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Sample records for gasc1 demethylates tri

  1. Histone demethylase GASC1 - a potential prognostic and predictive marker in invasive breast cancer

    Berdel, Bozena; Nieminen, Kaisa; Soini, Ylermi; Tengström, Maria; Malinen, Marjo; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Palvimo, Jorma J; Mannermaa, Arto

    2012-01-01

    The histone demethylase GASC1 (JMJD2C) is an epigenetic factor suspected of involvement in development of different cancers, including breast cancer. It is thought to be overexpressed in the more aggressive breast cancer types based on mRNA expression studies on cell lines and meta analysis of human breast cancer sets. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of GASC1 for women with invasive breast cancer. All the 355 cases were selected from a cohort enrolled in the Kuopio Breast Cancer Project between April 1990 and December 1995. The expression of GASC1 was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays. Additionally relative GASC1 mRNA expression was measured from available 57 cases. In our material, 56% of the cases were GASC1 negative and 44% positive in IHC staining. Women with GASC1 negative tumors had two years shorter breast cancer specific survival and time to relapse than the women with GASC1 positive tumors (p=0.017 and p=0.034 respectively). The majority of GASC1 negative tumors were ductal cases (72%) of higher histological grade (84% of grade II and III altogether). When we evaluated estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor negative cases separately, there was 2 times more GASC1 negative than GASC1 positive tumors in each group (chi2, p= 0.033 and 0.001 respectively). In the HER2 positive cases, there was 3 times more GASC1 negative cases than GASC1 positives (chi2, p= 0.029). Patients treated with radiotherapy (n=206) and hormonal treatment (n=62) had better breast cancer specific survival, when they were GASC1 positive (Cox regression: HR=0.49, p=0.007 and HR=0.33, p=0.015, respectively). The expression of GASC1 mRNA was in agreement with the protein analysis. This study indicates that the GASC1 is both a prognostic and a predictive factor for women with invasive breast cancer. GASC1 negativity is associated with tumors of more aggressive histopathological types (ductal type, grade II and III, ER

  2. Gadd45a promotes DNA demethylation through TDG

    Li, Zheng; Gu, Tian-Peng; Weber, Alain R.; Shen, Jia-Zhen; Li, Bin-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Ruichuan; Guo, Fan; Liu, Xiaomeng; Tang, Fuchou; Wang, Hailin; Sch?r, Primo; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 (Gadd45) family members have been implicated in DNA demethylation in vertebrates. However, it remained unclear how they contribute to the demethylation process. Here, we demonstrate that Gadd45a promotes active DNA demethylation through thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) which has recently been shown to excise 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated in Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet)?initiated oxidative demethylation. The conn...

  3. Oxidative demethylation of monomethylmercury in sediments

    Oremland, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that demethylation of monomethylmercury proceeds in nature by a simple organo-mercury lyase reaction resulting in the production of CH 4 and Hg 2+ , which is further reduced to Hg 0 . Addition of 14 CH 3 HgI to sediments resulted in the production of mainly 14 CO 2 and some 14 CH 4 . In the case of estuarine sediments, production of both these gases was only observed under anaerobiosis, and was totally inhibited by MoO 4 2- , which indicated the involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the case of anaerobic freshwater sediments, results with inhibitors indicated that both methanogens and sulfate reducers were involved in this oxidative demethylation. Aerobic incubation of estuarine sediments resulted in the production of only 14 CH 4 , indicating the importance of the organo-mercurial lyase reaction under this condition. However, in freshwater sediments, this reaction was not observed, and the oxidative demethylation reaction was predominant either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A methylotrophic methanogen (GS-16) was able to form traces of 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 from 14 CH 3 HgI, and some strains of sulfate-reducers formed traces of 14 CH 4 . Addition of methanol to anaerobic freshwater sediments partially inhibited production of 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 , but not CH 4 . These results suggest that oxidative demethylation proceeds by an established pathway for C-1 metabolism

  4. Fast Curing Bio-Based Phenolic Resins via Lignin Demethylated under Mild Reaction Condition

    Jiongjiong Li; Jizhi Zhang; Shifeng Zhang; Qiang Gao; Jianzhang Li; Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Demethylation technique has been used to enhance lignin reactivity for preparation of phenolic resins. However, the demethylation efficiency and the demethylated lignin (DL) reactivity were still unsatisfactory. To improve the demethylation efficiency, alkali lignin was demethylated under different mild conditions using sodium sulfite as a catalyst. Lignin and DL were characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to determine the deme...

  5. Demethylation of arsenic limits its volatilization in fungi

    Su, Shiming; Zeng, Xibai; Feng, Qiufen; Bai, Lingyu; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Sheng; Li, Aiguo; Duan, Ran; Wang, Xiurong; Wu, Cuixia; Wang, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) biomethylation is increasingly being regarded as a promising method to volatize As from the environment; however, the As volatilization efficiency of most microorganisms is low. Here, the speciation transformation of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) as an important methylation intermediate in the cells of Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 were investigated. These fungal strains have been certified to volatilize As from As-loaded environment. In situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicated that demethylation of DMA with methylarsonic acid (MMA), arsenate [As(V)], and arsenite [As(III)] as intermediates or products occurred in fungal cells after exposure to DMA for 15 days. 36.7–55.7% of the original DMA could lose one or two methyl groups and be changed into MMA or inorganic As. Chromatographic separation of the cell lysates also supported these findings. Thus it comes that demethylation might be a remarkable internal factor limiting As volatilization efficiency. - Highlights: • XAS and chromatographic separation were used to study the speciation change of DMA. • DMA demethylation with MMA, As(V), and As(III) as products occurred in fungal cells. • Demethylation might be responsible for the limited volatilization efficiency of As. - Demethylation might be responsible for the limited methylation efficiency of As

  6. Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism

    Jillian Hagel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.

  7. Spatial control of protein phosphatase 2A (de)methylation

    Longin, Sari; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Martens, Ellen; Louis, Justin V.; Rondelez, Evelien; Goris, Jozef; Janssens, Veerle

    2008-01-01

    Reversible methylation of the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A C ) is an important regulatory mechanism playing a crucial role in the selective recruitment of regulatory B subunits. Here, we investigated the subcellular localization of leucine carboxyl methyltransferase (LCMT1) and protein phosphatase methylesterase (PME-1), the two enzymes catalyzing this process. The results show that PME-1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus and harbors a functional nuclear localization signal, whereas LCMT1 is underrepresented in the nucleus and mainly localizes to the cytoplasm, Golgi region and late endosomes. Indirect immunofluorescence with methylation-sensitive anti-PP2A C antibodies revealed a good correlation with the methylation status of PP2A C , demethylated PP2A C being substantially nuclear. Throughout mitosis, demethylated PP2A C is associated with the mitotic spindle and during cytokinesis with the cleavage furrow. Overexpression of PME-1, but not of an inactive mutant, results in increased demethylation of PP2A C in the nucleus, whereas overexpression of a cytoplasmic PME-1 mutant lacking the NLS results in increased demethylation in the cytoplasm-in all cases, however, without any obvious functional consequences. PME-1 associates with an inactive PP2A population, regardless of its esterase activity or localization. We propose that stabilization of this inactive, nuclear PP2A pool is a major in vivo function of PME-1

  8. A New Synthetic Route to Dihydrobenzopyran Via Tandem Demethylation Cyclisation

    G. Shanmugam

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A tandem demethylation-cyclisation reaction resulting in the formation of pyran rings using AlCl3/EtSH reagent under mild reaction conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction studies on the intermediate support the suggested mechanism.

  9. TRI Fotonovela Slideshow - Spanish

    Presentation designed to introduce the basic concepts of the Toxics Release Inventory, including why TRI is an important resource for commmunities and which tool provides the easiest access to basic TRI data.

  10. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Inoue, Toshiya; Ijiri, Yoshihiro; Otani, Takeshi; Motoda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shuji; Orita, Kunzo

    2004-01-01

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  11. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers

  12. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2014-03-15

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers.

  13. Enhanced photo(geno)toxicity of demethylated chlorpromazine metabolites

    Palumbo, Fabrizio [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Lainez, Guillermo [Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) La Fe, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Avenida de Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Limones-Herrero, Daniel [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Coloma, M. Dolores; Escobar, Javier [Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) La Fe, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Avenida de Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Jiménez, M. Consuelo [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A., E-mail: mmiranda@qim.upv.es [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); and others

    2016-12-15

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound. In this case, the metabolites selected for the study are demethylchlorpromazine (DMCPZ), didemethylchlorpromazine (DDMCPZ) and chlorpromazine sulfoxide (CPZSO). The demethylated CPZ metabolites DMCPZ and DDMCPZ maintain identical chromophore to the parent drug. In this work, it has been found that the nature of the aminoalkyl side chain modulates the hydrophobicity and the photochemical properties (for instance, the excited state lifetimes), but it does not change the photoreactivity pattern, which is characterized by reductive photodehalogenation, triggered by homolytic carbon-chlorine bond cleavage with formation of highly reactive aryl radical intermediates. Accordingly, these metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the 3T3 NRU assay; their photo-irritation factors are even higher than that of CPZ. The same trend is observed in photogenotoxicity studies, both with isolated and with cellular DNA, where DMCPZ and DDMCPZ are more active than CPZ itself. In summary, side-chain demethylation of CPZ, as a consequence of Phase I biotransformation, does not result a photodetoxification. Instead, it leads to metabolites that exhibit in an even enhanced photo(geno)toxicity. - Highlights: • Demethylated CPZ metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the NRU assay. • Single cell electrophoresis (Comet Assay) confirms the photodamage to cellular DNA. • DNA single strand breaks formation is observed on agarose gel electrophoresis.

  14. Enhanced photo(geno)toxicity of demethylated chlorpromazine metabolites

    Palumbo, Fabrizio; Garcia-Lainez, Guillermo; Limones-Herrero, Daniel; Coloma, M. Dolores; Escobar, Javier; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound. In this case, the metabolites selected for the study are demethylchlorpromazine (DMCPZ), didemethylchlorpromazine (DDMCPZ) and chlorpromazine sulfoxide (CPZSO). The demethylated CPZ metabolites DMCPZ and DDMCPZ maintain identical chromophore to the parent drug. In this work, it has been found that the nature of the aminoalkyl side chain modulates the hydrophobicity and the photochemical properties (for instance, the excited state lifetimes), but it does not change the photoreactivity pattern, which is characterized by reductive photodehalogenation, triggered by homolytic carbon-chlorine bond cleavage with formation of highly reactive aryl radical intermediates. Accordingly, these metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the 3T3 NRU assay; their photo-irritation factors are even higher than that of CPZ. The same trend is observed in photogenotoxicity studies, both with isolated and with cellular DNA, where DMCPZ and DDMCPZ are more active than CPZ itself. In summary, side-chain demethylation of CPZ, as a consequence of Phase I biotransformation, does not result a photodetoxification. Instead, it leads to metabolites that exhibit in an even enhanced photo(geno)toxicity. - Highlights: • Demethylated CPZ metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the NRU assay. • Single cell electrophoresis (Comet Assay) confirms the photodamage to cellular DNA. • DNA single strand breaks formation is observed on agarose gel electrophoresis.

  15. ADHD: Tips to Try

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD: Tips to Try Print en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , short for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a ...

  16. Chemical groups and structural characterization of lignin via thiol-mediated demethylation

    Lihong Hu; Hui Pan; Yonghong Zhou; Chung-Yun Hse; Chengguo Liu; Baofang Zhang; Bin Xu

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to increase the reactivity of lignin by thiol-mediated demethylation was investigated in this study. Demethylated lignin was characterized by the changes in its hydroxyl and methoxyl groups, molecular weight, and other properties using titration and spectroscopy methods including FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV,and GPC. The total...

  17. Fast Curing Bio-Based Phenolic Resins via Lignin Demethylated under Mild Reaction Condition

    Jiongjiong Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Demethylation technique has been used to enhance lignin reactivity for preparation of phenolic resins. However, the demethylation efficiency and the demethylated lignin (DL reactivity were still unsatisfactory. To improve the demethylation efficiency, alkali lignin was demethylated under different mild conditions using sodium sulfite as a catalyst. Lignin and DL were characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy to determine the demethylation mechanism. With the demethylation of lignin, the methoxyl group content decreased from 1.93 m mol/g to 1.09 m mol/g, and the phenolic hydroxyl group content increased from 0.56 m mol/g to 0.82 m mol/g. These results revealed that methoxyl groups were attacked by SO32−, and some methoxyl groups were converted to phenolic hydroxyl groups by a nucleophilic substitution reaction, generating DL with high reactivity. The chemical properties of lignin-based phenolic resins were studied by 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, and their physical properties were also investigated. The results indicated that lignin-based phenolic resins exhibited faster curing rate and shorter gel time. In addition, the bonding strength increased from 0.92 MPa to 1.07 MPa, and the formaldehyde emission decreased from 0.58 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L after lignin demethylated at the optimum condition.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  19. The Game of Tri

    Haggard, Gary; Schonberger, Ann Koch

    1977-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil game "Tri" is described. The authors argue that students gain logical skills by playing the game, and that the game lends itself to the introduction of diverse mathematical ideas. (SD)

  20. Gender Differences in Global but Not Targeted Demethylation in iPSC Reprogramming

    Inês Milagre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global DNA demethylation is an integral part of reprogramming processes in vivo and in vitro, but whether it occurs in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is not known. Here, we show that iPSC reprogramming involves both global and targeted demethylation, which are separable mechanistically and by their biological outcomes. Cells at intermediate-late stages of reprogramming undergo transient genome-wide demethylation, which is more pronounced in female cells. Global demethylation requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-mediated downregulation of UHRF1 protein, and abolishing demethylation leaves thousands of hypermethylated regions in the iPSC genome. Independently of AID and global demethylation, regulatory regions, particularly ESC enhancers and super-enhancers, are specifically targeted for hypomethylation in association with transcription of the pluripotency network. Our results show that global and targeted DNA demethylation are conserved and distinct reprogramming processes, presumably because of their respective roles in epigenetic memory erasure and in the establishment of cell identity.

  1. Lidocaine and ropivacaine, but not bupivacaine, demethylate deoxyribonucleic acid in breast cancer cells in vitro

    Lirk, P.; Hollmann, M. W.; Fleischer, M.; Weber, N. C.; Fiegl, H.

