorption coefficient. To reduce optical losses in such devices and thus improve their efficiency, numerical simulations of CZTSe solar cells optical

  1. Large-area SnO2: F thin films by offline APCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Yucheng; Qin, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhihai; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Changhao; Xia, Xiaohong; Sun, Stanley; Chen, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Large-area (1245 mm x 635 mm) FTO thin films were successfully deposited by offline APCVD process. → The as-prepared FTO thin films with sheet resistance 8-11 Ω/□ and direct transmittance more than 83% exhibited better than that of the online ones. → The maximum quantum efficiency of the solar cells based on offline FTO substrate was 0.750 at wavelength 540 nm. → The power of the solar modules using the offline FTO as glass substrates was 51.639 W, higher than that of the modules based on the online ones. -- Abstract: In this paper, we reported the successful preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films on large-area glass substrates (1245 mm x 635 mm x 3 mm) by self-designed offline atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. The FTO thin films were achieved through a combinatorial chemistry approach using tin tetrachloride, water and oxygen as precursors and Freon (F-152, C2H4F2) as dopant. The deposited films were characterized for crystallinity, morphology (roughness) and sheet resistance to aid optimization of materials suitable for solar cells. We got the FTO thin films with sheet resistance 8-11 Ω/□ and direct transmittance more than 83%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization suggested that the as-prepared FTO films were composed of multicrystal, with the average crystal size 200-300 nm and good crystallinity. Further more, the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that the films were produced with good surface morphology (haze). Selected samples were used for manufacturing tandem amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells and modules by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Compared with commercially available FTO thin films coated by online chemical vapor deposition, our FTO coatings show excellent performance resulting in a high quantum efficiency yield for a-Si:H solar cells and ideal open voltage and short circuit current for a-Si:H solar

  2. Dielectric Scattering Patterns for Efficient Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lare, Claire; Lenzmann, Frank; Verschuuren, Marc A; Polman, Albert

    2015-08-12

    We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns, and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The external quantum efficiency of thin-film a-Si:H solar cells grown on top of a nanopatterned Al-doped ZnO, made using soft imprint lithography, is strongly enhanced in the 550-800 nm spectral band by the dielectric nanoscatterers. Numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data and show that resonant light scattering from both the AZO nanostructures and the embedded Si nanostructures are important. The results are generic and can be applied on nearly all thin-film solar cells.

  3. Laser Welding of Silicon Foils for Thin-Film Solar Cell Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Heßmann, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film solar module manufacturing is one of the most promising recent developments in photovoltaic research and has the potential to reduce production costs. As the necessity for competitive prices on the world market increases and manufacturers endeavor to bring down the cost of solar modules, thin-film technology is becoming more and more attractive. In this work a special technique was investigated which makes solar cell manufacturing more compatible with an industrial roll-to-roll proc...

  4. 11.3% efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells via drop-on-demand inkjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xianzhong; Klenk, Reiner; Wang, Lan; Köhler, Tristan; Albert, Jürgen; Fiechter, Sebastian; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Lux-Steiner, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Although Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSe) based thin film solar cells have reached efficiencies exceeding 22% based on vacuum processed CIGSSe absorbers, the supply of indium and gallium might become an issue if CIGSSe thin-film solar cells are produced in very large volumes. It is therefore mandatory to reduce the wastage of indium and gallium during the fabrication process. In this work, we report on a highly efficient precursor utilization, and a vacuum-free, and scalable route to the deposition o...

  5. Texture-Etched SnO2 Glasses Applied to Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Rui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrodes of tin dioxide (SnO2 on glasses were further wet-etched in the diluted HCl:Cr solution to obtain larger surface roughness and better light-scattering characteristic for thin-film solar cell applications. The process parameters in terms of HCl/Cr mixture ratio, etching temperature, and etching time have been investigated. After etching process, the surface roughness, transmission haze, and sheet resistance of SnO2 glasses were measured. It was found that the etching rate was increased with the additions in etchant concentration of Cr and etching temperature. The optimum texture-etching parameters were 0.15 wt.% Cr in 49% HCl, temperature of 90°C, and time of 30 sec. Moreover, silicon thin-film solar cells with the p-i-n structure were fabricated on the textured SnO2 glasses using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. By optimizing the texture-etching process, the cell efficiency was increased from 4.04% to 4.39%, resulting from the increment of short-circuit current density from 14.14 to 15.58 mA/cm2. This improvement in cell performances can be ascribed to the light-scattering effect induced by surface texturization of SnO2.

  6. Transparent sculptured titania films for enhanced light absorption in thin-film Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Kai-Hsiang, E-mail: khhung@itri.org.tw [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Guan-Di; Wong, Ming-Show [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yu-Chih [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chung, I-Shan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-30

    This study presents a description of the enhancement of light absorption in thin-film silicon (Si) solar cells by using sculptured titania (TiO{sub 2}) films. We used an electron-beam evaporation system with a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method to deposit porous TiO{sub 2} films on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) substrates. The GLAD TiO{sub 2}/FTO films were used as conductive electrodes in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) solar cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the GLAD TiO{sub 2} films are composed of sculptured nano-pillars on an FTO surface, and this nanostructure provides a synergistic route for light scattering enhancement. The GLAD TiO{sub 2}/FTO exhibited a 68% improvement of optical haze (at {lambda} = 600 nm). The {mu}c-Si:H solar cells consisting of the GLAD-nanostructured TiO{sub 2} resulted in a 5% improvement of short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) and yielded a cell efficiency of 6.6%.

  7. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ∼-350 mV and ∼+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ∼3.1 x 10 11 cm -2 and ∼2.1 x 10 12 cm -2 were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the first time on CIGSe thin

  8. Strategies to reduce the open-circuit voltage deficit in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jekyung; Shin, Byungha

    2017-09-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cell has attracted significant attention in thin film solar cell technologies considering its low-cost, non-toxicity, and earth-abundance. However, the highest efficiency still remains at 12.6%, far below the theoretical efficiency of Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit of around 30%. The limitation behind such shortcoming in the device performance was reported to stem primarily from a high V oc deficit compared to other thin film solar cell technologies such as CdTe or Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), whose origins are attributed to the prevalence of band tailing from cation disordering as well as to the high recombination at the interfaces. In this report, systematic studies on the causes of a high V oc deficit and associated remarkable approaches to achieve high V oc have been reviewed, provided with a guidance on the future direction of CZTSSe research in resolving the high V oc deficit issue. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Effect of oxygen to argon flow ratio on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films for amorphous silicon thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yang-Shih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lien, Shui-Yang, E-mail: syl@mdu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Chuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chao-Chun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chueh-Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nautiyal, Asheesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wuu, Dong-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Shuo-Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    Transparent conductive oxide thin films in solar cell fabrication have attracted much attention due to their high conductivity and transmittance. In this paper, we have investigated the aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on Asahi U-type SnO{sub 2} glass with different O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios in vacuum chamber. Furthermore, the micro-structural, electrical, and optical properties of AZO/SnO{sub 2} films were studied. The change in O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios is found to significantly affect the haze value, and slightly affect electrical resistivity and transmittance of the films. Afterward, the fabricated AZO thin films with different O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios were used for building the solar cell devices. The current–voltage and external quantum efficiency characteristics were investigated for the solar cell devices. The optimized O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 3 for solar device shows the best efficiency of 10.41%, and a 20% increase in short-circuit current density compared to typical Asahi solar cells. - Highlights: ► A thin Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) film has been deposited on SnO{sub 2} substrates. ► The AZO film deposited at an O{sub 2}/Ar ratio of 3 shows low resistivity and high haze. ► The AZO film contains tiny grains that enhance light scattering. ► The amorphous silicon solar cell with the AZO layer shows a 20% increase in Jsc.

  10. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  11. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  12. Development of thin-film Si HYBRID solar module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Akihiko; Gotoh, Masahiro; Sawada, Toru; Fukuda, Susumu; Yoshimi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nomura, Takuji [Kaneka Corporation, 2-1-1, Hieitsuji, Otsu, Shiga 520-0104 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The device current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of thin-film silicon stacked tandem solar modules (HYBRID modules), consisting of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) cell and a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell ({mu}c-Si), have been investigated under various spectral irradiance distributions. The performance of the HYBRID module varied periodically in natural sunlight due to the current-limiting property of the HYBRID module and the environmental effects. The behavior based on the current-limiting property was demonstrated by the modelling of the I-V curves using the linear interpolation method for each component cell. The improvement of the performance for the HYBRID module in natural sunlight will also be discussed from the viewpoint of the device design of the component cells. (author)

  13. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic arrays beyond the next generation is discussed with attention given to the potentials of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells. Of particular importance is the efficiency (the fraction of incident solar energy converted to electricity) and specific power (power to weight ratio). It is found that the radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1-MeV electrons.

  14. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  15. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, Robert

    2012-06-25

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ∼-350 mV and ∼+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ∼3.1 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and ∼2.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the

  16. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost. - Highlights: • Ethanol gas sensors based on Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle thin film were fabricated. • Pd incorporation in NiFe 2 O 4 matrix inhibits grain growth. • The sensors were more selective to ethanol gas. • Sensors exhibited fast response and recovery when doped with palladium. • Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin film sensor displays excellent long–term stability.

  17. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these characterization, the atomic structure, absorption coefficient, energy gap, material type, composition of each elements and the mobility of CuInSe2 can be measured and determined. During process evaporation were carried out at substrate temperatures the range between 20ºC-415ºC.

  18. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses,

  19. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, N., E-mail: nisar.ali@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate Jehanzeb College Saidu Sharif, Swat, 19200 (Pakistan); Hussain, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Ahmed, R., E-mail: rashidahmed@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Wan Shamsuri, W.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new and novel material for solar cell applications is demonstrated as a replacement for toxic and expansive compounds. • The materials used in this compound are abundant and low cost. • Compound exhibit unusual optical and electrical properties. • The band gap was found to be comparable with that of GaAs. - Abstract: Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs – one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  20. Effect of substrate temperature on ac conduction properties of amorphous and polycrystalline GaSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamilselvan, M.; PremNazeer, K.; Mangalaraj, D.; Narayandass, Sa.K.; Yi, Junsin

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis of GaSe thin films used in the present investigation showed that the as-deposited and the one deposited at higher substrate temperature are in amorphous and polycrystalline state, respectively. The alternating current (ac) conduction properties of thermally evaporated films of GaSe were studied ex situ employing symmetric aluminium ohmic electrodes in the frequency range of 120-10 5 Hz at various temperature regimes. For the film deposited at elevated substrate temperature (573 K) the ac conductivity was found to increase with improvement of its crystalline structure. The ac conductivity (σ ac ) is found to be proportional to (ω s ) where s m calculated from ac conductivity measurements are compared with optical studies of our previous reported work for a-GaSe and poly-GaSe thin films. The distance between the localized centres (R), activation energy (ΔE σ ) and the number of sites per unit energy per unit volume N(E F ) at the Fermi level were evaluated for both a-GaSe and poly-GaSe thin films. Goswami and Goswami model has been invoked to explain the dependence of capacitance on frequency and temperature

  1. On-Orbit Demonstration of a Lithium-Ion Capacitor and Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Yuki; Sakai, Tomohiko; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yu; Murashima, Mio; Uno, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration of the Next-generation Small Satellite Instrument for Electric power systems (NESSIE) on which an aluminum- laminated lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) and a lightweight solar panel called KKM-PNL, which has space solar sheets using thin-film multijunction solar cells, were installed. The flight data examined in this paper covers a period of 143 days from launch. We verified the integrity of an LIC constructed using a simple and lightweight mounting method: no significant capacitance reduction was observed. We also confirmed that inverted metamorphic multijunction triple-junction thin-film solar cells used for evaluation were healthy at 143 days after launch, because their degradation almost matched the degradation predictions for dual-junction thin-film solar cells.

  2. TiO 2 Thin Films Prepared via Adsorptive Self-Assembly for Self-Cleaning Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Baojuan

    2012-02-22

    Low-cost controllable solution-based processes for preparation of titanium oxide (TiO 2) thin films are highly desirable, because of many important applications of this oxide in catalytic decomposition of volatile organic compounds, advanced oxidation processes for wastewater and bactericidal treatments, self-cleaning window glass for green intelligent buildings, dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state semiconductor metal-oxide solar cells, self-cleaning glass for photovoltaic devices, and general heterogeneous photocatalysis for fine chemicals etc. In this work, we develop a solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach to fabricate anatase TiO 2 thin films on different glass substrates such as simple plane glass and patterned glass at variable compositions (normal soda lime glass or solar-grade borofloat glass). By tuning the number of process cycles (i.e., adsorption-then-heating) of TiO 2 colloidal suspension, we could facilely prepare large-area TiO 2 films at a desired thickness and with uniform crystallite morphology. Moreover, our as-prepared nanostructured TiO 2 thin films on glass substrates do not cause deterioration in optical transmission of glass; instead, they improve optical performance of commercial solar cells over a wide range of incident angles of light. Our as-prepared anatase TiO 2 thin films also display superhydrophilicity and excellent photocatalytic activity for self-cleaning application. For example, our investigation of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange indicates that these thin films are indeed highly effective, in comparison to other commercial TiO 2 thin films under identical testing conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Synthesis of nanostructured CuInS{sub 2} thin films and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhuang, Mixue; Liu, Zhen; Wei, Aixiang [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); Luo, Fazhi [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); The Fifth Electronics Research Institute of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Jun [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanostructure thin films were successfully synthesized on FTO conductive glass substrates by solvothermal method. It is found that the surface morphology and microstructure of CIS thin films can be tailored by simply adjusting the concentration of oxalic acid. CIS nanostructure films with texture of ''nanosheet array'' and ''flower-like microsphere'' were obtained and used as Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanosheet array CIS was found to have a better electrocatalytic activity than the flower-like microsphere one. DSSCs based on nanosheet array CIS thin film counter electrode show conversion efficiency of 3.33 %, which is comparable to the Pt-catalyzed DSSCs. The easy synthesis, low cost, morphology tunable and excellent electrocatalytic property may make the CuInS{sub 2} nanostructure competitive as counter electrode in DSSCs. (orig.)

  4. Procedures and practices for evaluating thin-film solar cell stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesch, R; Faber, T; von Hauff, E.L.; Brown, T. M.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Hoppe, H.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, and in some cases only the last few years, novel thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), organic solar cells (OPV), and, more recently, perovskite-based solar cells (PSC) have been growing in maturity with respect to device

  5. Simulated Space Environmental Effects on Thin Film Solar Array Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Carr, John; SanSoucie, Michael; Boyd, Darren; Phillips, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) experiment consists of thin-film, low mass, low volume solar panels. Given the variety of thin solar cells and cover materials and the lack of environmental protection typically afforded by thick coverglasses, a series of tests were conducted in Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Environmental Effects Facility to evaluate the performance of these materials. Candidate thin polymeric films and nitinol wires used for deployment were also exposed. Simulated space environment exposures were selected based on SSP 30425 rev. B, "Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design" or AIAA Standard S-111A-2014, "Qualification and Quality Requirements for Space Solar Cells." One set of candidate materials were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen and concurrent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for low Earth orbit simulation. A second set of materials were exposed to 1 MeV electrons. A third set of samples were exposed to 50, 100, 500, and 700 keV energy protons, and a fourth set were exposed to >2,000 hours of near ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. A final set was rapidly thermal cycled between -55 and +125degC. This test series provides data on enhanced power generation, particularly for small satellites with reduced mass and volume resources. Performance versus mass and cost per Watt is discussed.

  6. Preparation and characterization of CuInSe2 particles via the hydrothermal route for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Fu-Shan; Lin, Shin-Hom; Lu, Chung-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new hydrothermal process for preparing copper indium diselenide (CuInSe 2 ). → Well-crystallized CuInSe 2 particles are obtained at 180 deg. C for 1 h. → Densified CuInSe 2 thin films are prepared from ink printing. → Increasing temperatures result in an improvement of properties of CuInSe 2 films. - Abstract: CuInSe 2 powders with a chalcopyrite structure used in thin-film solar cells were successfully prepared via a hydrothermal method at low temperatures within short durations. Well-crystallized CuInSe 2 particles were formed via the hydrothermal reaction at 180 deg. C for 1 h. The concentrations of stabilizer, triethanolamine (TEA), significantly affected the purity, morphology and particle sizes of the prepared powders. Increasing the reaction duration and temperatures led to decrease the amount of second phase In(OH) 3 and resulted in the formation of pure CuInSe 2 . Densified CuInSe 2 thin films were prepared from ink printing with the addition of the flux. Increasing the selenization temperatures increased the grain size and improved the crystallinity of CuInSe 2 films.

  7. Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Film Solar Cell with Depth Gradient Composition Prepared by Selenization of Sputtered Novel Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-I; Yang, Jui-Fu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Kuo, Shou-Yi

    2017-11-22

    In this study, we proposed a new method for the synthesis of the target material used in a two stage process for preparation of a high quality CZTSe thin film. The target material consisting of a mixture of Cu x Se and Zn x Sn 1-x alloy was synthesized, providing a quality CZTSe precursor layer for highly efficient CZTSe thin film solar cells. The CZTSe thin film can be obtained by annealing the precursor layers through a 30 min selenization process under a selenium atmosphere at 550 °C. The CZTSe thin films prepared by using the new precursor thin film were investigated and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that diffusion of Sn occurred and formed the CTSe phase and Cu x Se phase in the resultant CZTSe thin film. By selective area electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy images, the crystallinity of the CZTSe thin film was verified to be single crystal. By secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, it was confirmed that a double-gradient band gap profile across the CZTSe absorber layer was successfully achieved. The CZTSe solar cell with the CZTSe absorber layer consisting of the precursor stack exhibited a high efficiency of 5.46%, high short circuit current (J SC ) of 37.47 mA/cm 2 , open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.31 V, and fill factor (F.F.) of 47%, at a device area of 0.28 cm 2 . No crossover of the light and dark current-voltage (I-V) curves of the CZTSe solar cell was observed, and also, no red kink was observed under red light illumination, indicating a low defect concentration in the CZTSe absorber layer. Shunt leakage current with a characteristic metal/CZTSe/metal leakage current model was observed by temperature-dependent I-V curves, which led to the discovery of metal incursion through the CdS buffer layer on the CZTSe absorber layer. This leakage current, also known as space charge-limited current, grew larger as the measurement temperature increased and

  8. Multi-Material Front Contact for 19% Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop van Deelen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off between transmittance and conductivity of the front contact material poses a bottleneck for thin film solar panels. Normally, the front contact material is a metal oxide and the optimal cell configuration and panel efficiency were determined for various band gap materials, representing Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS, CdTe and high band gap perovskites. Supplementing the metal oxide with a metallic copper grid improves the performance of the front contact and aims to increase the efficiency. Various front contact designs with and without a metallic finger grid were calculated with a variation of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO sheet resistance, scribing area, cell length, and finger dimensions. In addition, the contact resistance and illumination power were also assessed and the optimal thin film solar panel design was determined. Adding a metallic finger grid on a TCO gives a higher solar cell efficiency and this also enables longer cell lengths. However, contact resistance between the metal and the TCO material can reduce the efficiency benefit somewhat.

  9. A computational study on the energy bandgap engineering in performance enhancement of CdTe thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen M. Ali

    Full Text Available In this study, photovoltaic properties of CdTe thin film in the configuration of n-SnO2/n-CdS/p-CdTe/p-CdTe:Te/metal have been studied by numerical simulation software named “Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure” (AMPS-1D. A modified structure for CdTe thin film solar cell has been proposed by numerical analysis with the insertion of a back contact buffer layer (CdTe:Te. This layer can serve as a barrier that will decelerate the copper diffusion in CdTe solar cell. Four estimated energy bandgap relations versus the Tellurium (Te concentrations and the (CdTe:Te layer thickness have been examined thoroughly during simulation. Correlation between energy bandgap with the CdTe thin film solar cell performance has also been established. Keywords: Numerical modelling, CdTe thin film, Solar cell, AMPS-1D, Bandgap

  10. Numerical Optimization of a Bifacial Bi-Glass Thin-Film a-Si:H Solar Cell for Higher Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Djaber; Fathi, Mohamed; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Bifacial solar cells that maximize the energy output per a square meter have become a new fashion in the field of photovoltaic cells. However, the application of thin-film material on bifacial solar cells, viz., thin-film amorphous hydrogenated silicon ( a- Si:H), is extremely rare. Therefore, this paper presents the optimization and influence of the band gap, thickness and doping on the performance of a glass/glass thin-film a- Si:H ( n- i- p) bifacial solar cell, using a computer-aided simulation tool, Automat for simulation of hetero-structures (AFORS-HET). It is worth mentioning that the thickness and the band gap of the i-layer are the key parameters in achieving higher efficiency and hence it has to be handled carefully during the fabrication process. Furthermore, an efficient thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cell requires thinner and heavily doped n and p emitter layers. On the other hand, the band gap of the p-layer showed a dramatic reduction of the efficiency at 2.3 eV. Moreover, a high bifaciality factor of more than 92% is attained, and top efficiency of 10.9% is revealed under p side illumination. These optimizations demonstrate significant enhancements of the recent experimental work on thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cells and would also be useful for future experimental investigations on an efficient a- Si:H thin-film bifacial solar cell.

  11. Triangle islands and cavities on the surface of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjun; Zhang Yi; Liu Wei; Li Boyan; Sun Yun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 thin films. ► Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu atom diffusion from Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 grains brings the epitaxial triangle island. ► The triangle islands grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. ► The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. ► The performance of solar cell without triangle islands is improved. - Abstract: Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films are co-evaporated at a constant substrate temperature of 500 °C on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The structural properties and chemical composition of the CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and an X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology. Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on some planes of the CIGS thin films. We investigate the formation mechanism of these triangle islands. It is found that the planes with the triangle islands are (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms. Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu diffusion from CIGS grains brings the epitaxial triangle islands which grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. The film with Cu/(Ga + In) = 0.94–0.98 is one key of the formation of these islands. The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. The growth of triangle islands brings a compact surface with large layered grains and many jagged edges, but no triangle cavity. Finally, we compare the performance of solar cell with triangle islands and layered gains. It is found that the performance of solar cell with large layered gains is improved.

  12. Influence of PbCl2 content in PbI2 solution of DMF on the absorption, crystal phase, morphology of lead halide thin films and photovoltaic performance in planar perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mao; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Jincheng; Wu, Ni; Ying, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of PbCl 2 content in PbI 2 solution of DMF on the absorption, crystal phase and morphology of lead halide thin films was systematically investigated and the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells was evaluated. The result revealed that the various thickness lead halide thin film with the small sheet-like, porous morphology and low crystallinity can be produced by adding PbCl 2 powder into PbI 2 solution of DMF as a precursor solution. The planar perovskite solar cell based on the 300-nm-thick CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Cl x thin film by the precursor solution with the mixture of 0.80 M PbI 2 and 0.20 M PbCl 2 exhibited the optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.12% along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.93 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 15.70 mA cm −2 and a fill factor of 0.69. - Graphical abstract: The figure showed the surface and cross-sectional SEM images of lead halide thin films using the precursor solutions: (a) 0.80 M PbI 2 , (b) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.20 M PbCl 2 , (c) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.40 M PbCl 2 , and (d) 0.80 M PbI 2 +0.60 M PbCl 2 . With the increase of the PbCl 2 content in precursor solution, the size of the lead halide nanosheet decreased and the corresponding thin films gradually turned to be porous with low crystallinity. - Highlights: • Influence of PbCl 2 content on absorption, crystal phase and morphology of thin film. • Influence of perovskite film thickness on photovoltaic performance of solar cell. • Lead halide thin film with small sheet-like, porous morphology and low crystallinity. • Planar solar cell with 300 nm-thick perovskite thin film achieved PCE of 10.12%.

  13. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskites have exhibited a bright future as photovoltaic semiconductor in next generation solar cells due to their unique and promising physicochemical properties. Over the past few years, we have witnessed a tremendous progress of efficiency record evolution of perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Up to now, the highest efficiency record of PSCs has reached 22.1%; however, it was achieved at a very small device area of <0.1 cm2. With the device area increasing to mini-module scale, the efficiency record dropped dramatically. The inherent causes are mainly ascribed to inadequate quality control of large-area perovskite thin films and insufficient optimization of solar module design. In current stage of PSCs research and development, to overcome these two obstacles is in urgent need before this new technology could realize scale-up industrialization. Herein, we present an overview of recently developed strategies for preparing large-area perovskite thin films and perovskite solar modules (PSMs. At last, cost analysis and future application directions of PSMs have also been discussed.

  14. Incorporation of Kojic Acid-Azo Dyes on TiO2 Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolynne Zie Wei Sie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization of heavy metal free organic dyes onto TiO2 thin films has gained much attention in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A series of new kojic acid based organic dyes KA1–4 were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution of azobenzene bearing different vinyl chains A1–4 with kojyl chloride 4. Azo dyes KA1–4 were characterized for photophysical properties employing absorption spectrometry and photovoltaic characteristic in TiO2 thin film. The presence of vinyl chain in A1–4 improved the photovoltaic performance from 0.20 to 0.60%. The introduction of kojic acid obtained from sago waste further increases the efficiency to 0.82–1.54%. Based on photovoltaic performance, KA4 achieved the highest solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η = 1.54% in the series.

  15. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic

  16. Spectral conversion for thin film solar cells and luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, van W.G.J.H.M.; Wild, de J.; Krumer, Z.; Mello Donegá, de C.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Nozik, A.J.; Beard, M.C.; Conibeer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Full spectrum absorption combined with effective generation and collection of charge carriers is a prerequisite for attaining high efficiency solar cells. Two examples of spectral conversion are treated in this chapter, i.e., up-conversion and down-shifting. Up-conversion is applied to thin film

  17. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Liu, Y.; de Jong, M.M.; de Wild, J.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of

  18. Structural and optoelectronic properties of β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films to Be applied on cadmium reduced solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarza Gutierrez, Uziel; Albor Aguilera, Maria Lourdes de; Hernandez Vasquez, Cesar; Aguilar Hernandez, Jorge R.; Remolina Millan, Aduljay [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESFM, Dept. de Fisica, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico); Flores Marquez, Jose M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESIQIE, Dept. Metalurgia y Mat., U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico); Gonzalez Trujillo, Miguel A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESCOM, Dept. de Ciencias Basicas, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico); Jimenez Olarte, Daniel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional - ESIME, SEPI, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2018-02-15

    In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique to be applied as buffer layer in CdTe solar cells. CdTe photovoltaic devices are developed using In{sub 2}S{sub 3} as ''standard buffer layer'' in order to reduce the CdS thickness used as window material. It is important to examine potential thin films in a prospective life cycle study, focusing on direct costs, resource availability, and environmental impacts. Open and closed CBD system influence on the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} physical properties is analyzed. Stable tetragonal β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Electrical properties were determined by four-point probe technique obtaining a resistivity value of 10{sup 2} Ω cm. CdTe solar cells performance was studied by measuring J-V characteristics and spectral quantum efficiencies. These results reveal In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films as buffer layer reduce the cadmium quantity used in solar cells manufacture and improve their current collection in blue wavelength region (300-500 nm). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Thermally evaporated thin films of SnS for application in solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Robert W.; Ogah, Ogah E.; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian

    2009-01-01

    SnS (tin sulphide) is of interest for use as an absorber layer and the wider energy bandgap phases e.g. SnS 2 , Sn 2 S 3 and Sn/S/O alloys of interest as Cd-free buffer layers for use in thin film solar cells. In this work thin films of tin sulphide have been thermally evaporated onto glass and SnO 2 :coated glass substrates with the aim of optimising the properties of the material for use in photovoltaic solar cell device structures. In particular the effects of source temperature, substrate temperature, deposition rate and film thickness on the chemical and physical properties of the layers were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis was used to determine the film composition, X-ray diffraction to determine the phases present and structure of each phase, transmittance and reflectance versus wavelength measurements to determine the energy bandgap and scanning electron microscopy to observe the surface topology and topography and the properties correlated to the deposition parameters. Using the optimised conditions it is possible to produce thin films of tin sulphide that are pinhole free, conformal to the substrate and that consist of densely packed columnar grains. The composition, phases present and the optical properties of the layers deposited were found to be highly sensitive to the deposition conditions. Energy bandgaps in the range 1.55 eV-1.7 eV were obtained for a film thickness of 0.8 μm, and increasing the film thickness to > 1 μm resulted in a reduction of the energy bandgap to less than 1.55 eV. The applicability of using these films in photovoltaic solar cell device structures is also discussed.

  20. Machine Vision based Micro-crack Inspection in Thin-film Solar Cell Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yinong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin film solar cell consists of various layers so the surface of solar cell shows heterogeneous textures. Because of this property the visual inspection of micro-crack is very difficult. In this paper, we propose the machine vision-based micro-crack detection scheme for thin film solar cell panel. In the proposed method, the crack edge detection is based on the application of diagonal-kernel and cross-kernel in parallel. Experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance of micro-crack detection than conventional anisotropic model based methods on a cross- kernel.

  1. Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Karsten; Makhova, Liudmila; Braun, Alexander; Konovalov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) with Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) as absorber layer have been produced on rigid glass substrates for the terrestrial market. There exist, however, different investigations for manufacturing of TFSC on flexible substrates in order to achieve very thin and highly flexible (rollable) solar cells. Besides their capability to open new terrestrial market segments, they are considered as competitive candidates for future flexible thin film space power generators compared to traditional crystalline solar cells. This paper explains the advantages of flexible TFSC for usage in space, including:-low mass and storage volume, -high power/mass ratio [>100 W/kg at array level], -high radiation resistance against proton and electron radiation and, -lower production costs. These cells can be produced on flexible conductive and insulating substrate materials and have efficiency potentials of up to 15%. We report on the current development steps to adopt the TFSC technology to space requirements as well as the first European industrial approach to the roll-to-roll production of flexible CIGS-TFSC on polyimide as substrate material. Stability issues in space environment concern not only the TFSC itself, but all system components such as interconnects, cell assembly and flexible blankets. The adhesion of the back-contact to the substrate, the emissivity control in the infrared wavelength range, the electrical contacting and interconnection as well as flexible encapsulation are currently under investigation and are discussed in the paper. The production costs for TFSC for space application can be further reduced by sharing resources for the production of flexible TFSC for the terrestrial market; namely by using both, the existing terrestrial investment in production facilities as well as the synergies in R and D

  2. Surface treatments and properties of CuGaSe{sub 2} thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, S.; Ennaoui, A.; Schuler, S.; Siebentritt, S.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch

    2003-05-01

    Polycrystalline CuGaSe{sub 2} (CGS) films with slightly Ga-rich composition were prepared on Mo/soda-lime substrates by the 'bi-layer' process. The film surfaces were modified by chemical bath treatment with In{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, thioacetamid, and triethanolamin to improve the performance in solar cell applications. The film compositions were characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the surface of treated films was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Solar cells with ZnO/CdS/CGS/Mo/soda-lime glass structure were fabricated, and the current-voltage properties and the quantum efficiency were analyzed. Improvement of the spectral response, especially in the long wavelength region, was observed for the samples treated with the chemical bath, which results in increase in a short circuit current density. An increase in the parallel and series resistance of the cells was also observed with the treatment. The surface compositions of the CGS thin films modified by the chemical bath are discussed on the base of the results of XPS.

  3. Effects of excitation intensity on the photocurrent response of thin film silicon solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Q.; Shumka, A.; Trask, J.

    1986-01-01

    Photocurrent responses of amorphous thin film silicon solar modules at room temperature were studied at different excitation intensities using various monochromatic light sources. Photocurrent imaging techniques have been effectively used to locate rapidly, and non-destructively, failure and defect sites in the multilayer thin film device. Differences observed in the photocurrent response characteristics for two different cells in the same amorphous thin film silicon solar module suggest the possibility of the formation of dissimilarly active devices, even though the module is processed in the same fabrication process. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Preparation of anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film by low temperature annealing as an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hongche [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong-Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Anatase thin film of TiO{sub 2} was prepared by low temperature annealing. • Anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was obtained from amorphous form through solvothermal process. • Anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was used to prepare thin film on ITO glass. • Polymer solar cell fabricated on anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film showed 2.6% of PCE. - Abstract: To prepare the anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films on ITO glass, amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was synthesized through the simple sol-gel method by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a precursor. This amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin-coating, then treated at 450 °C to obtain anatase TiO{sub 2} film (for device A). For other TiO{sub 2} films, amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was treated through solvothermal process at 180 °C to obtain anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution. This anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin coating, and then annealed at 200 °C (for device B) and 130 °C (for device C), respectively. The average particle size of amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was about 1.0 nm and that of anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was 10 nm. The thickness of TiO{sub 2} films was about 15 nm for all cases. When inverted polymer solar cells were fabricated by using these TiO{sub 2} films as an electron transport layer, the device C showed the highest PCE (2.6%) due to the lack of defect, uniformness and high light absorbance of TiO{sub 2} films. The result of this study can be applied for the preparation of inverted polymer solar cell using TiO{sub 2} films as a buffer layer at low temperature on plastic substrate by roll-to roll process.

  5. Heterojunction solar cell with 6% efficiency based on an n-type aluminum-gallium-oxide thin film and p-type sodium-doped Cu2O sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to enhance the efficiency of Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with an aluminum-gallium-oxide (Al-Ga-O) thin film as the n-type layer and a p-type sodium (Na)-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing copper sheets. The optimal Al content [X; Al/(Ga + Al) atomic ratio] of an AlX-Ga1-X-O thin-film n-type layer was found to be approximately 2.5 at. %. The optimized resistivity was approximately 15 Ω cm for n-type AlX-Ga1-X-O/p-type Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cells. A MgF2/AZO/Al0.025-Ga0.975-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell with 6.1% efficiency was fabricated using a 60-nm-thick n-type oxide thin-film layer and a 0.2-mm-thick Cu2O:Na sheet with the optimized resistivity.

  6. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by simple replacement reaction route for solar photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.; Ray, Arabinda; Tiwari, Krishan Dutt

    2014-01-01

    A process for deposition of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) films using replacement of Zn 2+ in ZnS is demonstrated. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectroscopy confirm the formation of pure CZTS. Atomic force microscopy shows the films to be homogeneous and compact with root mean squared roughness of 6 nm. The direct band gap of CZTS films as elucidated by UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy is 1.45 eV. The CZTS films exhibit p-type conduction with electrical conductivity of 4.6 S/cm. The hole concentration and hole mobility is determined to be 3.6 × 10 17 cm −3 and 1.4 cm 2 V −1 s −1 respectively. Solar cells with structure: graphite/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/SnO 2 :In/Soda lime glass are also fabricated, gave photo-conversion efficiency of 6.17% with open circuit voltage and short circuit current density of 521 mV and 19.13 mA/cm 2 , respectively and a high fill factor of 0.62. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cell lies above 60% in the visible region. - Highlights: • Pure kesterite Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films deposited by replacement reaction route • Energy band gap of films is 1.45 eV. • p-type films with conductivity of 4.6 S/cm and mobility of 1.4 cm 2 S −1 V −1 • Fabrication of Graphite/Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 /CdS/ZnO/SnO 2 :In/Glass solar cell • Solar cell delivered efficiency of 6.17% with high fill factor of 0.62

  7. Light-Induced Degradation of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelmann, F U; Weicht, J A; Behrens, G

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-wafer based solar cells are still domination the market for photovoltaic energy conversion. However, most of the silicon is used only for mechanical stability, while only a small percentage of the material is needed for the light absorption. Thin film silicon technology reduces the material demand to just some hundred nanometer thickness. But even in a tandem stack (amorphous and microcrystalline silicon) the efficiencies are lower, and light-induced degradation is an important issue. The established standard tests for characterisation are not precise enough to predict the performance of thin film silicon solar cells under real conditions, since many factors do have an influence on the degradation. We will show some results of laboratory and outdoor measurements that we are going to use as a base for advanced modelling and simulation methods. (paper)

  8. XRD total scattering of the CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for the thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. They can be easily manufactured by the deposition of the nanoparticle ink as a thin film followed by a thermal treatment to obtain large grains [2]. Therefore, CZTS has the potential...... to revolutionize the solar energy market. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. In order to do so, it is vital to understand in detail their nanoscale atomic structure. CZTS crystallize in the kesterite structure, where Cu and Zn is distributed between......-ray Diffraction data with X-ray total scattering with Pair Distribution Function analysis. Powder neutron diffraction will furthermore allow characterization of the cation disorder on the metal sites in the kesterite structure. The nanoparticle ink is also characterized by XRD, EDS, and Raman spectroscopy...

  9. MOCVD ZnO/Screen Printed Ag Back Reflector for Flexible Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Limmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared Ag back electrode by screen printing technique and developed MOCVD ZnO/screen printed Ag back reflector for flexible thin film silicon solar cell application. A discontinuity and poor contact interface between the MOCVD ZnO and screen printed Ag layers caused poor open circuit voltage (Voc and low fill factor (FF; however, an insertion of a thin sputtered ZnO layer at the interface could solve this problem. The n type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H film is preferable for the deposition on the surface of MOCVD ZnO film rather than the microcrystalline film due to its less sensitivity to textured surface, and this allowed an improvement in the FF. The n-i-p flexible amorphous silicon solar cell using the MOCVD ZnO/screen printed Ag back reflector showed an initial efficiency of 6.2% with Voc=0.86 V, Jsc=12.4 mA/cm2, and FF = 0.58 (1 cm2. The identical quantum efficiency and comparable performance to the cells using conventional sputtered Ag back electrode have verified the potential of the MOCVD ZnO/screen printed Ag back reflector and possible opportunity to use the screen printed Ag thick film for flexible thin film silicon solar cells.

  10. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  11. Effect of the thin Ga2O3 layer in n+-ZnO/n-Ga2O3/p-Cu2O heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    The influence of inserting a Ga 2 O 3 thin film as an n-type semiconductor layer on the obtainable photovoltaic properties in Cu 2 O-based heterojunction solar cells was investigated with a transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film/n-Ga 2 O 3 thin film/p-Cu 2 O sheet structure. It was found that this Ga 2 O 3 thin film can greatly improve the performance of Cu 2 O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated using polycrystalline Cu 2 O sheets that had been prepared by a thermal oxidization of copper sheets. The obtained photovoltaic properties in the AZO/Ga 2 O 3 /Cu 2 O heterojunction solar cells were strongly dependent on the deposition conditions of the Ga 2 O 3 films. The external quantum efficiency obtained in AZO/Ga 2 O 3 /Cu 2 O heterojunction solar cells was found to be greater at wavelengths below approximately 500 nm than that obtained in AZO/Cu 2 O heterojunction solar cells (i.e., prepared without a Ga 2 O 3 layer) at equivalent wavelengths. This improvement of photovoltaic properties is mainly attributed to a decrease in the level of defects at the interface between the Ga 2 O 3 thin film and the Cu 2 O sheet. Conversion efficiencies over 5% were obtained in AZO/Ga 2 O 3 /Cu 2 O heterojunction solar cells fabricated using an n-Ga 2 O 3 thin-film layer prepared with a thickness of 40–80 nm at an O 2 gas pressure of approximately 1.7 Pa by a pulsed laser deposition. - Highlights: • We demonstrate high-efficiency Cu 2 O-based p-n heterojunction solar cells. • A non-doped Ga 2 O 3 thin film was used as an n-type semiconductor layer. • The Ga 2 O 3 thin film was prepared at a low temperature by a low damage deposition. • p-type Cu 2 O sheets prepared by thermal oxidization of copper sheets were used. • Conversion efficiencies over 5% were obtained in AZO/n-Ga 2 O 3 /p-Cu 2 O solar cells

  12. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using photonic engineering device concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutitu, James Gichuhi

    In this era of uncertainty concerning future energy solutions, strong reservations have arisen over the continued use and pursuit of fossil fuels and other conventional sources of energy. Moreover, there is currently a strong and global push for the implementation of stringent measures, in order to reduce the amount of green house gases emitted by every nation. As a consequence, there has emerged a sudden and frantic rush for new renewable energy solutions. In this world of renewable energy technologies is where we find photovoltaic (PV) technology today. However, as is, there are still many issues that need to be addressed before solar energy technologies become economically viable and available to all people, in every part of the world. This renewed interest in the development of solar electricity, has led to the advancement of new avenues that address the issues of cost and efficiency associated with PV. To this end, one of the prominent approaches being explored is thin film solar cell (TFSC) technology, which offers prospects of lower material costs and enables larger units of manufacture than conventional wafer based technology. However, TFSC technologies suffer from one major problem; they have lower efficiencies than conventional wafer based solar cell technologies. This lesser efficiency is based on a number of reasons, one of which is that with less material, there is less volume for the absorption of incident photons. This shortcoming leads to the need for optical light trapping; which is concerned with admitting the maximum amount of light into the solar cell and keeping the light within the structure for as long as possible. In this thesis, I present the fundamental scientific ideas, practice and methodology behind the application of photonic engineering device concepts to increase the light trapping capacity of thin film solar cells. In the introductory chapters, I develop the basic ideas behind light trapping in a sequential manner, where the effects

  13. Low cost thin film poly-silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and develop a high density plasma based thin-film poly-silicon (TFPS) deposition system based on PQL proprietary advanced plasma technology to produce semiconductor quality TFPS for fabricating a TFPS solar cell. Details are given of the TFPS deposition system, the material development programme, solar cell structure, and cell efficiencies. The reproducibility of the deposition process and prospects for commercial exploitation are discussed.

  14. Interfacial Properties of CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muhunthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-deficient CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide thin films were grown on soda lime as well as molybdenum coated soda lime glass by reactive cosputtering. Polycrystalline CZTS film with kesterite structure was produced by annealing it at 500°C in Ar atmosphere. These films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical, and transport properties using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement. A CZTS solar cell device having conversion efficiency of ~0.11% has been made by depositing CdS, ZnO, ITO, and Al layers over the CZTS thin film deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass. The series resistance of the device was very high. The interfacial properties of device were characterized by cross-sectional SEM and cross-sectional HRTEM.

  15. Optimized flexible cover films for improved conversion efficiency in thin film flexible solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Sidney; Wen, Xin; Gudavalli, Ganesh; Rhajbhandari, Pravakar; Dhakal, Tara P.; Wilt, David; Klotzkin, David

    2018-05-01

    Thin film solar cell technologies are being developed for lower cost and flexible applications. For such technologies, it is desirable to have inexpensive, flexible cover strips. In this paper, we demonstrate that transparent silicone cover glass adhesive can be doped with TiO2 nanoparticles to achieve an optimal refractive index and maximize the performance of the cell. Cells covered with the film doped with nanoparticles at the optimal concentration demonstrated a ∼1% increase in photocurrent over the plain (undoped) film. In addition, fused silica beads can be incorporated into the flexible cover slip to realize a built-in pseudomorphic glass diffuser layer as well. This additional degree of freedom in engineering flexible solar cell covers allows maximal performance from a given cell for minimal increased cost.

  16. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  17. Improvements in CdTe- and CIGS-based thin-film solar cells and investigation on new materials for photovoltaic applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Greta

    2018-01-01

    Currently, thin-film solar cells are one of the most promising technologies for low-cost renewable energy production. CdTe- and CuInGaSe2-based cells, which achieved record efficiencies of 22.1% and 22.6% respectively, are the most attractive among thin-film solar cells. These high efficiencies have had a huge influence in making them highly competitive in the photovoltaic market, with an estimated final cost per module lower than US $ 0.50 per peak-watt. At the Thin Film Laboratory of the...

  18. Transparent solar antenna of 28 GHz using transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ali, N I; Misran, N; Mansor, M F; Jamlos, M F

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of 28GHz solar patch antenna using the variations of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film as the radiating patch. Solar antenna is basically combining the function of antenna and solar cell into one device and helps to maximize the usage of surface area. The main problem of the existing solar antenna is the radiating patch which made of nontransparent material, such as copper, shadowing the solar cell and degrades the total solar efficiency. Hence, by using the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film as the radiating patch, this problem can be tackled. The TCO thin film used is varied to ITO, FTO, AgHT-4, and AgHT-8 along with glass as substrate. The simulation of the antenna executed by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio software demonstrated at 28 GHz operating frequency for 5G band applications. The performance of the transparent antennas is compared with each other and also with the nontransparent patch antenna that using Rogers RT5880 as substrate, operating at the same resonance frequency and then, the material that gives the best performance is identified. (paper)

  19. Transparent solar antenna of 28 GHz using transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. I. Mohd; Misran, N.; Mansor, M. F.; Jamlos, M. F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the analysis of 28GHz solar patch antenna using the variations of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film as the radiating patch. Solar antenna is basically combining the function of antenna and solar cell into one device and helps to maximize the usage of surface area. The main problem of the existing solar antenna is the radiating patch which made of nontransparent material, such as copper, shadowing the solar cell and degrades the total solar efficiency. Hence, by using the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film as the radiating patch, this problem can be tackled. The TCO thin film used is varied to ITO, FTO, AgHT-4, and AgHT-8 along with glass as substrate. The simulation of the antenna executed by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio software demonstrated at 28 GHz operating frequency for 5G band applications. The performance of the transparent antennas is compared with each other and also with the nontransparent patch antenna that using Rogers RT5880 as substrate, operating at the same resonance frequency and then, the material that gives the best performance is identified.

  20. Thin nanostructured crystalline TiO{sub 2} films and their applications in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yajun

    2007-06-15

    Research on thin nanostructured crystalline TiO{sub 2} films has attracted considerable interests because of their intriguing physical properties and potential applications in photovoltaics. Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} film plays an important role in the TiO{sub 2} based dye-sensitized solar cells because they act as a substrate for the adsorption of dye molecules and a matrix for the transportation of electrons as well. Thus they can influence the solar cell performance significantly. Consequently, the control of the morphology including the shape, size and size distribution of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures is critical to tune and optimize the performance of the solar cells. To control the TiO{sub 2} morphology, a strategy using amphiphilic block copolymer as templating agent coupled with sol-gel chemistry has been applied. Especially, a good-poor solvent pair induced phase separation process has been developed to guide the microphase separation behavior of the block copolymers. The amphiphilic block copolymers used include polystyrene-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate)-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PMMA-b-PEO), and poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-b-PS-b-PEO). The block copolymer undergoes a good-poor-solvent pair induced phase separation in a mixed solution of 1, 4-dioxane or N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). Specifically, in the system of PS-b-PEO, a morphology phase diagram of the inorganic-copolymer composite films was mapped by adjusting the weight fractions among 1, 4-dioxane, HCl, and TTIP in solution. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} within the titania-block copolymer composite films was crystallized by calcination at temperatures above 400 C, where the organic block copolymer was simultaneously burned away. This strategy is further extended to other amphiphilic block copolymers of PMMA-b-PEO and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, where the

  1. Characterization of Nanocrystalline SiGe Thin Film Solar Cell with Double Graded-Dead Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium (nc-SiGe thin films were deposited by high-frequency (27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD. The films were used in a silicon-based thin film solar cell with graded-dead absorption layer. The characterization of the nc-SiGe films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of SiGe alloy can be adjusted between 0.8 and 1.7 eV by varying the gas ratio. For thin film solar cell application, using double graded-dead i-SiGe layers mainly leads to an increase in short-circuit current and therefore cell conversion efficiency. An initial conversion efficiency of 5.06% and the stabilized efficiency of 4.63% for an nc-SiGe solar cell were achieved.

  2. Weak antilocalization induced by Rashba spin-orbit interaction in layered III-VI compound semiconductor GaSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuna, Shoichi; Shiogai, Junichi; Matsuzaka, Shunichiro; Kohda, Makoto; Oyama, Yutaka; Nitta, Junsaku

    2017-10-01

    Magnetoconductance (MC) at low temperature was measured to investigate spin-related transport affected by spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in III-VI compound n -type GaSe thin films. Results reveal that MC shows weak antilocalization (WAL). Its temperature and gate voltage dependences reveal that the dominant spin relaxation is governed by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism associated with the Rashba SOI. The estimated Rashba SOI strength in GaSe is much stronger than that of III-V compound GaAs quantum wells, although the energy gap and spin split-off band in GaSe closely resemble those in GaAs. The angle dependence of WAL amplitude in the in-plane magnetic field direction is almost isotropic. This isotropy indicates that the strength of the Dresselhaus SOI is negligible compared with the Rashba SOI strength. The SOI effect in n -GaSe thin films differs greatly from those of III-V compound semiconductors and transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  3. Growth of Cu2O on Ga-doped ZnO and their interface energy alignment for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L. M.; Chiam, S. Y.; Wang, S. J.; Pan, J. S.; Huang, J. Q.; Chim, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Cu 2 O thin films are deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on borofloat glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass at room temperature. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structures and properties of Cu 2 O thin films are investigated. We show that oxygen partial pressure is a crucial parameter in achieving pure phases of CuO and Cu 2 O. Based on this finding, we fabricate heterojunctions of p-type Cu 2 O with n-type gallium doped ZnO (GZO) on ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition for GZO thin films. The energy band alignment for thin films of Cu 2 O/GZO on ITO glass is characterized using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy band alignment for the Cu 2 O/GZO heterojunctions is determined to be type II with a valence band offset of 2.82 eV and shows negligible effects of variation with gallium doping. The higher conduction band of the Cu 2 O relative to that of GZO in the obtained band alignment shows that the heterojunctions are suitable for solar cell application based on energy levels consideration.

  4. P-doped strontium titanate grown using two target pulsed laser deposition for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Hamdi

    Thin-film solar cells made of Mg-doped SrTiO3 p-type absorbers are promising candidates for clean energy generation. This material shows p-type conductivity and also demonstrates reasonable absorption of light. In addition, p-type SrTiO3 can be deposited as thin films so that the cost can be lower than the competing methods. In this work, Mg-doped SrTiO3 (STO) thin-films were synthesized and analyzed in order to observe their potential to be employed as the base semiconductor in photovoltaic applications. Mg-doped STO thin-films were grown by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a frequency quadrupled Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) laser and with a substrate that was heated by back surface absorption of infrared (IR) laser light. The samples were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it was observed that Mg atoms were doped successfully in the stoichiometry. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) spectroscopy proved that the thin films were polycrystalline. Kelvin Probe work function measurements indicated that the work function of the films were 4.167 eV after annealing. UV/Vis Reflection spectroscopy showed that Mg-doped STO thin-films do not reflect significantly except in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum where the reflection percentage increased up to 80%. Self-doped STO thin-films, Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films and stainless steel foil (SSF) were studied in order to observe their characteristics before employing them in Mg-doped STO based solar cells. Self-doped STO thin films were grown using PLD and the results showed that they are capable of serving as the n-type semiconductor in solar cell applications with oxygen vacancies in their structure and low reflectivity. Indium Tin Oxide thin-films grown by PLD system showed low 25-50 ?/square sheet resistance and very low reflection features. Finally, commercially available stainless steel foil substrates were excellent substrates for the inexpensive growth of

  5. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    In this work, Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost. - Highlights: • Ethanol gas sensors based on Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle thin film were fabricated. • Pd incorporation in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} matrix inhibits grain growth. • The sensors were more selective to ethanol gas. • Sensors exhibited fast response and recovery when doped with palladium. • Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film sensor displays excellent long–term stability.

  6. Elevated transition temperature in Ge doped VO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Anna; Magrez, Arnaud; Vitale, Wolfgang A.; Mocny, Piotr; Jeanneret, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Whitlow, Harry J.; Ionescu, Adrian M.; Schüler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Thermochromic GexV1-xO2+y thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by means of reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were then characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), four-point probe electrical resistivity measurements, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. From the temperature dependent resistivity measurements, the effect of Ge doping on the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide thin films was investigated. The transition temperature was shown to increase significantly upon Ge doping (˜95 °C), while the hysteresis width and resistivity contrast gradually decreased. The precise Ge concentration and the film thickness have been determined by RBS. The crystallinity of phase-pure VO2 monoclinic films was confirmed by XRD. These findings make the use of vanadium dioxide thin films in solar and electronic device applications—where higher critical temperatures than 68 °C of pristine VO2 are needed—a viable and promising solution.

  7. Fabrication of high quality Cu2SnS3 thin film solar cell with 1.12% power conversion efficiency obtain by low cost environment friendly sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, J. J.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-03-01

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) is an emerging ternery chalcogenide material with great potential application in thin film solar cells. We present here high quality Cu2SnS3 thin films using a facile spin coating method. The as deposited films of CTS were sulphurized in a graphite box using tubular furnace at 520 °C for 60 min at the rate of 2.83 °C min-1 in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy studies confirm tetragonal phase and absence of any secondary phase in sulphurized CTS thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that Cu and Sn are in +1 and +4 oxidation state respectively. Surface morphology of CTS films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM), which revealed a smooth surface with roughness (RMS) of 6.32 nm for sulphurized CTS film. Hall measurements confirmed p-type conductivity with hole concentartion of sulphurized CTS thin film is of 6.5348 × 1020 cm-3. UV-vis spectra revealed a direct energy band gap varies from 1.45 eV to 1.01 eV for as-deposited and sulphurized CTS thin film respectively. Such band gap values are optimum for semiconductor material as an absorber layer of thin film solar cell. The CTS thin film solar cell had following structure: SLG/FTO/ZnO/CTS/Al with short circuit current density of (Jsc) of 11.6 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.276 V, active area of 0.16 cm2, fill factor (FF) of 35% and power conversion efficiency of 1.12% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination in simulated standard test conditions.

  8. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, D. A.; Massi, M.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototype...

  9. Alkali-templated surface nanopatterning of chalcogenide thin films: a novel approach toward solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Patrick; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Hagendorfer, Harald; Sozzi, Giovanna; Menozzi, Roberto; Gretener, Christina; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-05-13

    Concepts of localized contacts and junctions through surface passivation layers are already advantageously applied in Si wafer-based photovoltaic technologies. For Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, such concepts are generally not applied, especially at the heterojunction, because of the lack of a simple method yielding features with the required size and distribution. Here, we show a novel, innovative surface nanopatterning approach to form homogeneously distributed nanostructures (<30 nm) on the faceted, rough surface of polycrystalline chalcogenide thin films. The method, based on selective dissolution of self-assembled and well-defined alkali condensates in water, opens up new research opportunities toward development of thin film solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

  10. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  11. Preparation and characterization of TiO[sub 2]/Sb thin films for solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, W.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Pure and antimony-incorporated TiO[sub 2] thin films were prepared using a spray-CVD method. The method allows for convenient incorporation of foreign atoms into the oxide matrix during film growth. The foreign atoms in the oxide film affects both the photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical properties of the n-Si/oxide heterojunction. The characteristics of the prepared oxide films were affected significantly by the presence of antimony on the oxide matrix. The increased conductivity of the Sb-containing oxide layers is reflected in the improved photovoltaic properties of the prepared n-Si/TiO[sub 2]-Sb heterojunctions, e.g. fill factor and solar conversion efficiency. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared devices revealed that the charge transfer step at the oxide/electrolyte interface leads to a deterioration of the cell quality. However, this drawback has been offset by the improved properties of the heterojunction. (orig.)

  12. High mobility transparent conducting oxides for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    A special class of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) with high mobility of > 65 cm 2 V -1 s -1 allows film resistivity in the low 10 -4 Ω cm range and a high transparency of > 80% over a wide spectrum, from 300 nm to beyond 1500 nm. This exceptional coincidence of desirable optical and electrical properties provides opportunities to improve the performance of opto-electronic devices and opens possibilities for new applications. Strategies to attain high mobility (HM) TCO materials as well as the current status of such materials based on indium and cadmium containing oxides are presented. Various concepts used to understand the underlying mechanisms for high mobility in HMTCO films are discussed. Examples of HMTCO layers used as transparent electrodes in thin film solar cells are used to illustrate possible improvements in solar cell performance. Finally, challenges and prospects for further development of HMTCO materials are discussed.

  13. Operating method of amorphous thin film semiconductor element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koshiro; Ono, Masaharu; Hanabusa, Akira; Osawa, Michio; Arita, Takashi

    1988-05-31

    The existing technologies concerning amorphous thin film semiconductor elements are the technologies concerning the formation of either a thin film transistor or an amorphous Si solar cell on a substrate. In order to drive a thin film transistor for electronic equipment control by the output power of an amorphous Si solar cell, it has been obliged to drive the transistor weth an amorphous solar cell which was formed on a substrate different from that for the transistor. Accordingly, the space for the amorphous solar cell, which was formed on the different substrate, was additionally needed on the substrate for the thin film transistor. In order to solve the above problem, this invention proposes an operating method of an amorphous thin film semiconductor element that after forming an amorphous Si solar cell through lamination on the insulation coating film which covers the thin film transistor formed on the substrate, the thin film transistor is driven by the output power of this solar cell. The invention eliminates the above superfluous space and reduces the size of the amorphous thin film semiconductor element including the electric source. (3 figs)

  14. Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Performance of Thin-Film-Based Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: A Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Nikita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    Solar cells/photovoltaic, a renewable energy source, is appraised to be the most effective alternative to the conventional electrical energy generator. A cost-effective alternative of crystalline wafer-based solar cell is thin-film polycrystalline-based solar cell. This paper reports the numerical analysis of dependency of the solar cell parameters (i.e., efficiency, fill factor, open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density) on grain size for thin-film-based polycrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. A minority carrier lifetime model is proposed to do a correlation between the grains, grain boundaries and lifetime for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells in MATLAB environment. As observed, the increment in the grain size diameter results in increase in minority carrier lifetime in polycrystalline Si thin film. A non-equivalent series resistance double-diode model is used to find the dark as well as light (AM1.5) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells. To optimize the effectiveness of the proposed model, a successive approximation method is used and the corresponding fitting parameters are obtained. The model is validated with the experimentally obtained results reported elsewhere. The experimentally reported solar cell parameters can be found using the proposed model described here.

  15. The applications of electron accelerator. Liquid, thin film and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali

    2004-01-01

    As indicated by the results of this study, low energy electron beam accelerator of 200 keV to 500 keV can be utilized to irradiate thin hydrogel film in the range of 60 to 500 μm thickness. However, the industrial applications of this technology will depend on its applications. For thin films, cosmetic use such as faced mask is possible. The production of sago hydrogel for cosmetic used is in the process of commercialization in Malaysia. As for electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater in particular the effluent from the textile industry is still at infancy. Further work is necessary in order to have a base line data before the commercialization is taken place. Malaysia has also embarked on the electron beam treatment of flue gases and has completed the semi-pilot scale study by using 1.0 MeV electron accelerator voltage and 400 cum flue gas generated from diesel generator. This study was conducted together with the TNB Research, the research institute belongs to the electrical power company in Malaysia. For technology transfer and commercialization, MINT is planned to promote this technology to Independent Power Producers (IPP) in Malaysia. (author)

  16. Effect of sodium addition on Cu-deficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasekar, Parag S.; Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Chalcopyrites are important contenders among solar-cell materials due to direct band gap and very high-absorption coefficients. Copper-indium-gallium disulfide (CIGS2) is a chalcopyrite material with a near-optimum band gap of 1.5 eV for terrestrial as well as space applications. At FSEC PV Materials Laboratory, record efficiency of 11.99% has been achieved on a 2.7 {mu}m CIGS2 thin film prepared by sulfurization. There are reports of influence of sodium on copper-indium-gallium selenide (CIGS) as well as copper-indium disulfide (CIS2) solar cells. However, this is the first of its kind approach to study the effect of sodium on CIGS2 solar cells and resulting in encouraging efficiencies. Copper-deficient CIGS2 thin films were prepared with and without the addition of sodium fluoride (NaF). Effects of addition of NaF on the microstructure and device electrical properties are presented in this work. (author)

  17. Variation of sulfur content in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipper, Martin; Knecht, Robin; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Chalcopyrite thin film solar cells made of the compound semiconductor Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) have a strong potential for achieving high efficiencies at low production costs. Volume production of CIGSSe-modules has already started to exploit their favorable attributes such as low cost processing and reasonable module efficiency. In this study we studied industrially produced CIGSSe modules obtained from rapid thermal processing (RTP) for sulfurization. In detail, we investigated the effect of sulfur offer and RTP temperature (500 C to 580 C) on the photoelectric characteristics of small-area solar cells cut from the modules. Current-voltage profiling under standard test conditions revealed a strong influence of the particular process recipe on the open circuit voltage whereas significant variations of the maximum quantum efficiency can be observed. X-ray diffraction was employed to relate these effects to the crystallographic structure of the actual CIGSSe films. Lock-in thermographic imaging was employed to link apparent film inhomogeneities and disruptions to the specific process recipe.

  18. Back surface studies of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, Hamed

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells have attracted a lot of interest because they have shown the highest achieved efficiency (21%) among thin film photovoltaic materials, long-term stability, and straightforward optical bandgap engineering by changing relative amounts of present elements in the alloy. Still, there are several opportunities to further improve the performance of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices. The interfaces between layers significantly affect the device performance, and knowledge of their chemical and electronic structures is essential in identifying performance limiting factors. The main goal of this research is to understand the characteristics of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2-back contact interface in order to design ohmic back contacts for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells with a range of band gaps and device configurations. The focus is on developing either an opaque or transparent ohmic back contact via surface modification or introduction of buffer layers in the back surface. In this project, candidate back contact materials have been identified based on modeling of band alignments and surface chemical properties of the absorber layer and back contact. For the first time, MoO3 and WO 3 transparent back contacts were successfully developed for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells. The structural, optical, and surface properties of MoO 3 and WO3 were optimized by controlling the oxygen partial pressure during reactive sputtering and post-deposition annealing. Valence band edge energies were also obtained by analysis of the XPS spectra and used to characterize the interface band offsets. As a result, it became possible to illuminate of the device from the back, resulting in a recently developed "backwall superstrate" device structure that outperforms conventional substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices in the absorber thickness range 0.1-0.5 microm. Further enhancements were achieved by introducing moderate amounts of Ag into the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 lattice during the co-evaporation method

  19. Characterization of CuInS2 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, S.; López, I.; Peña, Y.; Calixto, M.; Hernández, T.; Messina, S.

    2014-01-01

    CuInS 2 thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In 2 S 3 –CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS 2 thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In 2 S 3 , respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10 −3 Ω −1 cm −1 for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In 2 S 3 deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS 2 films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO 2 :F/CdS/Sb 2 S 3 /CuInS 2 /PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In 2 S 3 deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J sc ) of 2.43 mA cm −2 , and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In 2 S 3 bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V oc = 330 mV, J sc = 4.78 mA cm −2 and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS 2 films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS 2 thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method

  20. Commercial Development Of Ovonic Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1983-09-01

    subsequent paper) which has clearly demonstrated that the basic barrier to low-cost production has been broken through and that one can now speak realistically of delivering power directly from the sun for under a dollar per peak watt merely by making larger versions of this basic continuous web, large-area thin-film machine. We have made one square foot amorphous silicon alloy PIN devices with conversion efficiencies in the range of 7%, and in the laboratory, we have reported smaller area PIN de-vices in the 10% conversion efficiency range. In addition, much higher energy conversion efficiencies can be obtained within the same process by using multi-cell layered or tandem thin-film solar cell structures (see Figure 1). These devices exhibit enhanced efficiency by utilizing a wider range of the solar spectrum. Since the theoretical maximum efficiency for multi-cell structures is over 60%, one can certainly realistically anticipate the pro-duction of thin-film amorphous photovoltaic devices with efficiencies as high as 30%. Our production device is already a two-cell tandem, as we have solved not only the problems of interfacing the individual cell components but also the difficulties associated with a one foot square format deposited on a continuous web. Figure 2 shows a continuous roll of Ovonic solar cells. Realistic calculations for a three-cell tandem thin-film device using amorphous semiconductor alloys with 1.8eV, 1.5eV, and 1.0eV optical band gaps indicate that solar energy conversion efficiencies of 20-30% can be achieved.

  1. Combination of short-length TiO_2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO_2 nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO_2 nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO_2 nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO_2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open

  2. High efficiency thin film solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (HEFTY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, N.B.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Ballard, I.M.; Zhang, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-04

    The project sought to show the UK as a world leader in the field of thin film crystalline solar cells. A premise was that the cell design be suitable for large-scale manufacturing and provide a basis for industrial exploitation. The study demonstrated (1) that silicon films grown at temperatures suitable for deposition on glass by Gas Phase Molecular Beam Epitaxy gives better PV cells than does Ultra Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition; (2) a conversion energy of 15 per cent was achieved - the project target was 18 per cent and (3) one of the highest reported conversion efficiencies for a 15 micrometre silicon film was achieved. The study was carried out by BP Solar Limited under contract to the DTI.

  3. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  4. Development of A Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.; Chen, W.; Zhang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A new design for a single junction, thin film Si solar cell is presented. The cell design is compatible with low-temperature processing required for the use of a low-cost glass substrate, and includes effective light trapping and impurity gettering. Elements of essential process steps are discussed

  5. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  6. Photoelectrochemical properties of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films: Effect of substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur, M.S. 413512 (India); Salunke, S.D. [Department of Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur, M.S. 413512 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrochemical properties of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films. • In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films are of n-type with I{sub sc} and V{sub oc} of 1.05 mA/cm{sup 2} and 261 mV respectively. • Efficiency (η) and fill factor (FF) is found to be 0.71% and 0.51% respectively. • Performance of cell can motivate further studies concerning solar energy conversion. - Abstract: In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films have been deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) glass substrates at various substrate temperatures by spray pyrolysis. The photoelectrochemical cell configurations were In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin film/1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2}S + S)/C. From capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current–voltage (I–V) characteristics; it is concluded that In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films are of n-type. The Fill factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η) were calculated from photovoltaic power output characteristics. In this instance, the highest measured photocurrent density of 1.05 mA/cm{sup 2} and open circuit voltage of 261 mV is observed for film deposited at 350 °C resulting in maximum power conversion efficiency (η) and fill factor (FF) to be 0.71% and 0.51% respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study shows that the In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} film deposited at 350 °C shows better performance in photoelectrochemical cell. The performance of indium selenide thin film observed in our work can motivate further studies concerning solar energy conversion.

  7. Progress in thin-film silicon solar cells based on photonic-crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kenji; De Zoysa, Menaka; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Jeon, Seung-Woo; Noda, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    We review the recent progress in thin-film silicon solar cells with photonic crystals, where absorption enhancement is achieved by using large-area resonant effects in photonic crystals. First, a definitive guideline for enhancing light absorption in a wide wavelength range (600–1100 nm) is introduced, showing that the formation of multiple band edges utilizing higher-order modes confined in the thickness direction and the introduction of photonic superlattice structures enable significant absorption enhancement, exceeding that observed for conventional random scatterers. Subsequently, experimental evidence of this enhancement is demonstrated for a variety of thin-film Si solar cells: ∼500-nm-thick ultrathin microcrystalline silicon cells, few-µm-thick microcrystalline silicon cells, and ∼20-µm-thick thin single-crystalline silicon cells. The high short-circuit current densities and/or efficiencies observed for each cell structure confirm the effectiveness of using multiple band-edge resonant modes of photonic crystals for enhancing broadband absorption in actual solar cells.

  8. Development of Deposition and Characterization Systems for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaroli, Alexander J.

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are becoming more important due to a number of economic and environmental factors. PV research relies on the ability to quickly fabricate and characterize these devices. While there are a number of deposition methods that are available in a laboratory setting, they are not necessarily able to be scaled to provide high throughput in a commercial setting. A close-space sublimation (CSS) system was developed to provide a means of depositing thin films in a very controlled and scalable manner. Its viability was explored by using it to deposit the absorber layer in Zn3P2 and CdTe solar cell devices. Excellent control over morphology and growth conditions and a high level of repeatability was demonstrated in the study of textured Zn3P2 thin films. However, some limitations imposed by the structure of Zn3P 2-based PV devices showed that CSS may not be the best approach for depositing Zn3P2 thin films. Despite the inability to make Zn3P2 solar cell devices, high efficiency CdTe solar cells were fabricated using CSS. With the introduction of Perovskite-based solar cell devices, the viability of data collected from conventional J-V measurements was questioned due to the J-V hysteresis that Perovskite devices exhibited. New methods of solar cell characterization were developed in order to accurately and quickly assess the performance of hysteretic PV devices. Both J-V measurements and steady-state efficiency measurements are prone to errors due to hysteresis and maximum power point drift. To resolve both of these issues, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system was developed with two algorithms: a simple algorithm and a predictive algorithm. The predictive algorithm showed increased resistance to the effects of hysteresis because of its ability to predict the steady-state current after a bias step with a double exponential decay model fit. Some publications have attempted to quantify the degree of J-V hysteresis present in fabricated Perovskite

  9. Transparent conductive zinc oxide basics and applications in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Andreas; Rech, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) belongs to the class of transparent conducting oxides which can be used as transparent electrodes in electronic devices or heated windows. In this book the material properties of, the deposition technologies for, and applications of zinc oxide in thin film solar cells are described in a comprehensive manner. Structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of ZnO are treated in this review. The editors and authors of this book are specialists in deposition, analysis and fabrication of thin-film solar cells and especially of ZnO. This book is intended as an overview and a data collection for students, engineers and scientist.

  10. In-situ XRD study of alloyed Cu2ZnSnSe4-CuInSe2 thin films for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnauer, Stefan; Wägele, Leonard A.; Jarzembowski, Enrico; Scheer, Roland

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the growth of Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 -CuInSe 2 (CZTISe) thin films using a 2-stage (Cu-rich/Cu-free) co-evaporation process under simultaneous application of in-situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD). In-situ XRD allows monitoring the phase formation during preparation. A variation of the content of indium in CZTISe leads to a change in the lattice constant. Single phase CZTISe is formed in a wide range, while at high In contents a phase separation is detected. Because of different thermal expansion coefficients, the X-ray diffraction peaks of ZnSe and CZTISe can be distinguished at elevated substrate temperatures. The formation of ZnSe appears to be inhibited even for low indium content. In-situ XRD shows no detectable sign for the formation of ZnSe. First solar cells of CZTISe have been prepared and show comparable performance to CZTSe. - Highlights: • In-situ XRD study of two-stage co-evaporated Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 -CuInSe 2 alloyed thin films. • No detection of ZnSe with in-situ XRD due to Indium incorporation • Comparable efficiency of alloyed solar cells

  11. AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2} thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.O. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450, México (Mexico); Shaji, S.; Avellaneda, D. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450, México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-CIIDIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Castillo, A.G.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450, México (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2} thin films were formed by heating Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} dipped Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Ag layers. ► S/Se ratio was varied by changing the dipping time in Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} solution. ► Characterized the films using XRD, XPS, SEM, Optical and electrical measurements. ► Band gap engineering of 1−1.1 eV for x = 0.51 and 0.52 respectively. ► PV Glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2}/C were prepared showing V{sub oc} = 410 mV, J{sub sc} = 5.7 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Silver antimony sulfoselenide (AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2}) thin films were prepared by heating glass/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Ag layers after selenization using sodium selenosulphate solution. First, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Then Ag thin films were thermally evaporated onto glass/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3}. The duration of selenium dipping was varied as 30 min and 2 h. The heating condition was at 350 °C for 1 h in vacuum. Analysis of X-ray diffraction pattern of the thin films formed after heating showed the formation of AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2}. Morphology and elemental analysis were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray detection. Depth profile of composition of the thin films was performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The spectral study showed the presence of Ag, Sb, S, and Se, and the corresponding binding energy analysis confirmed the formation of AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2}. Photovoltaic structures (PV) were prepared using AgSb(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 2} thin films as absorber and CdS thin films as window layers on FTO coated glass substrates. The PV structures were heated at 60–80 °C in air for 1 h to improve ohmic contact. Analysis of J–V characteristics of the PV structures showed V

  12. Investigation of blister formation in sputtered Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorbers for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.bras@angstrom.uu.se [Midsummer AB, Elektronikhöjden 6, SE-17543 Järfälla, Sweden and Solid State Electronics, Angström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Sterner, Jan [Midsummer AB, Elektronikhöjden 6, SE-17543 Järfälla (Sweden); Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte [Solid State Electronics, Angström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    Blister formation in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films sputtered from a quaternary compound target is investigated. While the thin film structure, composition, and substrate material are not correlated to the blister formation, a strong link between sputtering gas entrapment, in this case argon, and blistering effect is found. It is shown that argon is trapped in the film during sputtering and migrates to locally form blisters during the high temperature annealing. Blister formation in CZTS absorbers is detrimental for thin film solar cell fabrication causing partial peeling of the absorber layer and potential shunt paths in the complete device. Reduced sputtering gas entrapment, and blister formation, is seen for higher sputtering pressure, higher substrate temperature, and change of sputtering gas to larger atoms. This is all in accordance with previous publications on blister formation caused by sputtering gas entrapment in other materials.