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine demethylates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in breast cancer cells. This modification of epigenetic information may be of therapeutic relevance in the perioperative period, because a decrease in methylation can reactivate tumour suppressor genes and inhibit tumour growth. The objectives of

  2. Arsenic Demethylation by a C·As Lyase in Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Yan, Yu; Ye, Jun; Xue, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Arsenic, a ubiquitous toxic substance, exists mainly as inorganic forms in the environment. It is perceived that organoarsenicals can be demethylated and degraded into inorganic arsenic by microorganisms. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic demethylation in bacteria. Here, we investigated arsenic demethylation in a typical freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. This bacterium was able to demethylate monomethylarsenite [MAs(III)] rapidly to arsenite [As(III)] and also had the ability to demethylate monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] to As(III). The NsarsI encoding a C·As lyase responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was cloned from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and heterologously expressed in an As-hypersensitive strain Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC). Expression of NsarsI was shown to confer MAs(III) resistance through arsenic demethylation. The purified NsArsI was further identified and functionally characterized in vitro. NsArsI existed mainly as the trimeric state, and the kinetic data were well-fit to the Hill equation with K0.5 = 7.55 ± 0.33 μM for MAs(III), Vmax = 0.79 ± 0.02 μM min(-1), and h = 2.7. Both of the NsArsI truncated derivatives lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (ArsI10) or 23 residues (ArsI23) had a reduced ability of MAs(III) demethylation. These results provide new insights for understanding the important role of cyanobacteria in arsenic biogeochemical cycling in the environment.

  3. Tri-generation nation

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Sydney and Melbourne councils are looking to outperform each other with ambitious greenhouse and energy efficiency initiatives. Sydney wants to cut CO_2 by 70 per cent by 2030, while Melbourne's 1200 Buildings retrofit project speaks for itself. One key technology both councils are tapping is trigeneration, which generates electricity, heating and cooling from local gas-fired power units. From a physics perspective, a combustion process cannot be more than 30 per cent efficient, so capturing and using the waste heat can lead to great savings. Sydney Lord Mayor Clover Moore said a third of the council's carbon reduction goal of 3.9Mt a year by 2030 will come from tri-gen. Melbourne is aiming to achieve zero net emissions by 2020, which means eliminating 5.8Mt of CO_2, a lot of it through tri-gen. It has already seen a surge among landlords. GPT, Stockland and Mirvac have all stuck tri-gen units in Sydney office developments, while newly carbon- neutral NAB has installed the technology on its data centre in Melbourne and expects to save 20,000 tonnes of CO_2 a year. But one expert, while welcoming the spike in popularity, says there are traps for the unwary. Johnson Controls' Peter Moser sees two core drivers for its uptake. “First is the prominence of GreenStar and NABERS. Many companies will move to tri-gen as they will want the extra points or stars,” he told WME. “Secondly, there is the continuous increase in the price of energy. At the same time there may be an [emissions trading scheme] or a carbon price introduced, and that puts pressure on the consumer. Combining those two scenarios will see more people adopt tri-gen because it will become more economically viable and the payback periods of tri-gen will come down considerably.” But he points to the importance of pre-planning when considering tri-gen, warning. “To put tri-gen into a building, let alone retrofit a whole city and make it work, you need highly complex teams working together

  4. EG-13GENOME-WIDE METHYLATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES GENOMIC DNA DEMETHYLATION DURING MALIGNANT PROGRESSION OF GLIOMAS

    Saito, Kuniaki; Mukasa, Akitake; Nagae, Genta; Aihara, Koki; Otani, Ryohei; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Omata, Mayu; Tanaka, Shota; Shibahara, Junji; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Shimamura, Teppei; Miyano, Satoru; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ueki, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Ryo; Nagane, Motoo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Saito, Nobuhito

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas often undergo malignant progression, and these transformations are a leading cause of death in patients with low-grade gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant tumor progression are still not well understood. Recent evidence indicates that epigenetic deregulation is an important cause of gliomagenesis; therefore, we examined the impact of epigenetic changes during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas. Specifically, we used the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 120 gliomas and four normal brains. This study sample included 25 matched-pairs of initial low-grade gliomas and recurrent tumors (temporal heterogeneity) and 20 of the 25 recurring tumors recurred as malignant progressions, and one matched-pair of newly emerging malignant lesions and pre-existing lesions (spatial heterogeneity). Analyses of methylation profiles demonstrated that most low-grade gliomas in our sample (43/51; 84%) had a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Remarkably, approximately 50% of secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade tumors with the G-CIMP status exhibited a characteristic partial demethylation of genomic DNA during malignant progression, but other recurrent gliomas showed no apparent change in DNA methylation pattern. Interestingly, we found that most loci that were demethylated during malignant progression were located outside of CpG islands. The information of histone modifications patterns in normal human astrocytes and embryonal stem cells also showed that the ratio of active marks at the site corresponding to DNA demethylated loci in G-CIMP-demethylated tumors was significantly lower; this finding indicated that most demethylated loci in G-CIMP-demethylated tumors were likely transcriptionally inactive. A small number of the genes that were upregulated and had demethylated CpG islands were associated with cell cycle-related pathway. In

  5. Stereoselectivity of the demethylation of nicotine piperidine homologues by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell suspension cultures.

    Bartholomeusz, Trixie Ann; Molinié, Roland; Roscher, Albrecht; Felpin, François-Xavier; Gillet, Françoise; Lebreton, Jacques; Mesnard, François; Robins, Richard J

    2005-08-01

    The metabolism of (R,S)-N-methylanabasine and (R,S)-N-methylanatabine has been studied in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Both substrates are effectively demethylated, anabasine or anatabine, respectively, accumulating in the medium. Similarly, there is strong stereoselectivity for the (R)-isomers of both substrates. The kinetics of metabolism of (R,S)-N-methylanabasine differ significantly from those of nicotine in that no further degradation of the initial demethylation product occurs. (R,S)-N-Methylanatabine, however, shows kinetics closer to those of nicotine, with loss of alkaloid from the system. Further more, (R,S)-N-methylanabasine does not diminish (S)-nicotine demethylation, indicating a lack of competition. However, the metabolism of (S)-nicotine is affected by the presence of (R,S)-N-methylanabasine. Hence, the demethylation of the piperidine homologues of nicotine is seen to be similar but not identical to that of the pyridine analogues. The implications of these different metabolic profiles in relation to the demethylation activity are discussed.

  6. Ligand Binding Affinities of Arctigenin and Its Demethylated Metabolites to Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Masao Hattori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (−-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (−-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL by Eubacterium (E. sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (−-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (−-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC50 value of (2R,3R-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10−4 M.

  7. Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: Involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W.; Winfrey, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of mercury has received considerable attention because of the toxicity of methylmercury, its bioaccumulation in biota, and its biomagnification in aquatic food chains. The formation of methylmercury is mediated primarily by microorganisms. Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with 14 CH 3 HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominated estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demthylation were mainly 14 CO 2 as well as lesser amounts of 14 CH 4 . Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some 14 CO 2 produced from 14 CH 3 HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only 14 CH 4 , while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 . Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of 14 CH 4 from 14 CH 3 HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the 14 CH 3 HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates

  8. Demethylation of host-cell DNA at the site of avian retrovirus integration

    Hejnar, Jiří; Elleder, Daniel; Hájková, P.; Walter, J.; Blažková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 311 (2003), s. 641-648 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : DNA methylation and demethylation * integration of retroviruses * gene silencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2003

  9. Raman spectroscopic characterisations and analytical discrimination between caffeine and demethylated analogues of pharmaceutical relevance

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Munshi, T.; Anstis, M.

    2005-05-01

    The FT Raman spectrum of caffeine was analysed along with that of its demethylated analogues, theobromine and theophylline. The similar but not identical structures of these three compounds allowed a more detailed assignment of the Raman bands. Noticeable differences in the Raman spectra of these compounds were apparent and key marker bands have been identified for the spectroscopic identification of these three compounds.

  10. Oxidative demethylation of lanosterol in cholesterol biosynthesis: accumulation of sterol intermediates

    Shafiee, A.; Trzaskos, J.M.; Paik, Y.K.; Gaylor, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    With [ 3 H-24,25]-dihydrolanosterol as substrate, large-scale metabolic formation of intermediates of lanosterol demethylation was carried out to identify all compounds in the metabolic process. Utilizing knowledge of electron transport of lanosterol demethylation, we interrupted the demethylation reaction allowing accumulation and confirmation of the structure of the oxygenated intermediates lanost-8-en-3 beta,32-diol and 3 beta-hydroxylanost-8-en-32-al, as well as the demethylation product 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,14-dien-3 beta-ol. Further metabolism of the delta 8.14-diene intermediate to a single product 4,4-dimethyl-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol occurs under interruption conditions in the presence of 0.5 mM CN-1. With authentic compounds, each intermediate has been rigorously characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography plus mass spectral analysis of isolated and derivatized sterols. Intermediates that accumulated in greater abundance were further characterized by ultraviolet, 1 H-NMR, and infrared spectroscopy of the isolated sterols

  11. Demethylation of methylated arsenic species during generation of arsanes with tetrahydridoborate(1−) in acidic media

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 12 (2016), s. 6366-6373 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23532S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * demethylation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  12. Synthesis and characterization of N-demethylated metabolites of malachite green and leucomalachite green.

    Cho, Bongsup P; Yang, Tianle; Blankenship, Lonnie R; Moody, Joanna D; Churchwell, Mona; Beland, Frederick A; Culp, Sandra J

    2003-03-01

    Malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish, undergoes sequential oxidation to produce various N-demethylated derivatives (monodes-, dides(sym)-, dides(unsym)-, trides-, and tetrades-) both before and after reduction to leucomalachite green (LMG). The close structure resemblance of the metabolites with aromatic amine carcinogens implicates a potential genotoxicity from exposure to MG. The availability of the synthetic standards is important for metabolic and DNA adduct studies of MG. This paper describes a simple and versatile method for the synthesis of MG, LMG, and their N-demethylated metabolites. The synthesis involves a coupling of 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone or 4-nitrobenzophenone with the aryllithium reagents derived from appropriately substituted 4-bromoaniline derivatives, followed by treatment with HCl in methanol. The resulting cationic MG and their leuco analogues showed systematic UV/vis spectral and tandem mass fragmentation patterns consistent with sequential N-demethylation. The extensive (1)H and (13)C spectral assignments of the metabolites were aided by the availability of (13)C(7)-labeled MG and LMG. The results indicate the existence of a resonance structure with the cationic charge located in the central methane carbon (C(7)). The synthetic procedure is general in scope so that it can be extended to the preparation of N-demethylated metabolites of other structurally related N-methylated triphenylmethane dyes.

  13. Base-oxidant promoted metal-free N-demethylation of arylamines

    A metal-free oxidative N-demethylation of arylamines with triethylamine as a base and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant is reported in this paper. The reaction is general, practical, inexpensive, non-toxic, and the method followed is environmentally benign, with moderate to good yields.

  14. Global DNA hypermethylation-associated cancer chemotherapy resistance and its reversion with the demethylating agent hydralazine

    Benitez-Bribiesca Luis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. It has been shown that cells exposed to toxic concentrations of commonly used cancer chemotherapy agents develop DNA hypermetylation. Hence, demethylating agents could play a role in overcoming drug resistance. Methods MCF-7 cells were rendered adriamycin-resistant by weekly treatment with adriamycin. Wild-type and the resulting MCF-7/Adr cells were analyzed for global DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase activity and DNA methyltransferase (dnmt gene expression were also determined. MCF-7/Adr cells were then subjected to antisense targeting of dnmt1, -3a, and -b genes and to treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine to investigate whether DNA demethylation restores sensitivity to adriamycin. Results MCF-7/Adr cells exhibited the multi-drug resistant phenotype as demonstrated by adriamycin resistance, mdr1 gene over-expression, decreased intracellular accumulation of adriamycin, and cross-resistance to paclitaxel. The mdr phenotype was accompanied by global DNA hypermetylation, over-expression of dnmt genes, and increased DNA methyltransferase activity as compared with wild-type MCF-7 cells. DNA demethylation through antisense targeting of dnmts or hydralazine restored adriamycin sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr cells to a greater extent than verapamil, a known inhibitor of mdr protein, suggesting that DNA demethylation interferes with the epigenetic reprogramming that participates in the drug-resistant phenotype. Conclusion We provide evidence that DNA hypermethylation is at least partly responsible for development of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in the MCF-7/Adr model and that hydralazine, a known DNA demethylating agent, can revert the resistant phenotype.

  15. Demethylation of methylmercury in growing rice plants: An evidence of self-detoxification

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhu, Nali; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that poses a serious threat to human and the environment. Rice was found as an important source for human exposure to Hg in some areas. In this study, the transportation and transformation of IHg and MeHg in rice plants exposed to IHg or MeHg were investigated. The IHg and MeHg concentrations in rice roots and shoots collected every five days were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS and SR-XANES. When exposed to MeHg, the percent of IHg in rice roots and shoots increased while MeHg decreased significantly, suggesting prominent demethylation of MeHg occurred. However no notable MeHg was found in both roots and shoots of rice plant when exposed to IHg. SR-XANES analysis further confirmed the demethylation of MeHg with rice. This study provides a new finding that demethylation of MeHg could occur in growing rice, which may be a self-defense process of rice plant. - Graphical abstract: Inorganic mercury in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to methylmercury was detected: An evidence of rice plant against methylmercury phytotoxicity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Demethylation of MeHg in rice plant was found in rice root. • Hg in rice roots mainly present as MeHg-SR or RS-Hg-SR form. • MeHg-SR in roots can be gradually transformed to RS-Hg-SR with rice growth. - Demethylation of MeHg in growing rice.

  16. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  17. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    Palsamy, Periyasamy [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Ayaki, Masahiko [Shizuoka National Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Elanchezhian, Rajan [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Shinohara, Toshimichi, E-mail: tshinohara@unmc.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2 Prime deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which

  18. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    Palsamy, Periyasamy; Ayaki, Masahiko; Elanchezhian, Rajan; Shinohara, Toshimichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. ► Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. ► Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. ► Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which then increases the targeting of Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. Decreased Nrf2 activity represses the

  19. Adoptive cancer immunotherapy using DNA-demethylated T helper cells as antigen-presenting cells

    Kirkin, Alexei F.; Dzhandzhugazyan, Karine N.; Guldberg, Per

    2018-01-01

    In cancer cells, cancer/testis (CT) antigens become epigenetically derepressed through DNA demethylation and constitute attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Here we report that activated CD4+ T helper cells treated with a DNA-demethylating agent express a broad repertoire of endogenous CT...... antigens and can be used as antigen-presenting cells to generate autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. In vitro, activated CTLs induce HLA-restricted lysis of tumor cells of different histological types, as well as cells expressing single CT antigens. In a phase 1 trial of 25...... patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, cytotoxic lymphocytes homed to the tumor, with tumor regression ongoing in three patients for 14, 22, and 27 months, respectively. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed. This proof-of-principle study shows that tumor-reactive effector cells can...

  20. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  1. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  2. Sensory rhodopsins I and II modulate a methylation/demethylation system in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis

    Spudich, E.N.; Takahashi, T.; Spudich, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This work demonstrates that phototaxis stimuli in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium control a methylation/demethylation system in vivo through photoactivation of sensory rhodopsin I (SR-I) in either its attractant or repellent signaling form as well as through the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SR-II, also called phoborhodopsin). The effects of positive stimuli that suppress swimming reversals (i.e., an increase in attractant or decrease in repellent light) and negative stimuli that induce swimming reversals (i.e., a decrease in attractant or increase in repellent light) through each photoreceptor were monitored by assaying release of volatile [3H]methyl groups. This assay has been used to measure [3H]methanol produced during the process of adaptation to chemotactic stimuli in eubacteria. In H. halobium positive photostimuli produce a transient increase in the rate of demethylation followed by a decrease below the unstimulated value, whereas negative photostimuli cause an increase followed by a rate similar to that of the unstimulated value. Photoactivation of the SR-I attractant and simultaneous photoactivation of the SR-II repellent receptors cancel in their effects on demethylation, demonstrating the methylation system is regulated by an integrated signal. Analysis of mutants indicates that the source for the volatile methyl groups is intrinsic membrane proteins distinct from the chromoproteins that share the membrane. A methyl-accepting protein (94 kDa) previously correlated in amount with the SR-I chromoprotein (25 kDa) is shown here to be missing in a recently isolated SR-I-SR-II+ mutant (Flx3b), thus confirming the association of this protein with SR-I. Photoactivated SR-II in mutant Flx3b controls demethylation, predicting the existence of a photomodulated methyl-accepting component distinct from the 94-kDa protein of SR-I

  3. The autoradiolytic and the γ-induced demethylation of solid thymine-(methyl-14C)

    Merwitz, O.

    1980-01-01

    The autoradiolytic and the γ-induced demethylation of solid thymine were measured qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time with specially purified thymine-(methyl- 14 C). Analogous experiments with thymine-(methyl- 3 H) and radio-gaschromatographic analysis provided proof for the formation of molecular hydrogen and methane. Ethane was not detected. The results are discussed in connection with e.s.r.-spectroscopic studies. (author)

  4. ERRα induces H3K9 demethylation by LSD1 to promote cell invasion

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Forcet, Christelle; Zhang, Ling; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Boudra, Rafik; Cerutti, Catherine; Billas, Isabelle M. L.; Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Carroll, Jason S.; Beaudoin, Claude; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic demethylation of histone residues plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) can remove both transcriptionally permissive and repressive histone marks. How these activities are controlled is not clearly understood. Here, we show that the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) induces LSD1 to erase repressive marks in vitro. Through such a mechanism, LSD1 and ERRα commonly activate a set of transcriptional targets that include genes invo...

  5. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. → GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. → GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. → A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. → We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  6. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Matsukura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmatsukura.epi@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun [Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Sudo, Katsuko [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Animal Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Sato, Noriko, E-mail: nsato.epi@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  7. Targeted DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome using the human TET1 catalytic domain

    Gallego-Bartolomé, Javier; Gardiner, Jason; Liu, Wanlu; Papikian, Ashot; Ghoshal, Basudev; Kuo, Hsuan Yu; Zhao, Jenny Miao-Chi; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation and transposable element silencing. Changes in DNA methylation can be heritable and, thus, can lead to the formation of stable epialleles. A well-characterized example of a stable epiallele in plants is fwa, which consists of the loss of DNA cytosine methylation (5mC) in the promoter of the FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA) gene, causing up-regulation of FWA and a heritable late-flowering phenotype. Here we demonstrate that a fusion between the catalytic domain of the human demethylase TEN-ELEVEN TRANSLOCATION1 (TET1cd) and an artificial zinc finger (ZF) designed to target the FWA promoter can cause highly efficient targeted demethylation, FWA up-regulation, and a heritable late-flowering phenotype. Additional ZF–TET1cd fusions designed to target methylated regions of the CACTA1 transposon also caused targeted demethylation and changes in expression. Finally, we have developed a CRISPR/dCas9-based targeted demethylation system using the TET1cd and a modified SunTag system. Similar to the ZF–TET1cd fusions, the SunTag–TET1cd system is able to target demethylation and activate gene expression when directed to the FWA or CACTA1 loci. Our study provides tools for targeted removal of 5mC at specific loci in the genome with high specificity and minimal off-target effects. These tools provide the opportunity to develop new epialleles for traits of interest, and to reactivate expression of previously silenced genes, transgenes, or transposons. PMID:29444862

  8. Enantiomeric separation of some demethylated analogues of clofibric acid by capillary zone electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography.

    Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Bettoni, Giancarlo; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2006-03-01

    The enantiomeric separation of some demethylated analogues of clofibric acid, namely 2-(6-chloro-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-, 2-(6-methoxy-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-, 2-(quinolin-2-yloxy)-, 2-(6-chloro-quinolin-2-yloxy)-, 2-(7-chloro-quinolin-4-yloxy)-propionic acid (compounds A-E, respectively), has been studied by CZE and nano-LC using for the first technique two beta-CD derivatives and vancomycin added to the BGE and vancomycin-modified silica particles for the second one, with the aim to find the optimum experimental conditions for the baseline resolution. The type and the concentration of the chiral selector added to the BGE, the buffer pH, the type of organic modifier and its concentration, the capillary temperature and the applied voltage played a very important role in the enantioresolution of the analysed compounds. The use of 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-beta-CD allowed to achieve baseline resolution of four of five clofibric acid derivatives in less than 10 min while heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-CD partially resolved the same compounds in their enantiomers. Employing vancomycin as the chiral selector in CZE, the counter-current partial filling method was chosen achieving baseline resolution of four analytes. All the studied compounds were enantioresolved employing a capillary column packed with vancomycin stationary phase by nano-LC, and the resolution was strongly influenced by the concentration of the organic modifier and by the pH of the mobile phase. The best results were achieved at pH 4.5 in presence of 60% of methanol (MeOH). However, longer analysis times were observed in the experiments carried out by nano-LC.

  9. ERRα induces H3K9 demethylation by LSD1 to promote cell invasion

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Forcet, Christelle; Zhang, Ling; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Boudra, Rafik; Cerutti, Catherine; Billas, Isabelle M. L.; Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Carroll, Jason S.; Beaudoin, Claude; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) removes mono- and dimethyl groups from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) or H3K9, resulting in repressive or activating (respectively) transcriptional histone marks. The mechanisms that control the balance between these two antagonist activities are not understood. We here show that LSD1 and the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) display commonly activated genes. Transcriptional activation by LSD1 and ERRα involves H3K9 demethylation at the transcriptional start site (TSS). Strikingly, ERRα is sufficient to induce LSD1 to demethylate H3K9 in vitro. The relevance of this mechanism is highlighted by functional data. LSD1 and ERRα coregulate several target genes involved in cell migration, including the MMP1 matrix metallo-protease, also activated through H3K9 demethylation at the TSS. Depletion of LSD1 or ERRα reduces the cellular capacity to invade the extracellular matrix, a phenomenon that is rescued by MMP1 reexpression. Altogether our results identify a regulatory network involving a direct switch in the biochemical activities of a histone demethylase, leading to increased cell invasion. PMID:28348226

  10. ERRα induces H3K9 demethylation by LSD1 to promote cell invasion.

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Forcet, Christelle; Zhang, Ling; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Boudra, Rafik; Cerutti, Catherine; Billas, Isabelle M L; Sérandour, Aurélien A; Carroll, Jason S; Beaudoin, Claude; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-11

    Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) removes mono- and dimethyl groups from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) or H3K9, resulting in repressive or activating (respectively) transcriptional histone marks. The mechanisms that control the balance between these two antagonist activities are not understood. We here show that LSD1 and the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) display commonly activated genes. Transcriptional activation by LSD1 and ERRα involves H3K9 demethylation at the transcriptional start site (TSS). Strikingly, ERRα is sufficient to induce LSD1 to demethylate H3K9 in vitro. The relevance of this mechanism is highlighted by functional data. LSD1 and ERRα coregulate several target genes involved in cell migration, including the MMP1 matrix metallo-protease, also activated through H3K9 demethylation at the TSS. Depletion of LSD1 or ERRα reduces the cellular capacity to invade the extracellular matrix, a phenomenon that is rescued by MMP1 reexpression. Altogether our results identify a regulatory network involving a direct switch in the biochemical activities of a histone demethylase, leading to increased cell invasion.

  11. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Putnik, Milica, E-mail: milica.putnik@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyan.zhao@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Science and Engineering Research Center Bldg, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Dahlman-Wright, Karin, E-mail: karin.dahlman-wright@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  13. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Putnik, Milica; Zhao, Chunyan; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. ► Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ► 137 genes are influenced by both 17β-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. ► A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. ► There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17β-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. In a further analysis of the potential interplay between estrogen signaling and DNA methylation, E2 treatment

  14. Try This: Collaborative Mind Mapping

    Mendelson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this "Try This" article, students learn about collaborative mind mapping. A mind map is a type of graphic organizer that allows for short ideas to be written and linked to related ideas on a "map." A central idea is placed in the middle of the paper with related ideas connected to the central idea as well as to other ideas.…

  15. Theoretical study on the N-demethylation mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2.

    Tao, Jing; Kang, Yuan; Xue, Zhiyu; Wang, Yongting; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Qiu; Chen, Zeqin; Xue, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Theobromine, a widely consumed pharmacological active substance, can cause undesirable muscle stiffness, nausea and anorexia in high doses ingestion. The main N-demethylation metabolic mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) has been explored in this work using the unrestricted hybrid density functional method UB3LYP in conjunction with the LACVP(Fe)/6-31G (H, C, N, O, S, Cl) basis set. Single-point calculations including empirical dispersion corrections were carried out at the higher 6-311++G** basis set. Two N-demethylation pathways were characterized, i.e., 3-N and 7-N demethylations, which involve the initial N-methyl hydroxylation to form carbinolamines and the subsequent carbinolamines decomposition to yield monomethylxanthines and formaldehydes. Our results have shown that the rate-limiting N-methyl hydroxylation occurs via a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, which proceeds in a spin-selective mechanism (SSM) in the gas phase. The carbinolamines generated are prone to decomposition via the contiguous heteroatom-assisted proton-transfer. Strikingly, 3-N demethylation is more favorable than 7-N demethylation due to its lower free energy barrier and 7-methylxanthine therefore is the optimum product reported for the demethylation of theobromine catalyzed by CYP1A2, which are in good agreement with the experimental observation. This work has first revealed the detail N-demethylation mechanisms of theobromine at the theoretical level. It can offer more significant information for the metabolism of purine alkaloid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Position of coordination of the lithium ion determines the regioselectivity of demethylations of 3,4-dimethoxymorphinans with L-selectride.

    Wu, Huifang; Thatcher, Linn N; Bernard, Denzil; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Rice, Kenner C; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] L-Selectride is an efficient agent for the 3-O-demethylation of opioids and is known to cleave the least hindered methoxyl group in a molecule. The treatment of a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan containing a 6-ketal with L-Selectride gave selective 4-O-demethylation, rather than cleavage of the less hindered 3-methoxyl. In contrast, a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan lacking a 6-ketal gave selective 3-O-demethylation, suggesting that the regiochemistry of L-Selectride-mediated O-demethylation can be manipulated through altering the position of coordination of the lithium ion.

  17. A phase I study of hydralazine to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes

    Zambrano, Pilar; Sandoval, Karina; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Chanona-Vilchis, Jose; Duenas-González, Alfonso; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Cetina, Lucely; Revilla-Vazquez, Alma; Taja-Chayeb, Lucía; Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Angeles, Enrique; Cabrera, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The antihypertensive compound hydralazine is a known demethylating agent. This phase I study evaluated the tolerability and its effects upon DNA methylation and gene reactivation in patients with untreated cervical cancer. Hydralazine was administered to cohorts of 4 patients at the following dose levels: I) 50 mg/day, II) 75 mg/day, III) 100 mg/day and IV) 150 mg/day. Tumor biopsies and peripheral blood samples were taken the day before and after treatment. The genes APC, MGMT; ER, GSTP1, DAPK, RARβ, FHIT and p16 were evaluated pre and post-treatment for DNA promoter methylation and gene expression by MSP (Methylation-Specific PCR) and RT-PCR respectively in each of the tumor samples. Methylation of the imprinted H19 gene and the 'normally methylated' sequence clone 1.2 was also analyzed. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis and cytosine extension assay. Toxicity was evaluated using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria. Hydralazine was well tolerated. Toxicities were mild being the most common nausea, dizziness, fatigue, headache and palpitations. Overall, 70% of the pretreatment samples and all the patients had at least one methylated gene. Rates of demethylation at the different dose levels were as follows: 50 mg/day, 40%; 75 mg/day, 52%, 100 mg/day, 43%, and 150 mg/day, 32%. Gene expression analysis showed only 12 informative cases, of these 9 (75%) re-expressed the gene. There was neither change in the methylation status of H19 and clone 1.2 nor changes in global DNA methylation. Hydralazine at doses between 50 and 150 mg/day is well tolerated and effective to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes without affecting global DNA methylation

  18. Early de novo DNA methylation and prolonged demethylation in the muscle lineage.

    Tsumagari, Koji; Baribault, Carl; Terragni, Jolyon; Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Pradhan, Sirharsa; Badoo, Melody; Crain, Charlene M; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Myers, Richard M; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    Myogenic cell cultures derived from muscle biopsies are excellent models for human cell differentiation. We report the first comprehensive analysis of myogenesis-specific DNA hyper- and hypo-methylation throughout the genome for human muscle progenitor cells (both myoblasts and myotubes) and skeletal muscle tissue vs. 30 non-muscle samples using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We also focused on four genes with extensive hyper- or hypo-methylation in the muscle lineage (PAX3, TBX1, MYH7B/MIR499 and OBSCN) to compare DNA methylation, DNaseI hypersensitivity, histone modification, and CTCF binding profiles. We found that myogenic hypermethylation was strongly associated with homeobox or T-box genes and muscle hypomethylation with contractile fiber genes. Nonetheless, there was no simple relationship between differential gene expression and myogenic differential methylation, rather only for subsets of these genes, such as contractile fiber genes. Skeletal muscle retained ~30% of the hypomethylated sites but only ~3% of hypermethylated sites seen in myogenic progenitor cells. By enzymatic assays, skeletal muscle was 2-fold enriched globally in genomic 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) vs. myoblasts or myotubes and was the only sample type enriched in 5-hmC at tested myogenic hypermethylated sites in PAX3/CCDC140 andTBX1. TET1 and TET2 RNAs, which are involved in generation of 5-hmC and DNA demethylation, were strongly upregulated in myoblasts and myotubes. Our findings implicate de novo methylation predominantly before the myoblast stage and demethylation before and after the myotube stage in control of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing. They also suggest that, in muscle, TET1 or TET2 are involved in active demethylation and in formation of stable 5-hmC residues.