  13. Significant efficiency enhancement in thin film solar cells using laser beam-induced graphene transparent conductive electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Thekkekara, L. V.; Cai, Bouyan

    2018-01-01

    Thin film solar cells have been attractive for decades in advanced green technology platforms due to its possibilities to be integrated with buildings and on-chip applications. However, the bottleneck issues involved to consider the current solar cells as a major electricity source includes the lower efficiencies and cost-effectiveness. We numerically demonstrate the concept of the absorption enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using the laser beam-induced graphene material...

  14. Sputter Deposited TiOx Thin-Films as Electron Transport Layers in Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Bomholt Jensen, Pia; Lakhotiya, Harish

    transparency and favorable energy-level alignment with many commonly used electron-acceptor materials. There are several methods available for fabricating compact TiOx thin-films for use in organic solar cells, including sol-gel solution processing, spray pyrolysis and atomic-layer deposition; however...... of around 7%, by incorporating sputter deposited TiOx thin-films as electron-transport and exciton-blocking layers. In the work, we report on the effect of different TiOx deposition temperatures and thicknesses on the organic-solar-cell device performance. Besides optical characterization, AFM and XRD...... analyses are performed to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the films, and external quantum efficiency measurements are employed to shed further light on the device performance. Our study presents a novel method for implementation of TiOx thin-films as electron-transport layer in organic...

  15. Influence of thin film thickness of working electrodes on photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yeong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the influence of thin film thickness of working electrodes on the photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films, with the thickness from 7.67 to 24.3 μm, were used to fabricate the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A TiO2 film was coated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass substrate and then sintered in a high-temperature furnace. On the other hand, platinum (Pt solution was coated onto an FTO substrate for the fabrication of the counter electrode of a DSSC. The working electrode immersed in a dye, the counter electrode, and the electrolyte were assembled to complete a sandwich-structure DSSC. The material analysis of the TiO2 films of DSSCs was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs were measured by an AM-1.5 sunlight simulator. The light transmittance characteristics of the TiO2 working electrode depend on the TiO2 film thickness. The thin film thickness of the working electrode also affects the light absorption of a dye and results in the photovoltaic characteristics of the DSSC, including open-circuited voltage (VOC, short-circuited current density (JSC, fill factor, and photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  16. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, T.Y.; Tou, T.Y.; Yow, H.K.; Safran, G.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to -4 Ω cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O 2 and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N 2 and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N 2 but polycrystalline for using O 2 and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O 2 and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO

  17. Amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on glass fiber textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@leibniz-ipht.de; Andrä, Gudrun; Pliewischkies, Torsten; Brückner, Uwe; Eisenhawer, Björn; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous silicon solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics are demonstrated. • Open circuit voltages of 883 mV show shunt-free contacting on non-planar fabrics. • Short-circuit current densities of 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses. • Fill factors of 43.1% and pseudo fill factors of 70.2% show high series resistance. • Efficiencies of 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies of 2.1% realized on textile fabrics. - Abstract: In this contribution, amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics for smart textiles are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is characterized. These solar cells on fabrics delivered open circuit voltages up to 883 mV. This shows that shunt-free contacting of the solar cells was successful, even in case of non-planar fabrics. The short-circuit current densities up to 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses in a 10 nm thin titanium layer, which was used as a semi-transparent contact. The low conductivity of this layer limits the fill factor to 43.1%. Pseudo fill factors, neglecting the series resistance, up to 70.2% were measured. Efficiencies up to 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies up to 2.1% were realized on textile fabrics. A transparent conductive oxide could further improve the efficiency to above 5%.

  18. Electrochemical etching of molybdenum for shunt removal in thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Meertens, R.M.; Frijters, C.H.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    High yield and reproducible production is a major challenge in up-scaling thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS) solar cells to large area roll-to-roll industrial manufacturing. Pinholes enabling Ohmic contact between the ZnO:Al front-contact and Mo back contact of the CIGS cell create electrical shunts that

  19. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, Mohamed M; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V; Yang Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  20. Light trapping with plasmonic back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2013-02-08

    small potential for increasing the reflection at the back contact with dielectric interlayers of even lower refractive index, such as SiO{sub 2} and air, is demonstrated. The light-trapping effect of two types of plasmonic back contacts, which make use of large and efficiently scattering Ag nanostructures, is studied in thin-film silicon solar cell prototypes. The first type of plasmonic back contact applies non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. Measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures are correlated with reflectance spectra derived from three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. A microcrystalline silicon solar cell fabricated on one type of plasmonic Ag back contact with non-ordered Ag nanostructures shows a significantly enhanced plasmonic light trapping when compared with a flat solar cell. The second type of plasmonic back contact applies periodic arrangements of plasmonic Ag nanostructures in a square lattice at the surface of the Ag back contact. It is called a plasmonic reflection grating back contact. A particular advantage of this device is the control of the scattering angles via the diffraction orders of the grating while taking advantage of the efficient plasmon-induced light scattering at the Ag nanostructures. The plasmonic reflection grating back contacts are prepared with a nanoimprint process. The prototype microcrystalline silicon solar cells exhibit a very good light-trapping effect. Even in comparison with solar cells with a state-of-the-art random texture for light trapping, an enhanced light-trapping effect is demonstrated for a solar sell with a plasmonic reflection grating of optimized period. Based on electromagnetic simulations, the light-trapping effect is explained from the

  1. Development of a hybrid sputtering/evaporation process for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, M.; Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A.; Lorenzi, B.; Caccamo, L.; Miglio, L. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Solar Energy Research Center MIB-SOLAR, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Moneta, R.; Marchionna, S.; Meschia, M. [Voltasolar s.r.l, Turate (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we report a new method for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} deposition for solar cell application. Differently from the common co-evaporation process, an alterative approach for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} has been tested: the sputtering deposition of metal elements combined with the selenium evaporation. We have studied the relationships between the growth parameters of our hybrid sputtering/evaporation method and the chemical-physical properties of the CIGS films. The cells are completed with a CdS buffer layer deposited by chemical bath deposition and ZnO + ITO deposited by RF sputtering. Test solar cells of 0.5 cm{sup 2} have shown an efficiency of 10% and 2.5% on glass and stainless steel substrate respectively. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Materials and Light Management for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.

    2015-01-01

    Direct conversion of sunlight into electricity is one of the most promising approaches to provide sufficient renewable energy for humankind. Solar cells are such devices which can efficiently generate electricity from sunlight through the photovoltaic effect. Thin-film silicon solar cells, a type of

  3. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at ˜150°C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a

  4. Combination of short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengguo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion

  5. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Khaledi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arifin, Zainudin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  6. Dyadic Green’s functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Green’s function formulation. Based on the dyadic Green’s function (Green......’s tensor) of a three-layer geometry, light scattering from electric point dipoles (representing small metal scatterers) located within a thin layer sandwiched between a substrate and a superstrate is analyzed. Starting from the full dyadic Green’s function we derive analytical near- and far....... The theoretical approach is used to analyze realistic configurations for plasmon-assisted silicon solar cells. We show that by embedding metal nanoscatterers in a thin film with a high refractive index (rutile TiO2 with n ≈ 2.5) on top of the silicon, the fraction of scattered light that couples into the solar...

  7. The crystallisation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R.; Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A.; Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W.

    2009-01-01

    The best CZTS solar cell so far was produced by co-sputtering continued with vapour phase sulfurization method. Efficiencies of up to 5.74% were reached by Katagiri et al. The one step electrochemical deposition of copper, zinc, tin and subsequent sulfurization is an alternative fabrication technique for the production of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 based thin film solar cells. A kesterite based solar cell (size 0.5 cm 2 ) with a conversion efficiency of 3.4% (AM1.5) was produced by vapour phase sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn films. We report on results of in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments during crystallisation of kesterite thin films from electrochemically co-deposited metal films. The kesterite crystallisation is completed by the solid state reaction of Cu 2 SnS 3 and ZnS. The measurements show two different reaction paths depending on the metal ratios in the as deposited films. In copper-rich metal films Cu 3 Sn and CuZn were found after electrodeposition. In copper-poor or near stoichiometric precursors additional Cu 6 Sn 5 and Sn phases were detected. The formation mechanism of Cu 2 SnS 3 involves the binary sulphides Cu 2-x S and SnS 2 in the absence of the binary precursor phase Cu 6 Sn 5 . The presence of Cu 6 Sn 5 leads to a preferred formation of Cu 2 SnS 3 via the reaction educts Cu 2-x S and SnS 2 in the presence of a SnS 2 (Cu 4 SnS 6 ) melt. The melt phase may be advantageous in crystallising the kesterite, leading to enhanced grain growth in the presence of a liquid phase

  8. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sanjeevlrs732000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Inamdar, A.I.; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100 715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.G. [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). > The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. > Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. > The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  9. Spray pyrolyzed Cu2SnS3 thin films for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    We report the fabrication of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films by a non-vacuum and low cost spray pyrolysis technique. Annealing of the as-deposited film in the sulphur atmosphere produces highly stoichiometric, granular and crystalline CTS phase. The CTS thin films shows direct optical band gap of 1.58 eV with high absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. Hall measurement shows the carrier concentration of the order of 1021 cm-3 and a favourable resistivity of 10-3 Ω cm. A solar cell architecture of Glass/FTO/CTS/CdS/Al:ZnO/Al was fabricated and its current-voltage characteristic shows an open circuit voltage, short circuit current density and fill-factor of 12.6 mV, 20.2 µA/cm2 and 26% respectively. A further improvement in the solar cell parameters is underway.

  10. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by simple replacement reaction route for solar photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Devendra, E-mail: devendratiwari.rnd@ecchanga.ac.in [Dr. K. C. Patel Research and Development Centre, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand District, Gujarat 388421 (India); Chaudhuri, Tapas K. [Dr. K. C. Patel Research and Development Centre, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand District, Gujarat 388421 (India); Ray, Arabinda [P. D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand District, Gujarat 388421 (India); Tiwari, Krishan Dutt [Powerdeal Energy Systems - India, Private Limited, Nashik 422010, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-01-31

    A process for deposition of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) films using replacement of Zn{sup 2+} in ZnS is demonstrated. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectroscopy confirm the formation of pure CZTS. Atomic force microscopy shows the films to be homogeneous and compact with root mean squared roughness of 6 nm. The direct band gap of CZTS films as elucidated by UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy is 1.45 eV. The CZTS films exhibit p-type conduction with electrical conductivity of 4.6 S/cm. The hole concentration and hole mobility is determined to be 3.6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and 1.4 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1} s{sup −1} respectively. Solar cells with structure: graphite/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/SnO{sub 2}:In/Soda lime glass are also fabricated, gave photo-conversion efficiency of 6.17% with open circuit voltage and short circuit current density of 521 mV and 19.13 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively and a high fill factor of 0.62. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cell lies above 60% in the visible region. - Highlights: • Pure kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films deposited by replacement reaction route • Energy band gap of films is 1.45 eV. • p-type films with conductivity of 4.6 S/cm and mobility of 1.4 cm{sup 2} S{sup −1} V{sup −1} • Fabrication of Graphite/Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}/CdS/ZnO/SnO{sub 2}:In/Glass solar cell • Solar cell delivered efficiency of 6.17% with high fill factor of 0.62.

  11. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, S.; Becker, C.; Conrad, E.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Gorka, B.; Lee, K.Y.; Rau, B.; Ruske, F.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH), Department Silicon Photovoltaics (SE1), Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass feature the potential to reach single-junction efficiencies of 15% or even higher at low costs. In this paper innovative approaches are discussed, which could lead to substantial efficiency improvements and significant cost reductions: (i) preparation of large-grained poly-Si films using the 'seed layer concept' targeting at high material quality, (ii) utilization of ZnO:Al-coated glass enabling simple contacting and light-trapping schemes, (iii) utilization of high-rate electron-beam evaporation for the absorber deposition offering a high potential for cost reduction. (author)

  12. Multiscale Computational Fluid Dynamics: Methodology and Application to PECVD of Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Crose

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the development of a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation framework with application to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin film solar cells. A macroscopic, CFD model is proposed which is capable of accurately reproducing plasma chemistry and transport phenomena within a 2D axisymmetric reactor geometry. Additionally, the complex interactions that take place on the surface of a-Si:H thin films are coupled with the CFD simulation using a novel kinetic Monte Carlo scheme which describes the thin film growth, leading to a multiscale CFD model. Due to the significant computational challenges imposed by this multiscale CFD model, a parallel computation strategy is presented which allows for reduced processing time via the discretization of both the gas-phase mesh and microscopic thin film growth processes. Finally, the multiscale CFD model has been applied to the PECVD process at industrially relevant operating conditions revealing non-uniformities greater than 20% in the growth rate of amorphous silicon films across the radius of the wafer.

  13. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly route for preparation of copper indium sulfide based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankir, Nurdan Demirci, E-mail: nsankir@etu.edu.tr; Aydin, Erkan; Ugur, Esma; Sankir, Mehmet

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Substrate structure of spray pyrolyzed CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} heterojunction solar cells. • Low cost and environmentally friendly fabrication of CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells. • Low RF power deposition of TCO layer. • AZO–Ag–AZO sandwich structure. • Effect of the thickness of buffer layer on the photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: In this study, copper based thin film solar cells with substrate structure have been built via spray pyrolysis method. Toxic material usage was avoided during the material deposition and the post-treatment steps. Novel device configuration of Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO was studied as a function of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer thickness. In order to utilize the zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive layers, deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), on top of the spray pyrolyzed thin films, the RF power was lowered to 30 W. Although this minimized the unwanted penetration of the highly energetic particles, created during PVD process, sheet resistivity of the AZO films increased enormously. Hence very thin silver layer has been deposited between two AZO films. This resulted the decrease in the sheet resistivity more than 10{sup 6} times. Electrical measurements under illumination revealed that short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) of the Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO type solar cells increased with increasing the thickness of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. The maximum J{sub sc} of 9.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc} of 0.43 V, FF of 0.44 have been observed for the 0.94 μm-thick In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. Extraordinarily thick buffer layer provided better diffusion barrier between the absorber and the TCO layers and also resulted better photosensitivity. These could be the key factors to produce substrate configuration of the spray pyrolyzed

  14. Multi-Material Front Contact for 19% Thin Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between transmittance and conductivity of the front contact material poses abottleneck for thin film solar panels. Normally, the front contact material is a metal oxide and the optimal cell configuration and panel efficiency were determined for various band gap materials, representing

  15. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited culnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Galiano, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optical an structural properties of electrodeposited copper indium diselenide, CulnSe2, thin films were studied for its application in photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that thin films were grown in chalcopyrite phase after suitable treatments. Values of Eg for the CulnSe2 thin films showed a dependence on the deposition potential as determined by optical measurements. (Author) 47 refs

  16. Photon management in thin-film solar cells; Photon-Management in Duennschicht-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Stephan

    2011-11-22

    In this thesis procedures were presented, which modify the propagation of the incident light in such a way that by this the efficiency of thin-film solar cells is increased. The strength of the presented numerical studies lies thereby in the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. Fundamental statements concerning the lay-out of an ideal texture could be made, which for present thin-film solar cells over the whole relevant spectral range both suppresses reflection losses and leads to an elongation of the effective path. Object of the thesis was also the design of a spectral- and angular-selective filter, which confines the acceptance angle of a solar cell with the aim of an improved absorption in the long-wave spectral region. Furthermore also tandem cells on the base of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon were studied.

  17. Polymorphous silicon thin films produced in dusty plasmas: application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chaabane, N; Kharchenko, A V; Tchakarov, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize our current understanding of the optimization of PIN solar cells produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from silane-hydrogen mixtures. To increase the deposition rate, the discharge is operated under plasma conditions close to powder formation, where silicon nanocrystals contribute to the deposition of so-called polymorphous silicon thin films. We show that the increase in deposition rate can be achieved via an accurate control of the plasma parameters. However, this also results in a highly defective interface in the solar cells due to the bombardment of the P-layer by positively charged nanocrystals during the deposition of the I-layer. We show that decreasing the ion energy by increasing the total pressure or by using silane-helium mixtures allows us to increase both the deposition rate and the solar cells efficiency, as required for cost effective thin film photovoltaics

  18. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  19. Preparation of thin films, with base to precursor materials of type Cu-In-Se elaborated by electrodeposition for the solar cells elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of chalcogenide compounds are promising because they have excellent optoelectronic characteristics to be applied in solar cells. In particular, CuInSe 2 and Cd Te thin films have shown high solar to electrical conversion efficiency. However, this efficiency is limited by the method of preparation, in this case, physical vapor deposition techniques are used. In order to increase the area of deposition t is necessary to use chemical methods, for example, electrodeposition technique. In this paper, the preparation of Cu-In-Se precursors thin films by electrochemical method is reported. These precursors were used to build solar cells with 7.9 % of efficiency. (Author)

  20. Superior light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells through nano imprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Pex, P.P.A.C.

    2013-10-15

    ECN and partners have developed a fabrication process based on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of textures for light trapping in thin film solar cells such as thin-film silicon, OPV, CIGS and CdTe. The process can be applied in roll-to-roll mode when using a foil substrate or in roll-to-plate mode when using a glass substrate. The lacquer also serves as an electrically insulating layer for cells if steel foil is used as substrate, to enable monolithic series interconnection. In this paper we will show the superior light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells made on steel foil with nanotextured back contacts. We have made single junction a-Si and {mu}c-Si and a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem cells, where we applied several types of nano-imprints with random and periodic structures. We will show that the nano-imprinted back contact enables more than 30% increase of current in comparison with non-textured back contacts and that optimized periodic textures outperform state-of-the-art random textures. For a-Si cells we obtained Jsc of 18 mA/cm{sup 2} and for {mu}c-Si cells more than 24 mA/cm{sup 2}. Tandem cells with a total Si absorber layer thickness of only 1350 nm have an initial efficiency of 11%.

  1. On the Scalar Scattering Theory for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-textured interfaces between two media of different refractive indices scatter light. The angular distribution and the intensity of the scattered light are deter- mined by the geometry of the nano-textures and the difference of the refractive indices of the two media. Thin-film silicon solar

  2. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  3. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×1016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  4. Hydrogen effects on deep level defects in proton implanted Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Seol, M.S.; Kwak, D.W.; Oh, J.S. [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, J.H. [Photo-electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.Y., E-mail: hycho@dongguk.edu [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen effects on deep level defects and a defect generation in proton implanted Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) based thin films for solar cell were investigated. CIGS films with a thickness of 3 {mu}m were grown on a soda-lime glass substrate by a co-evaporation method, and then were implanted with protons. To study deep level defects in the proton implanted CIGS films, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements on the CIGS-based solar cells were carried out, these measurements found 6 traps (including 3 hole traps and 3 electron traps). In the proton implanted CIGS films, the deep level defects, which are attributed to the recombination centers of the CIGS solar cell, were significantly reduced in intensity, while a deep level defect was generated around 0.28 eV above the valence band maximum. Therefore, we suggest that most deep level defects in CIGS films can be controlled by hydrogen effects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton implanted Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film and solar cell are prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep level defects of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film and solar cell are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogenation using proton implantation and H{sub 2} annealing reduces deep level defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogenation could enhance electrical properties and efficiency of solar cells.

  5. Improving Performance of CIGS Solar Cells by Annealing ITO Thin Films Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Lung Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films were grown on glass substrates by direct current (DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Annealing at the optimal temperature can considerably improve the composition, structure, optical properties, and electrical properties of the ITO film. An ITO sample with a favorable crystalline structure was obtained by annealing in fixed oxygen/argon ratio of 0.03 at 400°C for 30 min. The carrier concentration, mobility, resistivity, band gap, transmission in the visible-light region, and transmission in the near-IR regions of the ITO sample were -1.6E+20 cm−3, 2.7E+01 cm2/Vs, 1.4E-03 Ohm-cm, 3.2 eV, 89.1%, and 94.7%, respectively. Thus, annealing improved the average transmissions (400–1200 nm of the ITO film by 16.36%. Moreover, annealing a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS solar cell at 400°C for 30 min in air improved its efficiency by 18.75%. The characteristics of annealing ITO films importantly affect the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films that are used in solar cells.

  6. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian

    2013-06-24

    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On

  7. CuInSe2-Based Thin-Film Photovoltaic Technology in the Gigawatt Production Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiya, Katsumi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to review current status and future prospect on CuInSe2 (CIS)-based thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology. In CIS-based thin-film PV technology, total-area cell efficiency in a small-area (i.e., smaller than 1 cm2) solar cell with top grids has been over 20%, while aperture-area efficiency in a large-area (i.e., larger than 800 cm2 as definition) monolithic module is approaching to an 18% milestone. However, most of the companies with CIS-based thin-film PV technology still stay at a production research stage, except Solar Frontier K.K. In July, 2011, Solar Frontier has joined the gigawatt (GW) group by starting up their third facility with a 0.9-GW/year production capacity. They are keeping the closest position to pass a 16% module-efficiency border by transferring the developed technologies in the R&D and accelerating the preparation for the future based on the concept of a product life-cycle management.

  8. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  9. High-rate deposition of epitaxial layers for efficient low-temperature thin film epitaxial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, L.; Schmidt, J.; Wagner, T.A.; Bergmann, R.B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physical Electronics

    2001-07-01

    Low-temperature deposition of Si for thin-film solar cells has previously been hampered by low deposition rates and low material quality, usually reflected by a low open-circuit voltage of these solar cells. In contrast, ion-assisted deposition produces Si films with a minority-carrier diffusion length of 40 {mu}m, obtained at a record deposition rate of 0.8 {mu}m/min and a deposition temperature of 650{sup o}C with a prebake at 810{sup o}C. A thin-film Si solar cell with a 20-{mu}m-thick epitaxial layer achieves an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV and a conversion efficiency of 12.7% without any light trapping structures and without high-temperature solar cell process steps. (author)

  10. Vapor transport deposition of antimony selenide thin film solar cells with 7.6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xixing; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Kanghua; Kondrotas, Rokas; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Wenhao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Guangda; Tang, Jiang

    2018-06-05

    Antimony selenide is an emerging promising thin film photovoltaic material thanks to its binary composition, suitable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, inert grain boundaries and earth-abundant constituents. However, current devices produced from rapid thermal evaporation strategy suffer from low-quality film and unsatisfactory performance. Herein, we develop a vapor transport deposition technique to fabricate antimony selenide films, a technique that enables continuous and low-cost manufacturing of cadmium telluride solar cells. We improve the crystallinity of antimony selenide films and then successfully produce superstrate cadmium sulfide/antimony selenide solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 7.6%, a net 2% improvement over previous 5.6% record of the same device configuration. We analyze the deep defects in antimony selenide solar cells, and find that the density of the dominant deep defects is reduced by one order of magnitude using vapor transport deposition process.

  11. Intercalation crystallization of phase-pure α-HC(NH₂)₂PbI₃ upon microstructurally engineered PbI₂ thin films for planar perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Kwun, Joonsuh; Game, Onkar S; Zhao, Yixin; Pang, Shuping; Padture, Nitin P; Zhu, Kai

    2016-03-28

    The microstructure of the solid-PbI2 precursor thin film plays an important role in the intercalation crystallization of the formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite (α-HC(NH2)2PbI3). It is shown that microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films with porosity and low crystallinity are the most favorable for conversion into uniform-coverage, phase-pure α-HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite thin films. Planar perovskite solar cells fabricated using these thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.8%.

  12. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  13. Analyses of desorbed H2O with temperature programmed desorption technique in sol-gel derived HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Nemoto, D.; Ikeda, M.; Nishide, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a promising material for the gate insulator in highly miniaturized silicon (Si) ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) devices (32 nm and beyond). In the field chemistry, a sol-gel processing has been used to fabricate HfO 2 thin film with the advantages of low cost, relative simplicity, and easy control of the composition of the layers formed. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) has been used not only for analyzing adsorbed gases on the surfaces of bulk sol-gel-derived HfO 2 of sol-gel-derived HfO 2 thin film fired at 350, 450, 550 and 700 deg C in sol-gel derived HfO 2 films in air is investigated using TPD, and also the material characterization of HfO 2 thin films is evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The dielectric constant of the films was also estimated using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) method. TPD is essentially a method of analyzing desorped gases from samples heated by infra-red light as a function of temperature under vacuum conditions using a detector of quadruple mass spectroscopy (QMS). Sol-gel-derived HfO 2 films were fabricated on 76-mm-diameter Si(100) wafers as follows. Hafnia sol solutions were prepared by dissolving HfCl 4 in NH 4 OH solution, followed by the of HCOOH. (author)

  14. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Zhang, Yi; Ao, Jianping; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming-Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Double layer distribution exists in Cu 2 SnZnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double-layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe 2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSe x mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu-Sn-Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu 2 Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe 2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm 2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated.

  15. Application of rapid thermal processing on SiNx thin film to solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youjie LI; Peiqing LUO; Zhibin ZHOU; Rongqiang CUI; Jianhua HUANG; Jingxiao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of SiNx thin films from PECVD with low temperature was investigated. A special processing condition of this technique which could greatly increase the minority lifetime was found in the experiments. The processing mechanism and the application of the technique to silicon solar cells fabrication were dis-cussed. A main achievement is an increase of the minority lifetime in silicon wafer with SiNx thin film by about 200% after the RTP was reached. PC-1D simulation results exhibit an enhancement of the efficiency of the solar cell by 0.42% coming from the minority lifetime improvement. The same experiment was also conducted with P-diffusion silicon wafers, but the increment of minority lifetime is just about 55%. It could be expected to improve the solar cell efficiency if it would be used in silicon solar cells fabrication with the combination of laser firing contact technique.

  16. The investigation of ZnO:Al2O3/metal composite back reflectors in amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guang-Hong; Zhao Lei; Yan Bao-Jun; Chen Jing-Wei; Wang Ge; Diao Hong-Wei; Wang Wen-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Different aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)/metal composite thin films,including AZO/Ag/Al,AZO/Ag/nickelchromium alloy (NiCr),and AZO/Ag/NiCr/Al,are utilized as the back reflectors of p-i-n amorphous silicon germanium thin film solar cells.NiCr is used as diffusion barrier layer between Ag and Al to prevent mutual diffusion,which increases the short circuit current density of solar cell.NiCr and NiCr/Al layers are used as protective layers of Ag layer against oxidation and sulfurization,the higher efficiency of solar cell is achieved.The experimental results show that the performance of a-SiGe solar cell with AZO/Ag/NiCr/Al back reflector is best.The initial conversion efficiency is achieved to be 8.05%.

  17. Microcrystalline silicon carbide alloys prepared with HWCVD as highly transparent and conductive window layers for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, F.; Astakhov, O.; Bronger, T.; Carius, R.; Chen, T.; Dasgupta, A.; Gordijn, A.; Houben, L.; Huang, Y.; Klein, S.; Luysberg, M.; Wang, H.; Xiao, L.

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide alloys have a very high potential as transparent conductive window layers in thin-film solar cells provided they can be prepared in thin-film form and at compatible deposition temperatures. The low-temperature deposition of such material in microcrystalline form (μc-Si:C:H) was realized by use of monomethylsilane precursor gas diluted in hydrogen with the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition process. A wide range of deposition parameters has been investigated and the structural, electronic and optical properties of the μc-SiC:H thin films have been studied. The material, which is strongly n-type from unintentional doping, has been used as window layer in n-side illuminated microcrystalline silicon solar cells. High short-circuit current densities are obtained due to the high transparency of the material resulting in a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  18. Full-spectrum light management by pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures for thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-08-07

    In this paper, the role of pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures on the optical features for application to thin-film solar cells is investigated to realize the superior light management for the full-spectrum solar energy utilization, compared with some ordered structures. Without loss of generality, the c-Si thin film solar cell is taken as the example. The results demonstrate that the fluctuations introduced into the geometry parameters of moth-eye elements can lead to the remarkable absorption enhancement in the wavelength region of 0.3-1.1 μm and high transmission in the wavelength range of 1.1-2.5 μm. Two mechanisms including the increasing spectral density of modes and the intensive forescattering intensity are identified to be responsible for the absorption enhancement. In addition, the optical characteristics of the moth-eye surface with both disordered height and disordered diameter are insensitive to the incident angle.

  19. Wet-Chemical Surface Texturing of Sputter-Deposited ZnO:Al Films as Front Electrode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs play a major role as the front electrodes of thin-film silicon (Si solar cells, as they can provide optical scattering and hence improved photon absorption inside the devices. In this paper we report on the surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO films for improved light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells. The AZO films are deposited onto soda-lime glass sheets via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Several promising AZO texturing methods are investigated using diluted hydrochloric (HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF, through a two-step etching process. The developed texturing procedure combines the advantages of the HCl-induced craters and the smaller and jagged—but laterally more uniform—features created by HF etching. In the two-step process, the second etching step further enhances the optical haze, while simultaneously improving the uniformity of the texture features created by the HCl etch. The resulting AZO films show large haze values of above 40%, good scattering into large angles, and a surface angle distribution that is centred at around 30°, which is known from the literature to provide efficient light trapping for thin-film Si solar cells.

  20. Thermal Effect on a CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell P2 Layer by Using a UV Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used ANSYS simulation software for analyzing an ultraviolet (UV (355 nm laser processing system. The laser apparatus was used in a stainless steel CIGS solar cell P2 layer for simulation analysis. CIGS films process order according to SiO2 layer, molybdenum electrode, CIGS absorbed layer, CdS buffered layer, i-ZnO penetrate light layer, TCO front electrode, MgF resist reflected materials, andelectrode materials. The simulation and experimental results were compared to obtain a laser-delineated P2 laser with a low melting and vaporization temperature. According to the simulation results, the laser function time was 135 μs, the UV laser was 0.5 W, and the P2 layer thin films were removed. The experimental results indicated that the electrode pattern of the experiment was similar to that of the simulation result, and the laser process did not damage the base plate. The analysis results confirm that the laser apparatus is effective when applied to a stainless steel CIGS solar cell P2 layer.

  1. Light management in large area thin-film silicon solar modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Losio, P.A.; Caglar, O.; Cashmore, J.S.; Hötzel, J.E.; Ristau, S.; Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; Sinicco, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), s. 375-385 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : micromorph * thin-film silicon solar cells * light management * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  2. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  3. A facile inexpensive route for SnS thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Minna Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy, E-mail: drmvasudr9@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Pejjai, Babu [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jeon, Chan-Wook [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chinho, E-mail: chpark@ynu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna Reddy, K.T., E-mail: ktrkreddy@gmail.com [Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: PYS spectra of SnS/SnS{sub 2} interface and the related band diagram. - Highlights: • A low cost SnS solar cell is developed using chemical bath deposition. • We found E{sub I} & χ of SnS (5.3 eV & 4.0 eV) and SnS{sub 2} (6.9 eV & 4.1 eV) films from PYS. • Band offsets of 0.1 eV (E{sub c}) and 1.6 eV (E{sub v}) are estimated for SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction. • SnS based solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 0.51%. - Abstract: Environment-friendly SnS based thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} as buffer layer were successfully fabricated from a facile inexpensive route, chemical bath deposition (CBD). Layer studies revealed that as-grown SnS and SnS{sub 2} films were polycrystalline; (1 1 1)/(0 0 1) peaks as the preferred orientation; 1.3 eV/2.8 eV as optical band gaps; and showed homogeneous microstructure with densely packed grains respectively. Ionization energy and electron affinity values were found by applying photoemission yield spectroscopy (PYS) to the CBD deposited SnS and SnS{sub 2} films for the first time. These values obtained as 5.3 eV and 4.0 eV for SnS films; 6.9 eV and 4.1 eV for SnS{sub 2} films. The band alignment of SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction showed TYPE-II heterostructure. The estimated conduction and valance band offsets were 0.1 eV and 1.6 eV respectively. The current density–voltage (J–V) measurements of the cell showed open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.12 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 10.87 mA cm{sup −2}, fill factor (FF) of 39% and conversion efficiency of 0.51%.

  4. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  5. CIGS thin film solar cell prepared by reactive co-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeha; Lee, Ho-Sub; Park, Nae-Man

    2013-09-01

    The reactive co-sputtering was developed as a new way of preparing high quality CuInGaSe2(CIGS) films from two sets of targets; Cu0.6Ga 0.4 and Cu0.4In0.6 alloy and Cu and (In0.7Ga0.3)2Se3 compound targets. During sputtering, Cu, In, Ga metallic elements as well as the compound materials were reacted to form CIGS simultaneously in highly reactive elemental Se atmosphere generated by a thermal cracker. CIGS layer had been grown on Mo/soda-lime glass(SLG) at 500°C. For both sets of targets, we controlled the composition of CIGS thin film by changing the RF power for target components. All the films showed a preferential (112) orientation as observed from X-ray diffraction analysis. The composition ratios of CIGS were easily set to 0.71-0.95, 0.10-0.30 for [Cu]/[III] and [Ga]/[III], respectively. The grain size and the surface roughness of a CIGS film increased as the [Cu]/[III] ratios increased. The solar cells were fabricated using a standard base line process in the device structure of grid/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/ SLG. The best performance was obtained the performance of Voc = 0.45 V, Jsc =35.6, FF = 0.535, η = 8.6% with a 0.9 μm-CIGS solar cell from alloy targets while Voc = 0.54 V, Jsc =30.8, FF = 0.509, η = 8.5% with a 0.8 μm-CIGS solar cell from Cu and (In0.7Ga0.3)2Se3.

  6. Characterization of CuInS{sub 2} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S.; López, I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Peña, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Calixto, M. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 62580, Temixco, Morelos, México (Mexico); Hernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Messina, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, S/N C.P. 63155, Tepic, Nayarit, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-10-31

    CuInS{sub 2} thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS{sub 2} thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS{sub 2} films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuInS{sub 2}/PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.43 mA cm{sup −2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V{sub oc} = 330 mV, J{sub sc} = 4.78 mA cm{sup −2} and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2} films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS{sub 2} thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method.

  7. Design principle for absorption enhancement with nanoparticles in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in solar cells has created many controversies. In this paper, different mechanisms of nanoparticles with different materials with diameters varying from 50 to 200 nm, surface coverage at 5, 20, and 60 %, and different locations are analyzed systematically for efficient light trapping in a thin-film c-Si solar cell. Mie theory and the finite difference time domain method are used for analysis to give a design principle with nanoparticles for the solar cell application. Metals exhibit plasmonic resonances and angular scattering, while dielectrics show anti-reflection and scattering in the incident direction. A table is given to summarize the advantages and disadvantages in different conditions. The silicon absorption enhancement with nanoparticles on top is mainly in the shorter wavelengths below 700 nm, and both Al and SiO 2 nanoparticles with diameter around 100 nm show the most significant enhancement. The silicon absorption enhancement with embedded nanoparticles takes place in the longer wavelengths over 700 nm, and Ag and SiO 2 nanoparticles with larger diameter around 200 nm perform better. However, the light absorbed by Ag nanoparticles will be converted to heat and will lead to decrease in cell efficiency; hence, the choice of metallic nanoparticles in applications to solar cells should be carefully considered. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline by choosing reasonable parameters for the different requirements in the application of thin-film solar cells

  8. Structural and electrical properties of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films with varied Cu contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Young; Kim, Girim; Kim, Jongwan; Park, Jae Hwan; Lim, Donggun, E-mail: dglim@ut.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films were fabricated with varying Cu contents. Cu/(Ga + In) ratios were varied between 0.4 and 1.02. Solar cells were then fabricated by co-evaporation using the CIGS layers as absorbers. The influences of Cu content on the cells' structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. The CIGS thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, four-point probe measurement and Hall measurement. Grain size in the films increased with increasing Cu content. At a Cu/(Ga + In) ratio of 0.86, the (220/204) peak was stronger than the (112) peak and carrier concentration was 1.49 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. Optimizing the Cu content resulted in a CIGS solar cell with an efficiency of 16.5%. - Highlights: • Improvement of technique to form Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) film by co-evaporation method • Cu/(In + Ga) ratio to improve the efficiency for CIGS thin film solar cell • Cu content effects have been analyzed. • Optimum condition of CIGS layer as an absorber of thin film solar cells.