  19. Green synthesis of low-toxicity graphene-fulvic acid with an open band gap enhances demethylation of methylmercury.

    Hu, Xiangang; Mu, Li; Lu, Kaicheng; Kang, Jia; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-06-25

    The demethylation of methylmercury has received substantial attention. Here, a novel chemical method for the demethylation of methylmercury is proposed. The low-toxicity graphene-fulvic acid (FA, a ubiquitous material in the environment) was synthesized without the use of a chemical reagent. The hybridized graphene-FA presented an indirect open band gap of 2.25-2.87 eV as well as adequate aqueous dispersion. More importantly, the hybridized graphene-FA exhibited 6- and 10-fold higher photocatalytic efficiencies for the demethylation of methylmercury than FA and free FA with graphene, respectively. This result implies that immobilized, rather than free, FA accelerated the catalysis. Furthermore, inorganic mercuric ion, elemental mercury, and mercuric oxide were identified as the primary demethylation products. For free FA with graphene, graphene quenches the excited-state FA, inhibiting the demethylation by electron transfer. In contrast, the graphene of the self-assembled graphene-FA serves as an electron reservoir, causing electron-hole pair separation. Graphene-FA showed a negligible toxicity toward microalgae compared to graphene. The above results reveal that the green synthesis of graphene and organic molecules is a convenient strategy for obtaining effective cocatalysts.

  20. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Kee D.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF 4 ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers

  1. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    Lee, Kwan Soo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee D. [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers.

  2. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa.

    Roman T Kellenberger

    Full Text Available Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities.

  3. DNA demethylation upregulated Nrf2 expression in Alzheimer's disease cellular model

    Huimin eCao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is an important transcription factor in the defense against oxidative stress. Cumulative evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous animal and clinical studies had observed decreased expression of Nrf2 in AD. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of Nrf2 in AD remain unclear. Here, we used the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza to test whether Nrf2 expression was regulated by methylation in N2a cells characterizing by expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APPswe. We found 5-Aza treatment increased Nrf2 at both mRNA and protein levels via down-regulating the expression of Dnmts and DNA demethylation. In addition, 5-Aza mediated upregulation of Nrf2 expression was concomitant with increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and higher expression of Nrf2 downstream target gene NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductas (NQO1. Our study showed that DNA demethylation promoted the Nrf2 cell signaling pathway, which may enhance the antioxidant system against AD development.

  4. Nicotine demethylation in Nicotiana cell suspension cultures: N'-formylnornicotine is not involved.

    Bartholomeusz, Trixie Ann; Bhogal, Ramneek K; Molinié, Roland; Felpin, François-Xavier; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Meier, Anna-Carolin; Dräger, Birgit; Lebreton, Jacques; Roscher, Albrecht; Robins, Richard J; Mesnard, François

    2005-10-01

    Nicotine or nornicotine enriched with stable isotopes in either the N'-methyl group or the pyrrolidine-N were fed to Nicotiana plumbaginifolia suspension cell cultures that do not form endogenous nicotine. The metabolism of these compounds was investigated by analysing the incorporation of isotope into other alkaloids using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Nicotine metabolism primarily resulted in the accumulation of nornicotine, the N'-demethylation product. In addition, six minor metabolites appeared during the course of nicotine metabolism, four of which were identified as cotinine, myosmine, N'-formylnornicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine. While cotinine was formed from [(13)C,(2)H(3)-methyl]nicotine without dilution of label, N'-formylnornicotine was labelled at only about 6% of the level of nicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine was unlabelled. Feeding with [1'-(15)N]nornicotine resulted in incorporation without dilution of label into both N'-formylnornicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine. This pattern strongly indicates that, while nornicotine and cotinine are derived directly from nicotine, N'-formylnornicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine are metabolites of nornicotine. Thus, it is directly demonstrated that N'-formylnornicotine is not an intermediate in nicotine demethylation.

  5. A non-heme iron-mediated chemical demethylation in DNA and RNA.

    Yi, Chengqi; Yang, Cai-Guang; He, Chuan

    2009-04-21

    DNA methylation is arguably one of the most important chemical signals in biology. However, aberrant DNA methylation can lead to cytotoxic or mutagenic consequences. A DNA repair protein in Escherichia coli, AlkB, corrects some of the unwanted methylations of DNA bases by a unique oxidative demethylation in which the methyl carbon is liberated as formaldehyde. The enzyme also repairs exocyclic DNA lesions--that is, derivatives in which the base is augmented with an additional heterocyclic subunit--by a similar mechanism. Two proteins in humans that are homologous to AlkB, ABH2 and ABH3, repair the same spectrum of lesions; another human homologue of AlkB, FTO, is linked to obesity. In this Account, we describe our studies of AlkB, ABH2, and ABH3, including our development of a general strategy to trap homogeneous protein-DNA complexes through active-site disulfide cross-linking. AlkB uses a non-heme mononuclear iron(II) and the cofactors 2-ketoglutarate (2KG) and dioxygen to effect oxidative demethylation of the DNA base lesions 1-methyladenine (1-meA), 3-methylcytosine (3-meC), 1-methylguanine (1-meG), and 3-methylthymine (3-meT). ABH3, like AlkB, works better on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is capable of repairing damaged bases in RNA. Conversely, ABH2 primarily repairs lesions in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); it is the main housekeeping enzyme that protects the mammalian genome from 1-meA base damage. The AlkB-family proteins have moderate affinities for their substrates and bind DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Knowing that these proteins flip the damaged base out from the duplex DNA and insert it into the active site for further processing, we first engineered a disulfide cross-link in the active site to stabilize the Michaelis complex. Based on the detailed structural information afforded by the active-site cross-linked structures, we can readily install a cross-link away from the active site to obtain the native-like structures of these complexes

  6. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  7. (/sup 125/I) 7-iodo-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline HCl: its use in the study of bone mineralization

    Belbeck, L W; Bowen, B M; Garnett, E S [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Porter, J K; Teare, F W

    1979-06-01

    /sup 125/I 7-iodo-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline can be used in a non-invasive method to indicate sites of active bone mineralization. Sequential doses of this agent have been used to follow bone repair in a fractured femur of a dog without resorting to bone biopsy. Metabolic problems that involve bone may also be studied with this potentially useful radiopharmaceutical.

  8. ERRα protein is stabilized by LSD1 in a demethylation-independent manner.

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The LSD1 histone demethylase is highly expressed in breast tumors where it constitutes a factor of poor prognosis and promotes traits of cancer aggressiveness such as cell invasiveness. Recent work has shown that the Estrogen-Related Receptor α (ERRα induces LSD1 to demethylate the Lys 9 of histone H3. This results in the transcriptional activation of a number of common target genes, several of which being involved in cellular invasion. High expression of ERRα protein is also a factor of poor prognosis in breast tumors. Here we show that, independently of its demethylase activities, LSD1 protects ERRα from ubiquitination, resulting in overexpression of the latter protein. Our data also suggests that the elevation of LSD1 mRNA and protein in breast cancer (as compared to normal tissue may be a key event to increase ERRα protein, independently of its corresponding mRNA.

  9. ERRα protein is stabilized by LSD1 in a demethylation-independent manner.

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Cerutti, Catherine; Vanacker, Jean-Marc; Forcet, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    The LSD1 histone demethylase is highly expressed in breast tumors where it constitutes a factor of poor prognosis and promotes traits of cancer aggressiveness such as cell invasiveness. Recent work has shown that the Estrogen-Related Receptor α (ERRα) induces LSD1 to demethylate the Lys 9 of histone H3. This results in the transcriptional activation of a number of common target genes, several of which being involved in cellular invasion. High expression of ERRα protein is also a factor of poor prognosis in breast tumors. Here we show that, independently of its demethylase activities, LSD1 protects ERRα from ubiquitination, resulting in overexpression of the latter protein. Our data also suggests that the elevation of LSD1 mRNA and protein in breast cancer (as compared to normal tissue) may be a key event to increase ERRα protein, independently of its corresponding mRNA.

  10. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  11. Production of 17-O-demethyl-geldanamycin, a cytotoxic ansamycin polyketide, by Streptomyces hygroscopicus DEM20745.

    Baksh, Aron; Kepplinger, Bernhard; Isah, Hadiza A; Probert, Michael R; Clegg, William; Wills, Corinne; Goodfellow, Michael; Errington, Jeff; Allenby, Nick; Hall, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    The actinomycete DEM20745, collected from non-rhizosphere soil adjacent to Paraserianthes falactaria trees (Cangkringan, Indonesia), is an efficient producer of the anticancer ansamycin polyketide 17-O-demethyl-geldanamycin (17-O-DMG), a biosynthetic precursor of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM). In DEM20745, 17-O-DMG is the major ansamycin product observed reaching a maximum titre of 17 mg/L in the fermentation broth. 17-O-DMG has the potential to be a key starting material for the semi-synthesis of GDM analogues for use in anticancer therapy. Thus, this preferential biosynthesis of 17-O-DMG facilitates easy access to this important molecule and provides further insight in the biosynthesis of the geldanamycins.

  12. O2 -independent demethylation of trimethylamine N-oxide by Tdm of Methylocella silvestris.

    Zhu, Yijun; Ksibe, Amira Z; Schäfer, Hendrik; Blindauer, Claudia A; Bugg, Timothy D H; Chen, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) demethylase, Tdm, carries out an unusual oxygen-independent demethylation reaction, resulting in the formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and metal analyses by inorganic mass spectrometry have been applied to gain insight into metal stoichiometry and underlying catalytic mechanism of Tdm of Methylocella silvestris BL2. Herein, we demonstrate that active Tdm has 1 molar equivalent of Zn 2+ and 1 molar equivalent of non-haem Fe 2+ . We further investigated Zn 2+ - and Fe 2+ -binding sites through homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and found that Zn 2+ is coordinated by a 3-sulfur-1-O motif. An aspartate residue (D198) likely bridges Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ centres, either directly or indirectly via H-bonding through a neighbouring H 2 O molecule. H276 contributes to Fe 2+ binding, mutation of which results in an inactive enzyme, and the loss of iron, but not zinc. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tdm also led to the identification of three hydrophobic aromatic residues likely involved in substrate coordination (F259, Y305, W321), potentially through a cation-π interaction. Furthermore, a crossover experiment using a substrate analogue gave direct evidence that a trimethylamine-alike intermediate was produced during the Tdm catalytic cycle, suggesting TMAO has a dual role of being both a substrate and an oxygen donor for formaldehyde formation. Together, our results provide novel insight into the role of Zn 2+ and Fe 2+ in the catalysis of TMAO demethylation by this unique oxygen-independent enzyme. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Aerosol azacytidine inhibits orthotopic lung cancers in mice through Its DNA demethylation and gene reactivation effects.

    Xuan Qiu

    Full Text Available We devised an aerosol based demethylation therapy to achieve therapeutic efficacy in premalignant or in situ lesions of lung cancer, without systemic toxicity. Optimum regimens of aerosolized azacytidine (Aza were designed and used in orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft models. The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of aerosol Aza were compared with intravenously administered Aza. We observed that 80% of the droplets of the aerosol Aza measured ∼0.1-5 microns, which resulted in deposition in the lower bronchial airways. An animal model that phenocopies field carcinogeneisis in humans was developed by intratracheal inoculation of the human lung cancer cells in mice, thus resulting in their distribution throughout the entire airway space. Aerosolized Aza significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing endo-bronchial lung tumors. The aerosol treatment did not cause any detectable lung toxicity or systemic toxicity. A pre-pharmacokinetic study in mice demonstrated that lung deposition of aerosolized Aza was significantly higher than the intravenous route. Lung tumors were resected after aerosol treatment and the methylation levels of 24 promoters of tumor-suppresser genes related to lung cancer were analyzed. Aerosol Aza significantly reduced the methylation level in 9 of these promoters and reexpressed several genes tested. In conclusion, aerosol Aza at non-cytotoxic doses appears to be effective and results in DNA demethylation and tumor suppressor gene re-expression. The therapeutic index of aerosol Aza is >100-fold higher than that of intravenous Aza. These results provide a preclinical rationale for a phase I clinical trial of aerosol Aza to be initiated at our Institution.

  14. Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.

    Wei, Shu; Hua, Hai-Rong; Chen, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Li, Shu-Qing; Li, Fan; Li, Jia-Li

    2017-03-18

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

  15. Cell-based DNA demethylation detection system for screening of epigenetic drugs in 2D, 3D and xenograft models

    Agrawal, K.; Das, V.; Otmar, Miroslav; Krečmerová, Marcela; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, Suppl 2 (2015), B72 ISSN 1535-7163. [AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference: Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics. 05.11.2015-09.11.2015, Boston] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/625; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : demethylation * epigenetic drugs * fluorescence detection system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Cell-based DNA demethylation detection system for screening of epigenetic drugs in 2D, 3D, and xenograft models

    Agrawal, K.; Das, V.; Otmar, Miroslav; Krečmerová, Marcela; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.