  9. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  10. Optical and Electrical Properties of the Different Magnetron Sputter Power 300°C Deposited -ZnO Thin Films and Applications in p-i-n -Si:H Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compound of ZnO with 3 wt% Ga2O3 (ZnO : Ga2O3 = 97 : 3 in wt%, GZO was sintered at C as a target. The GZO thin films were deposited on glass using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system at C by changing the deposition power from 50 W to 150 W. The effects of deposition power on the crystallization size, lattice constant (c, resistivity, carrier concentration, carrier mobility, and optical transmission rate of the GZO thin films were studied. The blue shift in the transmission spectrum of the GZO thin films was found to change with the variations of the carrier concentration because of the Burstein-Moss shifting effect. The variations in the optical band gap ( value of the GZO thin films were evaluated from the plots of , revealing that the measured value decreased with increasing deposition power. As compared with the results deposited at room temperature by Gong et al., (2010 the C deposited GZO thin films had apparent blue shift in the transmission spectrum and larger value. For the deposited GZO thin films, both the carrier concentration and mobility linearly decreased and the resistivity linearly increased with increasing deposition power. The prepared GZO thin films were also used as transparent electrodes to fabricate the amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells, and their properties were also measured.

  11. Solar selective performance of metal nitride/oxynitride based magnetron sputtered thin film coatings: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khalil; Taha, Hatem; Mahbubur Rahman, M.; Kabir, Humayun; Jiang, Zhong-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Since solar-thermal collectors are considered to be the most direct way of converting solar energy into usable forms, in the last few years growing attention has been paid to the development of transition metal nitride and metal oxynitride based thin film selective surfaces for solar-thermal collectors, in order to harvest more solar energy. A solar-thermal energy system, generally, shows very high solar absorption of incident solar radiation from the solar-thermal collectors in the visible range (0.3 to 2.5 μm) and extremely low thermal losses through emission (or high reflection) in the infrared region (≥2.5 μm). The efficiency of a solar-thermal energy conversion system can be improved by the use of solar selective surfaces consisting of novel metallic nanoparticles embedded in metal nitride/oxynitride systems. In order to enhance the effectiveness of solar-thermal devices, solar selective surfaces with high thermal stability are a prerequisite. Over the years, substantial efforts have been made in the field of solar selective surfaces to attain higher solar absorptance and lower thermal emittance in high temperature (above 400 °C) applications. In this article, we review the present state-of-the-art transition metal nitride and/or oxynitride based vacuum sputtered nanostructured thin film coatings, with respect to their optical and solar selective surface applications. We have also summarized the solar selectivity data from recently published investigations, including discussion on some potential applications for these materials.

  12. Fabrication of SrGe2 thin films on Ge (100), (110), and (111) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, T.; Toko, K.; Takabe, R.; Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2018-01-01

    Semiconductor strontium digermanide (SrGe2) has a large absorption coefficient in the near-infrared light region and is expected to be useful for multijunction solar cells. This study firstly demonstrates the formation of SrGe2 thin films via a reactive deposition epitaxy on Ge substrates. The growth morphology of SrGe2 dramatically changed depending on the growth temperature (300-700 °C) and the crystal orientation of the Ge substrate. We succeeded in obtaining single-oriented SrGe2 using a Ge (110) substrate at 500 °C. Development on Si or glass substrates will lead to the application of SrGe2 to high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  13. Effect of selenization time on the structural and morphological properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films absorber layers using two step growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Peter C.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work two step growth process was used to prepare Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film for solar cell applications. The first step involves deposition of Cu-In-Ga precursor films followed by the selenization process under vacuum using elemental selenium vapor to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film. The growth process was done at a fixed temperature of 515 °C for 45, 60 and 90 min to control film thickness and gallium incorporation into the absorber layer film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film for all the three samples and no secondary phases were observed. A shift in the diffraction peaks to higher 2θ (2 theta) values is observed for the thin films compared to that of pure CuInSe2. The surface morphology of the resulting film grown for 60 min was characterized by the presence of uniform large grain size particles, which are typical for device quality material. Photoluminescence spectra show the shifting of emission peaks to higher energies for longer duration of selenization attributed to the incorporation of more gallium into the CuInSe2 crystal structure. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the surface of the film. The elemental ratio of Cu/(In + Ga) and Se/Cu + In + Ga strongly depends on the selenization time. The Cu/In + Ga ratio for the 60 min film is 0.88 which is in the range of the values (0.75-0.98) for best solar cell device performances.

  14. Efficiency enhancement using a Zn1- x Ge x -O thin film as an n-type window layer in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Efficiency enhancement was achieved in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a zinc-germanium-oxide (Zn1- x Ge x -O) thin film as the n-type window layer and a p-type Na-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The Ge content (x) dependence of the obtained photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction solar cells is mainly explained by the conduction band discontinuity that results from the electron affinity difference between Zn1- x Ge x -O and Cu2O:Na. The optimal value of x in Zn1- x Ge x -O thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition was observed to be 0.62. An efficiency of 8.1% was obtained in a MgF2/Al-doped ZnO/Zn0.38Ge0.62-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell.

  15. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    to its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic......Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin......-film semiconducting material. For a particular case, we show that coupling to the same type of localized slab-waveguide modes can be obtained by a surface modulation consisting of purely dielectric strips. The purely dielectric device turns out to have a significantly higher broadband enhancement factor compared...

  16. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  17. Comparison of Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire and Surface Textured Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rion Parsons

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The optics of axial silicon nanowire solar cells is investigated and compared to silicon thin-film solar cells with textured contact layers. The quantum efficiency and short circuit current density are calculated taking a device geometry into account, which can be fabricated by using standard semiconductor processing. The solar cells with textured absorber and textured contact layers provide a gain of short circuit current density of 4.4 mA/cm2 and 6.1 mA/cm2 compared to a solar cell on a flat substrate, respectively. The influence of the device dimensions on the quantum efficiency and short circuit current density will be discussed.

  18. Decrease of oxygen vacancy by Zn-doped for improving solar-blind photoelectric performance in β-Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Qin, Xinyuan; Lv, Ming; Shi, Haoze; Su, Yuanli; Yao, Guosheng; Wang, Shunli; Li, Chaorong; Li, Peigang; Tang, Weihua

    2017-11-01

    Highly (201) oriented Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films with different dopant concentrations were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. With the increase of Zn dopant concentration, the crystal lattice expands, the energy band gap shrinks, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases. Both the metal semiconductor metal (MSM) structure photodetectors based on the pure and Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films exhibit solar blind UV photoelectric property. Compared to the pure β-Ga2O3 photodetector, the Zn-doped one exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photo/dark current ratio, a faster photoresponse speed, which can be attributed to the decreases of oxygen vacancy concentration.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Role of SiNx Barrier Layer on the Performances of Polyimide Ga2O3-doped ZnO p-i-n Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Liu, Min-Chu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films were deposited on polyimide (PI) substrates as barrier layers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited on PI and SiNx/PI substrates at room temperature (RT), 100 and 200 °C by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of the GZO and SiNx thin films were controlled at around 160 ± 12 nm and 150 ± 10 nm, respectively. The optimal deposition parameters for the SiNx thin films were a working pressure of 800 × 10−3 Torr, a deposition power of 20 W, a deposition temperature of 200 °C, and gas flowing rates of SiH4 = 20 sccm and NH3 = 210 sccm, respectively. For the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI structures we had found that the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C had higher crystallinity, higher electron mobility, larger carrier concentration, smaller resistivity, and higher optical transmittance ratio. For that, the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C on PI and SiNx/PI substrates with thickness of ~000 nm were used to fabricate p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin film solar cells. 0.5% HCl solution was used to etch the surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates. Finally, PECVD system was used to deposit α-Si thin film onto the etched surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates to fabricate α-Si thin film solar cells, and the solar cells’ properties were also investigated. We had found that substrates to get the optimally solar cells’ efficiency were 200 °C-deposited GZO-SiNx/PI. PMID:28788494

  20. Role of SiNx Barrier Layer on the Performances of Polyimide Ga2O3-doped ZnO p-i-n Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silicon nitride (SiNx thin films were deposited on polyimide (PI substrates as barrier layers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system. The gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO thin films were deposited on PI and SiNx/PI substrates at room temperature (RT, 100 and 200 °C by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of the GZO and SiNx thin films were controlled at around 160 ± 12 nm and 150 ± 10 nm, respectively. The optimal deposition parameters for the SiNx thin films were a working pressure of 800 × 10−3 Torr, a deposition power of 20 W, a deposition temperature of 200 °C, and gas flowing rates of SiH4 = 20 sccm and NH3 = 210 sccm, respectively. For the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI structures we had found that the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C had higher crystallinity, higher electron mobility, larger carrier concentration, smaller resistivity, and higher optical transmittance ratio. For that, the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C on PI and SiNx/PI substrates with thickness of ~1000 nm were used to fabricate p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si thin film solar cells. 0.5% HCl solution was used to etch the surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates. Finally, PECVD system was used to deposit α-Si thin film onto the etched surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates to fabricate α-Si thin film solar cells, and the solar cells’ properties were also investigated. We had found that substrates to get the optimally solar cells’ efficiency were 200 °C-deposited GZO-SiNx/PI.

  1. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.; Curtis, Henry B.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Peterson, Todd T.

    2005-01-01

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  2. Influence of growth temperature of transparent conducting oxide layer on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dae-Hyung; Chung, Yong-Duck; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Park, Nae-Man; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Hae-Won; Kim, Jeha

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the influence of growth temperature (T G ) in the deposition of an indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conducting oxide layer on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells. The ITO films were deposited on i-ZnO/glass and i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at various T G up to 350 °C. Both the resistivity of ITO and the interface quality of CdS/CIGS strongly depend on T G . For a T G ≤ 200 °C, a reduction in the series resistance enhanced the solar cell performance, while the p–n interface of the device was found to become deteriorated severely at T G > 200 °C. CIGS solar cells with ITO deposited at T G = 200 °C showed the best performance in terms of efficiency.

  3. Effect of hydrogen doping on the properties of Al and F co-doped ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Yang, Tung-Hsin

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum and fluorine co-doped zinc oxide (AFZO) thin films were prepared in Ar + H{sub 2} atmospheres by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the prepared films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Hall-effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible spectrometry, and their dependence on deposition atmosphere (i.e. H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio) was studied. The resulting films showed a (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating a typical wurtzite structure, and the optimal film crystallinity was obtained with the H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 3%. The electrical resistivity of AFZO films decreased to 9.16 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm, which was lower than ZnO:Al and ZnO:F films due to double doping effect of Al and F. The resistivity further decreased to below 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm for the AFZO film with the H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 3%–5%. All the films regardless of hydrogen content displayed high transmittances (> 92%) in the visible wavelength range. Applying the developed AFZO films as front transparent electrodes, amorphous Si thin film solar cells were fabricated and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of the cell with the hydrogenated AFZO film were improved in contrast to those without the hydrogenated film. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} doping improves optoelectronic properties of Al, F co-doped ZnO (AFZO) films. • Resistivity of AFZO films decreases to 4.4 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm with the 3% H{sub 2}/(Ar + H{sub 2}) ratio. • AFZO films show high average visible transmittances of above 92%. • Efficiency of a-Si thin film solar cells is improved by AFZO:H as front electrode.

  4. Remote plasma deposition of textured zinc oxide with focus on thin film solar cell applications : material properties, plasma processes and film growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneously possessing transparency in the visible region, close to that of insulators, and electrical conductivity, close to that of metals, transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films form a highly attractive class of materials for a wide variety of applications like thin film solar cells,

  5. The crystallisation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurr, R. [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: schurr@krist.uni-erlangen.de; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R. [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstrasse 20, D-10553 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. [Heterogeneous Material Systems SE II, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienickerstr.100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Weber, A.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W. [Technology SE III, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienickerstr.100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-02

    The best CZTS solar cell so far was produced by co-sputtering continued with vapour phase sulfurization method. Efficiencies of up to 5.74% were reached by Katagiri et al. The one step electrochemical deposition of copper, zinc, tin and subsequent sulfurization is an alternative fabrication technique for the production of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} based thin film solar cells. A kesterite based solar cell (size 0.5 cm{sup 2}) with a conversion efficiency of 3.4% (AM1.5) was produced by vapour phase sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn films. We report on results of in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments during crystallisation of kesterite thin films from electrochemically co-deposited metal films. The kesterite crystallisation is completed by the solid state reaction of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} and ZnS. The measurements show two different reaction paths depending on the metal ratios in the as deposited films. In copper-rich metal films Cu{sub 3}Sn and CuZn were found after electrodeposition. In copper-poor or near stoichiometric precursors additional Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Sn phases were detected. The formation mechanism of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} involves the binary sulphides Cu{sub 2-x}S and SnS{sub 2} in the absence of the binary precursor phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. The presence of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} leads to a preferred formation of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} via the reaction educts Cu{sub 2-x}S and SnS{sub 2} in the presence of a SnS{sub 2}(Cu{sub 4}SnS{sub 6}) melt. The melt phase may be advantageous in crystallising the kesterite, leading to enhanced grain growth in the presence of a liquid phase.

  6. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.

  7. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  8. Investigation of AgInS2 thin films grown by coevaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, C. A.; Clavijo, J.; Gordillo, G.

    2009-05-01

    AgInS2 thin films were grown on soda-lime glass substrates by co-evaporation of the precursors in a two-step process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that these compounds grow in different phases and with different crystalline structure depending upon the deposition conditions. However, through a parameter study, conditions were found to grow thin films containing only the AgInS2 phase with chalcopyrite type structure. In samples containing a mixture of several phases, the contribution in percentage terms of each phase to the whole compound was estimated with the help of the PowderCell simulation package. It was also found that the AgInS2 films present p-type conductivity, a high absorption coefficient (greater than 104 cm-1) and an energy band gap Eg of about 1.95 eV, indicating that this compound has good properties to perform as absorbent layer in thin film tandem solar cells. The effect of the deposition conditions on the optical and morphological properties was also investigated through spectral transmitance and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements.

  9. Highly Sensitive Nanostructured SnO2 Thin Films For Hydrogen Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, L. A.; Shinde, M. D.; Bari, A. R.; Deo, V. V.

    2010-10-01

    Nanostructured SnO2 thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Aqueous solution (0.05 M) of SnCl4ṡ5H2O in double distilled water was chosen as the starting solution for the preparation of the films. The stock solution was delivered to nozzle with constant and uniform flow rate of 70 ml/h by Syringe pump SK5001. Sono-tek spray nozzle, driven by ultrasonic frequency of 120 kHz, converts the solution into fine spray. The aerosol produced by nozzle was sprayed on glass substrate heated at 150 °C. The sensing performance of the films was tested for various gases such as LPG, hydrogen, ethanol, carbon dioxide and ammonia. The sensor (30 min) showed high gas response (S = 3040 at 350 °C) on exposure of 1000 ppm of hydrogen and high selectivity against other gases. Its response time was short (2 s) and recovery was also fast (12 s). To understand reasons behind this uncommon gas sensing performance of the films, their structural, microstructural, and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) respectively. The results are interpreted

  10. Investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles for thin-film solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Agersted, Karsten; Crovetto, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of the annealing atmosphere on grain growth of ligand-free and ligand-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle-based thin films by thermal analysis. We use thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to simultaneously monitor mass changes and evolved gases...... of both nanoparticle powders and inks. The investigation focuses on annealing in air, nitrogen and forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), i.e., oxidizing, inert, and reducing atmospheres. We find that the oleylamine capping ligands thermally decompose into smaller organic fragments starting below its boiling point......, with a slightly higher decomposition rate in reducing atmosphere. With nanoparticle inks, very modest grain growth is observed, with no differences between the atmospheres. Conversely, with nanoparticle powders, micron-sized grains appear all over for the ligand-free sample and some micron-sized grains are seen...

  11. Thin-film intermediate band chalcopyrite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Marron, D.; Marti, A.; Luque, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cells currently lead the efficiency tables of thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Further improvements are foreseen upon implementation of an intermediate band in the absorber layers. We present a theoretical analysis of the efficiency limit for this type of device as a function of factors such as the gap of the host, the relative position of the intermediate band with respect to the band edge and the level of light concentration used as illumination. We have also considered the impact of non-idealities on the performance of the device, particularly the effect of electronic losses related to non-radiative recombination

  12. Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III-V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, J.J.; Bauhuis, G.J.; Mulder, P.; Haverkamp, E.J.; Deelen, J. van; Niftrik, A.T.J. van; Larsen, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique, a III-V device structure can be separated from its GaAs substrate by selective wet etching of a thin release layer. The thin-film structures obtained by the ELO process can be cemented or van der Waals bonded on arbitrary smooth surface carriers for further processing. It is shown that the ELO method, initially able to separate millimetre-sized GaAs layers with a lateral etch rate of about 1 mm/h, has been developed to a process capable to free the entire 2-in. epitaxial structures from their substrates with etch rates up to 30 mm/h. With these characteristics the method has a large potential for the production of high efficiency thin-film solar cells. By choosing the right deposition and ELO strategy, the thin-film III-V cells can be adequately processed on both sides allowing for an entire range of new cell structures. In the present work, the performance of semi-transparent bifacial solar cells, produced by the deposition of metal grid contacts on both sides, was evaluated. Reflection of light at the rear side of the bifacial GaAs solar cells was found to result in an enhanced collection probability of the photon-induced carriers compared to that of regular III-V cells on a GaAs substrate. To enhance this effect, thin-film GaAs cells with gold mirror back contacts were prepared. Even in their present premature stage of development, these single-junction thin-film cells reached a record efficiency of 24.5% which is already very close to the 24.9% efficiency that was obtained with a regular GaAs cell on a GaAs substrate. From this it could be concluded that, as a result of the photon confinement, ELO cells require a significantly thinner base layer than regular GaAs cells while at the same time they have the potential to reach a higher efficiency

  13. A comparative study of solution-processed low- and high-band-gap chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Jin; Moon, Sung Hwan; Min, Byoung Koun; Cho, Yunae; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Gwak, Jihye; Kim, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost and printable chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells were fabricated by a precursor solution-based coating method with a multi-step heat-treatment process (oxidation, sulfurization, and selenization). The high-band-gap (1.57 eV) Cu(In x Ga 1−x )S 2 (CIGS) solar cell showed a high open-circuit voltage of 787 mV, whereas the low-band-gap (1.12 eV) Cu(In x Ga 1−x )(S 1−y Se y ) 2 (CIGSSe) cell exhibited a high short-circuit current density of 32.6 mA cm −2 . The energy conversion efficiencies were 8.28% for CIGS and 8.81% for CIGSSe under standard irradiation conditions. Despite similar efficiencies, the two samples showed notable differences in grain size, surface morphology, and interfacial properties. Low-temperature transport and admittance characteristics of the samples clearly revealed how their structural differences influenced their photovoltaic and electrical properties. Such analyses provide insight into the enhanced solar cell performance of the solution-processed chalcopyrite thin films. (paper)

  14. Numerical investigation of a double-junction a:SiGe thin-film solar cell including the multi-trench region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacha, K.; Djeffal, F.; Ferhati, H.; Arar, D.; Meguellati, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach based on the multi-trench technique to improve the electrical performances, which are the fill factor and the electrical efficiency. The key idea behind this approach is to introduce a new multi-trench region in the intrinsic layer, in order to modulate the total resistance of the solar cell. Based on 2-D numerical investigation and optimization of amorphous SiGe double-junction (a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H) thin film solar cells, in the present paper numerical models of electrical and optical parameters are developed to explain the impact of the multi-trench technique on the improvement of the double-junction solar cell electrical behavior for high performance photovoltaic applications. In this context, electrical characteristics of the proposed design are analyzed and compared with conventional amorphous silicon double-junction thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  15. Carrier collection losses in interface passivated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumüller, A.; Sergeev, O.; Vehse, M.; Agert, C.; Bereznev, S.; Volobujeva, O.; Ewert, M.; Falta, J.

    2016-01-01

    In silicon thin-film solar cells the interface between the i- and p-layer is the most critical. In the case of back diffusion of photogenerated minority carriers to the i/p-interface, recombination occurs mainly on the defect states at the interface. To suppress this effect and to reduce recombination losses, hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) is usually applied. As an alternative to using state of the art HPT we apply an argon plasma treatment (APT) before the p-layer deposition in n-i-p solar cells. To study the effect of APT, several investigations were applied to compare the results with HPT and no plasma treatment at the interface. Carrier collection losses in resulting solar cells were examined with spectral response measurements with and without bias voltage. To investigate single layers, surface photovoltage and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were conducted. The results with APT at the i/p-interface show a beneficial contribution to the carrier collection compared with HPT and no plasma treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that APT reduces the recombination centers at the interface. Further, we demonstrate that carrier collection losses of thin-film solar cells are significantly lower with APT.

  16. Carrier collection losses in interface passivated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumüller, A., E-mail: alex.neumueller@next-energy.de; Sergeev, O.; Vehse, M.; Agert, C. [NEXT ENERGY EWE Research Centre for Energy Technology at the University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Straße 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Bereznev, S.; Volobujeva, O. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate Tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Ewert, M.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-07-25

    In silicon thin-film solar cells the interface between the i- and p-layer is the most critical. In the case of back diffusion of photogenerated minority carriers to the i/p-interface, recombination occurs mainly on the defect states at the interface. To suppress this effect and to reduce recombination losses, hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) is usually applied. As an alternative to using state of the art HPT we apply an argon plasma treatment (APT) before the p-layer deposition in n-i-p solar cells. To study the effect of APT, several investigations were applied to compare the results with HPT and no plasma treatment at the interface. Carrier collection losses in resulting solar cells were examined with spectral response measurements with and without bias voltage. To investigate single layers, surface photovoltage and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were conducted. The results with APT at the i/p-interface show a beneficial contribution to the carrier collection compared with HPT and no plasma treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that APT reduces the recombination centers at the interface. Further, we demonstrate that carrier collection losses of thin-film solar cells are significantly lower with APT.

  17. Experimental study of Pulsed Laser Deposited Cu2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandur, Abhishek S.

    Thin film solar cells are gaining momentum as a renewable energy source. Reduced material requirements (15 mum in total thickness) solar cells. Among the various thin film solar absorbers that have been proposed, CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because of its optimal band gap (1.45 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm--1 ) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. Defect-free, near-stoichiometric poly-crystalline CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of fabrication parameters such as laser energy density, deposition time, substrate temperature and sulfurization (annealing in sulfur) on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption of the CZTS thin films were examined. The results show that the presence of secondary phases, present both in the bulk and on the surface, affected the electrical and optical properties of the CZTS thin films and the CZTS based TFSCs. After selectively etching away the secondary phases with DIW, HCl and KCN, it was observed that their removal improved the performance of CZTS based TFSCs. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited an optical band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x10 4cm-1 with a low volume of secondary phases. A TFSC fabricated with the best CZTS thin film obtained from the experimental study done in this thesis showed a conversion efficiency of 6.41% with Voc = 530 mV, Jsc= 27.5 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 0.44.

  18. Textured surface boron-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxides on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinliang; Lin Quan; Ni Jian; Zhang Dekun; Sun Jian; Zhao Ying; Geng Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    Textured surface boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films were directly grown via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates at low temperatures and high-efficiency flexible polymer silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells were obtained. High purity diethylzinc and water vapors were used as source materials, and diborane was used as an n-type dopant gas. P-i-n silicon layers were fabricated at ∼ 398 K by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These textured surface ZnO:B thin films on PET substrates (PET/ZnO:B) exhibit rough pyramid-like morphology with high transparencies (T ∼ 80%) and excellent electrical properties (Rs ∼ 10 Ω at d ∼ 1500 nm). Finally, the PET/ZnO:B thin films were applied in flexible p-i-n type silicon thin film solar cells (device structure: PET/ZnO:B/p-i-n a-Si:H/Al) with a high conversion efficiency of 6.32% (short-circuit current density J SC = 10.62 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage V OC = 0.93 V and fill factor = 64%).

  19. Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolysed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Sakthi, P.; Prabhakaran, S.; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V.; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm-1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2/V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  20. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  1. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (CuInSe2 based PV cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (CuInSe2 taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CuInSe2 based PV cell in fiscal 1994. (1) On formation of high-quality CIGS thin films by bilayer method, Mo film was deposited on a glass substrate by sputtering, and CIGS film with different Ga/In ratios was next formed on the substrate by quaternary simultaneous deposition at different In and Ga deposition speeds. In addition, CdS film was deposited on the CIGS film, and ZnO and ITO films were finally deposited on it by sputtering to complete solar cell. This solar cell offered the maximum conversion efficiency among cells using CIGS film. (2) On formation of high-quality CIGS thin films by three-stage method, a certain correlation was found between substrate temperature and CIGS film composition by monitoring substrate temperature in film forming process. This phenomenon allowed rigorous control of CIS film compositions important for CIS thin film solar cells. (3) On low-cost process technology for thin film formation, Cu(In,Ga)S2 solid solution film was fabricated by expanded selenic process. 3 figs.

  2. The role of low light intensity: A step towards understanding the connection between light, optic/lens and photovoltaic behavior for Sb2S3 thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojpur, Vesna; Mitrić, Miodrag; Validžić, Ivana Lj

    2018-05-01

    We report here an optic/lens system that we used so far, for cooling the surface of solar cells, the reduction of light intensity and the change of light distribution that reaches the surface of the solar cell. The objective was to improve photovoltaic characteristics under very low light illumination, as well as to understand the connection between light, optic/lens and photovoltaic behavior for Sb2S3 thin-film solar cells. It was found that for all so far designed thin-film solar cells made and based on the synthesized Sb2S3, optics/lens system causes an increase in open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (ISC) and thus the efficiencies of made solar devices. Values of energy gaps for the thin-films made devices were in the range from 1.4 to 2 eV. Improvements of the photovoltaic response of the designed devices are found to be better at the lower light intensity (5% sun), than at higher intensities of light. For the same intensity of light used optic/lens improves the efficiency of the devices, by changing the light distribution. Other processes that are related to the optics/lens system, leading to an increase in ISC and VOC and consequently to an increase in efficiencies of the designed devices, are investigated.

  3. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O 2 , H 2 O, and N 2 O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N 2 O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for the performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N 2 O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm 2 V –1 s –1 , which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT

  4. Facile and Scalable Fabrication of Highly Efficient Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells in Air Using Gas Pump Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Liang, Lusheng; Chu, Qianqian; Song, Xiaoxuan; Li, Yan; Yang, Guanjun; Fan, Bin; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chengxin; Li, Changjiu

    2016-08-10

    Control of the perovskite film formation process to produce high-quality organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films with uniform morphology, high surface coverage, and minimum pinholes is of great importance to highly efficient solar cells. Herein, we report on large-area light-absorbing perovskite films fabrication with a new facile and scalable gas pump method. By decreasing the total pressure in the evaporation environment, the gas pump method can significantly enhance the solvent evaporation rate by 8 times faster and thereby produce an extremely dense, uniform, and full-coverage perovskite thin film. The resulting planar perovskite solar cells can achieve an impressive power conversion efficiency up to 19.00% with an average efficiency of 17.38 ± 0.70% for 32 devices with an area of 5 × 2 mm, 13.91% for devices with a large area up to 1.13 cm(2). The perovskite films can be easily fabricated in air conditions with a relative humidity of 45-55%, which definitely has a promising prospect in industrial application of large-area perovskite solar panels.

  5. Effects of preannealing temperature of ZnO thin films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, M.C.; Chen, H.Z.; Young, S.L. [Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2010-03-15

    The preferred (002) orientation zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on FTO-coated glass substrates by sol-gel spin-coating technology and rapid thermal annealing for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The effects of preannealing temperature (100 and 300 C) on the microstructure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films were studied. The ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The photoelectric performance of DSSC was studied by I-V curve and the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), respectively. From the results, the intensities of (002) peaks of ZnO thin films increases with increasing preannealing temperature from 100 C to 300 C. The increase in pore size and surface area of ZnO films crystallized at the increased preannealing temperature contributed to the improvement on the absorption of N3 dye onto the films, the short-circuit photocurrent (J{sub sc}) and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of DSSC. The higher efficiency ({eta}) of 2.5% with J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} of 8.2 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.64 V, respectively, was obtained by the ZnO film preannealed at 300 C. (orig.)

  6. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of mixed coumarin dyes by silver and gold nanoparticles: Towards plasmonic thin-film luminescent solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bashir, S.M., E-mail: elbashireg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics Faculty of Science, Benha University (Egypt); Barakat, F.M.; AlSalhi, M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films doped with mixed coumarin dyestuffs and noble metal nanoparticles (60 nm silver and 100 nm gold) were prepared by spin coating technique. The effect of silver and gold nanoparticles on the film properties was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. DSC measurements indicated the increase of the glass transition temperature of the films by increasing nanogold concentration, recommending their promising thermal stability towards hot climates. It was found that the fluorescence signals of the mixed coumarin dyes were amplified by 5.4 and 7.15 folds as a result of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). The research outcomes offered a potential application of these films in solar energy conversion by plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrator (PTLSC). -- Graphical abstract: Plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators. Highlights: • Metal enhanced fluorescence was achieved for mixed coumarin dyes doped in PMMA nanocomposite films. • The amplification of the fluorescence signals is dependent on the concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. • These films is considered as potential candidates for plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators (PTLSCs)

  7. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  8. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  9. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Xin-liang; Geng, Xin-hua; Zhang, De-kun; Wei, Chang-chun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. ► The directly deposited HGZO thin films present rough crater-type surface morphology. ► Typical HGZO thin film exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm 2 /V s and a relative low sheet resistance of ∼7.0 Ω. ► These HGZO thin films have high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region (∼380–1100 nm). ► A gradient H 2 growth method for fabricating HGZO thin films has been proposed in magnetron sputtering process. - Abstract: The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region (λ = 380–1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of ∼2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm 2 /V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of ∼7.0 Ω. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H 2 growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. “Crater-like” surface feature size and optical transmittance

  10. A Comprehensive Study of One-Step Selenization Process for Cu(In1-x Ga x )Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chen; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Lee, Po-Tsung; Luo, Chih Wei; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-12-01

    In this work, aiming at developing a rapid and environmental-friendly process for fabricating CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2 (CIGS) solar cells, we demonstrated the one-step selenization process by using selenium vapor as the atmospheric gas instead of the commonly used H 2 Se gas. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics indicate that there exists an optimal location with superior crystalline quality in the CIGS thin films obtained by one-step selenization. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Ga lateral distribution in the one-step selenized CIGS thin film is intimately correlated to the blue-shifted PL spectra. The surface morphologies examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) further suggested that voids and binary phase commonly existing in CIGS films could be successfully eliminated by the present one-step selenization process. The agglomeration phenomenon attributable to the formation of MoSe 2 layer was also observed. Due to the significant microstructural improvement, the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the devices made of the present CIGS films have exhibited the remarkable carrier transportation characteristics and photon utilization at the optimal location, resulting in a high conversion efficiency of 11.28%. Correlations between the defect states and device performance of the one-step selenized CIGS thin film were convincingly delineated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  11. Fabrication of thin-film thermoelectric generators with ball lenses for conversion of near-infrared solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Kondo, Tasuku; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    We designed and fabricated thin-film thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with ball lenses, which separated visible light and near-infrared (NIR) solar light using a chromatic aberration. The transmitted visible light was used as daylight and the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Solar light was estimated to be separated into the visible light and NIR light by a ray tracing method. 92.7% of the visible light was used as daylight and 9.9% of the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Then, the temperature difference of the pn junctions of the TEG surface was 0.71 K, determined by heat conduction analysis using a finite element method. The thin-film TEGs were fabricated using lithography and deposition processes. When the solar light (A.M. 1.5) was irradiated to the TEGs, the open-circuit voltage and maximum power were 4.5 V/m2 and 51 µW/m2, respectively. These TEGs are expected to be used as an energy supply for Internet of Things sensors.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Thin Film Solar Cell Made from CuIn0.75Ga0.25S2 Wurtzite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CuIn0.75Ga0.25S2 (CIGS thin film solar cells have been successfully fabricated using CIGS Wurtzite phase nanoparticles for the first time. The structure of the cell is Glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al/Ag. The light absorption layer is made from CIGS Wurtzite phase nanoparticles that are formed from single-source precursors through a microwave irradiation. The Wurtzite phase nanoparticles were converted to Chalcopyrite phase film through a single-step annealing process in the presence of argon and sulfur at 450°C. The solar cell made from Wurtzite phase nanoparticles showed 1.6% efficiency and 0.42 fill factor.

  13. CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 Uppsala University Final report 2006-01-01 - 2007-06-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edoff, Marika (Thin Film Solar Cell group, Dep. Technical Sciences, Uppsala Univ., P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)) (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 has been going on for 18,5 months and was interrupted in advance on the 14th of June, 2007. The decision to shorten the period was taken by the board of the Swedish Energy Agency the 14th of February. It was decided to reevaluate and re-direct the financial support to the group. A new project, CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 3, superseded this project and will go on for the initially planned project period (until 2009-12-31). During the project much of the focus has been on research on Cd-free buffer layers, with an emphasis on the interface properties between the CIGS and the buffer layer. (CIGS is a commonly used acronym for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}, which is the active absorption layer in this type of solar cells) The combination of high quality CIGS and the new buffer layers has been another field of interest. CIGS solar cell module development and computer modelling of solar cells and modules has been the third major research area. The results show that the group still holds a position as one of the leaders in the world in this field. The 18.5 % efficient Cd-free solar cell, which was obtained and independently confirmed is only one percent away from the world record and in addition it is Cd-free using a Zn(O,S) buffer layer (the world record from NREL contains Cd). By alloying ZnO with MgO instead of ZnS almost equally good results can be achieved. During the last half year an 18.1 % cell has been measured with a (Zn,Mg)O buffer layer. Solar cell module technology includes several research issues, both fundamental as e.g. modelling of cell voltage and losses as a function of distance from interconnect to interconnect, but also more development as e.g. encapsulation routines. The harsh environment test (damp heat test) run at 85 deg C and 85 % relative humidity for 1000 hours was passed for both a small (12.5x12.5 cm2) and a large (27.5x30 cm2) module within the degradation limits stated by the IEC standards, using

  14. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic and optical properties, as well as the surface texture after etching, depend on the deposition conditions and the post-deposition treatments. Despite having been used in thin-film solar cells for more than a decade, many aspects regarding the growth, effects of heat treatments, environmental stability, and etching of sputtered ZnO:Al are not fully understood. This work endeavors to further the understanding of ZnO:Al for the purpose improving silicon thin-film solar cell efficiency and reducing ZnO:Al production costs. With regard to the growth of ZnO:Al, the influence of various deposition conditions on the resultant electrical and structural properties and their evolution with film thickness were studied. The surface electrical properties extracted from a multilayer model show that while carrier concentration of the surface layer saturates already at film thickness of 100 nm, the surface mobility continues to increases with film thickness, and it is concluded that electronic transport across grain boundaries limits mobility in ZnO:Al thin films. ZnO:Al deposited onto a previously etched ZnO:Al surface grows epitaxially, preserving both the original orientation and grain structure. Further, it is determined that a typical ZnO:Al used in thin-film silicon solar cells grows Zn-terminated on glass substrates. Concerning the affects of heat treatments and stability, it is demonstrated that a layer of amorphous silicon can protect ZnO:Al from degradation during annealing, and the mobility of Zn

  15. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engineering is shown to be an important consideration

  16. Double-layer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Bao-Chen; Zhang Xiao-Dan; Wei Chang-Chun; Sun Jian; Ni Jian; Zhao Ying

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on corning eagle 2000 glass substrate. 1 and 2 at.% indium doped single-layer ZnO:In thin films with different amounts of acetic acid added in the initial solution were fabricated. The 1 at.% indium doped single-layers have triangle grains. The 2 at.% indium doped single-layer with 0.18 acetic acid adding has the resistivity of 6.82×10 −3 Ω·cm and particle grains. The double-layers structure is designed to fabricate the ZnO:In thin film with low resistivity (2.58×10 −3 Ω·cm) and good surface morphology. It is found that the surface morphology of the double-layer ZnO:In film strongly depends on the substrate-layer, and the second-layer plays a large part in the resistivity of the double-layer ZnO:In thin film. Both total and direct transmittances of the double-layer ZnO:In film are above 80% in the visible light region. Single junction a-Si:H solar cell based on the double-layer ZnO:In as front electrode is also investigated. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Bär, Marcus; Sadewasser, Sascha

    2014-12-01

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for "realistic" surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH3-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is - apart from a slight change in surface composition - identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  18. Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Pulsed Electron Deposition and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattini, F., E-mail: pattini@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Annoni, F.; Bissoli, F.; Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Garcia, J.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft Product and Process Design Institute, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Gilioli, E.; Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a comparison between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering (RFMS) was performed. PED yielded polycrystalline [002] mono-oriented thin films with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency with heater temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 250 °C. The electrical resistivity of these films can be tuned by varying the heater temperature, reaching a minimum value of 3.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm at 150 °C and an average transmittance over 90% in the visible range. An AZO film grown at RT was deposited by PED on an actual Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cell, resulting to an efficiency value of 15.2% on the best device. This result clearly shows that PED is a suitable technique for growing ZnO-based thin films for devices/applications where low deposition temperature is required. On the other hand, an optimized AZO thin film front contact for thin film solar cells was studied and fabricated via RFMS. The parameters of this technique were tweaked to obtain highly conductive and transparent AZO thin films. The lowest resistivity value of 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm and an average transmittance of 86% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range was obtained with a heater temperature of 250 °C. A thick sputtered AZO film was deposited at RT onto an identical cell used for PED-grown AZO, reaching the highest conversion efficiency value of 14.7%. In both cases, neither antireflection coatings nor pure ZnO layer was used. - Highlights: • Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) lets high quality films grow at low temperature. • Al:ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by PED present high optical and electrical quality. • AZO electrical resistivity can be tuned from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −2} Ωcm in proper condition. • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based simplified solar cells achieved efficiency of 15.2% for PED-grown AZO.