    91A, č. 2 (2017), s. 133-143 ISSN 1552-4922 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-31984A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA methylation * DNA methylation inhibitors * demethylation detection system * epigenetic drugs * high content screening Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.222, year: 2016

  17. Stable knockdown of PASG enhances DNA demethylation but does not accelerate cellular senescence in TIG-7 human fibroblasts.

    Suzuki, Toshikazu; Farrar, Jason E; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Zahed, Muhammed; Suzuki, Nobuo; Arceci, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Demethylation of 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying replicative life-span of mammalian cells. Both proliferation associated SNF2-like gene (PASG, also termed Lsh) and DNA methyltransferase 3B (Dnmt3b) knockout mice result in embryonic genomic hypomethylation and a replicative senescent phenotype. However, it is unclear whether gradual demethylation of DNA during somatic cell division is directly involved in senescence. In this study, we retrovirally transduced TIG-7 human fibroblasts with a shRNA against PASG and compared the rate of change in DNA methylation as well as the replicative life-span to control cells under low (3%) and ambient (20%) oxygen. Expression of PASG protein was decreased by approximately 80% compared to control cells following transduction of PASG shRNA gene. The rate of cell growth was the same in both control and PASG-suppressed cells. The rate of demethylation of DNA was significantly increased in PASG-suppressed cells as compared control cells. However, decreased PASG expression did not shorten the replicative life-span of TIG-7 cells. Culture under low oxygen extended the life-span of TIG-7 cells but did not alter the rate of DNA demethylation. While knockout of PASG during development results in genomic hypomethylation and premature senescence, our results show that while downregulation of PASG expression in a somatic cell also leads to DNA hypomethylation, there is no associated senescent phenotype. These results suggest differences in cellular consequences of hypomethylation mediated by PASG during development compared to that in somatic cells.

  18. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation.

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Meneghini, Marc D

    2016-11-29

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2's impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation.

  19. Determination of parameters influencing methylation and demethylation in tropical lakes in Brazil and Nicaragua

    Hylander, Lars D.; Ahlgren, Ingemar; Erikson, Rolf; Lantz, Peter; Toernblom, Erik; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Meili, Markus; Montenegro Guillen, Salvador; Vammen, Katherine; Altamirano, Maximina; Zelaya, Argentina; Sarria Sacasa, Karla; Jimenez, Mario

    2001-01-01

    Increased awareness about the toxicity of mercury (Hg) has during the latest decades resulted in reduced Hg use in industrialised countries. Developing countries, on the contrary, have largely increased their anthropogenic Hg emissions caused by its use in gold mining, transfer of Hg emitting factories from developed countries, and increased burning of coal without appropriate flue gas cleaning. These increased emissions occur mainly in the tropics, where the fate of Hg is not well documented. The aim of the present study is to increase the knowledge about Hg levels and transformations in two tropical areas affected by anthropogenic Hg emissions - the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, housing gold miners using the amalgamation method, and Lake Xolotilan (Managua) in Nicaragua, where a chlor-alkali plant relocated from the USA has emitted much Hg. Actual Hg content in water, biota, and sediment will be determined by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury inethylation capacity in sediments and selected biota will be determined with in-situ incubations with 203 Hg and subsequent radiological measurements. Factors affecting the methylation and demethylation rates will be identified by varying environmental conditions such as pH, redox potential, conductivity, light, temperature, geochemical factors and population of bacteria. Sediment turnover will be studied by determining fallout cesium ( 137 Cs) in sediment profiles. The study is expected to increase the knowledge about Hg-transformations in the tropics and point out proper measures to reduce health hazards due to Hg-exposure. (author)

  20. DNA demethylation activates genes in seed maternal integument development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohong; Hou, Yuxuan; Chang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates various plant developmental processes. Rice seed integument determines the seed size. However, the role of DNA methylation in its development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first dynamic DNA methylomic profiling of rice maternal integument before and after pollination by using a whole-genome bisulfite deep sequencing approach. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns identified 4238 differentially methylated regions underpin 4112 differentially methylated genes, including GW2, DEP1, RGB1 and numerous other regulators participated in maternal integument development. Bisulfite sanger sequencing and qRT-PCR of six differentially methylated genes revealed extensive occurrence of DNA hypomethylation triggered by double fertilization at IAP compared with IBP, suggesting that DNA demethylation might be a key mechanism to activate numerous maternal controlling genes. These results presented here not only greatly expanded the rice methylome dataset, but also shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in rice seed maternal integument development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m6A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m6A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  2. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.; Meneghini, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2’s impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation. PMID:27897198

  3. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites.

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2016-02-18

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as 'backbone', largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. IL-2 and GM-CSF are regulated by DNA demethylation during activation of T cells, B cells and macrophages

    Li, Yan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); Ohms, Stephen J. [ACRF Biomolecular Resource Facility, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); Shannon, Frances M. [Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); The University of Canberra, ACT 2602 (Australia); Sun, Chao, E-mail: sunchao2775@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Fan, Jun Y., E-mail: jun.fan@anu.edu.au [Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible and changes rapidly upon cell activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation controls the inducible gene expression in a given cell type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some enzymes are involved in maintaining the methylation profile of immune cells. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation has been found to occur at the promoters of a number of actively expressed cytokines and is believed to play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. While many DNA demethylation studies have focused on T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, changes in DNA methylation in other types of immune cells are less well studied. We found that the expression of two cytokines (IL-2 and GM-CSF) responded differently to activation in three types of immune cells: EL4, A20 and RAW264.7 cells. Using the McrBC and MeDIP approaches, we observed decreases in DNA methylation at a genome-wide level and at the promoters of the genes of these cytokines. The expression of several potential enzymes/co-enzymes involved in the DNA demethylation pathways seemed to be associated with immune cell activation.

  5. IL-2 and GM-CSF are regulated by DNA demethylation during activation of T cells, B cells and macrophages

    Li, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Shannon, Frances M.; Sun, Chao; Fan, Jun Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible and changes rapidly upon cell activation. ► DNA methylation controls the inducible gene expression in a given cell type. ► Some enzymes are involved in maintaining the methylation profile of immune cells. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation has been found to occur at the promoters of a number of actively expressed cytokines and is believed to play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. While many DNA demethylation studies have focused on T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, changes in DNA methylation in other types of immune cells are less well studied. We found that the expression of two cytokines (IL-2 and GM-CSF) responded differently to activation in three types of immune cells: EL4, A20 and RAW264.7 cells. Using the McrBC and MeDIP approaches, we observed decreases in DNA methylation at a genome-wide level and at the promoters of the genes of these cytokines. The expression of several potential enzymes/co-enzymes involved in the DNA demethylation pathways seemed to be associated with immune cell activation.

  6. Can't sleep? Try these tips

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000853.htm Can't sleep? Try these tips To use the ... you get the rest you need. What you can do Some people have trouble falling asleep. Others ...

  7. Toxic Releases/IGD: EF_TRI

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_TRI is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  8. Extraboard performance : TriMet case study.

    2012-02-01

    This paper examines extraboard operations and management at TriMet, the transit provider for the Portland Oregon metropolitan area. The : extraboard consists of a pool of operators who fill open work resulting from absences and other causes. The pape...

  9. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  10. Demethylation of Circulating Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke.

    Hsiu-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Estrogen is involved in neuron plasticity and can promote neuronal survival in stroke. Its actions are mostly exerted via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. Previous animal studies have shown that ERα is upregulated by DNA demethylation following ischemic injury. This study investigated the methylation levels in the ERα promoter in the peripheral blood of ischemic stroke patients.The study included 201 ischemic stroke patients, and 217 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. The quantitative methylation level in the 14 CpG sites of the ERα promoter was measured by pyrosequencing in each participant. Multivariate regression model was used to adjust for stroke traditional risk factors. Stroke subtypes and sex-specific analysis were also conducted.The results demonstrated that the stroke cases had a lower ERα methylation level than controls in all 14 CpG sites, and site 13 and site 14 had significant adjusted p-values of 0.035 and 0.026, respectively. Stroke subtypes analysis showed that large-artery atherosclerosis and cardio-embolic subtypes had significantly lower methylation levels than the healthy controls at CpG site 5, site 9, site 12, site 13 and site 14 with adjusted p = 0.039, 0.009, 0.025, 0.046 and 0.027 respectively. However, the methylation level for the patients with small vessel subtype was not significant. We combined the methylation data from the above five sites for further sex-specific analysis. The results showed that the significant association only existed in women (adjusted p = 0.011, but not in men (adjusted p = 0.300.Female stroke cases have lower ERα methylation levels than those in the controls, especially in large-artery and cardio-embolic stroke subtypes. The study implies that women suffering from ischemic stroke of specific subtype may undergo different protective mechanisms to reduce the brain injury.

  11. Caffeine demethylation measured by breath analysis in experimental liver injury in the rat

    Schaad, H.J.; Renner, E.L.; Wietholtz, H.; Preisig, R. [University of Berne, Department of Clinical Pharmaceology, Berne (Switzerland); Arnaud, M.J. [Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Vevey (Switzerland)

    1995-01-01

    To assess the effect of experimental liver injury on caffeine metabolism, 1 {mu}{sup C}i/kg b.w. of [3-methyl{sup 14}C]-caffeine (together with 5 mg/kg b.w. of the cold compound) was injected i.p. to four different experimental groups and respective controls of unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was completely collected during 4 h and peak exhalation rate and fraction of dose recovered were calculated. 1/3 hepatectomy affected {sup 14}CO{sub 2} exhalation to a limited extent, decreasing solely peak exhalation rate (p<0.05 compared to sham-operated control). 2/3 hepatectomy, on the other hand, resulted in significant reduction (p<0.01) in both peak exhalation rate (by 59%) and fraction of dose recovered (by 47%), that were proportionate to the loss of liver mass (50%). End-to-side portocaval shunt led to the well-documented hepatic `atrophy`, liver weight being diminished on average to 50% within 2 weeks of surgery; however, reductions in peak exhalation rate (by 75%) and fraction of dose recovered (by 64%) were even more pronounced. Finally, 48 h bile duct ligation was equivalent to `functional 2/3 hepatectomy`, peak exhalation rate (by 65%) and fraction of dose recovered (by 56%) being markedly diminished despite increased liver weight. These results indicate that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} exhalation curves following administration of specifically labelled caffeine are quantitative indicators of acute or chronic loss of functioning liver mass. In addition, the 3-demethylation pathway appears to be particularly sensitive to the inhibitory effects of cholestasis on microsomal function. (au) (30 refs.).

  12. Determination of parameters influencing methylation and demethylation in tropical lakes in Brazil and Nicaragua

    Hylander, Lars D.; Ahlgren, Ingemar; Broberg, Anders; Lantz, Peter; Tornblom, Erik; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Mauro, Jane; Markus, Meili; Guillen Montenegro, Salvador; Vammen, Katherine; Sacasa, Sarria Karla; Regnell, Olof

    2002-01-01

    Increased awareness about the toxicity of mercury (Hg) has during the latest decades resulted in reduced use of Hg in industrialised countries. Developing countries, on the contrary, have largely increased their anthropogenic Hg emissions caused by its use in gold mining, transfer of Hg emitting factories from developed countries, and increased burning of coal without appropriate flue gas cleaning. The contribution of global Hg sources and the importance of other parameters to increased Hg levels encountered in hydroelectric reservoirs and other areas after flooding is not well understood, especially not in the tropics. The aim of the present study is to increase the knowledge about Hg transformations in tropical areas. Total Hg content in water, biota, and sediment will be determined by atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry and methyl Hg content in biota by gaschromatography after extraction with acids, hydroxides, and organic solvents. Mercury methylation capacity in sediments, water, and selected biota will be determined with 203 Hg and subsequent radiological measurements of insitu incubations. Factors affecting the methylation and demethylation rates will be identified with laboratory incubations with 203 Hg at varying environmental conditions such as organic matter, pH, redox potential, conductivity, light, temperature, geochemical factors and populations of bacteria. The populations of bacteria will be determined to quantity by isotope techniques. The first experiments indicate markedly larger methylation capacity as well as bacterial production of incubated samples of Eichhornia crassipes, originating from Brazil, compared to Myriophyllum spicatum from Sweden. The results are the first step to better understand the importance of environmental parameters and bacterial production for methylation of Hg. (author)

  13. The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers

    Choi Sang-Wook

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements. Methods The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa. Results The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner. Conclusions The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.

  14. SET oncoprotein accumulation regulates transcription through DNA demethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

    Almeida, Luciana O; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Tannous, Maryna A; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andreia M

    2017-04-18

    Epigenetic modifications are essential in the control of normal cellular processes and cancer development. DNA methylation and histone acetylation are major epigenetic modifications involved in gene transcription and abnormal events driving the oncogenic process. SET protein accumulates in many cancer types, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); SET is a member of the INHAT complex that inhibits gene transcription associating with histones and preventing their acetylation. We explored how SET protein accumulation impacts on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. DNA methylation profile of 24 tumour suppressors evidenced that SET accumulation decreased DNA methylation in association with loss of 5-methylcytidine, formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and increased TET1 levels, indicating an active DNA demethylation mechanism. However, the expression of some suppressor genes was lowered in cells with high SET levels, suggesting that loss of methylation is not the main mechanism modulating gene expression. SET accumulation also downregulated the expression of 32 genes of a panel of 84 transcription factors, and SET directly interacted with chromatin at the promoter of the downregulated genes, decreasing histone acetylation. Gene expression analysis after cell treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) and Trichostatin A (TSA) revealed that histone acetylation reversed transcription repression promoted by SET. These results suggest a new function for SET in the regulation of chromatin dynamics. In addition, TSA diminished both SET protein levels and SET capability to bind to gene promoter, suggesting that administration of epigenetic modifier agents could be efficient to reverse SET phenotype in cancer.

  15. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation.

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-10-01

    AIM: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25(hi) FOXP3+ T (T(reg)) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (T(h)) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called T(reg)-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. METHODS: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. RESULTS: Although GARP-transduced T(h) cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive T(h) cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in T(h) cells is not associated with T(reg)-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. CONCLUSION: Although GARP-engineered T(h) cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards T(reg) cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural T(reg) cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of T(h) cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application.

  16. Global demethylation of rat chondrosarcoma cells after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine results in increased tumorigenicity.

    Christopher A Hamm

    Full Text Available Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.

  17. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo

    Toribio E, E.

    2005-01-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  18. Uptake and Metabolism of Antibiotics Roseoflavin and 8-Demethyl-8-Aminoriboflavin in Riboflavin-Auxotrophic Listeria monocytogenes.

    Matern, Andreas; Pedrolli, Danielle; Großhennig, Stephanie; Johansson, Jörgen; Mack, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are produced by the bacteria Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus Riboflavin analogs have the potential to be used as broad-spectrum antibiotics, and we therefore studied the metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ), RoF, and AF in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which is a riboflavin auxotroph. We show that the L. monocytogenes protein Lmo1945 is responsible for the uptake of riboflavin, RoF, and AF. Following import, these flavins are phosphorylated/adenylylated by the bifunctional flavokinase/flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase Lmo1329 and adenylylated by the unique FAD synthetase Lmo0728, the first monofunctional FAD synthetase to be described in bacteria. Lmo1329 generates the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, whereas Lmo0728 produces FAD only. The combined activities of Lmo1329 and Lmo0728 are responsible for the intracellular formation of the toxic cofactor analogs roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN), roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD), 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). In vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro transcription/translation experiments show that the L. monocytogenes FMN riboswitch Rli96, which controls expression of the riboflavin transport gene lmo1945, is negatively affected by riboflavin/FMN and RoF/RoFMN but not by AF/AFMN. Treatment of L. monocytogenes with RoF or AF leads to drastically reduced FMN/FAD levels. We suggest that the reduced flavin cofactor levels in combination with concomitant synthesis of inactive cofactor analogs (RoFMN, RoFAD, AFMN, and AFAD) explain why RoF and AF contribute to antibiotic activity in L. monocytogenes IMPORTANCE: The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are small molecules which are produced by Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus

  19. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...... cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs - the alternative initiators were...

  20. BUDAYA TRI HITA KARANA DALAM MODEL UTAUT

    Dodik Ariyanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tri Hita Karana Culture in UTAUT Model. This study explores the definitions and indicators of questions that represent Tri Hita Karana (THK culture in Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT model. This study uses literature study (to dig definition and field test (to validate. This study finds Social Factor Culture (FSB as a new indicator in UTAUT model. FSB is defined as perceptions of individuals that is considered important (adoption, utilization, and use of Accounting Information Systems. FSB is influenced by the important people around, individual thinking, and the level of spirituality.

  1. Studies of H3K4me3 demethylation by KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 reveals strong substrate recognition in vitro and identifies 2,4-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid as an in vitro and in cell inhibitor

    Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Nielsen, Anders Laerke; Helgstrand, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic methylations and demethylations of histone lysine residues are important for gene regulation and are facilitated by histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases (HDMs). KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 is an H3K4me3/me2 specific lysine demethylase belonging to the family of JmjC domain containing...... lysine specific HDMs (JHDMs). Several studies have linked KDM5B to breast, prostate and skin cancer, highlighting its potential as a drug target. However, most inhibitor studies have focused on other JHDMs, and inhibitors for KDM5B remain to be explored. Here, we report the expression, purification...... and characterization of the catalytic core of recombinant KDM5B (residues 1-769, ccKDM5B). We show that ccKDM5B, recombinantly expressed in insect cells, demethylates H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in vitro. The kinetic characterization showed that ccKDM5B has a K(m) (app) value of 0.5 µM for its tri-methylated substrate H3...

  2. Timed intercourse for couples trying to conceive

    Manders, M.; McLindon, L.; Schulze, B.; Beckmann, M.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Farquhar, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertility problems are very common, as subfertility affects about 10% to 15% of couples trying to conceive. There are many factors that may impact a couple's ability to conceive and one of these may be incorrect timing of intercourse. Conception is only possible from approximately five

  3. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  4. Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway.

    Rajput, Pallavi; Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied Pol II transcription factor Sp1 has not been investigated for its regulatory role in rDNA transcription. Here, we show that Sp1 bound to specific sites on rDNA and localized into the nucleoli during the G1 phase of cell cycle to activate rDNA transcription. It facilitated the recruitment of Pol I pre-initiation complex and impeded the binding of nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC) to rDNA resulting in the formation of euchromatin active state. More importantly, Sp1 also orchestrated the site-specific binding of Gadd45a-nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex resulting in active demethylation and transcriptional activation of rDNA. Interestingly, knockdown of Sp1 impaired rDNA transcription due to reduced engagement of the Gadd45a-NER complex and hypermethylation of rDNA. Thus, the present study unveils a novel role of Sp1 in rDNA transcription involving promoter demethylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Clinical Significance of ID4 Gene Mehtylation in Demethylation-Treated MDS Cell Line and 2 MDS Patients].

    Kang, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Rong; Gao, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Mian-Yang; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Yu, Li

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate significance of ID4 gene mehtylation in demethylating myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) cell Line MUTZ1 and 2 patients with MDS. The methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to identify the methylation status and gene expression of ID4 gene in MDS cell line MUTZ1, a patient with aplastic anemia(AA) and a donor with normal bone marrow (NBM). RT-PCR was applied to detect the ID4 gene expression status in MUTZ1 cell line treated with decitabine at 3 different concentrations. Then bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was applied to detect ID4 gene methylation status in 2 MDS parients treated with decitabine. The MDS cell line MUTZ-1 displayed a complete methylation of ID4 gene promoter with little mRNA expression. Inversely, bone marrow of an AA patient and NBM showed complete unmethylation of this gene with intensity mRNA expression. With the increase of decitabine concentration, ID4 gene mRNA expression was more and more increased. After decitabine treatment, ID4 gene methylation-positive frequencies of both the 2 MDS patients were much more decreased than that of the first treatment. So, ID4 gene mRNA expression inhibited by promoter hypemethylation could be recovered by using demethylation medicine. ID4 as a new potential anti-oncogene suggests that its methylation may become a marker for selection and assessment of therapeutic schedules in patients with MDS.

  6. Vitamin C induces specific demethylation of H3K9me2 in mouse embryonic stem cells via Kdm3a/b.

    Ebata, Kevin T; Mesh, Kathryn; Liu, Shichong; Bilenky, Misha; Fekete, Alexander; Acker, Michael G; Hirst, Martin; Garcia, Benjamin A; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Histone methylation patterns regulate gene expression and are highly dynamic during development. The erasure of histone methylation is carried out by histone demethylase enzymes. We had previously shown that vitamin C enhances the activity of Tet enzymes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, leading to DNA demethylation and activation of germline genes. We report here that vitamin C induces a remarkably specific demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in naïve ES cells. Vitamin C treatment reduces global levels of H3K9me2, but not other histone methylation marks analyzed, as measured by western blot, immunofluorescence and mass spectrometry. Vitamin C leads to widespread loss of H3K9me2 at large chromosomal domains as well as gene promoters and repeat elements. Vitamin C-induced loss of H3K9me2 occurs rapidly within 24 h and is reversible. Importantly, we found that the histone demethylases Kdm3a and Kdm3b are required for vitamin C-induced demethylation of H3K9me2. Moreover, we show that vitamin C-induced Kdm3a/b-mediated H3K9me2 demethylation and Tet-mediated DNA demethylation are independent processes at specific loci. Lastly, we document Kdm3a/b are partially required for the upregulation of germline genes by vitamin C. These results reveal a specific role for vitamin C in histone demethylation in ES cells and document that DNA methylation and H3K9me2 cooperate to silence germline genes in pluripotent cells.

  7. Inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated tramadol O-demethylation in methadone but not buprenorphine maintenance patients.

    Coller, Janet K; Michalakas, Jennifer R; James, Heather M; Farquharson, Aaron L; Colvill, Joel; White, Jason M; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2012-11-01

    Management of pain in opioid dependent individuals is problematic due to numerous issues including cross-tolerance to opioids. Hence there is a need to find alternative analgesics to classical opioids and tramadol is potentially one such alternative. Methadone inhibits CYP2D6 in vivo and in vitro. We aimed to investigate the effect of methadone on the pathways of tramadol metabolism: O-demethylation (CYP2D6) to the opioid-active metabolite M1 and N-demethylation (CYP3A4) to M2 in subjects maintained on methadone or buprenorphine as a control. Compared with subjects on buprenorphine, methadone reduced the clearance of tramadol to active O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1) but had no effect on N-desmethyltramadol (M2) formation. Similar to other analgesics whose active metabolites are formed by CYP2D6 such as codeine, reduced formation of O-desmethyltramadol (M1) is likely to result in reduced analgesia for subjects maintained on methadone. Hence alternative analgesics whose metabolism is independent of CYP2D6 should be utilized in this patient population. To compare the O- (CYP2D6 mediated) and N- (CYP3A4 mediated) demethylation metabolism of tramadol between methadone and buprenorphine maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS Nine methadone and seven buprenorphine maintained subjects received a single 100 mg dose of tramadol hydrochloride. Blood was collected at 4 h and assayed for tramadol, methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (where appropriate) and all urine over 4 h was assayed for tramadol and its M1 and M2 metabolites. The urinary metabolic ratio [median (range)] for O-demethylation (M1) was significantly lower (P= 0.0002, probability score 1.0) in the subjects taking methadone [0.071 (0.012-0.103)] compared with those taking buprenorphine [0.192 (0.108-0.392)], but there was no significant difference (P= 0.21, probability score 0.69) in N-demethylation (M2). The percentage of dose [median (range)] recovered as M1 was significantly lower

  8. Giving Games the Old College Try

    Amy R. Hofer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: Based on evidence that games might help students get more engaged in my online class, I decided to overcome my skepticism and road-test two information literacy games. First I tried BiblioBouts, which uses the online citation management tool Zotero to integrate gaming into a research paper assignment that is already part of the course […

  9. TSA-induced DNMT1 down-regulation represses hTERT expression via recruiting CTCF into demethylated core promoter region of hTERT in HCT116.

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Soo Hyun; Ko, Young Jong; Kang, Yoonsung; Moon, Young Joon; Rhee, Sangmyung; Ham, Seung Wook; Park, Ae Ja; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a well-known antitumor agent that effectively and selectively induces tumor growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, it was reported that hTERT is one of the primary targets for TSA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells but the mechanism of which has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, to better understand the epigenetic regulation mechanism responsible for the repression of hTERT by TSA, we examined expression of hTERT in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line after treatment with TSA and performed site-specific CpG methylation analysis of the hTERT promoter. We found that TSA-induced the demethylation of site-specific CpGs on the promoter of hTERT, which was caused by down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Among the demethylated region, the 31st-33rd CpGs contained a binding site for CTCF, an inhibitor of hTERT transcription. ChIP analysis revealed that TSA-induced demethylation of the 31st-33rd CpGs promoted CTCF binding on hTERT promoter, leading to repression of hTERT. Taken together, down-regulation of DNMT1 by TSA caused demethylation of a CTCF binding site on the hTERT promoter, the result of which was repression of hTERT via recruitment of CTCF to the promoter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Roles of a Flavone-6-Hydroxylase and 7-O-Demethylation in the Flavone Biosynthetic Network of Sweet Basil*

    Berim, Anna; Gang, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Lipophilic flavonoids found in the Lamiaceae exhibit unusual 6- and 8-hydroxylations whose enzymatic basis is unknown. We show that crude protein extracts from peltate trichomes of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars readily hydroxylate position 6 of 7-O-methylated apigenin but not apigenin itself. The responsible protein was identified as a P450 monooxygenase from the CYP82 family, a family not previously reported to be involved in flavonoid metabolism. This enzyme prefers flavones but also accepts flavanones in vitro and requires a 5-hydroxyl in addition to a 7-methoxyl residue on the substrate. A peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) homolog displayed identical substrate requirements, suggesting that early 7-O-methylation of flavones might be common in the Lamiaceae. This hypothesis is further substantiated by the pioneering discovery of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent flavone demethylase activity in basil, which explains the accumulation of 7-O-demethylated flavone nevadensin. PMID:23184958

  11. Analysis of acylcarnitines as their N-demethylated ester derivatives by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Huang, Z H; Gage, D A; Bieber, L L; Sweeley, C C

    1991-11-15

    A novel approach to the analysis of acylcarnitines has been developed. It involves a direct esterification using propyl chloroformate in aqueous propanol followed by ion-pair extraction with potassium iodide into chloroform and subsequent on-column N-demethylation of the resulting acylcarnitine propyl ester iodides. The products, acyl N-demethylcarnitine propyl esters, are volatile and are easily analyzed by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. For medium-chain-length (C4-C12) acylcarnitine standards, detection limits are demonstrated to be well below 1 ng starting material using selected ion monitoring. Well-separated gas chromatographic peaks and structure-specific mass spectra are obtained with samples of synthetic and biological origin. Seven acylcarnitines have been characterized in the urine of a patient suffering from medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  12. Trying-out a walking help

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    that constitute the trial as a joint activity in which the impaired participant becomes a competent participant and independent walker. The analysis is based on video recordings from a case study in which a person with brain injury is trying out a new type of walking help. The trial is understood as a situated...... learning process in which the participants prepare, enact and assess the performance of the technology supported walking. The paper distinguishes two iterative phases in which the impaired person is constituted as an independent walker: the adjustment and assessment of a body-device relation and, further...

  13. Tri-phasic fever in dengue fever.

    D, Pradeepa H; Rao, Sathish B; B, Ganaraj; Bhat, Gopalakrishna; M, Chakrapani

    2018-04-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile illness with a duration of 2-12 days. Our observational study observed the 24-h continuous tympanic temperature pattern of 15 patients with dengue fever and compared this with 26 others with fever due to a non-dengue aetiology. A tri-phasic fever pattern was seen among two-thirds of dengue fever patients, but in only one with an inflammatory disease. One-third of dengue fever patients exhibited a single peak temperature. Continuous temperature monitoring and temperature pattern analysis in clinical settings can aid in the early differentiation of dengue fever from non-dengue aetiology.

  14. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. (Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan))

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA[center dot]TOA[center dot]2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  15. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA{center_dot}TOA{center_dot}2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  16. Is the tri-bimaximal mixing accidental?

    Abbas, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The Tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an "anarchical" structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry which differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain "flavor alignment" as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and sub-dominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understand the lepton mixing.

  17. New Ways to Showcase Sustainability in Your 2012 TRI Report

    Slides to accompany a presentation for TRI facilities about improvements to the TRI-MEweb reporting application that make it easier to submit pollution prevention information, and why this is beneficial to facilities.