  19. Effect of composition on properties of In2O3-Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, I. E.; Kozlov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The In2O3-Ga2O3 mixed oxide polycrystalline thin films with various ratios of components were obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of films composition on surface morphology, electrophysical and gas sensing properties and energies of adsorption and desorption of combustible gases was studied. The films with50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 composition showed maximum gas response (˜25 times) combined with minimum optimal working temperature (˜530 °C) as compared with the other films. The optical transmittance of the films in visible range was investigated. For 50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 films, the transmittance is higher in comparison with the other films. The explanation of the dependency of films behaviors on their composition was presented.The In2O3-Ga2O3 films were assumed to have perspectives as gas sensing material for semiconducting gas sensors.

  20. How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS/CdS thin-film solar cells have reached, at laboratory scale, an efficiency higher than 22.3%, which is one of the highest efficiencies ever obtained for thin-film solar cells. The research focus has now shifted onto fabrication processes, which have to be easily scalable at an industrial level. For this reason, a process is highlighted here which uses only the sputtering technique for both the absorber preparation and the deposition of all the other materials that make up the cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison between different precursors obtained with either In2Se3 and Ga2Se3 or InSe and GaSe as starting materials. In both cases, the precursor does not require any heat treatment, and it is immediately ready to be selenized. The selenization is performed in a pure-selenium atmosphere and only lasts a few minutes at a temperature of about 803 K. Energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 15%–16% are reproducibly obtained on soda-lime glass (SLG substrates. Similar results are achieved if commercial ceramic tiles are used as a substrate instead of glass. This result is especially useful for the so-called building integrated photovoltaic. Cu(In,GaSe2-based solar cells grown directly on ceramic tiles are ideal for the fabrication of ventilated façades in low impact buildings.

  1. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Weng Chong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211% attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3 to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glasses.

  2. Building a Better Capacitor with Thin-Film Atomic Layer Deposition Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Christopher [North Seattle College, WA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The goal of this research is to determine procedures for creating ultra-high capacity supercapacitors by using nanofabrication techniques and high k-value dielectrics. One way to potentially solve the problem of climate change is to switch the source of energy to a source that doesn’t release many tons of greenhouse gases, gases which cause global warming, into the Earth’s atmosphere. These trap in more heat from the Sun’s solar energy and cause global temperatures to rise. Atomic layer deposition will be used to create a uniform thin-film of dielectric to greatly enhance the abilities of our capacitors and will build them on the nanoscale.

  3. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  4. Indium tin oxide thin films by bias magnetron rf sputtering for heterojunction solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Zhou Zhibin; Peng Hua; Cui Rongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation ITO thin films were prepared by bias magnetron rf sputtering technique at substrate temperature of 180 deg. C and low substrate-target distance for future a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells application. Microstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of these films were characterized and analyzed. The effects of ion bombardments on growing ITO films are well discussed. XRD analysis revealed a change in preferential orientation of polycrystalline structure from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0) plane with the increase of negative bias voltage. Textured surface were observed on AFM graphs of samples prepared at high negative bias. Hall measurements showed that the carrier density and Hall mobility of these ITO films are sensitive to the bias voltage applied. We attributed these effects to the sensitivity of energy of Ar + ions bombarding on growing films to the applied bias voltage in our experiments. At last the figure of merit was calculated to evaluate the quality of ITO thin films, the results of which show that sample prepared at bias voltage of -75 V is good to be used in HJ cells application

  5. Optical and electrical properties study of sol-gel derived Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of environmental-friendly Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin films with pure kesterite phase is always a challenge to researchers in the field of solar cells. We introduce a simple non-vacuum sol-gel method to fabricate kesterite CZTS films. Ethylenediamine is used as the chelating agent and stabilizer and plays an important role in preparing stable precursor. X-ray diffraction, Raman and scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the microstructure and optical properties of CZTS films depend strongly on annealing temperatures. The temperature dependence of conductivity of 500 °C annealed CZTS film shows that the Mott law dominates in the low temperature region and thermionic emission is predominant at high temperatures.

  6. Electrodeposition of Metal Matrix Composites and Materials Characterization for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Air Mass CNT Carbon Nanotubes DIV Dark Current -Voltage DMA Dynamic Mechanical Analysis EL Electroluminescence FEM Finite Element Method IMM...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0174 TR-2017-0174 ELECTRODEPOSITION OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES AND MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR...research which is exempt from public affairs security and policy review in accordance with AFI 61-201, paragraph 2.3.5.1. This report is available to

  7. Characterization of Optic Properties ZnO:Al Thin Film on Glass Substrate for Solar Cell Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiryoadi; Yunanto; Bambang Siswanto; Sri Sulamdari; Sudjatmoko

    2002-01-01

    It has been characterized a ZnO:Al thin film growth using sputtering technique for solar cell window. The aims of this research is to get a ZnO:Al thin film that can be used as a TCO (Transparent Conducting Oxide) on amorphous silicon solar cell. To get an optimum properties, deposition process has been done for various parameters, such as composition/concentration of Al, substrate temperature, gas pressure and deposition time. Based on experiments result, it is found that the optimum result was achieved at temperature 450 o C, gas pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr and time 1.5 hours. From optical properties (transmittance) measurements using UV-vis, it was found that the optimum results was achieved at temperature 450 o C. At this conditions, wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (50 - 82) %, at pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr the transmittance was (50 - 80) % and at deposition time 1.5 hours was (49 - 81) %. For ZnO thin film, was at wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (78 - 80) %. From micro structure analysis using SEM, it was found that the thickness layer of ZnO was 1.5 μm and 1.3 μm for ZnO: Al. While from surface morphology it was found that for ZnO thin layer the grains was distributed homogeneously, while for ZnO: Al the grains was distributed unhomogeneously. (author)

  8. Materials and Light Management for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, H.

    2015-01-01

    Direct conversion of sunlight into electricity is one of the most promising approaches to provide sufficient renewable energy for humankind. Solar cells are such devices which can efficiently generate electricity from sunlight through the photovoltaic effect. Thin-film silicon solar cells, a type of photovoltaic (PV) devices which deploy the chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) and their alloys as the absorber layers and doped ...

  9. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Bin Bin [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Industry, Shaanxi Institute of Technology, Xi’an 710300 (China); Wang, Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Xue Qing [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zeng, Jing Hui, E-mail: jhzeng@ustc.edu [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PbSe thin film is deposited on FTO glass by a pulse voltage electrodeposition method. • The thin film is used as counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. • Superior electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte is received. • The narrow band gap characteristics and p-type conductivity enhances the cell efficiency. • An efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  10. Aluminum–Titanium Alloy Back Contact Reducing Production Cost of Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal back contacts are investigated. The solar cells with the AlTi had lower contact resistance than those with the silver (Ag back contact, resulting in a higher fill factor. The AlTi contact can achieve a solar cell conversion efficiency as high as that obtained from the Ag contact. These findings encourage the potential adoption of AlTi films as an alternative back contact to silver for silicon thin-film solar cells.

  11. Electronic structure of the Zn(O,S)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezher, Michelle [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Garris, Rebekah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Mansfield, Lorelle M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Horsley, Kimberly [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Weinhardt, Lothar [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen Germany; ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen Germany; Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe Germany; Duncan, Douglas A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Blum, Monika [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Rosenberg, Samantha G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Bär, Marcus [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin Germany; Institut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, 03046 Cottbus Germany; Ramanathan, Kannan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Heske, Clemens [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen Germany; ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen Germany; Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe Germany

    2016-03-10

    The electronic band alignment of the Zn(O,S)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface in high-efficiency thin-film solar cells was derived using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy, and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Similar to the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 system, we find an essentially flat (small-spike) conduction band alignment (here: a conduction band offset of (0.09 +/- 0.20) eV), allowing for largely unimpeded electron transfer and forming a likely basis for the success of high-efficiency Zn(O,S)-based chalcopyrite devices. Furthermore, we find evidence for multiple bonding environments of Zn and O in the Zn(O,S) film, including ZnO, ZnS, Zn(OH)2, and possibly ZnSe.

  12. Environmental influences on the performance of thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalg, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    The response of thin film photovoltaic devices to changes in the environment is not well understood. There are a large number of conflicting reports, reflecting largely the superimposed nature of the environmental effects. A separation of the effects is not often attempted mainly because of the lack of appropriate spectral data. An experimental system has been designed and operated to facilitate the separation of the environmental effects, including spectral effects. This involves measurements in a controlled laboratory environment as well as outdoor monitoring. Furthermore, a number of analysis tools have been developed and tested for their suitability. In order to develop a system model, the applicability of parametric models for thin film devices is probed. The thermal variation of the underlying physical parameters is investigated and problems of describing thin film devices with parametric models are discussed. It is shown that the magnitude of the spectral effects for thin film devices is potentially much more significant than for conventional crystalline silicon devices. This analysis is centred on the primary spectral effect, i.e. it is conducted purely on the basis of available light and does not consider any absorption profiles or device structures. It is also shown that there is a strong daily and seasonal variation in the fraction of the useful light for devices employing a larger band gap. Environmental effects are observed directly from outdoor measurements. It is apparent that many of the reported idiosyncrasies occurring during the operation of thin film devices can be explained simply by including spectral effects. It is possible to show the secondary spectral effect for multi-junction devices, i.e. an effect that depends on the composition of the solar irradiance and not purely on the magnitude of spectrally useful irradiance. This effect impacts mainly on the short circuit current and to some extent on the fill factor. Finally, the findings of

  13. Fabrication and characterization of Al2O3 /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al2O3/Si composite nanodome (CND structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al2O3 layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al2O3thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al2O3 film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device’s leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al2O3 film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10−9 A/cm2 over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiOx layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al2O3 film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al2O3 coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device efficiency.

  14. Trade-off between Photon Management Efficacy and Material Quality in Thin-Film Solar Cells on Nanostructured Substrates of High Aspect Ratio Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Chin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although texturing of the transparent electrode of thin-film solar cells has long been used to enhance light absorption via light trapping, such texturing has involved low aspect ratio features. With the recent development of nanotechnology, nanostructured substrates enable improved light trapping and enhanced optical absorption via resonances, a process known as photon management, in thin-film solar cells. Despite the progress made in the development of photon management in thin-film solar cells using nanostructures substrates, the structural integrity of the thin-film solar cells deposited onto such nanostructured substrates is rarely considered. Here, we report the observation of the reduction in the open circuit voltage of amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto a nanostructured substrate with increasing areal number density of high aspect ratio structures. For a nanostructured substrate with the areal number density of such nanostructures increasing in correlation with the distance from one edge of the substrate, a correlation between the open circuit voltage reduction and the increase of the areal number density of high aspect ratio nanostructures of the front electrode of the small-size amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto different regions of the substrate with graded nanostructure density indicates the effect of the surface morphology on the material quality, i.e., a trade-off between photon management efficacy and material quality. This observed trade-off highlights the importance of optimizing the morphology of the nanostructured substrate to ensure conformal deposition of the thin-film solar cell.

  15. Grain-size distributions and grain boundaries of chalcopyrite-type thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ras, D.; Schorr, S.; Schock, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    CuInSe 2 , CuGaSe 2 , Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and CuInS 2 thin-film solar absorbers in completed solar cells were studied in cross section by means of electronbackscatter diffraction. From the data acquired, grain-size distributions were extracted, and also the most frequent grain boundaries were determined. The grain-size distributions of all chalcopyrite-type thin films studied can be described well by lognormal distribution functions. The most frequent grainboundary types in these thin films are 60 - left angle 221 right angle tet and 71 - left angle 110 right angle tet (near) Σ3 twin boundaries. These results can be related directly to the importance of {112} tet planes during the topotactical growth of chalcopyrite-type thin films. Based on energetic considerations, it is assumed that the most frequent twin boundaries exhibit a 180 - left angle 221 right angle tet constellation. (orig.)

  16. Design and optimization of the plasmonic graphene/InP thin-film solar-cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematpour, Abedin; Nikoufard, Mahmoud; Mehragha, Rouholla

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a graphene/InP thin-film Schottky-junction solar cell with a periodic array of plasmonic back-reflector is proposed. In this structure, a single-layer graphene sheet is deposited on the surface of the InP to form a Schottky junction. Then, the layer stack of the proposed solar-cell is optimized to have a maximum optical absorption of 〈A W〉  =  0.985 (98.5%) and short-circuit current density of J sc  =  33.01 mA cm‑2.

  17. Band gap engineering of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Dayal, Saurabh; Rauthan, C. M. S.; Panwar, O. S.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, self bias variation, nitrogen introduction and oxygen plasma (OP) treatment approaches have been used for tailoring the band gap of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin films. The band gap of a-C:H and modified a- C:H films is varied in the range from 1.25 eV to 3.45 eV, which is found to be nearly equal to the full solar spectrum (1 eV- 3.5 eV). Hence, such a-C:H and modified a-C:H films are found to be potential candidate for the development of full spectrum solar cells. Besides this, computer aided simulation with considering variable band gap a-C:H and modified a- C:H films as window layer for amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells is also performed by AFORS-HET software and maximum efficiency as ~14 % is realized. Since a-C:H is hard material, hence a-C:H and modified a-C:H films as window layer may avoid the use of additional hard and protective coating particularly in n-i-p configuration.

  18. Effect of Annealing Temperature on CuInSe2/ZnS Thin-Film Solar Cells Fabricated by Using Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CuInSe2 (CIS thin films are successfully prepared by electron beam evaporation. Pure Cu, In, and Se powders were mixed and ground in a grinder and made into a pellet. The pallets were deposited via electron beam evaporation on FTO substrates and were varied by varying the annealing temperatures, at room temperature, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. Samples were analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD for crystallinity and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM for grain size and thickness. I-V measurements were used to measure the efficiency of the CuInSe2/ZnS solar cells. XRD results show that the crystallinity of the films improved as the temperature was increased. The temperature dependence of crystallinity indicates polycrystalline behaviour in the CuInSe2 films with (1 1 1, (2 2 0/(2 0 4, and (3 1 2/(1 1 6 planes at 27°, 45°, and 53°, respectively. FESEM images show the homogeneity of the CuInSe2 formed. I-V measurements indicated that higher annealing temperatures increase the efficiency of CuInSe2 solar cells from approximately 0.99% for the as-deposited films to 1.12% for the annealed films. Hence, we can conclude that the overall cell performance is strongly dependent on the annealing temperature.

  19. Photoluminescence of epitactical and polycrystalline CuInS2 layers for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis deals with one- and polycrystalline CuInS 2 absorber layers for thin-film solar cells and especially with their optical and structural characterization. By means of detailed temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements in epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers different radiative transitions could be analyzed and identified. The spectra were dominated by broad luminescence bands of deep perturbing levels. The implantation of hydrogen at low energies led to a passivation of these perturbing levels. On the base of the optical studies on epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers a new improved defect model for CuInS 2 could be developed. The model contains two donor and two acceptor levels with following ionization energies: D-1=46 meV, D-2=87 meV, A-1=70 meV, and A-2=119 meV

  20. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequent annealing in Ar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, R.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Merino, J.M.; Friedrich, E.J.; Climent-Font, A.; Saucedo, E.; 2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adriá del Besòs, E-08930 Barcelona (Spain); IN2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; León, M.

    2013-01-01

    A study of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequently annealed in Ar atmosphere has been carried out. Prior to thin film deposition, Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 bulk compounds with stoichiometric and Zn-rich compositions were synthesized as evaporation sources. The characteristics of the bulk compounds and thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elastic back scattering. Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 deposited films contain lower concentrations of Zn than the bulk compounds used as evaporation sources, which is related to a preferential Zn re-evaporation during the deposition process. The desired kesterite composition for solar cell applications was achieved by using a Zn-rich compound as the evaporation source plus a thermal treatment at 620 °C in Ar atmosphere. - Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films by flash evaporation + annealing in Ar atmosphere ► Difficulty of growing a single phase kesterite material ► X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to identify the different phases ► Importance of the starting film composition to get the desired CZTS material ► Annealing treatment to obtain the optimum material to be used for CZTS solar cells

  1. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  2. Indium tin oxide thin-films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis for efficient silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simashkevich, Alexei, E-mail: alexeisimashkevich@hotmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Serban, Dormidont; Bruc, Leonid; Curmei, Nicolai [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Hinrichs, Volker [Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Rusu, Marin [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis deposition method was developed for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with thicknesses ranging between 300 and 400 nm with the sheet resistance of 10–15 Ω/sq. and the transparency in the visible region of the spectrum over 80%. The layers were deposited on the (100) surface of the n-type silicon wafers with the charge carriers concentration of ~ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The morphology of the ITO layers deposited on Si wafers with different surface morphologies, e.g., smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) was investigated. The as-deposited ITO thin films consist of crystalline columns with the height of 300–400 nm and the width of 50–100 nm. Photovoltaic parameters of mono- and bifacial solar cells of Cu/ITO/SiO{sub 2}/n–n{sup +} Si/Cu prepared on Si (100) wafers with different surface structures were studied and compared. A maximum efficiency of 15.8% was achieved on monofacial solar cell devices with the textured Si surface. Bifacial photovoltaic devices from 100 μm thick Si wafers with the smooth surface have demonstrated efficiencies of 13.0% at frontal illumination and 10% at rear illumination. - Highlights: • ITO thin films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis on Si (100) wafers with a smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) surface. • Monofacial ITO/SiO2/n-n+Si solar cells with an efficiency of 15.8% prepared and bifacial PV devices with front- and rear-side efficiencies up to 13% demonstrated. • Comparative studies of photovoltaic properties of solar cells with different morphologies of the Si wafer surface presented.

  3. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro, E-mail: takeuchi@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  4. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and application of Co doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.

    2018-06-01

    To use the visible portion of solar light, 2% cobalt doped TiO2 (Co: TiO2) multilayer thin films having 1, 2, 3 and 4 stacked layers have been deposited on FTO substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that 1 and 2 layers of films have anatase phase. Brookite phase has been appeared at the 3 and 4 layered films. The average grain size of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films are 14.4, 23.5, 29.7 and 33.6 nm respectively. UV-Vis results show that 4th layer film has high absorption in the visible region. The calculated Eg of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers is 3.54, 3.42, 3.30 and 3.03 eV respectively. The calculated average sheet resistivity of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films is 7.68 × 104, 4.54 × 104, 8.85 × 103 and 7.95 × 102 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe technique. Solar simulator results show that highest solar conversion efficiency (5.6%) has been obtained by using 3 stacked layers photoanode. This new structure in the form of stack layers provides a way to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  6. Preparation and characterization of co-evaporated Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uday Bhaskar, P.; Suresh Babu, G.; Kishore Kumar, Y.B.; Sundara Raja, V., E-mail: sundararajav@rediffmail.com

    2013-05-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} (CZGSe), a member of Cu{sub 2}–II–IV–VI{sub 4} family, is a promising material for solar cell absorber layer in thin film heterojunction solar cells like Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} which have been explored in recent years as alternate to CuInGaSe{sub 2} solar cells. The effect of substrate temperature (523 K–723 K) on the growth of CZGSe films is investigated by studying their structural, morphological and optical properties. Raman spectroscopy studies have been done to identify the phases in addition to X-ray diffraction studies. CZGSe films deposited at different substrate temperatures and annealed at 723 K in selenium atmosphere are Cu-rich and Ge-poor and contained secondary phases Cu{sub (2−x)}Se and ZnSe. CZGSe films obtained by reducing the starting Cu mass by 10% were found to be single phase with stannite structure, the lattice parameters being a = 0.563 nm, c = 1.101 nm. The direct optical band gap of CZGSe films is found to be 1.63 eV which is close to ideal band gap of 1.50 eV for the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency. The films are found to be p-type. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} films for solar cell absorber layer • Effect of substrate temperature on the growth of co-evaporated Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} films • X-ray diffraction, Raman and morphological studies of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} thin films.

  7. Characterization of Lateral Structure of the p-i-n Diode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, Zohreh; Joo, Seung Ki

    2018-03-01

    The lateral structure of the p-i-n diode was characterized for thin-film silicon solar cell application. The structure can benefit from a wide intrinsic layer, which can improve efficiency without increasing cell thickness. Compared with conventional thin-film p-i-n cells, the p-i-n diode lateral structure exploited direct light irradiation on the absorber layer, one-side contact, and bifacial irradiation. Considering the effect of different carrier lifetimes and recombinations, we calculated efficiency parameters by using a commercially available simulation program as a function of intrinsic layer width, as well as the distance between p/i or n/i junctions to contacts. We then obtained excellent parameter values of 706.52 mV open-circuit voltage, 24.16 mA/Cm2 short-circuit current, 82.66% fill factor, and 14.11% efficiency from a lateral cell (thickness = 3 μm; intrinsic layer width = 53 μm) in monofacial irradiation mode (i.e., only sunlight from the front side was considered). Simulation results of the cell without using rear-side reflector in bifacial irradiation mode showed 11.26% front and 9.72% rear efficiencies. Our findings confirmed that the laterally structured p-i-n cell can be a potentially powerful means for producing highly efficient, thin-film silicon solar cells.

  8. Impedance spectroscopy of CdTe thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charlotte; Heisler, Christoph; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) is a widely used method to analyze dielectric properties of specimen as a function of frequency. Typically this characterization method delivers an equivalent circuit diagram of the device under examination to describe its electrical properties. Traditionally IS is used in coating evaluation, corrosion monitoring and in electrochemistry. During the last years the method became more important also in the field of electrical characterization of solar cells. In our work we use IS for the electrical characterization of thin film CdTe solar cells. The measurement is done at room temperature without illumination in a frequency domain from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. The samples are measured under variable forward bias. The results match insufficiently with the model of two resistor-capacitor circuits in series which is commonly used to describe the p-n junction and the blocking back contact. For better consistency, other models from the literature are used and discussed. From the results a conclusion is drawn about the properties of the solar cell such as the nature of the p-n junction or the performance of the back contact.

  9. Magnetron sputtering fabrication and photoelectric properties of WSe2 film solar cell device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu; Zou, Jianpeng; Li, Hongchao; Song, Zhengqi; He, Siru

    2018-06-01

    Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films with different growing orientations exhibit diverse photoelectric properties. The WSe2 film with C-axis⊥substrate texture has been prepared and applied to thin-film solar cells. W nanofilms with a thickness of 270 nm were deposited onto the Mo bottom electrode and then heat-treated in selenium vapor to synthesize WSe2 films with a thickness of 1 μm. ZnO films were deposited onto WSe2 films to form a P-N junction and ITO films were deposited subsequently as the conductive layer. X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectro-analysis instrument were employed to analyze the phase composition, optical absorptivity and micromorphology of WSe2 films and the WSe2 solar cell device. WSe2 films exhibit excellent photoelectric performance with an optical absorption coefficient greater than 105 cm-1 across the visible spectrum. The calculated direct and indirect band gap of the WSe2 films is 1.48 eV and 1.25 eV, respectively. With the application of standard glass/Mo/WSe2/ZnO/ITO/Ag device structure, the open-circuit voltage of the battery device is 82 mV. The short-circuit current density is 2.98 mA/cm2 and the filling factor is 0.32. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the WSe2 film solar cell device is 0.79%.

  10. In-situ sol-gel synthesis and thin film deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Lyubenova, T.; Marti, R.; Fraga, D.; Rey, A.; Carda, J.; Kozhukharov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays chalcogenide-based solar cells, like Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 , are competitive in the photovoltaic market, due to its improved performances like higher efficiency (20,3%), long-time stability and excellent durability. In addition, CIGS stand out with an exceptionally high absorption coefficient (more than; 105/cm for 1.5eV) and higher energy photons. These properties make it an excellent candidate as an absorber material for large scale production of photovoltaic modules for building-integrated applications. Traditional methods of manufacture involve vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering that increase production costs. With the aim to lower the expenses by using non-vacuum solution processes we propose an ‘in-situ’ sol-gel synthesis route and direct thin film deposition in the same production step. As a result, we achieved better stoichiometric control, simplicity in the procedure and cost reduction. In this work we describe a procedure to obtain CIGS absorber layer by soft chemistry technique and further deposition onto different substrates. Preparation parameters like precursors, chemical composition, solvents, thermal treatment factors (temperature, time, and atmosphere) were detailed studied. Finally, the resulting materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), UV-VIS Spectroscopy among others.; key words: sol-gel synthesis, thin film deposition, photovoltaic modules, solar cells

  11. Process parameter impact on properties of sputtered large-area Mo bilayers for CIGS thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgujar, Amol C.; Dhage, Sanjay R., E-mail: dhage@arci.res.in; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2015-08-31

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) has emerged as a promising candidate for thin film solar cells, with efficiencies approaching those of silicon-based solar cells. To achieve optimum performance in CIGS solar cells, uniform, conductive, stress-free, well-adherent, reflective, crystalline molybdenum (Mo) thin films with preferred orientation (110) are desirable as a back contact on large area glass substrates. The present study focuses on cylindrical rotating DC magnetron sputtered bilayer Mo thin films on 300 mm × 300 mm soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. Key sputtering variables, namely power and Ar gas flow rates, were optimized to achieve best structural, electrical and optical properties. The Mo films were comprehensively characterized and found to possess high degree of thickness uniformity over large area. Best crystallinity, reflectance and sheet resistance was obtained at high sputtering powers and low argon gas flow rates, while mechanical properties like adhesion and residual stress were found to be best at low sputtering power and high argon gas flow rate, thereby indicating a need to arrive at a suitable trade-off during processing. - Highlights: • Sputtering of bilayer molybdenum thin films on soda lime glass • Large area deposition using rotating cylindrical direct current magnetron • Trade of sputter process parameters power and pressure • High uniformity of thickness and best electrical properties obtained • Suitable mechanical and optical properties of molybdenum are achieved for CIGS application.

  12. Crystal structure determination of solar cell materials: Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Fukano, Tatsuo; Ohta, Shingo; Seno, Yoshiki; Katagiri, Hironori; Jimbo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films as a solar cell material were synthesized. ► The wavelength dependences of the diffraction intensity were measured. ► The crystal structures were clearly identified as kesterite structure for all samples. ► Crystal structure analysis revealed that the atomic compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97 and Zn/Sn = 1.42 for the sample synthesized using stoichiometric amount of starting materials. - Abstract: The crystal structure of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films fabricated by vapor-phase sulfurization was determined using X-ray anomalous dispersion. High statistic synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data were collected from very small amounts of powder. By analyzing the wavelength dependencies of the diffraction peak intensities, the crystal structure was clearly identified as kesterite. Rietveld analysis revealed that the atomic composition deviated from stoichiometric composition, and the compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97, and Zn/Sn = 1.42.

  13. Study on the preheating duration of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} thin films using RF magnetron sputtering technique for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuchen; He, Jun; Li, Xinran; Chen, Ye; Sun, Lin, E-mail: lsun@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2016-04-25

    Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) thin films are prepared by sulfurization the stacked metallic precursors deposited by raido-frequency magnetron sputtering method on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates. The details of sulfurization process and the effect of preheating duration on the properties of CTS thin films have been investigated. It is found that the content of element tin strongly depend on the preheating duration. X-ray diffraction patterns identify that the CTS thin films exhibit the monoclinic structure. Raman scattering spectra make a further confirmation for the crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR) is first used to study the properties of CTS thin films. The assigned active modes in Raman scattering spectra is consistent with the analysis in FTIR. Morphology analysis reveals long preheating duration would make the quality of films deteriorate. The thin film solar cell (TFSC) fabricated using the CTS absorber layer synthesized at preheating duration of 15 min shows that a power conversion efficiency up to 0.76% for a 0.19 cm{sup 2} area. The electrical characterization of CTS TFSC is first studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which implies the existence of MoS{sub x} and defects in the CTS/CdS interface. - Highlights: • CTS thin films and solar cells prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. • Preheating duration is a critical way to remain the Sn content in CTS thin film. • XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS confirmed the single phase of CTS thin film. • The device characterization of CTS solar cell has been systematically investigated.

  14. Effects of Sb-doping on the grain growth of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by means of single-target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shu; Wu, Lu; Yue, Ruoyu; Yan, Zongkai; Zhan, Haoran; Xiang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Sb doping on the kinetics of grain growth in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films during annealing, CIGS thin films were sputtered onto Mo coated substrates from a single CIGS alloy target, followed by chemical bath deposition of Sb 2 S 3 thin layers on top of CIGS layers and subsequent annealing at different temperatures for 30 min in Se vapors. X-ray diffraction results showed that CIGS thin films were obtained directly using the single-target sputtering method. After annealing, the In/Ga ratio in Sb-doped CIGS thin films remained stable compared to undoped film, possibly because Sb can promote the incorporation of Ga into CIGS. The grain growth in CIGS thin films was enhanced after Sb doping, exhibiting significantly larger grains after annealing at 400 °C or 450 °C compared to films without Sb. In particular, the effect was strikingly significant in grain growth across the film thickness, resulting in columnar grain structure in Sb-doped films. This grain growth improvement may be led by the diffusion of Sb from the front surface to the CIGS-Mo back interface, which promoted the mass transport process in CIGS thin films. - Highlights: ► Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films made by sputtering from a single CIGS target. ► Chemical bath deposition used to introduce antimony into CIGS absorber layers. ► In/Ga ratio decreases in Sb-doped annealed films, comparatively to undoped films. ► Sb-doped CIGS films are superior to undoped films in terms of grain-growth kinetics

  15. Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration-Assisted Drop Casting (SVADC) for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Solar Cell Arrays and Thin-Film Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost, versatile, and potentially scalable casting method is proposed for the fabrication of micro- and nano-thin films, herein termed as ultrasonic "substrate vibration-assisted drop casting" (SVADC). The impingement of a solution drop onto a substrate in a simple process called drop casting, usually results in spreading of the liquid solution and the formation of a non-uniform thin solid film after solvent evaporation. Our previous and current supporting results, as well as few similar reports by others, confirm that imposing ultrasonic vibration on the substrate can simply convert the uncontrollable drop casting method into a controllable coating technique. Therefore, the SVADC may be used to fabricate an array of emerging thin-film solar cells, such as polymer, perovskite, and quantum-dot solar cells, as well as other small thin-film devices, in a roll-to-roll and automated fabrication process. The preliminary results demonstrate a ten-fold increase in electrical conductivity of PSS made by SVADC compared with the film made by conventional drop casting. Also, simple planar perovskite solar cells made here using SVADC show promising performance with an efficiency of over 3 % for a simple structure without performing process optimization or using expensive materials and treatments.

  16. Physical vapor deposition and analysis of copper indium aluminum diselenide thin films for high band gap solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimbodi, Moses Warotua

    CuInSe2 films and related alloys have been used to fabricate the highest efficiency thin film solar cells. Alloying CuInSe2 with CuAlSe2 provides a way to engineer the band gap of the resulting films from 1 to 2.7 eV, thereby providing a pathway for improving device performance. In this work, thin films of CuIn1-xAlxSe 2 obtained by multi-source PVD were characterized and investigated for their potential use as high band gap solar cells. The band gap of the films was varied by controlling the [Al]/[Al + In] ratio. Deposition of these films with varying [Cu]/[Al + In] ratios and thickness (1--4 mum) was carried out at substrate temperatures from 350--530°C. CuIn1-xAlxSe2 based solar cells have been fabricated using the structure glass/Mo/CuIn1-xAl xSe2/CdS/ZnO/grid. The effect of varying the band gap on device performance will be discussed. The highest efficiency obtained in this work is 11% using a film with Eg ≈ 1.3 eV. For high Al content, x > 0.3, device-performance decreases mainly due to poor FF similar to that observed in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 devices and is attributed to poor minority carrier collection. For CuIn1-xAlxSe2 films with x = 1, data is analyzed and presented with respect to [Cu]/[Al] and Se to total metal flux ratio, RSe/RM. Phase analysis shows that the resulting films contain different phases that depend on these parameters. Several of these films also contain concentrations of oxygen varying from 12 to 60 at. % as the [Cu]/[Al] ratio decreases. For RSe/R M > 10, a new structure we label as CuxAlySe z was observed. The oxygen content in all of the films obtained under RSe/RM > 10 vary between 1--3 at. %. Based on the Cu-Se, Al-Se, Cu-Al binary and the Cu2Se-Al2Se 3 pseudo-binary phase diagrams, a phenomenological film growth model is presented showing that the film growth kinetics are controlled by the delivery of Se.

  17. Investigation of AgInS{sub 2} thin films grown by coevaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C A; Gordillo, G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); J, Clavijo, E-mail: caarredondoo@unal.edu.c, E-mail: ggordillog@unal.edu.c [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Cr.30 N0 45-03 (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    AgInS{sub 2} thin films were grown on soda-lime glass substrates by co-evaporation of the precursors in a two-step process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that these compounds grow in different phases and with different crystalline structure depending upon the deposition conditions. However, through a parameter study, conditions were found to grow thin films containing only the AgInS{sub 2} phase with chalcopyrite type structure. In samples containing a mixture of several phases, the contribution in percentage terms of each phase to the whole compound was estimated with the help of the PowderCell simulation package. It was also found that the AgInS{sub 2} films present p-type conductivity, a high absorption coefficient (greater than 10{sub 4} cm{sub -1}) and an energy band gap Eg of about 1.95 eV, indicating that this compound has good properties to perform as absorbent layer in thin film tandem solar cells. The effect of the deposition conditions on the optical and morphological properties was also investigated through spectral transmitance and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements.

  18. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototypes was investigated by current-voltage relations measured under illuminated and dark conditions. The results indicate that, during the film deposition, the control of the oxidation processes of the nitride layers plays a fundamental role for an effective incorporation of substitutional nitrogen in the film structure and cells built with nitrogen-doped TiO2 have higher short-circuit photocurrent in relation to that obtained with conventional DSSCs. On the other hand, DSSCs built with nondoped TiO2 have higher open-circuit voltage. These experimental observations indicate that the incorporation of nitrogen in the TiO2 lattice increases simultaneously the processes of generation and destruction of electric current.

  19. Synthesis of ZnO thin film by sol-gel spin coating technique for H2S gas sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Amol R.; Patil, Maruti G.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film synthesized by a simple sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural, morphology, compositional, microstructural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of the film were studied by using XRD, FESEM, EDS, XPS, HRTEM, Raman, FTIR and UV-vis techniques. The ZnO thin film shows hexagonal wurtzite structure with a porous structured morphology. Gas sensing performance of synthesized ZnO thin film was tested initially for H2S gas at different operating temperatures as well as concentrations. The maximum gas response is achieved towards H2S gas at 300 °C operating temperature, at 100 ppm gas concentration as compared to other gases like CH3OH, Cl2, NH3, LPG, CH3COCH3, and C2H5OH with a good stability.

  20. Effect of sulfurization temperature on the property of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film by eco-friendly nanoparticle ink method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Honglie; Yao, Hanyu; Shang, Huirong; Tang, ZhengXia; Li, Yufang

    2017-09-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were fabricated by a low-cost nanoparticle ink method. The eco-friendly hydrophilic CZTS nanoparticles were mixed with low-cost n-propanol to form nanoparticle ink. To improve crystallinity and remove oxygen element, the CZTS thin films were sulfurized further. The effects of sulfurization temperature on the structure, morphologies, and photovoltaic performances of CZTS thin films were investigated. The results showed that the crystallinity of CZTS thin film was improved with increasing sulfurization temperature. The surface morphology studies demonstrated the formation of compact and homogenous CZTS thin film at a sulfurization temperature of 600 °C. By optimizing thickness of CZTS thin film, the CZTS thin-film solar cell with an optimal efficiency of 2.1% was obtained.

  1. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  2. A study on molybdenum sulphoselenide (MoSxSe2−x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2) thin films: Growth from solution and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, T. Joseph Sahaya; Shariza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of deposition time on the properties of molybdenum chalcogenide thin films. ► First time to compare the study of binary and ternary molybdenum chalcogenides. ► No previous report on ternary molybdenum sulphoselenide by electrodeposition. ► Semiconducting parameters by CV analysis promising to be good solar cell material. - Abstract: Thin films of molybdenum sulphoselenide, MoS x Se 2−x , (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) have been electrosynthesized on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass and stainless steel substrates. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and compositional characteristics. Their optical and semiconducting parameters were also analysed in order to determine the suitability of the thin films for photoelectrochemical (PEC)/solar cell applications. Structural analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the films are polycrystalline in nature. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveals the films were adherent to the substrate with uniform in nature which also confirmed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Compositional analysis via energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) technique confirms the presence of Mo, S and Se elements in the films. The optical studies show that the films are of direct bandgap. Results on the semiconductor parameters analysis of the films showed that the nature of the Mott–Schottky plots indicates that the films obtained are of n-type material. For all films, the semiconductor parameter values come in the better range of other transition metal chalcogenides which has proven that MoSSe thin films are capable as solar/PEC cell materials.

  3. Low Temperature Synthesis of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Thin Film by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun-Byul; Choi, Jae-Seok; Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Sung-Churl; Kim, Chang-Yeoul

    2016-02-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is widely used for the application of flat panel display like liquid crystal displays and plasma display panel. It is also applied in the field of touch panel, solar cell electrode, low-emissivity glass, defrost window, and anti-static material. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis of ethanol-added FTO precursor solutions. FTO thin film by spray pyrolysis is very much investigated and normally formed at high temperature, about 500 degrees C. However, these days, flexible electronics draw many attentions in the field of IT industry and the research for flexible transparent conducting thin film is also required. In the industrial field, indium-tin oxide (ITO) film on polymer substrate is widely used for touch panel and displays. In this study, we investigated the possibility of FTO thin film formation at relatively low temperature of 250 degrees C. We found out that the control of volume of input precursor and exhaust gases could make it possible to form FTO thin film with a relatively low electrical resistance, less than 100 Ohm/sq and high optical transmittance about 88%.

  4. Performance Improvement of Microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si Thin Film Solar Cells by Using Laser-Assisted Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si thin film solar cells treated with hydrogen plasma were fabricated at low temperature using a CO2 laser-assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD system. According to the micro-Raman results, the i-Si films shifted from 482 cm−1 to 512 cm−1 as the assisting laser power increased from 0 W to 80 W, which indicated a gradual transformation from amorphous to crystalline Si. From X-ray diffraction (XRD results, the microcrystalline i-Si films with (111, (220, and (311 diffraction were obtained. Compared with the Si-based thin film solar cells deposited without laser assistance, the short-circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with assisting laser power of 80 W were improved from 14.38 mA/cm2 to 18.16 mA/cm2 and from 6.89% to 8.58%, respectively.

  5. Transparent conducting oxide contacts and textured metal back reflectors for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, R. H.-J.

    2006-09-01

    at this surface. Additionally, we show that we can control the lateral feature sizes and obtain an optimized roughness for light scattering. With this new knowledge we were able to indicate the influence of the surface plasmon absorption of the textured Ag layers on the current enhancement and recognize this effect as one of the limiting factors to the current increase in thin film solar cells. Finally we present the dark and light current voltage (J-V) parameters of muc-Si:H solar cells as a function of the rms roughness of the substrate. We show that increased roughness can result in an increased defect density of the absorbing silicon layer (i layer), which limits the current collection in the solar cell. The presented research gives better understanding of the effect of TCOs and textured interfaces on light trapping and current enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells. The thesis explains some fundamental insights in light scattering and reveals some material and morphology features that are dominantly limiting the current generation in muc-Si:H solar cells deposited on light scattering back reflectors. Furthermore, it presents a method to obtain optimized back scattering contacts at deposition temperatures below 300 oC, which opens the possibility for the use of heat resistant plastic substrates. We improved the muc-Si:H solar cell efficiency with flat back reflectors from 4.5 % and 14.6 mA/cm2 to 8.5 % and 23.4 mA/cm2 with the use of optimized back reflectors.

  6. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Survey on the commercialization analysis; Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the technological trend, safety and latest technologies of thin film solar cells in fiscal 1994. As the fabrication technology for amorphous film solar cells, three-electrode plasma CVD was surveyed as fabrication method for high-mobility materials, and hydrogen radical CVD as fabrication method for high-photostable films. Current foreign and domestic reliability tests were surveyed for reliability evaluation of solar cells. In order to ascertain the performance, efficiency, physical properties and optimum structure of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells, previously reported test results on physical properties such as carrier concentration, carrier lifetime and mobility of films were surveyed together with device simulation results. In addition, technologies for high-efficiency CuInSe2 system and CdTe system solar cells, technologies for cost reduction and mass production, and environmental influence were surveyed. Estimation of production costs for cell modules, and safety of thin film solar cells were also surveyed.

  7. Decoration of PbS nanoparticles on Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Chao-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Dong-Hwang, E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► AZO nanorod array thin film is used as a photoanode for solar water splitting. ► Hydrogen treatment and sensitization by PbS nanoparticles enhance photocurrent. ► A novel ITO/FTO-free composite photoelectrode is developed. ► The pre-fabrication and use of an extra TCO thin film substrate is unnecessary. -- Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorod arrays thin film with hydrogen treatment is directly used as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting without an extra transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin film because it possesses the functions of TCO thin film and photoactive 1-dimensional nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible region, PbS nanoparticles decorated the AZO nanorods via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction route. The PbS nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure and their decoration does not destroy the 1-dimensional morphology of AZO nanorod arrays. With increasing the cycle number of PbS nanoparticles decoration, the grain size and loading of PbS nanoparticles become larger gradually which leads to lower energy bandgap and stronger absorption. A maximum photocurrent density of 1.65 mW cm{sup −2} is obtained when the cycle number is 20, which is much higher than those without PbS nanoparticles sensitization or hydrogen treatment. This demonstrates that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment can be directly used as a photoelectrode without an extra TCO thin film. Because the use of expensive metals can be avoided and the pre-fabrication of TCO thin film substrate is necessary no more, the fabrication of such a composite photoelectrode becomes simple and low-cost. So, it has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  8. Using Spin-Coated Silver Nanoparticles/Zinc Oxide Thin Films to Improve the Efficiency of GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsun Lei

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, and silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO3 aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the crystalline structure, Ag content, and reflectance of Ag NP/ZnO thin films depended on the AgNO3 concentration. Hybrid antireflection coatings (ARCs composed of SiNx and Ag NPs/ZnO thin films with various AgNO3 concentrations were deposited on GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge solar cells. We propose that the optimal ARC consists of SiNx and Ag NP/ZnO thin films prepared using a treatment solution of 0.0008 M AgNO3, 0.007 M Zn(CH3COO2, and 1 M NaOH, followed by post-annealing at 200 °C. GaInP/(AlGaAs/Ge solar cells with the optimal hybrid ARC and SiNx ARC exhibit a conversion efficiency of 34.1% and 30.2% with Voc = 2.39 and 2.4 V, Jsc = 16.63 and 15.37 mA/cm2, and fill factor = 86.1% and 78.8%.

  9. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films with buffer layers for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin-liang, E-mail: cxlruzhou@163.com; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin-hua; Huang, Qian; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2013-09-02

    Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit rough pyramid-like textured surface, high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region and excellent electrical properties. The experiment results indicate that tungsten-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W, IWO) buffer layers can effectively improve the surface roughness and enhance the light scattering ability of HGZO thin films. The root-mean-square roughness of HGZO, IWO (10 nm)/HGZO and IWO (30 nm)/HGZO thin films are 28, 44 and 47 nm, respectively. The haze values at the wavelength of 550 nm increase from 7.0% of HGZO thin film without buffer layer to 18.37% of IWO (10 nm)/HGZO thin film. The optimized IWO (10 nm)/HGZO exhibits a high optical transmittance of 82.18% in the visible and near infrared region (λ ∼ 400–1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties with a relatively low sheet resistance of 3.6 Ω/□ and the resistivity of 6.21 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm. - Highlights: • Textured hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) films were developed. • Tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) buffer layers were applied for the HGZO films. • Light-scattering ability of the HGZO films can be improved through buffer layers. • Low sheet resistance and high haze were obtained for the IWO(10 nm)/HGZO film. • The IWO/HGZO films are promising transparent conductive layers for solar cells.

  10. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Thin film Photovoltaic Absorber Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandur, Abhishek; White, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because it is an ideal candidate absorber material for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap (1.5 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm-1) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since thin films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of laser energy fluence and substrate temperature and post-deposition sulfur annealing on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption have been investigated. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited a band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x104cm-1. A solar cell utilizing PLD grown CZTS with the structure SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO showed a conversion efficiency of 5.85% with Voc = 376 mV, Jsc = 38.9 mA/cm2 and Fill Factor, FF = 0.40.

  11. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  12. Ga2O3-In2O3 thin films on sapphire substrates: Synthesis and ultraviolet photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Kolymagin, A. B.; Nabatov, B. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    The structure and electrical and optical properties of β-Ga2O3-In2O3 thin films on sapphire substrates with different orientations have been investigated. The samples have been prepared by annealing of gallium-indium metallic films on sapphire substrates in air at different gallium-to-indium ratios in the initial mixture. The photoconductivity of these structures in the solar-blind ultraviolet spectral region has been examined.

  13. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2015-03-01

    InxGa1-xN, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In0.08Ga0.92N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 1018 cm-3. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  14. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Jascha [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Lehmann, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.lehmann@ftf.lth.se [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch. [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bär, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.baer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Sadewasser, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.sadewasser@inl.int [Renewable Energies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga s/n, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-12-21

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for “realistic” surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films with an average x = [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH{sub 3}-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is – apart from a slight change in surface composition – identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  15. Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals—study of structural, optical, and transport characteristics of Cu2O thin films from malachite mineral and synthetic CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, K.R.; Kao, V.M.; Ravichandran, J.; Rossen, P.B.; Siemons, W.; Ager, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of using an abundantly occurring natural ore, malachite (Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ) to directly yield the semiconductor Cu 2 O to be used as an active component of a functional thin film based device. Cu 2 O is an archetype hole-conducting semiconductor that possesses several interesting characteristics particularly useful for solar cell applications, including low cost, non-toxicity, good hole mobility, large minority carrier diffusion length, and a direct energy gap ideal for efficient absorption. In this article, we compare the structural, optical, and electrical transport characteristics of Cu 2 O thin films grown from the natural mineral malachite and synthetic CuO targets. Growth from either source material results in single-phase, fully epitaxial cuprous oxide thin films as determined by x-ray diffraction. The films grown from malachite have strong absorption coefficients ( 10 4 cm −1 ), a direct allowed optical bandgap ( 2.4 eV), and majority carrier hole mobilities ( 35 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature) that compare well with films grown from the synthetic target as well as with previously reported values. Our work demonstrates that minerals could be useful to directly yield the active components in functional devices and suggests a route for the exploration of low cost energy conversion and storage technologies. - Highlights: ► Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals ► Chemistry and structure evolution of the films obtained from mineral target is very similar to that films obtained from high-purity synthetic targets. ► Quite interestingly, transport and optical characteristics are also found to be similar.

  16. Paths to light trapping in thin film GaAs solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianling; Fang, Hanlin; Su, Rongbin; Li, Kezheng; Song, Jindong; Krauss, Thomas F; Li, Juntao; Martins, Emiliano R

    2018-03-19

    It is now well established that light trapping is an essential element of thin film solar cell design. Numerous light trapping geometries have already been applied to thin film cells, especially to silicon-based devices. Less attention has been paid to light trapping in GaAs thin film cells, mainly because light trapping is considered less attractive due to the material's direct bandgap and the fact that GaAs suffers from strong surface recombination, which particularly affects etched nanostructures. Here, we study light trapping structures that are implemented in a high-bandgap material on the back of the GaAs active layer, thereby not perturbing the integrity of the GaAs active layer. We study photonic crystal and quasi-random nanostructures both by simulation and by experiment and find that the photonic crystal structures are superior because they exhibit fewer but stronger resonances that are better matched to the narrow wavelength range where GaAs benefits from light trapping. In fact, we show that a 1500 nm thick cell with photonic crystals achieves the same short circuit current as an unpatterned 4000 nm thick cell. These findings are significant because they afford a sizeable reduction in active layer thickness, and therefore a reduction in expensive epitaxial growth time and cost, yet without compromising performance.

  17. High efficiency bifacial Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-film solar cells on transparent conducting oxide glass substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Sik Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs have been employed as a back contact instead of Mo on Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe thin-film solar cells in order to examine the feasibility of bifacial Cu2ZnSn(S,Se4 (CZTSSe solar cells based on a vacuum process. It is found that the interfacial reaction between flourine doped tin oxide (FTO or indium tin oxide (ITO and the CZTSe precursor is at odds with the conventional CZTSe/Mo reaction. While there is no interfacial reaction on CZTSe/FTO, indium in CZTSe/ITO was significantly diffused into the CZTSe layers; consequently, a SnO2 layer was formed on the ITO substrate. Under bifacial illumination, we achieved a power efficiency of 6.05% and 4.31% for CZTSe/FTO and CZTSe/ITO, respectively.

  18. Efficiency loss prevention in monolithically integrated thin film solar cells by improved front contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Barink, M.; Klerk, L.; Voorthuijzen, P.; Hovestad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling indicates a potential efficiency boost of 17% if thin-film solar panels are featured with a metallic grid. Variations of transparent conductive oxide sheet resistance, cell length, and grid dimensions are discussed. These parameters were optimized simultaneously to obtain the best result.

  19. Application of plasma silicon nitride to crystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Oberbeck, L.; Rinke, T.J.; Berge, C.; Bergmann, R.B.

    2002-07-01

    We use plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition to deposit silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) films at low temperature(400 C) onto the front surface of two different types of crystalline thin-film Si solar cells. The silicon nitride acts as an excellent antireflection coating on Si and provides a very high degree of electronic surface passivation over a wide range of compositions, including near-stoichiometric and Si-rich SiN{sub x}. Application of stoichiometric SiN{sub x} to non-textured thin-film cells, epitaxially grown at low temperature by ion-assisted deposition onto a monocrystalline Si substrate, results in an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV, a short-circuit current density of 26.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 12.7%. It is shown that the SiN{sub x}-passivated in-situ grown n{sup +}-emitter of this cell type allows to reach open-circuit voltages of up to 667 mV. Silicon-rich SiN{sub x} is applied to the phosphorus-diffused n{sup +}-emitter of a textured thin-film cell on a glass superstrate fabricated by layer-transfer. The emitter saturation current density of these cells is only 40-64 fA/cm{sup 2}, which allows for open-circuit voltages of up to 699 mV. An impressively high open-circuit voltage of 638 mV and a short-circuit current density of 32.0 mA/cm{sup 2} are obtained for a 25 {mu}m thick SiN{sub x}-passivated, random pyramid-textured transfer cell. A transfer cell efficiency of 15.3% is independently confirmed.

  20. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Sprayed alpha-Fe2O3 Thin Films : Influence of Si Doping and SnO2 Interfacial Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.; Enache, C.S.; Van De Krol, R.

    2008-01-01

    a-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes for solar water splitting were prepared by spray pyrolysis of Fe(AcAc)3. The donor density in the Fe2O3 films could be tuned between 10171020cm-3 by doping with silicon. By depositing a 5 nm SnO2 interfacial layer between the Fe2O3 films and the transparent conducting

  1. Inverted organic solar cells with solvothermal synthesized vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films as efficient electron transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi Dafeh; Samaneh Ghazanfarpour; Mohammad Khanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of using different thicknesses of pure and vanadium-doped thin films of TiO2 as the electron transport layer in the inverted configuration of organic photovoltaic cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT:[6-6] phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM).1% vanadium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via the solvothermal method.Crystalline structure,morphology,and optical properties of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films were studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmittance electron microscopy,and UV-visible transmission spectrum.The doctor blade method which is compatible with roll-2-roll printing was used for deposition of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films with thicknesses of 30 nm and 60 nm.The final results revealed that the best thickness of TiO2 thin films for our fabricated cells was 30 nm.The cell with vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film showed slightly higher power conversion efficiency and great Jsc of 10.7 mA/cm2 compared with its pure counterpart.In the cells using 60 nm pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 layers,the cell using the doped layer showed much higher efficiency.It is remarkable that the extemal quantum efficiency of vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film was better in all wavelengths.

  2. Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Impact of Modeling on Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Micco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study on numerical models used to predict the absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells due to the presence of structured back-reflectors exciting, at specific wavelengths, hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonances. To evaluate the effectiveness of the analyzed models, they have been applied in a case study: starting from a U-shaped textured glass thin-film, µc-Si:H solar cells have been successfully fabricated. The fabricated cells, with different intrinsic layer thicknesses, have been morphologically, optically and electrically characterized. The experimental results have been successively compared with the numerical predictions. We have found that, in contrast to basic models based on the underlying schematics of the cell, numerical models taking into account the real morphology of the fabricated device, are able to effectively predict the cells performances in terms of both optical absorption and short-circuit current values.

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W.; Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R.; Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells based on Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) absorbers were fabricated successfully by solid-state reaction in H 2 S atmosphere of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These ternary alloys were deposited in one step from a cyanide-free alkaline electrolyte containing Cu(II), Zn (II) and Sn (IV) metal salts on Mo-coated glass substrates. The solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer and a sputtered i-ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer. The best solar cell performance was obtained with Cu-poor samples. A total area (0.5 cm 2 ) efficiency of 3.4% is achieved (V oc = 563 mV, j sc = 14.8 mA/cm 2 , FF = 41%) with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 80%. The estimated band-gap energy from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements is about 1.54 eV. Electron backscatter-diffraction maps of cross-section samples revealed CZTS grain sizes of up to 10 μm. Elemental distribution maps of the CZTS absorber show Zn-rich precipitates, probably ZnS, and a Zn-poor region, presumably Cu 2 SnS 3 , close to the interface Mo/CZTS

  4. Perovskite solar cell with an efficient TiO₂ compact film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Wang, Jing; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Lei, Hongwei; Liu, Qin; Dai, Xin; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-09-24

    A perovskite solar cell with a thin TiO2 compact film prepared by thermal oxidation of sputtered Ti film achieved a high efficiency of 15.07%. The thin TiO2 film prepared by thermal oxidation is very dense and inhibits the recombination process at the interface. The optimum thickness of the TiO2 compact film prepared by thermal oxidation is thinner than that prepared by spin-coating method. Also, the TiO2 compact film and the TiO2 porous film can be sintered at the same time. This one-step sintering process leads to a lower dark current density, a lower series resistance, and a higher recombination resistance than those of two-step sintering. Therefore, the perovskite solar cell with the TiO2 compact film prepared by thermal oxidation has a higher short-circuit current density and a higher fill factor.

  5. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Bayram Kilic; Sunay Turkdogan; Aykut Astam; Oguz Can Ozer; Mansur Asgin; Hulya Cebeci; Deniz Urk; Selin Pravadili Mucur

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode...

  6. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge)2 for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Umezawa, Naoto; Imai, Motoharu

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi 2 , BaSi 2 , SrGe 2 , and BaGe 2 ) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E g ≈ 0.89–1.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the Γ-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ε(ω) = ε 1 (ω) + iε 2 (ω). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient α(ω) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  7. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-10-01

    A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10-4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 1021 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm2/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  8. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  9. Silicon-Light: a European FP7 Project Aiming at High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soppe, W.; Haug, F.-J.; Couty, P.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon-Light is a European FP7 project, which started January 1st, 2010 and aims at development of low cost, high-efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Three main routes are explored to achieve these goals: a) advanced light trapping by implementing nanotexturization through UV Nano...... calculations of ideal nanotextures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells; the fabrication of masters and the replication and roll-to-roll fabrication of these nanotextures. Further, results on ITO variants with improved work function are presented. Finally, the status of cell fabrication on foils...

  10. Decomposition of poly(amide-imide) film using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma generated in a stream of H2O/Ar mixed gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, M.; Aoki, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwasima, S.; Sugiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium Ar-H 2 O plasma was irradiated to exfoliate a thin film of a heat-resistant polymer, poly(amide-imide) coating on enamel copper wire. The plasma was produced by applying microwave power inducted with Ar-H 2 , Ar-O 2 , Ar-H 2 O or Ar-H 2 -O 2 mixed gases. The poly(amide-imide) thin film was exfoliate by those plasma irradiations. The magnitude of exfoliation depended on the distance of the copper wire from the plasma generating material and reached a maximum at a distance around 4 cm for each plasma irradiation. Surface conditions of the copper wire varied depending on the inducted gases. Ar-O 2 plasma irradiation oxidized the copper surface while other plasmas kept the copper surface unchanged. The time it took to exfoliate the poly(amide-imide) depended on the irradiation source, either Ar-O 2 (within 60 s), Ar-H 2 O (within 70 s), Ar-H 2 -O 2 (within 70 s) or Ar-H 2 (within 125 s). The Ar-H 2 O plasma irradiation under non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure was found to be the best method for exfoliating the poly(amide-imide) thin film coating on enamel copper wires rather than the Ar-H 2 -O 2 plasma because of its simplicity and safety.

  11. Foam films as thin liquid gas separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Müller, Hans Joachim; Möhwald, Helmuth; Krastev, Rumen

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we testify the feasibility of using freestanding foam films as a thin liquid gas separation membrane. Diminishing bubble method was used as a tool to measure the permeability of pure gases like argon, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to atmospheric air. All components of the foam film including the nature of the tail (fluorocarbon vs hydrocarbon), charge on the headgroup (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) and the thickness of the water core (Newton black film vs Common black film) were systematically varied to understand the permeation phenomena of pure gases. Overall results indicate that the permeability values for different gases are in accordance with magnitude of their molecular diameter. A smaller gaseous molecule permeates faster than the larger ones, indicating a new realm of application for foam films as size selective separation membranes.

  12. Water-soluble polyelectrolyte-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube thin films for efficient counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinkyu; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2010-06-22

    Water-soluble, polyelectrolyte-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), MWCNT-g-PSSNa, were synthesized using a "grafting to" route. MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin films fabricated by an electrostatic spray (e-spray) technique were used as the counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The e-sprayed MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin-film-based CEs (MWCNT-CE) were uniform over a large area, and the well-exfoliated MWCNTs formed highly interconnected network structures. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the MWCNT-CE at different thicknesses was investigated. The MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin film showed high efficiency as a CE in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs using the MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin-film-based CE (DSSC-MWCNT) was >6% at a CE film thickness of approximately 0.3 microm. The optimum PCE was >7% at a film thickness of approximately 1 microm, which is 20-50 times thinner than conventional carbon-based CE. The charge transfer resistance at the MWCNT-CE/electrolyte interface was 1.52 Omega cm(2) at a MWCNT-CE thickness of 0.31 microm, which is lower than that of a Pt-CE/electrolyte interface, 1.78 Omega cm(2). This highlights the potential for the low-cost CE fabrication of DSSCs using a facile deposition technique from an environmentally "friendly" solution at low temperatures.

  13. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of CulnS2 Thin Films for Application in Solar Cell Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jenkins. Philip P.; Stan, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Chalcopyrite CuInS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor (1.5 eV) that has potential applications in photovoltaic thin film and photoelectrochemical devices. We have successfully employed spray chemical vapor deposition using the previously known, single-source, metalorganic precursor, (Ph3P)2CuIn(SEt)4, to deposit CuInS2 thin films. Stoichiometric, polycrystalline films were deposited onto fused silica over a range of temperatures (300-400 C). Morphology was observed to vary with temperature: spheroidal features were obtained at lower temperatures and angular features at 400 C. At even higher temperatures (500 C), a Cu-deficient phase, CuIn5S8, was obtained as a single phase. The CuInS2 films were determined to have a direct band gap of ca. 1.4 eV.

  14. A novel method to achieve selective emitter for silicon solar cell using low cost pattern-able a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent phosphorus diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da Ming; Liang, Zong Cun; Zhuang, Lin; Lin, Yang Huan; Shen, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► a-Si thin films as semitransparent phosphorus diffusion barriers for solar cell. ► a-Si thin films on silicon wafers were patterned by the alkaline solution. ► Selective emitter was formed with patterned a-Si as diffusion barrier for solar cell. -- Abstract: Selective emitter for silicon solar cell was realized by employing a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent diffusion barrier. The a-Si thin films with various thicknesses (∼10–40 nm) were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation technique. Emitters with sheet resistances from 37 to 145 Ω/□ were obtained via POCl 3 diffusion process. The thickness of the a-Si diffusion barrier was optimized to be 15 nm for selective emitter in our work. Homemade mask which can dissolve in ethanol was screen-printed on a-Si film to make pattern. The a-Si film was then patterned in KOH solution to form finger-like design. Selective emitter was obtainable with one-step diffusion with patterned a-Si film on. Combinations of sheet resistances for the high-/low-level doped regions of 39.8/112.1, 36.2/88.8, 35.4/73.9 were obtained. These combinations are suitable for screen-printed solar cells. This preparation method of selective emitter based on a-Si diffusion barrier is a promising approach for low cost industrial manufacturing.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruiying, E-mail: ryzhang2008@sinano.ac.cn [Key lab of nanodevices and applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Division of nano-devices and related materials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 China (China); Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanyan; Qiu, Bocang [Key lab of nanodevices and applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Division of nano-devices and related materials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Liu, Xuehua; Zhang, Jinping; Zhang, Yi [Platform for Characterization & Test, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Fang, Qi; Ren, Zhong [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Yatton, Bristol, BS49 4AP (United Kingdom); Bai, Yu [School of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Suzhou, 215123 (China)

    2015-12-15

    We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si composite nanodome (CND) structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device’s leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2} over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiO{sub x} layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device

  16. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for fabrication of thin-film solar cells/materials and substrates (Development of technologies for fabrication of high-quality amorphous materials and substrates); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for the amorphous/microcrystalline solar cells with the thin microcrystalline silicon film as the i layer, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The fabrication technologies are investigated for the microcrystalline silicon solar cells of pin or nip structure by RF or VHF plasma CVD using SiH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} as the stock gases. The tests are conducted for evaluating characteristics of the thin microcrystalline silicon film, to investigate the effects of film-making pressure, power and hydrogen dilution rate on the characteristics at a constant film-making temperature of 180 degrees C. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of pin structure confirm that use of VHF plasma CVD improves crystallinity, electrical and optical characteristics of the p-type thin microcrystalline silicon film. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of nip structure covers transparent substrates, film-making speed of the p layer, power and substrates, and a conversion efficiency of 7.5% is realized by the solar cell formed on a texture substrate. (NEDO)

  17. Scalable Production of Mechanically Robust Antireflection Film for Omnidirectional Enhanced Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Lin, Yinyue; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Jia, Wei; Cao, Xinmin; Chang, Paichun; Li, Dongdong

    2017-09-01

    Antireflection (AR) at the interface between the air and incident window material is paramount to boost the performance of photovoltaic devices. 3D nanostructures have attracted tremendous interest to reduce reflection, while the structure is vulnerable to the harsh outdoor environment. Thus the AR film with improved mechanical property is desirable in an industrial application. Herein, a scalable production of flexible AR films is proposed with microsized structures by roll-to-roll imprinting process, which possesses hydrophobic property and much improved robustness. The AR films can be potentially used for a wide range of photovoltaic devices whether based on rigid or flexible substrates. As a demonstration, the AR films are integrated with commercial Si-based triple-junction thin film solar cells. The AR film works as an effective tool to control the light travel path and utilize the light inward more efficiently by exciting hybrid optical modes, which results in a broadband and omnidirectional enhanced performance.

  18. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  19. Steps Towards Industrialization of Cu-III-VI2Thin-Film Solar Cells:Linking Materials/Device Designs to Process Design For Non-stoichiometric Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Huey-Liang; Chang, Hsueh-Hsin; Sharma, Poonam; Letha, Arya Jagadhamma; Shao, Lexi; Zhang, Yafei; Tseng, Bae-Heng

    2016-10-01

    The concept of in-line sputtering and selenization become industrial standard for Cu-III-VI 2 solar cell fabrication, but still it's very difficult to control and predict the optical and electrical parameters, which are closely related to the chemical composition distribution of the thin film. The present review article addresses onto the material design, device design and process design using parameters closely related to the chemical compositions. Its variation leads to change in the Poisson equation, current equation, and continuity equation governing the device design. To make the device design much realistic and meaningful, we need to build a model that relates the opto-electrical properties to the chemical composition. The material parameters as well as device structural parameters are loaded into the process simulation to give a complete set of process control parameters. The neutral defect concentrations of non-stoichiometric CuMSe 2 (M = In and Ga) have been calculated under the specific atomic chemical potential conditions using this methodology. The optical and electrical properties have also been investigated for the development of a full-function analytical solar cell simulator. The future prospects regarding the development of copper-indium-gallium-selenide thin film solar cells have also been discussed.

  20. A Novel Semiconductor CIGS Photovoltaic Material and Thin-Film ED Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells, a novel Semiconductor Photovoltaic (PV) active material CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) and thin-film Electro-Deposition (ED) technology is explored. Firstly,the PV materials and technologies is investigated, then the detailed experimental processes of CIGS/Mo/glass structure by using the novel ED technology and the results are reported. These results shows that high quality CIGS polycrystalline thin-films can be obtained by the ED method, in which the polycrystalline CIGS is definitely identified by the (112), (204, 220) characteristic peaks of the tetragonal structure, the continuous CIGS thin-film layers with particle average size of about 2μm of length and around 1.6μm of thickness. The thickness and solargrade quality of CIGS thin-films can be produced with good repeatability. Discussion and analysis on the ED technique, CIGS energy band and sodium (Na) impurity properties, were also performed. The alloy CIGS exhibits not only increasing band-gap with increasing x, but also a change in material properties that is relevant to the device operation. The beneficial impurity Na originating from the low-cost soda-lime glass substrate becomes one prerequisite for high quality CIGS films. These novel material and technology are very useful for low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells and other devices.

  1. CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materialsfor low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Affinito, J. D.; Gross, M. E.; Bennett, W. D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  2. Reduced recombination in a surface-sulfurized Cu(InGa)Se2 thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinho; Nishinaga, Jiro; Kamikawa, Yukiko; Ishizuka, Shogo; Nagai, Takehiko; Koida, Takashi; Tampo, Hitoshi; Shibata, Hajime; Matsubara, Koji; Niki, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    This study demonstrates surface sulfurization effects on Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGSe) thin-film solar cells with a single back-graded band gap. Single back-graded CIGSe thin films were prepared via a three-stage process in a high-vacuum molecular beam epitaxial growth chamber and were subsequently annealed in a tube furnace under environmental conditions with H2S gas. After sulfurization, an ∼80- to ∼100-nm-thick CuIn(SSe)2 layer with significantly small Ga contents (CISSe:Ga) was formed on the CIGSe layer. The newly formed CISSe:Ga layer exhibited graded S contents from surface to bulk, thus resulting in a front-graded band gap. In addition, CISSe:Ga was covered with S-enriched CISSe region that was extended from the surface to a depth of a few nm and was depleted of Ga. A device with the sulfurized CIGSe showed reduced recombination at the buffer–absorber interface, in space-charge region and in bulk. Consequently, the open circuit voltage increased from 0.58 V (in the non-sulfurized case) to 0.66 V, and the conversion efficiency improved from 15.5 to 19.4%. This large improvement is caused by the front graded band gap at the surface and the hole-blocking barrier, which suppress recombination at the CdS/CISSe:Ga interface. In addition, sulfurization followed by KF post-deposition treatment (PDT) increased the efficiency to 20.1%. Compared to the untreated sulfurized device, the KF-PDT device delivered an increased carrier lifetime and reduced the recombination in bulk probably because the defects were passivated by the K, which penetrated into the bulk region.

  3. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  4. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutichai Chaisitsak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG sensors by doping with fluorine (F. Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer. The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO2 films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO2 with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time of the SnO2:F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO2 was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO2:F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection.

  5. Inductively coupled hydrogen plasma processing of AZO thin films for heterojunction solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.P.; Xu, S.; Zhao, Z.; Xiang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A high-density plasma reactor of inductively coupled plasma source is used in this work. • The conductivity and transmittance can be enhanced simultaneously in the hydrogen process. • The formation of additional donors and passivation due to the hydrogen plasma processing. • The photovoltaic improvement due to the improved AZO layer and hetero-interface quality in the solar cells. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited by means of RF magnetron sputtering were processed in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma of H 2 , aiming at heterojunction (HJ) solar cell applications. A variety of characterization results show that the hydrogen plasma processing exerts a significant influence on the microstructures, electrical and optical properties of the AZO films. The incorporation of hydrogen under the optimum treatment simultaneously promoted the transmittance and conductivity due to the hydrogen associated passivation effect on the native defects and the formation of shallow donors in the films, respectively. A p-type c-Si based HJ solar cell with a front AZO contact was also treated in as-generated non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma and the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell was prominently improved. The underlying mechanism was discussed in terms of the beneficial impacts of high-density hydrogen plasma on the properties of AZO itself and the hetero-interfaces involved in the HJ structure (interface defect and energy band configuration)

  6. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (development of fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (usumaku takessho silicon kei taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of high-quality Si thin films, the new equipment was studied which allows uniform stable melting recrystallization over a large area. The new equipment adopted a heating method based on RTP system, and is now under adjustment. (2) On the fabrication technology of light/carrier confinement structure, degradation of hydrogen-treated thin film Si solar cells by light irradiation was examined. As a result, since any characteristic degradation was not found even by long time light irradiation, the high quality of the cells was confirmed regardless of hydrogen-treatment. Fabrication of stable reproducible fine texture structure became possible by using fabrication technology of light confinement structure by texture treatment of cell surfaces. (3) On low-cost process technology, design by VEST process, estimation of cell characteristics by simulation, and characteristics of prototype cells were reported. 33 figs., 1 tab.

  7. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Liwen, E-mail: SANG.Liwen@nims.go.jp [International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, The Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sumiya, Masatomo [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); JST-ALCA, The Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-03-14

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  8. Intrinsic ZnO films fabricated by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient targets for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongyin Yang; DongyunWan; Zhou Wang; Fuqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic zinc oxide films, normally deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, are fabricated by direct current (DC) sputtering. The oxygen-deficient targets are prepared via a newly developed double crucible method. The 800-nm-thick film obtaines significantly higher carrier mobility compareing with that of the 800-nm-thick ZnO film. This is achieved by the widely used RF sputtering, which favors the prevention of carrier recombination at the interfaces and reduction of the series resistance of solar cells. The optimal ZnO film is used in a Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) solar cell with a high efficiency of 11.57%. This letter demonstrates that the insulating ZnO films can be deposited by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient ZnO targets to lower the cost of thin film solar cells.%Intrinsic zinc oxide films,normally deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering,are fabricated by direct current (DC) sputtering.The oxygen-deficient targets are prepared via a newly developed double crucible method.The 800-nm-thick film obtaines significantly higher carrier mobility compareing with that of the 800-nm-thick ZnO film.This is achieved by the widely used RF sputtering,which favors the prevention of carrier recombination at the interfaces and reduction of the series resistance of solar cells.The optimal ZnO film is used in a Cu (In,Ga) Se2 (C1GS) solar cell with a high efficiency of 11.57%.This letter demonstrates that the insulating ZnO films can be deposited by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient ZnO targets to lower the cost of thin film solar cells.High resistance transparent intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO)thin film has been widely nsed as the front electrode in transparent electronics and photovoltaic devices because of its low cost and nontoxicity.Owing to its unique characteristics of high transparency and adjustable resistivity in a certain range,the use of i-ZnO thin films as diffusion barrier layers of a-Si/μc-Si,CdTe,and CIGS thin-film solar cells has been advantageous

  9. Characterisation of electrodeposited polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films on nickel foil for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska, A.M.; Bright, E. Lawrence; Sutcliffe, J.; Liu, W.; Payton, O.D.; Picco, L.; Scott, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films were grown on nickel substrates via aqueous electrodeposition of a precursor uranyl salt. The arising semiconducting uranium dioxide thin films exhibited a tower-like morphology, which may be suitable for future application in 3D solar cell applications. The thickness of the homogenous, tower-like films reached 350 nm. Longer deposition times led to the formation of thicker (up to 1.5 μm) and highly porous films. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of polycrystalline UO_2 thin films • Tower-like morphology for 3D solar cell applications • Novel technique for separation of heavy elements from radioactive waste streams

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. Extremely Efficient Design of Organic Thin Film Solar Cells via Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Design of efficient thin film photovoltaic (PV cells require optical power absorption to be computed inside a nano-scale structure of photovoltaics, dielectric and plasmonic materials. Calculating power absorption requires Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations which are solved using numerical methods, such as finite difference time domain (FDTD. The computational cost of thin film PV cell design and optimization is therefore cumbersome, due to successive FDTD simulations. This cost can be reduced using a surrogate-based optimization procedure. In this study, we deploy neural networks (NNs to model optical absorption in organic PV structures. We use the corresponding surrogate-based optimization procedure to maximize light trapping inside thin film organic cells infused with metallic particles. Metallic particles are known to induce plasmonic effects at the metal–semiconductor interface, thus increasing absorption. However, a rigorous design procedure is required to achieve the best performance within known design guidelines. As a result of using NNs to model thin film solar absorption, the required time to complete optimization is decreased by more than five times. The obtained NN model is found to be very reliable. The optimization procedure results in absorption enhancement greater than 200%. Furthermore, we demonstrate that once a reliable surrogate model such as the developed NN is available, it can be used for alternative analyses on the proposed design, such as uncertainty analysis (e.g., fabrication error.

  12. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  13. Deuterium markers in CdS and Zn(O,S) buffer layers deposited by solution growth for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Wolfram; Eicke, Axel; Hariskos, Dimitrios [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Souza, Roger A. de; Martin, Manfred [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    This contribution describes an easy and cheap approach to introduce deuterium (D) as an isotopic marker into the commonly used buffer layer materials CdS and Zn(O,S) for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-film solar cells. D was successfully incorporated during the growth of Zn(O,S) and CdS buffer layers by chemical bath deposition (CBD) with D{sub 2}O. CIGS solar cells prepared with D-containing buffers grown by CBD exhibit power conversion efficiencies above 16%, that is, the D content has no detrimental effect on the performance or other solar cell parameters of the devices. With depth profiles obtained by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) we clearly detect the intentionally incorporated D within the solution-grown Zn(O,S) buffer. Assuming that D is present as OD, we compare the amount of OD within the Zn(O,S) layer with the amount of OH on the surface of the subsequent sputtered (Zn,Mg)O layer. Possible applications and future experiments of the method inserting isotopic markers such as D in functional layers of chalcopyrite-type thin-film solar cells and beyond are discussed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Investigations on electron beam evaporated Cu(In{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15})Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, M.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.; Jayakumar, S.; Balasundaraprabhu, R. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Muthukumarasamy, N. [Department of Physics, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Saroja, M. [Department of Electronics, Erode Arts College, Erode (India)

    2009-09-15

    CIGS bulk with composition of CuIn{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}Se{sub 2} was synthesized by direct reaction of elemental copper, indium, gallium and selenium. CIGS thin films were then deposited onto well-cleaned glass substrates using the prepared bulk alloy by electron beam deposition method. The structural properties of the deposited films were studied using X-ray diffraction technique. The as-deposited CIGS films were found to be amorphous. On annealing, the films crystallized with a tetragonal chalcopyrite structure. An intermediate Cu-rich phase precipitated at 200 C and dissociated at higher annealing temperatures. Average grain size calculated from the XRD spectra indicated that the films had a nano-crystalline structure and was further corroborated by AFM analysis of the sample surface. The chemical constituents present in the deposited CIGS films were identified using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. CIGS based solar cells were then fabricated on molybdenum and ITO coated glass substrates and the efficiencies have been evaluated. (author)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells/development of technology to manufacture low-cost large-area modules/development of technology to manufacture next generation thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction); 1997 nendo tiayoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module esizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A thin film single crystal silicon solar cell module is developed, in which a porous silicon layer is formed on the surface of a long-sized single crystal silicon substrate, a single crystal silicon film is integrated on the layer by epitaxially growing the film thereon to form a solar cell, and the solar cell is peeled off from the silicon substrate and transferred to a plastic film substrate. The achievements during this fiscal year may be summarized as follows: simultaneous formation of a porous silicon layer on a silicon substrate, reduction of anode formation current density from 200 mA/cm{sup 2} to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, development of a silicon epitaxial device using a carbon heater, and attainment of aperture conversion efficiency of 11.8% in a thin film single crystal silicon solar cell. Three kinds of methods were developed to peel off the solar cell. A method was developed to grind silicon substrate surface from which the solar cell has been peeled off. A technology was developed to obtain a long-sized silicon substrate of about 30 cm times 10 cm times 0.1 cm from a 4-inch silicon ingot by using a wire saw. (NEDO)

  16. Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Sylvie; Steinhauser, Jerome; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique possesses a rough surface that induces an efficient light scattering in thin film silicon (TF Si) solar cells, which makes this TCO an ideal candidate for contacting such devices. IMT-EPFL has developed an in-house LPCVD process for the deposition of nanotextured boron doped ZnO films used as rough TCO for TF Si solar cells. This paper is a general review and synthesis of the study of the electrical, optical and structural properties of the ZnO:B that has been performed at IMT-EPFL. The influence of the free carrier absorption and the grain size on the electrical and optical properties of LPCVD ZnO:B is discussed. Transport mechanisms at grain boundaries are studied. It is seen that high doping of the ZnO grains facilitates the tunnelling of the electrons through potential barriers that are located at the grain boundaries. Therefore, even if these potential barriers increase after an exposition of the film to a humid atmosphere, the heavily doped LPCVD ZnO:B layers show a remarkable stable conductivity. However, the introduction of diborane in the CVD reaction induces also a degradation of the intra-grain mobility and increases over-proportionally the optical absorption of the ZnO:B films. Hence, the necessity to finely tune the doping level of LPCVD ZnO:B films is highlighted. Finally, the next challenges to push further the optimization of LPCVD ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as some remarkable record cell results achieved with LPCVD ZnO:B as front electrode.

  17. Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

  18. Optical properties and surface topography of CdCl2 activated CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. L.; Purohit, A.; Chander, S.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of post-CdCl2 heat treatment on optical properties and surface topography of evaporated CdTe thin films is investigated. The pristine and thermally annealed films were subjected to UV-Vis spectrophotometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the optical properties and surface topography, respectively. The absorbance is found to be maximum (˜90%) at 320°C temperature and transmittance found to be minimum and almost constant in ultraviolet and visible regions. The direct band gap is increased from 1.42 eV to 2.12 eV with post-CdCl2 annealing temperature. The surface topography revealed that the uniformity is improved with annealing temperature and average surface roughness is found in the range of 83.3-144.3 nm as well as grains have cylindrical hill-like shapes. The investigated results indicate that the post-CdCl2 treated films annealed at 320°C may be well-suitable for thin film solar cells as an absorber layer.

  19. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Thin Silicon Passivation Film Deposited prior to Phosphorous Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Tao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the performance improvement of p-type single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si solar cells resulting from front surface passivation by a thin amorphous silicon (a-Si film deposited prior to phosphorus diffusion. The conversion efficiency was improved for the sample with an a-Si film of ~5 nm thickness deposited on the front surface prior to high-temperature phosphorus diffusion, with respect to the samples with an a-Si film deposited on the front surface after phosphorus diffusion. The improvement in conversion efficiency is 0.4% absolute with respect to a-Si film passivated cells, that is, the cells with an a-Si film deposited on the front surface after phosphorus diffusion. The new technique provided a 0.5% improvement in conversion efficiency compared to the cells without a-Si passivation. Such performance improvements result from reduced surface recombination as well as lowered contact resistance, the latter of which induces a high fill factor of the solar cell.

  20. Surface and interface characterization of thin-film silicon solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Dominic

    2013-02-21

    The properties of Si thin films for solar cells, the interaction with different substrates and the influence of dopants are examined with synchrotron based x-ray spectroscopy - primarily X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The films are studied as-deposited (i.e., amorphous, a-Si) and after conversion into polycrystalline (poly-Si) employing solid phase crystallization (SPC). Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of thin-film Si samples can be described by a superposition of a-Si and monocrystalline Si-wafer (c-Si) reference spectra. According to a quantification based on that superposition principle, none of the investigated samples are completely crystallized - a measurable a-Si component always remains (5-20 %) regardless of deposition and treatment conditions. Based on additional results from electron back scattering diffraction different models are developed which may explain this finding. According to these models, the remnant a-Si component can be attributed to amorphous/disordered material at the grain boundaries. Using one of these models, the thickness of this grain-surrounding material s could be approximated to be (1.5 {+-} 0.5) nm. Further investigations of the SPC process reveal a faster crystallization for boron-doped samples, and a slower crystallization for phosphorous-doped samples, when compared to the crystallization of undoped a Si:H thin films. The peculiarities of B K XES spectra (and observed changes upon SPC) indicate that boron could act as a nucleation center promoting crystallization. Si L{sub 2,3} XES spectra of a-Si:H and P-doped poly-Si exhibit spectral features above the valence band maximum at 100 eV that could be attributed to a-Si defect states and n{sup +}-dopant states, respectively. The SPC crystallization velocity of Si thin films on ZnO:Al/glass is found to be faster than that on SiNx/glass substrate. Multiple indications for oxidization at the poly-Si/ZnO:Al interface are found based on

  1. Preparation of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sonicated Sol-Gel Immersion Fabricated for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned ZnO Nanorod arrays are deposited on the Sn-doped ZnO thin film via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Results show that the Sn-doped ZnO thin films with small grain size (~20 nm, high average transmittance (96% in visible region, and good resistivity 7.7 × 102 Ω·cm are obtained for 2 at.% Sn doping concentration. The aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with large surface area were also obtained for 2 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film. They were grown on sol-gel derived Sn-doped ZnO thin film, which acts as a seed layer, via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The grown aligned ZnO nanorod arrays show high transmittance at visible region. The fabricated dye-sensitised solar cell based on the 2.0 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film with aligned ZnO nanorod arrays exhibits improved current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency compared with the undoped ZnO and 1 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin films.

  2. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using Cr doped Cu-Zn-Se type chalcopyrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D. Paul; Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India); Ganesan, S.; Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Maruthamuthu, P. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kovendhan, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Chalcopyrites are a versatile class of semiconductors known for their potential in photovoltaic applications. Considering the well established CuInSe{sub 2} as a prototype system, a new compound of the chalcopyrite type, Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-y}Se{sub 2-{delta}}, by replacing In with Zn, has been prepared (both undoped and 2% Cr doped) by the metallurgical method. Thin films have been deposited by the thermal evaporation technique using the stabilized polycrystalline compounds as charge. Structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties of the films are analyzed and reported. Use of these films as electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO₂ for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb₂S₃ Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chunfeng; Luo, Jingting; Lan, Huabin; Fan, Bo; Peng, Huanxin; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Huibin; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Liang, Guangxing; Fan, Ping

    2018-02-28

    We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb₂S₃ thin film solar cells. The TiO₂ electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb₂S₃ solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO₂ films. Compared with the undoped TiO₂, Li-doped mesoporous TiO₂ dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb₂S₃ thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency ( PCE ) increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage ( V oc ), short-circuit current ( J sc ) and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO₂ achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a V oc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb₂S₃ solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO₂ can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb₂S₃-based solar cells.

  4. Effect of cell thickness on the electrical and optical properties of thin film silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A. A.; El-Amin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work Electrical and optical properties of silicon thin films with different thickness were measured. The thickness of the Si films varied from 100 to 800 μm. The optical properties of the cell were studied at different thickness. A maximum achievable current density (MACD) generated by a planar solar cell, was measured for different values of the cell thickness which was performed by using photovoltaic (PV) optics method. It was found that reducing the values of the cell thickness improves the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cell. The optical properties were measured for thin film Si (TF-Si) at different thickness by using the double beam UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-2000 nm. Some of optical parameters such as refractive index with dispersion relation, the dispersion energy, the oscillator energy, optical band gap energy were calculated by using the spectra for the TF-Si with different thickness.

  5. Enhanced photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si solar cells by insertion of a MoS₂ thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Yuka; Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Funahashi, Kazuma; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Takenobu, Taishi; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-09-14

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides exhibit great potential as active materials in optoelectronic devices because of their characteristic band structure. Here, we demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si Schottky junction solar cells were significantly improved by inserting a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown, large MoS2 thin-film layer. This layer functions as an effective electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer. We also demonstrated that the photovoltaic properties are enhanced with the increasing number of graphene layers and the decreasing thickness of the MoS2 layer. A high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 11.1% was achieved with the optimized trilayer-graphene/MoS2/n-Si solar cell.

  6. Nano imprint lithography of textures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Notta, J.B.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN-Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schipper, W.; Wilde, R. [Nanoptics GmbH, Innungsstrasse 5, 21244 Buchholz (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) is a versatile and commercially viable technology for fabrication of structures for light trapping in solar cells. We demonstrate the applicability of NIL in thin film silicon solar cells in substrate configuration, where NIL is used to fabricate a textured rear contact of the solar cells. We applied random structures, based on the natural texture of SnO:F grown by APCVD, and designed 2D periodic structures and show that for single junction {mu}c-Si cells these textured rear contacts lead to an increase of Jsc of more than 40 % in comparison to cells with flat rear contacts. Cells on optimized periodic textures showed higher fill factors which can be attributed to reduced microcrack formation, leading to less shunting in comparison to cells on random textures.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of In2S3 thin films deposited by thermal evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoumi, A.; Bouzouita, H.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2005-01-01

    Indium sulphide, In 2 S 3 , thin films present an alternative to conventional CdS films as buffer layer for CIS-based thin film solar cells. The objective is to eliminate toxic cadmium for environmental reasons. Indium sulphide is synthesized and deposited by single source vacuum thermal evaporation method on glass substrates. The films are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrophotometric measurements. They have a good crystallinity, homogeneity and adhesion. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the initial amorphous nature of the deposited InS film and phase transition into crystalline In 2 S 3 formed upon annealing at free air for 250 deg. C substrate temperature for 2 h. The optical constants of the deposited films were obtained from the analysis of the experimental recorded transmission and reflectance spectral data over the wavelength range of 300-1800 nm. We note that the films annealed at 250 deg. C for 2 h show a good homogeneity with 80% transmission. An analysis of the optical absorption data of the deposited films revealed an optical direct band gap energy in the range of 2.0-2.2 eV

  8. Carrier transport in polycrystalline silicon thin films solar cells grown on a highly textured structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Takakura, H.; Hamakawa, Y.; Muhida, R.; Kawamura, T.; Harano, T.; Toyama, T.; Okamoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, 9A (2004), s. 5955-5959 ISSN 0021-4922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon thin film * solar cells * substrate texture Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2004

  9. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequent annealing in Ar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, R., E-mail: raquel.caballero@uam.es [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física Aplicada, M12, C/Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Izquierdo-Roca, V. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adriá del Besòs, E-08930 Barcelona (Spain); Merino, J.M.; Friedrich, E.J. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física Aplicada, M12, C/Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física Aplicada, M12, C/Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); CMAM, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Saucedo, E. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adriá del Besòs, E-08930 Barcelona (Spain); Pérez-Rodríguez, A. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adriá del Besòs, E-08930 Barcelona (Spain); IN" 2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); León, M. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física Aplicada, M12, C/Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-05-01

    A study of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequently annealed in Ar atmosphere has been carried out. Prior to thin film deposition, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} bulk compounds with stoichiometric and Zn-rich compositions were synthesized as evaporation sources. The characteristics of the bulk compounds and thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elastic back scattering. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} deposited films contain lower concentrations of Zn than the bulk compounds used as evaporation sources, which is related to a preferential Zn re-evaporation during the deposition process. The desired kesterite composition for solar cell applications was achieved by using a Zn-rich compound as the evaporation source plus a thermal treatment at 620 °C in Ar atmosphere. - Highlights: ► Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films by flash evaporation + annealing in Ar atmosphere ► Difficulty of growing a single phase kesterite material ► X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to identify the different phases ► Importance of the starting film composition to get the desired CZTS material ► Annealing treatment to obtain the optimum material to be used for CZTS solar cells.

  10. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  11. Chemical-bath ZnO buffer layer for CuInS{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Weber, M.; Scheer, R.; Lewerenz, H.J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Grenzflaechen, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-13

    ZnO buffer layers were grown by a chemical-bath deposition (CBD) in order to improve the interface quality in p-CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells, to improve the light transmission in the blue wavelength region, but also as an alternative to eliminate the toxic cadmium. The process consists of immersion of different substrates (glass, CIS) in a dilute solution of tetraamminezinc II, [Zn(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}]{sup 2+}, complex at 60-95C. During the growth process, a homogeneous growth mechanism which proceeds by the sedimentation of a mixture of ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} clusters formed in solution, competes with the heterogeneous growth mechanism. The mechanism consists of specific adsorption of a complex Zn(II) followed by a chemical reaction. The last process of growth results in thin, hard, adherent and specularly reflecting films. The characterization of the deposited CBD-ZnO layers was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmittance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-deposited films on glass show hexagonal zincite structure with two preferred orientations (1 0 0) and (1 0 1). High optical transmittance up to 80% in the near-infrared and part of the visible region was observed. The low growth rate of the films on CIS suggests an atomic layer-by-layer growth process.The device parameters and performance are compared to heterojunction with a standard CdS buffer layer

  12. Effect of Ag doping on opto-electrical properties of CdS thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Adnan; Toma, Andrea; Shah, Nazar Abbas; Panaro, Simone; Butt, Sajid; Sagar, Rizwan ur Rehman; Raja, Waseem; Rasool, Kamran; Maqsood, Asghari

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline CdS thin films are fabricated by means of Close Spaced Sublimation technique. • Ag is doped by simple ion-exchange technique in order to reduce resistivity of CdS thin films. • Remarkable reduction in resistivity without introducing many transparency losses. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) polycrystalline thin films of different thicknesses (ranging from 370 nm to 750 nm) were fabricated on corning glass substrates using Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) technique. Optical and electrical investigation revealed that CdS thin films show an appreciable transparency (50–70% transmission) in visible range and a highly resistive behavior (10 6 Ω cm). Samples were doped by silver (Ag) at different concentrations, using ion exchange technique, in order to reduce the resistivity of CdS thin films and to improve their efficiency as a window layer for solar cell application. The doping of Ag in pure CdS thin films resulted into an increase of surface roughness and a decrease both in electrical resistivity and in transparency. By optimizing annealing parameters, we were able to properly control the optical properties of the present system. In fact, the Ag doping of pure CdS films has led to a decrease of the sample resistivity by three orders of magnitude (10 3 Ω cm) against a 20% cut in optical transmission

  13. Effect of In Situ Thermal Annealing on Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Ayad Al-mebir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ thermal annealing process (iTAP has been introduced before the common ex situ cadmium chloride (CdCl2 annealing to improve crystal quality and morphology of the CdTe thin films after pulsed laser deposition of CdS/CdTe heterostructures. A strong correlation between the two annealing processes was observed, leading to a profound effect on the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that the iTAP in the optimal processing window produces considerable CdTe grain growth and improves the CdTe crystallinity, which results in significantly improved optoelectronic properties and quantum efficiency of the CdS/CdTe solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of up to 7.0% has been obtained on thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells of absorber thickness as small as 0.75 μm processed with the optimal iTAP at 450°C for 10–20 min. This result illustrates the importance of controlling microstructures of CdTe thin films and iTAP provides a viable approach to achieve such a control.

  14. Sodium induced grain growth, defect passivation and enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Om Pal; Gour, Kuldeep Singh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Parmar, Rahul [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Vidya Nand, E-mail: singhvn@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Sodium diffusion from soda lime glass (SLG) during high temperature annealing is known to play a crucial role in affecting the grain growth and defect passivation in chalocogenide/kesterite solar cells. Additional sodium is required when low temperature or short term annealing is used. Although this fact is known, a systematic comparative study for kesterite films is seldom reported. In the present study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films were deposited on SLG and Mo coated SLG using stacked layer reactive sputtering. Na was deposited over the CZTS thin film and the film was annealed in N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to enhance the grain growth. This resulted in the shift in the XRD peak towards lower diffraction angle. The optical bandgap shifted from 1.45 eV to 1.38 eV with Na addition. Significant grain growth from hundreds of nanometer to micrometer was observed in samples with Na. Device fabricated in SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO configuration with Al front contact shows increase in efficiencies values from 1.50% to 2.84%. - Highlights: • Reactive sputtering with reduced annealing time have been used for the growth of CZTS thin film. • NaF has been deposited over precursor film before annealing. • Na addition resulted in grain growth, improved compactness and reduction in band gap. • An enhancement in the photovoltaic characteristics have been observed with addition of Na.

  15. Preparation of LiMn2O4 cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn 2 O 4 thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn 2 O 4 cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles

  16. Characterization of in-situ annealed sub-micron thick Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Byoung-Soo; Sung, Shi-Joon; Hwang, Dae-Kue, E-mail: dkhwang@dgist.ac.kr

    2015-09-01

    Sub-micron thick Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films were deposited on Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrates under various conditions by single-stage co-evaporation. Generally, the short circuit current (J{sub sc}) decreased with the decreasing thickness of the absorber layer. However, in this study, J{sub sc} was nearly unchanged with decreasing thickness, while the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and fill factor (FF) decreased by 31.9 and 31.1%, respectively. We believe that the remarkable change of V{sub oc} and FF can be attributed to the difference in the total amount of injected thermal energy. Using scanning electron microscopy, we confirmed that the surface morphology becomes smooth and the grain size increased after the annealing process. In the X-ray diffraction patterns, the CIGS thin film also showed an improved crystal quality. We observed that the electric properties were improved by the in-situ annealing of CIGS thin films. The reverse saturation current density of the annealed CIGS solar cell was 100 times smaller than that of reference solar cell. Thus, sub-micron CIGS thin films annealed under a constant Se rate showed a 64.7% improvement in efficiency. - Highlights: • The effects of in-situ annealing the sub-micron CIGS film have been investigated. • The surface morphology and the grain size were improved by in-situ annealing. • The V{sub oc} and FF of the films were increased by about 30% after in-situ annealing. • In-situ annealing of sub-micron thick CIGS films can be improved an efficiency.

  17. Epitaxial Bi2 FeCrO6 Multiferroic Thin Film as a New Visible Light Absorbing Photocathode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Huang, Wei; Mi, Zetian; Serpone, Nick; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico

    2015-08-26

    Ferroelectric materials have been studied increasingly for solar energy conversion technologies due to the efficient charge separation driven by the polarization induced internal electric field. However, their insufficient conversion efficiency is still a major challenge. Here, a photocathode material of epitaxial double perovskite Bi(2) FeCrO(6) multiferroic thin film is reported with a suitable conduction band position and small bandgap (1.9-2.1 eV), for visible-light-driven reduction of water to hydrogen. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that the highest photocurrent density up to -1.02 mA cm(-2) at a potential of -0.97 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode is obtained in p-type Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film photocathode grown on SrTiO(3) substrate under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. In addition, a twofold enhancement of photocurrent density is obtained after negatively poling the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film, as a result of modulation of the band structure by suitable control of the internal electric field gradient originating from the ferroelectric polarization in the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) films. The findings validate the use of multiferroic Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin films as photocathode materials, and also prove that the manipulation of internal fields through polarization in ferroelectric materials is a promising strategy for the design of improved photoelectrodes and smart devices for solar energy conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  19. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    To favorably compete with fossil-fuel technology, the greatest challenge for thin film solar-cells is to improve efficiency and reduce material cost. Thickness scaling to thin film reduces material cost but affects the light absorption in the cells; therefore a concept that traps incident photons and increases its optical path length is needed to boost absorption in thin film solar cells. One approach is the integration of low symmetric gratings (LSG), using high index material, on either the front-side or backside of 30 um thin c-Si cells. In this study, Multicomponent TeO2--Bi2O 3--ZnO (TBZ) glass thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The influences of oxygen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of the resulting thin films were investigated. The structural origin of the optical property variation was studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that TBZ glass thin film is a suitable material for front side LSG material photovoltaic and photonics applications due to their amorphous nature, high refractive index (n > 2), broad band optical transparency window, low processing temperature. We developed a simple maskless method to pattern sputtered tellurite based glass thin films using unconventional agarose hydrogel mediated wet etching. Conventional wet etching process, while claiming low cost and high throughput, suffers from reproducibility and pattern fidelity issues due to the isotropic nature of wet chemical etching when applied to glasses and polymers. This method overcomes these challenges by using an agarose hydrogel stamp to mediate a conformal etching process. In our maskless method, agarose hydrogel stamps are patterned following a standard soft lithography and replica molding process from micropatterned masters and soaked in a chemical etchant. The micro-scale features on the stamp are

  20. Preparation and characterization of Cu2SnS3 thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Narasimman, R.; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    Cu2SnS3 thin films were electrodeposited on F:SnO2/Glass substrates at room temperature by using aqueous solution. Copper and tin were first electrodeposited from single bath and post annealed in the presence of sulphur atmosphere to obtain the Cu2SnS3 phase. The Cu2SnS3 phase with preferred orientation along the (112) crystal direction grows to greater extent by the post annealing of the film. Raman analysis confirms the monoclinic crystal structure of Cu2SnS3 with principle mode of vibration as A1 (symmetric breathing mode) corresponding to the band at 291 cm-1. It also reveals the benign coexistence of orthorhombic Cu3SnS4 and Cu2SnS7 phases. Optical properties of the film show direct band gap of 1.25 eV with a high absorption coefficient of the order of 104 cm-1 in the visible region. Photo activity of the electrodeposited film was established in two electrode photoelectro-chemical cell, where an open circuit voltage of 91.6 mV and a short circuit current density of 10.6 µA/cm2 were recorded. Fabrication of Cu2SnS3 thin film heterojunction solar cell is underway.

  1. Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se_2 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Guanchao; Steigert, Alexander; Andrae, Patrick; Goebelt, Manuela; Latzel, Michael; Manley, Phillip; Lauermann, Iver; Christiansen, Silke; Schmid, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se_2 (CIGSe) solar cells are investigated. Ag diffusion is successfully passivated by reducing the substrate temperature and introducing a 50 nm atomic layer deposition (ALD) prepared Al_2O_3 film. This clears the thermal obstacle in incorporating Ag nanoparticles in CIGSe solar cells. Simulations show that Ag nanoparticles have the potential to greatly enhance the light absorption in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles are able to diffuse through ITO substrate into CIGSe absorber even at a low substrate temperature of 440 °C. • The direction (inserting a dielectric passivation layer) to thermally block the Ag diffusion and the requirements for the passivation layer are indicated and generalized. • An atomic layer deposited Al_2O_3 layer is experimentally proved to be able to thermally passivate the Ag nanoparticles, which clears the thermal obstacle in using Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. • It is theoretically proved that the Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector have the potential to effectively enhance the absorption in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. - Abstract: Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se_2 (CIGSe) solar cells is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Ag nanoparticles underneath a Sn:In_2O_3 back contact could not be thermally passivated even at a low substrate temperature of 440 °C during CIGSe deposition. It is shown that a 50 nm thick Al_2O_3 film prepared by atomic layer deposition is able to block the diffusion of Ag, clearing the thermal obstacle in utilizing Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. Via 3-D finite element optical simulation, it is proved that the Ag nanoparticles show the potential to contribute the effective absorption in CIGSe solar cells.

  2. Characterization of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi-630004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  3. Investigation of optimum annealing parameters for formation of dip coated Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhari, Sushmita; Kannan, P.K.; Dey, Suhash R., E-mail: suhash@iith.ac.in

    2016-08-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) is most attractive absorber material for inorganic solar cell applications because of its cost effective and ecofriendly nature. To obtain phase pure CZTS film, effects of annealing parameters on synthesis of CZTS thin film are investigated. CZTS films are deposited through dip coating method followed by heat treatment to form crystalline CZTS thin films. Factors influencing the crystallinity, morphology and composition of the films such as annealing temperature, time, rate and atmosphere are studied through X-Ray Diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. After numerous experiments of synthesis of CZTS in different annealing conditions and its characterization, it is observed that 1.4 eV band gap CZTS thin film of kesterite structure is obtained by annealing the film in nitrogen atmosphere for 60 min at 300 °C with 10 °C/min ramping rate. - Highlights: • Dip coated Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} film is developed using non-hydrazine based precursor solution. • Optimum annealing condition to achieve best crystalline film is studied. • Optimal condition is 300 °C in N{sub 2} atmosphere for 60 min at 10 °C/min ramping rate. • Bandgap of prepared films is 1.4 eV, suitable for solar cell applications.

  4. Research progress of VO2 thin film as laser protecting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Yuan; Hou, Dianxin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of laser technology, the battlefield threat of directional laser weapons is becoming more and more serious. The blinding and destruction caused by laser weapons on the photoelectric equipment is an important part of the current photo-electronic warfare. The research on the defense technology of directional laser weapons based on the phase transition characteristics of VO2 thin films is an important subject. The researches of VO2 thin films are summarized based on review these points: the preparation methods of VO2 thin films, phase transition mechanism, phase transition temperature regulating, interaction between VO2 thin films and laser, and the application prospect of vo2 thin film as laser protecting material. This paper has some guiding significance for further research on the VO2 thin films in the field of defense directional laser weapons.

  5. Depth-Profiling Electronic and Structural Properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ching-Yu; Hsiao, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Pin-Jiun; Yang, Chu-Shou; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chou, Wu-Ching

    2016-09-14

    Utilizing a scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) and grazing-incidence X-ray powder diffraction (GIXRD), we studied the electronic band structure and the crystalline properties of the pentanary Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin-film solar cell as a function of sample depth on measuring the thickness-gradient sample. A novel approach is proposed for studying the depth-dependent information on thin films, which can provide a gradient thickness and a wide cross-section of the sample by polishing process. The results exhibit that the CIGSSe absorber layer possesses four distinct stoichiometries. The growth mechanism of this distinctive compositional distribution formed by a two-stage process is described according to the thermodynamic reaction and the manufacturing process. On the basis of the depth-profiling results, the gradient profiles of the conduction and valence bands were constructed to elucidate the performance of the electrical properties (in this case, Voc = 620 mV, Jsc = 34.6 mA/cm(2), and η = 14.04%); the valence-band maxima (VBM) measured with a SPEM in the spectroscopic mode coincide with this band-structure model, except for a lowering of the VBM observed in the surface region of the absorber layer due to the ordered defect compound (ODC). In addition, the depth-dependent texturing X-ray diffraction pattern presents the crystalline quality and the residual stress for each depth of a thin-film device. We find that the randomly oriented grains in the bottom region of the absorber layer and the different residual stress between the underlying Mo and the absorber interface, which can deteriorate the electrical performance due to peeling-off effect. An anion interstitial defect can be observed on comparing the anion concentration of the elemental distribution with crystalline composition; a few excess sulfur atoms insert in interstitial sites at the front side of the absorber layer, whereas the interstitial selenium atoms insert at the back side.

  6. The large-area CdTe thin film for CdS/CdTe solar cell prepared by physical vapor deposition in medium pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Run; Liu, Bo; Yang, Xiaoyan; Bao, Zheng; Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The large-area CdTe film has been prepared by PVD under the pressure of 0.9 kPa. • The as-prepared CdTe thin film processes excellent photovoltaic properties. • This technique is suitable for depositing large-area CdTe thin film. • The 14.6% champion efficiency CdS/CdTe cell has been achieved. - Abstract: The Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film has been prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD), the Ar + O{sub 2} pressure is about 0.9 kPa. This method is a newer technique to deposit CdTe thin film in large area, and the size of the film is 30 × 40 cm{sup 2}. This method is much different from the close-spaced sublimation (CSS), as the relevance between the source temperature and the substrate temperature is weak, and the gas phase of CdTe is transferred to the substrate by Ar + O{sub 2} flow. Through this method, the compact and uniform CdTe film (30 × 40 cm{sup 2}) has been achieved, and the performances of the CdTe thin film have been determined by transmission spectrum, SEM and XRD. The film is observed to be compact with a good crystallinity, the CdTe is polycrystalline with a cubic structure and a strongly preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Using the CdTe thin film (3 × 5 cm{sup 2}) which is taken from the deposited large-area film, the 14.6% efficiency CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell has been prepared successfully. The structure of the cell is glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/graphite slurry/Au, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of the cell is 26.9 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 823 mV, and filling factor (FF) is 66.05%. This technique can be a quite promising method to apply in the industrial production, as it has great prospects in the fabricating of large-area CdTe film.

  7. Influence of oblique-angle sputtered transparent conducting oxides on performance of Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films with low-refractive-index (low-n) are fabricated by the oblique-angle sputtering method. By using the experimentally measured physical data of the fabricated low-n TCO films as the simulation parameters, the effect of low-n TCOs on the performance of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells is investigated using Silvaco ATLAS. The Al-doped zinc oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), and Sb-doped tin oxide films are deposited at the flux incidence angles of θ i = 0 (normal sputtering) and θ i = 80 from the sputtering target during the sputtering process. The oblique-angle sputtered films at θ i = 80 show the inclined columnar nanostructures compared to those at θ i = 0 , modifying the optical properties of the films. This is caused mainly by the increase of porosity within the film which leads to its low-n characteristics. The a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cell incorporated with the low-n ITO film exhibits an improvement in the conversion efficiency of ∝1% under AM1.5g illumination because of its higher transmittance and lower absorption compared to that with the ITO film at θ i = 0 , indicating a conversion efficiency of 13.75%. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Laser deposition of SnO2 thin films by continuous CO2 laser and their characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayed, K.; Awad, F.; Saiof, F.

    2003-01-01

    There are wide uses of tin oxide thin films, especially in the field of transparent conductors, solar cells, gas sensors and piezoelectric materials. Laser deposition is considered one of the most important techniques followed to obtain these films. In this research, we developed a technique to obtain homogeneous thin films of tin oxide depending on vaporization of pile targets of this oxide by continuous CO 2 laser in the atmosphere, with a fan which guarantees obtaining homogenous films. Some of these films were annealed in different conditions. The optical microscope images revealed the presence of high degree of homogeneity, while the x-ray study showed different crystallization grain orientations which depend on the preparation conditions. The preferred direction is (110). The optical absorption gives information about the value of the effective band gal for the samples before and after thermal annealing. We have found that some films E g =3.2 eV before annealing, and after long annealing they have E g =1.3 eV. In addition, the hard annealed thin films reveal anisotropy in the optical and electrical characteristics, they have different absorption coefficients in two perpendicular directions, also there is an electrical resistance anisotropy along these two directions especially after hard annealing. The E b was 0.73 eV before annealing, it became 0.37 eV for one direction and 0.32 eV for the other direction. (Authors)

  9. Phonon Drag in Thin Films, Cases of Bi2Te3 and ZnTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hang; Uher, Ctirad

    2014-03-01

    At low temperatures, in (semi-)conductors subjected to a thermal gradient, charge carriers (electrons and holes) are swept (dragged) by out-of-equilibrium phonons due to strong electron-phonon interaction, giving rise to a large contribution to the Seebeck coefficient called the phonon-drag effect. Such phenomenon was surprisingly observed in our recent transport study of highly mismatched alloys as potential thermoelectric materials: a significant phonon-drag thermopower reaching 1.5-2.5 mV/K was recorded for the first time in nitrogen-doped ZnTe epitaxial layers on GaAs (100). In thin films of Bi2Te3, we demonstrate a spectacular influence of substrate phonons on charge carriers. We show that one can control and tune the position and magnitude of the phonon-drag peak over a wide range of temperatures by depositing thin films on substrates with vastly different Debye temperatures. Our experiments also provide a way to study the nature of the phonon spectrum in thin films, which is rarely probed but clearly important for a complete understanding of thin film properties and the interplay of the substrate and films. This work is supported by the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0000957.

  10. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský, Martin

    2016-12-06

    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  11. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský , Martin; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Vetushka, Aliaksei; Geissbü hler, Jonas; Tomasi, Andrea; Despeisse, Matthieu; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif  , Christophe; Fejfar, Antoní n

    2016-01-01

    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  12. Influences of oxygen incorporation on the structural and optoelectronic properties of Cu_2ZnSnS_4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ruei-Sung; Hung, Ta-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxygen incorporation in Cu_2ZnSnS_4 changes the energy band structure. • The material has a comparatively high-absorptive capacity for short wavelength. • Absorption coefficients of the film increase from 10"4 to 10"5 cm"−"1. • The oxygen-containing CZTS film has a mixture of crystallite and crystalline states. • The material could be a candidate as an absorber layer in multi-junction solar cells. - Abstract: This study used the sol–gel method to prepare Cu_2ZnSnS_4 thin films containing oxygen and explored the composition, structural, and optoelectronic properties of the films. The non-vacuum process enabled the oxygen content of the Cu_2ZnSnS_4 films to be 8.89 at% and 10.30 at% for two different annealing conditions. In the crystal structure, oxygen was substituted at the positions of sulfur and appeared in the interstitial sites of the lattice. The compositions of the thin films deviated from the stoichiometric ratio. Both films had kesterite structures with no secondary phase structure. The kesterite CZTS film possessed a composite microstructure of crystallite and crystalline states. The microstructure of the Cu_2ZnSnS_4 film with higher oxygen content was denser and the average grain size was smaller. Incorporating oxygen atoms into crystalline Cu_2ZnSnS_4 changed the energy band structure: the direct energy band gaps were, respectively, 2.75 eV and 2.84 eV; the thin films mainly adsorbed photons with wavelengths less than 500 nm; and the absorption coefficients increased from 10"4 cm"−"1 to 10"5 cm"−"1. The films had a comparatively high absorptive capacity for photons less than 350 nm. Increasing the oxygen content of the film lowered the resistivity. Thus, the oxygen-containing Cu_2ZnSnS_4 thin film could be a candidate for the p-type absorber layer material required in multi-junction solar cells.

  13. Nonepitaxial Thin-Film InP for Scalable and Efficient Photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Mark; Zheng, Maxwell; Lin, Yongjing; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Ager, Joel W; Javey, Ali

    2015-06-18

    To date, some of the highest performance photocathodes of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell have been shown with single-crystalline p-type InP wafers, exhibiting half-cell solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies of over 14%. However, the high cost of single-crystalline InP wafers may present a challenge for future large-scale industrial deployment. Analogous to solar cells, a thin-film approach could address the cost challenges by utilizing the benefits of the InP material while decreasing the use of expensive materials and processes. Here, we demonstrate this approach, using the newly developed thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) nonepitaxial growth method combined with an atomic-layer deposition protection process to create thin-film InP photocathodes with large grain size and high performance, in the first reported solar device configuration generated by materials grown with this technique. Current-voltage measurements show a photocurrent (29.4 mA/cm(2)) and onset potential (630 mV) approaching single-crystalline wafers and an overall power conversion efficiency of 11.6%, making TF-VLS InP a promising photocathode for scalable and efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  14. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials as Active Layer Components in Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Tejas Attreya

    Thin-film photovoltaics offer the promise of cost-effective and scalable solar energy conversion, particularly for applications of semi-transparent solar cells where the poor absorption of commercially-available silicon is inadequate. Applications ranging from roof coatings that capture solar energy to semi-transparent windows that harvest the immense amount of incident sunlight on buildings could be realized with efficient and stable thin-film solar cells. However, the lifetime and efficiency of thin-film solar cells continue to trail their inorganic silicon counterparts. Low-dimensional nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides, have recently been explored as materials in thin-film solar cells due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties, solution-processability, and chemical inertness. Thus far, issues with the processing of these materials has held back their implementation in efficient photovoltaics. This dissertation reports processing advances that enable demonstrations of low-dimensional nanomaterials in thin-film solar cells. These low-dimensional photovoltaics show enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and environmental stability in comparison to previous devices, with a focus on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as an active layer component. The introduction summarizes recent advances in the processing of carbon nanotubes and their implementation through the thin-film photovoltaic architecture, as well as the use of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides in photovoltaic applications and potential future directions for all-nanomaterial solar cells. The following chapter reports a study of the interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants that enables them to be sorted by electronic type via density gradient ultracentrifugation. These insights are utilized to construct of a broad distribution of carbon nanotubes that absorb throughout the solar spectrum. This polychiral distribution is then shown

  15. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  16. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-09-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform thickness (<100 nm) is crucial. By using a tailor-made polymer and by controlling the nanofabrication conditions, we developed and manufactured defect-free ultra-thin film membranes with unmatched carbon dioxide permeances, i.e. >5 m3 (STP) m-2 h -1 bar-1. The permeances are extremely high, because the membranes are made from a CO2 philic polymer material and they are only a few tens of nanometers thin. Thus, these thin film membranes have potential application in the treatment of large gas streams under low pressure like, e.g., carbon dioxide separation from flue gas. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Structural, morphological and local electric properties of TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E; Pino, A Perez del; Sauthier, G; Figueras, A; Alsina, F; Pascual, J

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were synthesized on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A frequency quadrupled Nd : YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 5 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source was used for the irradiations of metallic Ti targets. The experiments were performed in controlled oxygen atmosphere. Crystallinity, surface morphology and local electric properties of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by x-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. An inter-relation was found between the surface morphology, the crystalline structure and the nano-scale electric properties which open the possibility of synthesizing by the PLD technique TiO 2 thin films with tunable functional properties for future applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors or solar energy converters

  18. The Impact of Graphene on the Fabrication of Thin Film Solar Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial solar cells have a power conversion efficiency (PCE in the range of 10–22% with different light absorbers. Graphene, with demonstrated unique structural, physical, and electrical properties, is expected to bring the positive effects on the development of thin film solar cells. Investigations have been carried out to understand whether graphene can be used as a front and back contacts and active interfacial layer in solar cell fabrication. In this review, the current progress of this research is analyzed, starting from the graphene and graphene-based Schottky diode. Also, the discussion was focused on the progress of graphene-incorporated thin film solar cells that were fabricated with different light absorbers, in particular, the synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of devices. The effect of doping and layer thickness of graphene on PCE was also included. Currently, the PCE of graphene-incorporated bulk-heterojunction devices have enhanced in the range of 0.5–3%. However, device durability and cost-effectiveness are also the challenging factors for commercial production of graphene-incorporated solar cells. In addition to the application of graphene, graphene oxides have been also used in perovskite solar cells. The current needs and likely future investigations for graphene-incorporated solar cells are also discussed.

  19. Some physical parameters of CuInGaS_2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotbi, Ahmed; Hartiti, Bouchaib; Fadili, Salah; Ridah, Abderraouf; Thevenin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Copper-indium-gallium-disulphide (CuInGaS_2) is a promising absorber material for thin film photovoltaic. In this paper, CuInGaS_2 (CIGS) thin films have been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method onto glass substrates at ambient atmosphere. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CuInGaS_2 films were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Hall Effect measurement, respectively. The films exhibited single phase chalcopyrite structure. The strain and dislocation density decreased with increase of spray time. The grain size of the films increased from 4.45 to 9.01 nm with increase of spray time. The Raman spectrum indicated the presence of the principal chalcopyrite peak at 295 cm"-"1. The optical properties of the synthesized films have been carried out through the measurement of the absorbance spectrum. The optical band gap was estimated by the absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) method. For each sample, the width of the band tail (E_T_a_i_l) of CuInGaS_2 thin films was determined. The resistivity (ρ), conductivity (σ), mobility (μ), carrier concentration and conduction type of the films were determined using Hall Effect measurements. The interesting optical properties of CuInGaS_2 make them an attractive material for photovoltaic devices. (orig.)

  20. Passivation effect of water vapour on thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Müller, Martin; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1969-1975 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-27 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation, * plasma hydrogenation * silicon * solar cells * thin films * water vapour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  1. Broad-band anti-reflection coupler for a : Si thin-film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, S.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Garwe, Frank; Pertch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This work numerically demonstrates a new anti-reflection coupler (ARC) with high coupling efficiency in a Si substrate solar cell. The ARC in which the grating is integrated on a glass encapsulation and a three-layer impedance match layer is proposed. A coupling efficiency of 90% is obtained at wavelengths between 350 and 1200 nm in the TE and TM modes when the incident angle is less than 30 0 . In comparison with a 1μm absorber layer, the integrated absorption of an a-Si thin-film solar cell without a new ARC is doubled, at long wavelengths (750 nm ≤ λ ≤ 1200 nm), as calculated by FDTD method

  2. Effect of ZrO2 film thickness on the photoelectric properties of mixed-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Xiao, Meng; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated in the ambient air, with a scaffold layer composed of TiO2/ZrO2 double layer as the mesoscopic layer and carbon as the counter electrode. The effect of ZrO2 thin film thickness on the photovoltaic performances of PSCs was also studied in detail. Results showed that the photoelectric properties of as-prepared PSCs largely depend on the thin film thickness due to a series of factors, including surface roughness, charge transport resistance, and electron-hole recombination rate. The power conversion efficiency of PSCs increased from 8.37% to 11.33% by varying the thin film thickness from 75 nm to 305 nm, and the optimal power conversion efficiency was realized up to the 11.33% with a thin film thickness of 167 nm. This research demonstrates a promising route for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic technology.

  3. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  4. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  5. Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L.; Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-03-24

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  6. Nanoscale observation of surface potential and carrier transport in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films grown by sputtering-based two-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gee Yeong; Kim, Ju Ri; Jo, William; Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-08

    Stacked precursors of Cu-Zn-Sn-S were grown by radio frequency sputtering and annealed in a furnace with Se metals to form thin-film solar cell materials of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). The samples have different absorber layer thickness of 1 to 2 μm and show conversion efficiencies up to 8.06%. Conductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy were used to explore the local electrical properties of the surface of CZTSSe thin films. The high-efficiency CZTSSe thin film exhibits significantly positive bending of surface potential around the grain boundaries. Dominant current paths along the grain boundaries are also observed. The surface electrical parameters of potential and current lead to potential solar cell applications using CZTSSe thin films, which may be an alternative choice of Cu(In,Ga)Se2.PACS number: 08.37.-d; 61.72.Mm; 71.35.-y.

  7. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W.; Meier, Matthias; Moulin, Etienne; Smirnov, Vladimir; Pieters, Bart E.; Rau, Uwe; Carius, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells

  8. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Meier, Matthias, E-mail: ma.meier@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Moulin, Etienne, E-mail: e.moulin@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Smirnov, Vladimir, E-mail: v.smirnov@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Pieters, Bart E., E-mail: b.pieters@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Rau, Uwe, E-mail: u.rau@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Carius, Reinhard, E-mail: r.carius@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells.

  9. Preparation and optical properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by a two-step sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, I.; Lu, G.Q.; Meredith, P.; Zhao, X.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the preparation of mesoporous titania nanopowders and thin films for use in next generation photoelectrochemical solar cells. We have recently developed a novel method for preparing mesoporous TiO 2 powders using a Two-Step Sol-gel method (TSS). These materials have crystalline domains characteristic of anatase. The first step of the process involves the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in a basic aqueous solution mediated by neutral surfactant. The solid product resulting from Step-1 is then treated in acidified ethanol solution containing a titanium precursor to yield anatase TiO 2 . The resultant powder exhibits a high surface area and large pore volume with uniform mesopores. Slurries made from the resultant powder of Steps 1 and 2 have been used to produce thin titania films on glass slides. The optical and structural properties of these films have been compared to the films made of a commercial titania (Degussa P25, BASF). We will discuss these properties with respect to the possible use of such mesoporous titania films as the wide band gap semiconductor in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells

  10. Electric Transport Phenomena of Nanocomposite Organic Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jira, Nicholas C.; Sabirianov, Ildar; Ilie, Carolina C.

    We discuss herein the nanocomposite organic thin film diodes for the use of plasmonic solar cells. This experimental work follows the theoretical calculations done for plasmonic solar cells using the MNPBEM toolbox for MatLab. These calculations include dispersion curves and amount of light scattering cross sections for different metallic nanoparticles. This study gives us clear ideas on what to expect from different metals, allowing us to make the best choice on what to use to obtain the best results. One specific technique for light trapping in thin films solar cells utilizes metal nanoparticles on the surface of the semiconductor. The characteristics of the metal, semiconductor interface allows for light to be guided in between them causing it to be scattered, allowing for more chances of absorption. The samples were fabricated using organic thin films made from polymers and metallic nanoparticles, more specifically Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer and silver or gold nanoparticles. The two fabrication methods applied include spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The transport properties are obtained by analyzing the I-V curves. We will also discuss the resistance, resistivity, conductance, density of charge carriers. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant.

  11. Thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, 1 April 1980-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, K. R.; Rice, M. J.; Legge, R.; Ellis, R. J.

    1980-06-01

    During this third quarter of the program, the high pressure plasma (hpp) deposition process has been thoroughly evaluated using SiHCl/sub 3/ and SiCl/sub 4/ silicon source gases, by the gas chromatographic analysis of the effluent gases from the reactor. Both the deposition efficiency and reactor throughput rate were found to be consistently higher for hpp mode of operation compared to conventional CVD mode. The figure of merit for various chlorosilanes as a silicon source gas for hpp deposition is discussed. A new continuous silicon film deposition scheme is developed, and system design is initiated. This new system employs gas interlocks and eliminates the need for gas curtains which have been found to be problematic. Solar cells (2 cm x 2 cm area) with AM1 efficiencies of up to 12% were fabricated on RTR grain enhanced hpp deposited films. The parameters of a 12% cell under simulated AM1 illumination were: V/sub OC/ = 0.582 volts, J/sub SC/ = 28.3 mA/cm/sup 2/ and F.F. = 73.0%.

  12. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Source Precursors for Chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 Thin-Film Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Harris, Jerry D.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Dickman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provide an attractive approach to fabricating solar arrays with high mass-specific power. A polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer is among the new generation of photovoltaic device technologies for thin film solar cells. At NASA Glenn Research Center we have focused on the development of new single-source precursors (SSPs) for deposition of semiconducting chalcopyrite materials onto lightweight, flexible substrates. We describe the syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering. Copper indium disulfide and related thin-film materials were deposited via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SSPs. Processing and post-processing parameters were varied in order to modify morphology, stoichiometry, crystallography, electrical properties, and optical properties to optimize device quality. Growth at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal hotwall reactor at 395 C yielded the best device films. Placing the susceptor closer to the evaporation zone and flowing a more precursor-rich carrier gas through the reactor yielded shinier-, smoother-, and denser-looking films. Growth of (112)-oriented films yielded more Cu-rich films with fewer secondary phases than growth of (204)/(220)-oriented films. Post-deposition sulfur-vapor annealing enhanced stoichiometry and crystallinity of the films. Photoluminescence studies revealed four major emission bands and a broad band associated with deep defects. The highest device efficiency for an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposited cell was one percent.

  13. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  14. Perovskite Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Inorganic Hole Conducting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have recently shown great potential for application, due to their advantages of low-cost, excellent photoelectric properties and high power conversion efficiency. Perovskite-based thin film solar cells have achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE of up to 20%. Hole transport materials (HTMs are one of the most important components of perovskite solar cells (PSCs, having functions of optimizing interface, adjusting the energy match, and helping to obtain higher PCE. Inorganic p-type semiconductors are alternative HTMs due to their chemical stability, higher mobility, high transparency in the visible region, and applicable valence band (VB energy level. This review analyzed the advantages, disadvantages, and development prospects of several popular inorganic HTMs in PSCs.

  15. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  16. Rapid Optimization of External Quantum Efficiency of Thin Film Solar Cells Using Surrogate Modeling of Absorptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mine; Hajimirza, Shima

    2018-05-25

    This paper uses surrogate modeling for very fast design of thin film solar cells with improved solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. We demonstrate that the wavelength-specific optical absorptivity of a thin film multi-layered amorphous-silicon-based solar cell can be modeled accurately with Neural Networks and can be efficiently approximated as a function of cell geometry and wavelength. Consequently, the external quantum efficiency can be computed by averaging surrogate absorption and carrier recombination contributions over the entire irradiance spectrum in an efficient way. Using this framework, we optimize a multi-layer structure consisting of ITO front coating, metallic back-reflector and oxide layers for achieving maximum efficiency. Our required computation time for an entire model fitting and optimization is 5 to 20 times less than the best previous optimization results based on direct Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations, therefore proving the value of surrogate modeling. The resulting optimization solution suggests at least 50% improvement in the external quantum efficiency compared to bare silicon, and 25% improvement compared to a random design.

  17. Solar cells based on electrodeposited thin films of ZnS, CdS, CdSSe and CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Ajith R.

    The motivations of this research were to produce increased efficiency and low-cost solar cells. The production efficiency of Si solar cells has almost reached their theoretical limit, and reducing the manufacturing cost of Si solar cells is difficult to achieve due to the high-energy usage in material purifying and processing stages. Due to the low usage of materials and input energy, thin film solar cells have the potential to reduce the costs. CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells are already the cheapest on $/W basis. The cost of CdTe solar cells can be further reduced if all the semiconducting layers are fabricated using the electrodeposition (ED) method. ED method is scalable, low in the usage of energy and raw materials. These benefits lead to the cost effective production of semiconductors. The conventional method of fabricating CdS layers produces Cd containing waste solutions routinely, which adds to the cost of solar cells.ZnS, CdS and CdS(i-X)Sex buffer and window layers and CdTe absorber layers have been successfully electrodeposited and explored under this research investigation. These layers were fully characterised using complementary techniques to evaluate the material properties. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies, optical absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy were utilised to evaluate the material properties of these solid thin film layers. ZnS and CdS thin film layers were electrodeposited from Na-free chemical precursors to avoid the group I element (Na) to reduce deterioration of CdTe devices. Deposition parameters such as, growth substrates, temperature, pH, growth cathodic voltage, stirring rate, time and chemical concentrations were identified to fabricate the above semiconductors. To further optimise these layers, a heat treatment process specific to the material was developed. In addition

  18. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xingmin; Hao Yanqing; Zhang Dongping; Fan Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  19. Properties of Spray Pyrolysied Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT from cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O precursor solutions of 0.05 – 0.15 M molar concentrations (MC at a substrate temperature of 350 °C and at an air pressure of 1 bar. Effect of varying MC on the surface morphology, structural optical and electrical properties of CuO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns of the prepared films revealed the formation of CuO thin films having monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation and crystalline size ranging from 8.02 to 9.05 nm was observed. The optical transmission of the film was found to decrease with the increase of MC. The optical band gap of the thin films for 0.10 M was fond to be 1.60 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 31 and 24 ohm.cm for the films grown with MC of 0.05 and 0.10 M respectively. The change in resistivity of the films was studied with respect to the change in temperature was shown that semiconductor nature is present. This information is expected to underlie the successful development of CuO films for solar windows and other semi-conductor applications including gas sensors.

  20. Spin-coating deposition of PbS and CdS thin films for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jayesh; Mighri, Frej [Laval University, CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Quebec, QC (Canada); Ajji, Abdellah [Ecole Polytechnique, CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K. [Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Dr. K.C. Patel Research and Development Centre, Anand District, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we describe a simple spin-coating deposition technique for lead sulphide (PbS) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) films from a methanolic metal-thiourea complex. The characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques revealed that pure cubic phase PbS and CdS layers were formed via this method. As shown by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results, both films were homogeneous and presented a smooth surface. Optical properties showed that the energy band gap of PbS and CdS films were around 1.65 and 2.5 eV, respectively. The PbS film is p-type in nature with an electrical conductivity of around 0.8 S/cm. The hole concentration and mobility were 2.35 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2.16 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/V/s, respectively, as determined from Hall measurement. Both films were used to develop a thin film solar cell device of graphite/PbS/CdS/ITO/glass. Device characterization showed the power conversion efficiency of around 0.24 %. The corresponding open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor were 0.570 V, 1.32 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.32, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  2. Compositional and electrical properties of line and planar defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ras, Daniel; Schmidt, Sebastian S.; Schaefer, Norbert; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Rissom, Thorsten; Unold, Thomas; Mainz, Roland; Weber, Alfons; Kirchartz, Thomas; Simsek Sanli, Ekin; Aken, Peter A. van; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Azulay, Doron; Balberg, Isaac; Millo, Oded; Cojocaru-Miredin, Oana; Barragan-Yani, Daniel; Albe, Karsten; Haarstrich, Jakob; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present review gives an overview of the various reports on properties of line and planar defects in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 thin films for high-efficiency solar cells. We report results from various analysis techniques applied to characterize these defects at different length scales, which allow for drawing a consistent picture on structural and electronic defect properties. A key finding is atomic reconstruction detected at line and planar defects, which may be one mechanism to reduce excess charge densities and to relax deep-defect states from midgap to shallow energy levels. On the other hand, nonradiative Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is still enhanced with respect to defect-free grain interiors, which is correlated with substantial reduction of luminescence intensities. Comparison of the microscopic electrical properties of planar defects in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 thin films with two-dimensional device simulations suggest that these defects are one origin of the reduced open-circuit voltage of the photovoltaic devices. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Effect of the Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration on Nucleation and Crystallization of PbI2 Crystals and Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of defect-free and well-controlled solution-processed crystalline thin films is highly desirable for emerging technologies, such as perovskite solar cells. In this work, using PbI2 as a model solution with a vast variety of applications, we demonstrate that the excitation of a liquid thin film by imposed ultrasonic vibration on the film substrate significantly affects the nucleation and crystallization kinetics of PbI2 and the morphology of the resulting solid thin film. It is found that by applying ultrasonic vibration to PbI2 solution spun onto an ITO substrate with a moderate power and excitation duration (5 W and 1 min for the 40 kHz transducer used in this study, the nucleation rate increases and the crystals transform from 2D or planar to epitaxial 3D columnar structures, resulting in the suppression of crystallization dewetting. The effects of various induced physical phenomena as a result of the excitation by ultrasonic vibration are discussed, including microstreaming and micromixing, increased heat transfer and local temperature, a change in the thermodynamic state of the solution, and a decrease in the supersaturation point. It is shown that the ultrasonic-assisted solution deposition of the PbI2 thin films is controllable and reproducible, a process which is low-cost and in line with the large-scale fabrication of such solution-processed thin films.

  4. Development of SnS (FTO/CdS/SnS) thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, A. M. S.; Valanarasu, S.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report a well-organized analysis on various key-properties of SnS thin films for solar cell fabricated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of deposited films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallite size was calculated and observed to be in the range of 8-28 nm with increasing molarity of precursor solution. The stoichiometry composition of SnS was confirmed by EDX study. SEM/AFM studies divulge the well-covered deposited surface with spherical grains and the size of grains is increasing with concentration and so the roughness. A remarkable decrease in band gap from 2.6 eV to 1.6 eV was noticed by raising the molar concentration from 0.025 M up to 0.075 M. A single strong emission peak at about 825 nm is observed in PL spectra with enhanced intensity which may be attributed to near band edge emission. From the Hall effect measurement, it was found that the SnS thin film exhibits p-type conductivity. The calculated values of resistivity and carrier concentration are 0.729 Ω cm and 3.67 × 1018/cm3 respectively. Furthermore, to study the photovoltaic properties of SnS thin films a heterojunction solar cell, FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS was produced and the conversion efficiency was recorded about 0.01%.

  5. Review on Alkali Element Doping in Cu(In,GaSe2 Thin Films and Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development history of alkali element doping on Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS solar cells and summarizes important achievements that have been made in this field. The influences of incorporation strategies on CIGS absorbers and device performances are also reviewed. By analyzing CIGS surface structure and electronic property variation induced by alkali fluoride (NaF and KF post-deposition treatment (PDT, we discuss and interpret the following issues: ① The delamination of CIGS thin films induced by Na incorporation facilitates CuInSe2 formation and inhibits Ga during low-temperature co-evaporation processes. ② The mechanisms of carrier density increase due to defect passivation by Na at grain boundaries and the surface. ③ A thinner buffer layer improves the short-circuit current without open-circuit voltage loss. This is attributed not only to better buffer layer coverage in the early stage of the chemical bath deposition process, but also to higher donor defect (CdCu+ density, which is transferred from the acceptor defect (VCu− and strengthens the buried homojunction. ④ The KF-PDT-induced lower valence band maximum at the absorber surface reduces the recombination at the absorber/buffer interface, which improves the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of solar cells.

  6. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: ennaoui@helmholtz-berlin.de; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstr. 20, D-10553 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-02

    Thin-film solar cells based on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) absorbers were fabricated successfully by solid-state reaction in H{sub 2}S atmosphere of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These ternary alloys were deposited in one step from a cyanide-free alkaline electrolyte containing Cu(II), Zn (II) and Sn (IV) metal salts on Mo-coated glass substrates. The solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer and a sputtered i-ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer. The best solar cell performance was obtained with Cu-poor samples. A total area (0.5 cm{sup 2}) efficiency of 3.4% is achieved (V{sub oc} = 563 mV, j{sub sc} = 14.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 41%) with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 80%. The estimated band-gap energy from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements is about 1.54 eV. Electron backscatter-diffraction maps of cross-section samples revealed CZTS grain sizes of up to 10 {mu}m. Elemental distribution maps of the CZTS absorber show Zn-rich precipitates, probably ZnS, and a Zn-poor region, presumably Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3}, close to the interface Mo/CZTS.

  7. Ion beam modification of TiO2 films prepared by Cat-CVD for solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tomoki; Iida, Tamio; Ogawa, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Kouichi; So, Jisung; Kondo, Akihiro; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Itoh, Takashi; Nonomura, Shuichi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2008-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen ion bombardment on TiO 2 films prepared by the Cat-CVD method have been studied to improve the optical and electrical properties of the material for use in Si thin film solar cells. The refractive index n and the dark conductivity of the TiO 2 film increased with irradiation time. The refractive index n of the TiO 2 film was changed from 2.1 to 2.4 and the electrical conductivity was improved from 3.4 x 10 -2 to 1.2 x 10 -1 S/cm by the irradiation. These results are due to the formation of Ti-N bonds and oxygen vacancies in the film

  8. Influence of oblique-angle sputtered transparent conducting oxides on performance of Si-based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films with low-refractive-index (low-n) are fabricated by the oblique-angle sputtering method. By using the experimentally measured physical data of the fabricated low-n TCO films as the simulation parameters, the effect of low-n TCOs on the performance of a-Si:H/{mu}c-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells is investigated using Silvaco ATLAS. The Al-doped zinc oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), and Sb-doped tin oxide films are deposited at the flux incidence angles of {theta}{sub i} = 0 (normal sputtering) and {theta}{sub i} = 80 from the sputtering target during the sputtering process. The oblique-angle sputtered films at {theta}{sub i} = 80 show the inclined columnar nanostructures compared to those at {theta}{sub i} = 0 , modifying the optical properties of the films. This is caused mainly by the increase of porosity within the film which leads to its low-n characteristics. The a-Si:H/{mu}c-Si:H tandem thin film solar cell incorporated with the low-n ITO film exhibits an improvement in the conversion efficiency of {proportional_to}1% under AM1.5g illumination because of its higher transmittance and lower absorption compared to that with the ITO film at {theta}{sub i} = 0 , indicating a conversion efficiency of 13.75%. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2013-01-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10 −4 Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm 2 /V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10 20 cm −3 , and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  10. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  11. Study of optoelectronic properties of thin film solar cell materials Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 using multiple correlative spatially-resolved spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong

    Containing only earth abundant and environmental friendly elements, quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) are considered as promising absorber materials for thin film solar cells. The best record efficiency for this type of thin film solar cell is now 12.6%. As a promising photovoltaic (PV) material, the electrical and optical properties of CZTS(Se) have not been well studied. In this work, an effort has been made to understand the optoelectronic and structural properties, in particular the spatial variations, of CZTS(Se) materials and devices by correlating multiple spatially resolved characterization techniques with sub-micron resolution. Micro-Raman (micro-Raman) spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemistry compositions in CZTS(Se) film; Micro-Photoluminescence (micro-PL) was used to determine the band gap and possible defects. Micro-Laser-Beam-Induced-Current (micro-LBIC) was used to examine the photo-response of CZTS(Se) solar cell in different illumination conditions. Micro-reflectance was used to estimate the reflectance loss. And Micro-I-V measurement was used to compare important electrical parameters from CZTS(Se) solar cells with different device structure or absorber compositions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology. Successfully integrating and correlating these techniques was first demonstrated during the course of this work in our laboratory, and this level of integration and correlation has been rare in the field of PV research. This effort is significant not only for this particular project and also for a wide range of research topics. Applying this approach, in conjunction with high-temperature and high-excitation-power optical spectroscopy, we have been able to reveal the microscopic scale variations among samples and devices that appeared to be very similar from macroscopic material and device characterizations, and thus serve as a very powerful tool

  12. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthier, G.; Ferrer, F.J.; Figueras, A.; Gyoergy, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on (001) SiO 2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO 2 . The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  14. Colloidal Precursors from 'Ball-Milling in Liquid Medium' Process for CuInSe{sub 2} Thin Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seung Joo [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    CIS thin film can be fabricated by using the precursor obtained through ball-milling the elemental reagents in liquid media. The amorphous colloidal precursor with good dispersity was prepared in the medium that contains strong base and polar solvent (2 M ethylenediamine in DMF solution as used in this study). The 'ball-milling in liquid medium' method requires only elemental sources as starting materials and a proper solution so that it can be employed without additional processes for separation and purification. As a simple and less-toxic preparative route, this method would be practically available to prepare CIS-related solar cells. CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) and related chalcopyrite compounds are very promising materials for thin film solar cells due to their favorable band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and long-term stability. CIS-based solar cells have shown the highest conversion efficiency reaching a value of 20%. However, the vacuum-based processes that are used to fabricate CIS thin-films have some drawbacks such as the complexity in process, high production cost and difficulty in scaling up. Recently, several research groups have proposed different non-vacuum deposition processes for CIS solar cell. For example, H. W. Hillhouse et al. prepared the CIS absorber layer by using 'nanocrystal ink method' in which a colloidal nanocrystal ink was obtained from reaction of CuCl, InCl{sub 3} and Se in oleylamine. D. B. Mitzi et al. used a solution-based precursor that was prepared by dissolution of Cu{sub 2}Se, In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Se in hydrazine to fabricate the Ga-containing absorber layer, Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}.

  15. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  16. Experimental Study on Fabrication of AZO Transparent Electrode for Organic Solar Cell Using Selective Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kicheol; Song, Gensoo; Kim, Hyungtae; Yoo, Kyunghoon; Kang, Jeongjin; Hwang, Junyoung; Lee, Sangho; Kang, Kyungtae; Kang, Heuiseok; Cho, Youngjune

    2013-01-01

    AZO (aluminum-doped zinc oxide) is one of the best candidate materials to replace Into (indium tin oxide) for TKOs (transparent conductive oxides) used in flat panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes (OLDS), and organic solar cells (OCSS). In the present study, to apply an AZO thin film to the transparent electrode of an organic solar cell, a low temperature selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) process was adopted to deposit an AZO thin film on a flexible polyethylene-naphthanate (Pen) substrate. The reactive gases for the ALD process were di-ethyl-zinc (De) and tri-methylaluminum (Tma) as precursors and H 2 O as an oxidant. The structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of the AZO thin film were evaluated. From the measured results of the electrical and optical characteristics of the AZO thin films deposited on the Pen substrates by Ald, it was shown that the Azo thin film appeared to be comparable to a commercially used Into thin film, which confirmed the feasibility of AZO as a TCO for flexible organic solar cells in the near future

  17. Colloidal Precursors from 'Ball-Milling in Liquid Medium' Process for CuInSe2 Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seung Joo

    2010-01-01

    CIS thin film can be fabricated by using the precursor obtained through ball-milling the elemental reagents in liquid media. The amorphous colloidal precursor with good dispersity was prepared in the medium that contains strong base and polar solvent (2 M ethylenediamine in DMF solution as used in this study). The 'ball-milling in liquid medium' method requires only elemental sources as starting materials and a proper solution so that it can be employed without additional processes for separation and purification. As a simple and less-toxic preparative route, this method would be practically available to prepare CIS-related solar cells. CuInSe 2 (CIS) and related chalcopyrite compounds are very promising materials for thin film solar cells due to their favorable band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and long-term stability. CIS-based solar cells have shown the highest conversion efficiency reaching a value of 20%. However, the vacuum-based processes that are used to fabricate CIS thin-films have some drawbacks such as the complexity in process, high production cost and difficulty in scaling up. Recently, several research groups have proposed different non-vacuum deposition processes for CIS solar cell. For example, H. W. Hillhouse et al. prepared the CIS absorber layer by using 'nanocrystal ink method' in which a colloidal nanocrystal ink was obtained from reaction of CuCl, InCl 3 and Se in oleylamine. D. B. Mitzi et al. used a solution-based precursor that was prepared by dissolution of Cu 2 Se, In 2 Se 3 , Ga 2 Se 3 and Se in hydrazine to fabricate the Ga-containing absorber layer, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2

  18. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  19. Effect of precursor concentration on physical properties of nebulized spray deposited In2S3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raj Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of precursor concentration (mc on the structural, optical, morphological and electrical conductivity properties of In2S3 thin films grown on amorphous glass substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP technique. The mixed phase of cubic and tetragonal structure of In2S3 thin films at higher concentration has been observed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The reduced strain by increasing the precursor concentration increased the average crystallite from 17.8 to 28.9 nm. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX studies confirmed the presence of In and S. The transmittance, optical direct band gap energy, Urbach energy and skin depth of In2S3 films have been analyzed by optical absorption spectra. The better conductivity and mobility noticed at mc = 0.15 M are explained by carrier concentration and crystallite. Better optical and electrical conductivity behaviour of In2S3 thin film sample proposes for effective solar cell fabrication.

  20. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  1. Physical vapor deposition of CdTe thin films at low temperature for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisler, Christoph; Brueckner, Michael; Lind, Felix; Kraft, Christian; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium telluride is successfully utilized as an absorber material for thin film solar cells. Industrial production makes use of high substrate temperatures for the deposition of CdTe absorber layers. However, in order to exploit flexible substrates and to simplify the manufacturing process, lower deposition temperatures are beneficial. Based on the phase diagram of CdTe, predictions on the stoichiometry of CdTe thin films grown at low substrate temperatures are made in this work. These predictions were verified experimentally using additional sources of Cd and Te during the deposition of the CdTe thin films at different substrate temperatures. The deposited layers were analyzed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In case of CdTe layers which were deposited at substrate temperatures lower than 200 C without usage of additional sources we found a non-stoichiometric growth of the CdTe layers. The application of the additional sources leads to a stoichiometric growth for substrate temperatures down to 100 C which is a significant reduction of the substrate temperature during deposition.

  2. Photon induced facile synthesis and growth of CuInS{sub 2} absorber thin film for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manjeet, E-mail: msitbhu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Incheon National University, 12-1, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Jiu, Jinting; Suganuma, Katsuaki [Department of Adv