  18. Try and try again--qualitative insights into adolescent smoking experimentation and notions of addiction.

    Leavy, Justine; Wood, Lisa; Phillips, Fiona; Rosenberg, Michael

    2010-12-01

    addiction is a relatively unexplored issue in youth tobacco control. Increasingly, there is recognition of addiction experiences in regular and irregular teenage smokers. Research was undertaken on behalf of the Smarter than Smoking (STS) project to probe young people's reasons for smoking uptake, their attitudes towards the social acceptability of smoking, predictors of continued smoking after trial and understandings and perceptions of addiction. twenty focus groups were conducted to collect qualitative data from young people (n=92) aged 13 to 15 years from metropolitan and regional areas of Western Australia (WA), from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds, including young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. of the young people spoken to, 20% smoked regularly, 40% had tried smoking and 40% had never tried. Acceptability and normalcy of trialling smoking was a recurring theme, with little perceived risk of trial leading to regular smoking or becoming addicted. Even non-smokers accepted 'just having a try' in the context of curiosity, life experiences and 'informed choice'. preventing continuation after trial of smoking among young people needs to increase in importance, given the prevailing norms around 'trying it' and individual choice.

  19. Resolution, configurational assignment, and enantiopharmacology at glutamate receptors of 2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) and demethyl-ACPA

    Johansen, T N; Stensbøl, T B; Nielsen, B

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) as a potent agonist at the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subtype of (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. We now report the chromatographic resolution...... of ACPA and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (demethyl-ACPA) using a Sumichiral OA-5000 column. The configuration of the enantiomers of both compounds have been assigned based on X-ray crystallographic analyses, supported by circular dichroism spectra and elution orders on chiral HPLC...... columns. Furthermore, the enantiopharmacology of ACPA and demethyl-ACPA was investigated using radioligand binding and cortical wedge electrophysiological assay systems and cloned metabotropic Glu receptors. (S)-ACPA showed high affinity in AMPA binding (IC(50) = 0.025 microM), low affinity in kainic acid...

  20. Mercury methylation and demethylation by periphyton biofilms and their host in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada)

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands in large rivers are important sites of production of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), and the periphyton growing on wetland macrophytes are increasingly recognized as key players in this production and transfer in food webs. Information is lacking about mercury methylation (K m ) and demethylation (K d ) rates in periphytic biofilms from the Northern Hemisphere, as well as about the drivers of net MeHg production, hampering ecosystem modeling of Hg cycling. Mercury methylation and demethylation rates were measured in periphytic biofilms growing on submerged plants in a shallow fluvial lake located in a temperate cold region (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada). Incubations were performed in situ within macrophyte beds using low-level spikes of 199 HgO and Me 200 Hg stable isotopes as tracers. A direct relationship was observed between K m (0.002 to 0.137 d −1 ) and [MeHg] in periphyton. A similar relationship was found between K d (0.096 to 0.334 d −1 ) and [inorganic Hg]. Periphyton of Lake St. Pierre reached high levels of net MeHg production that were two orders of magnitude higher than those found in local sediment. This production varied through the plant growing season and was mainly driven by environmental variables such as depth of growth, available light, dissolved oxygen, temperature, plant community structure, and productivity of the habitat. - Highlights: • Periphyton Hg methylation and demethylation were studied in a large fluvial lake. • Addition of stable Hg isotopes was used to obtain in situ rates for these processes. • Net methylation was higher in periphyton than in local sediments. • Methylation and demethylation rates fluctuated during the summer. • Key drivers of rates were depth, light, temperature, and community structure

  1. Mercury methylation and demethylation by periphyton biofilms and their host in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada)

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors [GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Amyot, Marc [GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Wetlands in large rivers are important sites of production of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), and the periphyton growing on wetland macrophytes are increasingly recognized as key players in this production and transfer in food webs. Information is lacking about mercury methylation (K{sub m}) and demethylation (K{sub d}) rates in periphytic biofilms from the Northern Hemisphere, as well as about the drivers of net MeHg production, hampering ecosystem modeling of Hg cycling. Mercury methylation and demethylation rates were measured in periphytic biofilms growing on submerged plants in a shallow fluvial lake located in a temperate cold region (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada). Incubations were performed in situ within macrophyte beds using low-level spikes of {sup 199}HgO and Me{sup 200}Hg stable isotopes as tracers. A direct relationship was observed between K{sub m} (0.002 to 0.137 d{sup −1}) and [MeHg] in periphyton. A similar relationship was found between K{sub d} (0.096 to 0.334 d{sup −1}) and [inorganic Hg]. Periphyton of Lake St. Pierre reached high levels of net MeHg production that were two orders of magnitude higher than those found in local sediment. This production varied through the plant growing season and was mainly driven by environmental variables such as depth of growth, available light, dissolved oxygen, temperature, plant community structure, and productivity of the habitat. - Highlights: • Periphyton Hg methylation and demethylation were studied in a large fluvial lake. • Addition of stable Hg isotopes was used to obtain in situ rates for these processes. • Net methylation was higher in periphyton than in local sediments. • Methylation and demethylation rates fluctuated during the summer. • Key drivers of rates were depth, light, temperature, and community structure.

  2. Spectroscopic Study of the Polar BS Tri

    Borisov, N. V.; Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimansky, V. V.; Katysheva, N. A.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the spectra of the cataclysmic variable BS Tri taken in September 2011 and August 2012 with the 6-m BTA SAO RAS telescope. The object's spectra exhibit a flat continuum with superimposed strong hydrogen Balmer, neutral and ionized helium emission lines. Our analysis of the line profiles has shown that they consist of several components that are formed in the accretion structure and on the irradiated red dwarf surface. The measured radial velocities of one of the components of the line forming in a spot on the red dwarf surface have allowed the parameters of the system to be estimated: M 1 = 0.75 ± 0.02 M ⊙, M 2 = 0.16 ± 0.01 M ⊙, q = 0.21 ± 0.02, and R L2 = 0.18 ± 0.02 R ⊙. The Doppler maps constructed from the emission lines show no disk accretion, defining the system as a polar.

  3. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    La, Honggui; Ding, Bo; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Hongmei; Bellizzi, Maria Del Rosario; Chen, Songbiao; Meyers, Blake C.; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wang, Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  4. Deferasirox and vitamin D improves overall survival in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia after demethylating agents failure.

    Etienne Paubelle

    Full Text Available The prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in elderly (≥65 years patients is poor and treatment remains non-consensual especially for those who are not eligible for intensive therapies. Our group has shown that in vitro the iron chelator deferasirox (DFX synergizes with vitamin D (VD to promote monocyte differentiation in primary AML cells. Herein, we present results from a retrospective case-control study in which the association of DFX (1-2 g/d and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (100,000 IU/week (DFX/VD was proposed to patients following demethylating agents failure. Median survival of patients treated with DFX/VD combination (n = 17 was significantly increased in comparison with matched patients receiving best supportive care (BSC alone (n = 13 (10.4 versus 4 months respectively. In addition, the only factor associated to an increased overall survival in DFX/VD-treated patients was serum VD levels. We conclude that DFX/VD treatment correlated with increased overall survival of AML patients in this retrospective cohort of elderly patients.

  5. Effects of emodin on the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Liang; Bu, He-Qi; Yu, Qing-Jiang; Jiang, Dan-Dan; Pan, Feng-Ping; Wang, Yu; Liu, Dian-Lei; Lin, Sheng-Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum, has been reported to inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through different modes of action; yet, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we hypothesized that emodin exerts its antitumor effect by participating in the regulation of the DNA methylation level. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that 40 µM emodin significantly inhibited genomic 5 mC expression in the PANC-1 cells, and mRNA-Seq showed that different concentrations of emodin could alter the gene expression profile in the PANC-1 cells. BSP confirmed that the methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were decreased, while concomitantly the unmethylated status was increased. RT-PCR and western blotting results confirmed that the low expression or absence of expression of mRNA and protein in the PANC-1 cells was re-expressed following treatment with emodin. In conclusion, our study for the first time suggests that emodin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth, which may be related to the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes. The related mechanism may be through the inhibition of methyltransferase expression.

  6. Demethylation of induced pluripotent stem cells from type 1 diabetic patients enhances differentiation into functional pancreatic β cells.

    Manzar, Gohar S; Kim, Eun-Mi; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2017-08-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be managed by transplanting either the whole pancreas or isolated pancreatic islets. However, cadaveric pancreas is scarcely available for clinical use, limiting this approach. As such, there is a great need to identify alternative sources of clinically usable pancreatic tissues. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from patients with T1D to generate glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells (IPCs) via 3D culture. Initially, T1D iPS cells were resistant to differentiation, but transient demethylation treatment significantly enhanced IPC yield. The cells responded to high-glucose stimulation by secreting insulin in vitro The shape, size, and number of their granules, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, were identical to those found in cadaveric β cells. When the IPCs were transplanted into immunodeficient mice that had developed streptozotocin-induced diabetes, they promoted a dramatic decrease in hyperglycemia, causing the mice to become normoglycemic within 28 days. None of the mice died or developed teratomas. Because the cells are derived from "self," immunosuppression is not required, providing a much safer and reliable treatment option for T1D patients. Moreover, these cells can be used for drug screening, thereby accelerating drug discovery. In conclusion, our approach eliminates the need for cadaveric pancreatic tissue.

  7. Validation of 13CO2 breath analysis as a measurement of demethylation of stable isotope labeled aminopyrine in man

    Schneider, J.F.; Schoeller, D.A.; Nemchausky, B.; Bayer, J.L.; Klein, P.

    1978-01-01

    Interval sampling of expired breath as a simple, non-invasive assessment of the effect of liver disease upon hepatic microsomal drug metabolism, has been demonstrated with [ 14 C] dimethylaminoantipyrine (aminopyrine). In order to eliminate radiation risk the authors have validated the use of aminopyrine labeled with the stable, non-radioactive isotope 13 C. Simultaneous oral administration of both [ 14 C]- and [ 13 C] aminopyrine to five adult subjects without liver disease as well as five patients with known liver disease, resulted in the excretion of label at nearly identical rates in both individual time collections (r=0.94) as well as cumulative excretion for three hours (r=0.97). An oral dose of 2-mg/kg of [ 13 C) aminopyrine resulted in rates of production of 13 CO 2 significantly greater than baseline variations in 13 CO 2 production in the fasting, resting subject. Measurements of a single peak value at one half hour correlated closely with the determination of cumulative appearance over three hours (r=0.96). A consistent reproducible increase in the peak production of 13 CO 2 was observed when five patients received phenobarbital. Stable isotope labeled aminopyrine may be used to detect the effects of disease and treatment upon hepatic N-demethylation activity in human subjects without incurring any risk from radiation. Furthermore, the availability of another isotopic carbon label should make possible the study of direct drug-drug interaction utilizing CO 2 analysis. (Auth.)

  8. Quantification of citalopram or escitalopram and their demethylated metabolites in neonatal hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Vogliardi, Susanna; Terranova, Claudio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Citalopram and escitalopram are highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors widely used in the treatment of depression. They exhibit adverse drug reactions and side effects, however, and the development of specific methods for their determination is of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the assay of citalopram, escitalopram, and their demethylated metabolites in 10-mg hair samples. The analytes were extracted by incubation in methanol and liquid/liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane. Gradient elution on a narrow bore C18 column was realized using clomipramine-d3 as an internal standard. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method exhibited a linear range of 25 to 2000 pg/mg, a quantification limit of 25 pg/mg for all analytes, relative standard deviations in the range of 12.10 to 9.80 (intraassay), and 13.80 to 11.78 (interassay), and accuracies (as percent recovery of the spiked standards) in the range of 90% to 110%; it was applied to the determination of citalopram and escitalopram and their metabolites in hair samples of two newborns to document their in utero exposure to the drugs. The method proved suitable for neonatal hair analysis of citalopram or escitalopram and was applied to two real cases of gestational exposure.

  9. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    La, Honggui

    2011-09-06

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  10. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  11. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  12. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by black raspberry anthocyanins involved the modulation of gut microbiota and SFRP2 demethylation.

    Chen, Lili; Jiang, Bowen; Zhong, Chunge; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lihao; Mu, Teng; Zhang, Qiuhua; Bi, Xiuli

    2018-03-08

    Freeze-dried black raspberry (BRB) powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated C57BL/6J mice with a diet containing BRB anthocyanins for 12 weeks, and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared with AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibrio sp. and Enterococcus spp., was increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota. BRB anthocyanins also caused the demethylation of the SFRP2 gene promoter, resulting in increased expression of SFRP2, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression levels of DNMT31 and DNMT3B, as well as of p-STAT3 were downregulated by BRB anthocyanins in these animals. Taken together, these results suggested that BRB anthocyanins could modulate the composition of gut commensal microbiota, and changes in inflammation and the methylation status of the SFRP2 gene may play a central role in the chemoprevention of CRC.

  13. Intramolecular Oxidative O-Demethylation of an Oxoferryl Porphyrin Complexed with a Per-O-methylated β-Cyclodextrin Dimer.

    Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Kurosawa, Shun; Kano, Koji

    2016-11-22

    The intramolecular oxidation of ROCH 3 to ROCH 2 OH, where the latter compound spontaneously decomposed to ROH and HCHO, was observed during the reaction of the supramolecular complex (met-hemoCD3) with cumene hydroperoxide in aqueous solution. Met-hemoCD3 is composed of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(III) (Fe III TPPS) and a per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer having an -OCH 2 PyCH 2 O- linker (Py=pyridine-3,5-diyl). The O=Fe IV TPPS complex was formed by the reaction of met-hemoCD3 with cumene hydroperoxide, and isolated by gel-filtration chromatography. Although the isolated O=Fe IV TPPS complex in the cyclodextrin cage was stable in aqueous solution at 25 °C, it was gradually converted to Fe II TPPS (t 1/2 =7.6 h). This conversion was accompanied by oxidative O-demethylation of an OCH 3 group in the cyclodextrin dimer. The results indicated that hydrogen abstraction by O=Fe IV TPPS from ROCH 3 yields HO-Fe III TPPS and ROCH 2 . . This was followed by radical coupling to afford Fe II TPPS and ROCH 2 OH. The hemiacetal (ROCH 2 OH) immediately decomposed to ROH and HCHO. This study revealed the ability of oxoferryl porphyrin to induce two-electron oxidation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. JMJD1B Demethylates H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 to Facilitate Gene Expression for Development of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Sihui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The arginine methylation status of histones dynamically changes during many cellular processes, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC development. The arginine methyltransferases and the readers that transduce the histone codes have been defined. However, whether arginine demethylation actively occurs in cells and what enzyme demethylates the methylarginine residues during various cellular processes are unknown. We report that JMJD1B, previously identified as a lysine demethylase for H3K9me2, mediates arginine demethylation of H4R3me2s and its intermediate, H4R3me1. We show that demethylation of H4R3me2s and H3K9me2s in promoter regions is correlated with active gene expression. Furthermore, knockout of JMJD1B blocks demethylation of H4R3me2s and/or H3K9me2 at distinct clusters of genes and impairs the activation of genes important for HSPC differentiation and development. Consequently, JMJD1B−/− mice show defects in hematopoiesis. Altogether, our study demonstrates that demethylase-mediated active arginine demethylation process exists in eukaryotes and that JMJD1B demethylates both H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 for epigenetic programming during hematopoiesis. : Li et al. identify the arginine demethylase (RDM activity of JMJD1B, a known lysine demethylase (KDM. They reveal that JMJD1B actively mediates demethylation of histone markers H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. Keywords: JMJD1B, KDM3B, PRMT5, arginine demethylase, histone, epigenetic programming, gene expression, hematopoiesis

  15. Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of L-Asparaginase Combined with Decitabine as a Demethylating Agent in Pediatric T-ALL, with Specific Epigenetic Signature

    Salvatore Serravalle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL remains a subgroup of pediatric ALL, with a lower response to standard chemotherapy. Some recent studies established the fundamental role of epigenetic aberrations such as DNA hypermethylation, to influence patients’ outcome and response to chemotherapy. Moreover, L-asparaginase is an important chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of ALL and resistance to this drug has been linked to ASNS expression, which can be silenced through methylation. Therefore, we tested whether the sensitivity of T-ALL cell lines towards L-asparaginase is correlated to the epigenetic status of ASNS gene and whether the sensitivity can be modified by concurrent demethylating treatment. Hence we treated different T-ALL cell lines with L-asparaginase and correlated different responses to the treatment with ASNS expression. Then we demonstrated that the ASNS expression was dependent on the methylation status of the promoter. Finally we showed that, despite the demethylating effect on the ASNS gene expression, the combined treatment with the demethylating agent Decitabine could synergistically improve the L-asparaginase sensitivity in those T-ALL cell lines characterized by hypermethylation of the ASNS gene. In conclusion, this preclinical study identified an unexpected synergistic activity of L-asparaginase and Decitabine in the subgroup of T-ALL with low ASNS expression due to hypermethylation of the ASNS promoter, while it did not restore sensitivity in the resistant cell lines characterized by higher ASNS expression.

  16. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  17. PyTRiP - a toolbox and GUI for the proton/ion therapy planning system TRiP

    Toftegaard, J; Bassler, N; Petersen, J B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Only very few treatment planning systems (TPS) are capable of handling heavy ions. Commercial heavy ion TPS are costly and normally restrict the possibility to implement new functionalities. PyTRiP provides Python bindings and a platform-independent graphical user interface (GUI) for the heavy ion treatment program TRiP, and adds seamless support of DICOM files. We aim to provide a front-end for TRiP which does not require any special computer skills. Methods: PyTRiP is written in Python combined with C for fast computing. Routines for DICOM file import/export to TRiPs native file format are implemented. The GUI comes as an executable with all its dependencies including PyTRiP making it easy to install on Windows, Mac and Linux. Results: PyTRiP is a comprehensive toolbox for handling TRiP. Treatment plans are handled using an object oriented structure. Bindings to TRiP (which only runs on Linux, either locally or on a remote server) are performed through a single function call. GUI users can intuitively create treatment plans without much knowledge about the TRiP user interface. Advanced users still have full access to all TRiP functionality. The user interface comes with a comprehensive plotting tool, which can visualize 2D contours, volume histograms, as well as dose- and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions. Conclusion: We developed a powerful toolbox for ion therapy research using TRiP as backend. The corresponding GUI allows to easily and intuitively create, calculate and visualize treatment plans. TRiP is thereby more accessible and simpler to use.

  18. Tri-Cities Index of Innovation and Technology

    Fowler, Richard A.; Scott, Michael J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-17

    In 2001 and 2004, the Economic Development Office of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published companion reports to the Washington Technology Center Index studies that provided additional information on the Tri-Cities (Kennewick-Richland-Pasco) area of the state, its technology businesses, and important advantages that the Tri-Cities have as places to live and do business. These reports also compared the Tri-Cities area to other technology-based metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest and nation along critical dimensions known to be important to technology firms. This report updates the material in these earlier reports, and highlights a growing Tri-Cities metropolitan area.

  19. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis.

    Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Chong, Pablo; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Cordovez, Viviane; Guzman, Mauricio; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Meijer, Harold J G; Scalliet, Gabriel; Sierotzki, Helge; Lilia Peralta, Esther; Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Kema, Gerrit H J

    2017-11-04

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications, with a major contribution from sterol demethylation-inhibitors (DMIs). The continued use of DMIs places considerable selection pressure on natural P. fijiensis populations, enabling the selection of novel genotypes with reduced sensitivity. The hitherto explanatory mechanism for this reduced sensitivity was the presence of non-synonymous point mutations in the target gene Pfcyp51, encoding the sterol 14α-demethylase enzyme. Here, we demonstrate a second mechanism involved in DMI sensitivity of P. fijiensis. We identified a 19-bp element in the wild-type (wt) Pfcyp51 promoter that concatenates in strains with reduced DMI sensitivity. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identified up to six Pfcyp51 promoter repeats in four field populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica. We used transformation experiments to swap the wt promoter of a sensitive field isolate with a promoter from a strain with reduced DMI sensitivity that comprised multiple insertions. Comparative in vivo phenotyping showed a functional and proportional up-regulation of Pfcyp51, which consequently decreased DMI sensitivity. Our data demonstrate that point mutations in the Pfcyp51 coding domain, as well as promoter inserts, contribute to the reduced DMI sensitivity of P. fijiensis. These results provide new insights into the importance of the appropriate use of DMIs and the need for the discovery of new molecules for black Sigatoka management. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Phlpp1 facilitates post-traumatic osteoarthritis and is induced by inflammation and promoter demethylation in human osteoarthritis

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Becerra, Clara Castillejo; Amanatullah, Derek F.; Ta, Lauren E.; Otero, Miguel; Goldring, Mary B.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability. OA is characterized by articular chondrocyte deterioration, subchondral bone changes and debilitating pain. One strategy to promote cartilage regeneration and repair is to accelerate proliferation and matrix production of articular chondrocytes. We previously reported that the protein phosphatase Phlpp1 controls chondrocyte differentiation by regulating the activities of anabolic kinases. Here we examined the role of Phlpp1 in osteoarthritis progression in a murine model. We also assessed PHLPP1 expression and promoter methylation. DESIGN Knee joints of WT and Phlpp1−/− mice were surgically destabilized by transection of the medial meniscal ligament (DMM). Mice were assessed for signs of OA progression via radiographic and histological analyses, and pain assessment for mechanical hypersensitivity using the von Frey assay. Methylation of the PHLPP1 promoter and PHLPP1 expression was evaluated in human articular cartilage and chondrocyte cell lines. RESULTS Following DMM surgeries, Phlpp1 deficient mice showed fewer signs of OA and cartilage degeneration. Mechanical allodynia associated with DMM surgeries was also attenuated in Phlpp1−/− mice. PHLPP1 was highly expressed in human articular cartilage from OA patients, but was undetectable in cartilage specimens from femoral neck fractures. Higher PHLPP1 levels correlated with less PHLPP1 promoter CpG methylation in cartilage from OA patients. Blocking cytosine methylation or treatment with inflammatory mediators enhanced PHLPP1 expression in human chondrocyte cell lines. CONCLUSION Phlpp1 deficiency protects against OA progression while CpG demethylation and inflammatory responses promote PHLPP1 expression. PMID:26746148

  1. Selective inhibition of the demethylation at C-14 in ergosterol biosynthesis by the fungicide, Denmert (S-1358)

    Kato, Toshiro; Kawase, Yasuo

    1976-01-01

    A direct evidence of the inhibitory effect in a cell-free system of S. cerevisiae was experimentally studied, and the site of action of Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbon-imidate) in sterol biosynthesis was examined. 14 C-labeled lanosterol and 14-desmethyl-lanosterol were biosynthetically prepared. DL-mevalonate-2- 14 C was incubated with yeast cell-free homogenates for 3 hr at 28 deg C while being shaked vigorously in atmospheric oxygen. The resultant 14 C-labeled sterol was extracted and chromatographed on a silicic acid-Hyflo Super Cel column. 4,4-dimethyl sterol thus obtained was acetylated with acetic anhydride and pyridine. The separation of lanosteryl acetate and 14-desmethyl lanosteryl acetate was accomplished on alumina thin-layer plates. After the saponification of each steryl acetate, the quantity of the sterol was assessed by gas chromatography with cholesterol as an internal standard. The incubation of the 14 C-labeled sterol was achieved under the same conditions as those for the DL-mevalonate-2- 14 C except the addition of the substrate which was dispersed in 0.1M phosphate buffer. Denmert inhibited the conversion of 14 C-labeled lanosterol to 4-desmethyl sterol, while the conversion of 14 C-labeled 14-desmethyl lanosterol to 4-desmethyl sterol was hardly affected by the fungicide. Therefore, Denmert is a potent selective inhibitor of the demethylation at the C-14 position in ergosterol biosynthesis. The fungicide, triarimol, exhibited the same effect on sterol biosynthesis as that of Denmert. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Financial Statement Audit Report of Tri-County Community College.

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Tri-County Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Tri-County Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to…

  3. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  4. Tri-Space Framework for Understanding MNC Behaviour and Strategies

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework called ‘Tri-Space’ that comprises three overlapping social spaces, indicating three different concepts: institution and business systems, civil society, and transnational communities. Tri-space framework broadens the horizon of understanding of how MNCs behave...

  5. MALAYSIAN WEATHER DATA (TRY) FOR ENERGY SIMULATIONS IN BUILDINGS

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detailed energy simulations for buildings in Malaysia have become possible after the recent construction of a Malaysian TRY (Test Reference Year) based on 21 years of hourly weather data from Subang Meteorological Station. The climatic parameters contained in the TRY are dry bulb temperature, wet...

  6. Epigenetic regulations in the IFNγ signalling pathway: IFNγ-mediated MHC class I upregulation on tumour cells is associated with DNA demethylation of antigen-presenting machinery genes

    Vlková, Veronika; Štěpánek, Ivan; Hrušková, Veronika; Šenigl, Filip; Mayerová, Veronika; Šrámek, Martin; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Hejhal, Tomáš; Dérian, N.; Klatzmann, D.; Six, A.; Reiniš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2014), s. 6923-35 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/2174; GA MZd NT14461 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:French state funds within the Investissements d’Avenir program(FR) ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IFNγ signalling pathway * DNA demethylation * tumour Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.359, year: 2014

  7. A Simple, Rapid and Mild One Pot Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated and Demethylated Analogues of Harmine under Solvent-free Conditions

    Bina S. Siddiqui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.

  8. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  9. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  10. Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS), a service of the Postgraduate Dental College, is chartered by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management...

  11. Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel (PP 1074)

    Rusch, Lawrence F

    2003-01-01

    ...) PP 1074 Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel. The program's goal was to develop an environmentally friendly process for depositing wear and erosion resistant materials onto gun bores replacing the current hazardous aqueous electro-deposition...

  12. TRI-Worthy Projects for the Deep Space Gateway

    Wotring, V. E.; Strangman, G. E.; Donoviel, D.

    2018-02-01

    Preparations for exploration will require exposure to the actual deep space environment. The new TRI for Space Health proposes innovative projects using real space radiation to make medically-relevant measurements affecting human physiology.

  13. Selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine

    Cree, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Novel selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine are described. They preferably contain at least one 75 Se atom. The compounds are useful in dual isotope assays of thyroid function. (U.K.)

  14. Hypomethylation of the Treg-Specific Demethylated Region in FOXP3 Is a Hallmark of the Regulatory T-cell Subtype in Adult T-cell Leukemia.

    Shimazu, Yayoi; Shimazu, Yutaka; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Nagai, Yuya; Sugino, Noriko; Fujii, Sumie; Kawahara, Masahiro; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-02-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Because of its immunosuppressive property and resistance to treatment, patients with ATL have poor prognoses. ATL cells possess the regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, such as CD4 and CD25, and usually express forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). However, the mechanisms of FOXP3 expression and its association with Treg-like characteristics in ATL remain unclear. Selective demethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) in the FOXP3 gene leads to stable FOXP3 expression and defines natural Tregs. Here, we focus on the functional and clinical relationship between the epigenetic pattern of the TSDR and ATL. Analysis of DNA methylation in specimens from 26 patients with ATL showed that 15 patients (58%) hypomethylated the TSDR. The FOXP3(+) cells were mainly observed in the TSDR-hypomethylated cases. The TSDR-hypomethylated ATL cells exerted more suppressive function than the TSDR-methylated ATL cells. Thus, the epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 gene identified a distinct subtype with Treg properties in heterogeneous ATL. Furthermore, we observed that the hypomethylation of TSDR was associated with poor outcomes in ATL. These results suggest that the DNA methylation status of the TSDR is an important hallmark to define this heterogeneous disease and to predict ATL patient prognosis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Tet1 and Tet2 maintain mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis via demethylation of the P2rX7 promoter.

    Yang, Ruili; Yu, Tingting; Kou, Xiaoxing; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Chider; Liu, Dawei; Zhou, Yanheng; Shi, Songtao

    2018-06-01

    Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family-mediated DNA oxidation represents an epigenetic modification capable of converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), which regulates various biological processes. However, it is unknown whether Tet family affects mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or the skeletal system. Here we show that depletion of Tet1 and Tet2 results in impaired self-renewal and differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs) and a significant osteopenia phenotype. Tet1 and Tet2 deficiency reduces demethylation of the P2rX7 promoter and downregulates exosome release, leading to intracellular accumulation of miR-297a-5p, miR-297b-5p, and miR-297c-5p. These miRNAs inhibit Runx2 signaling to impair BMMSC function. We show that overexpression of P2rX7 rescues the impaired BMMSCs and osteoporotic phenotype in Tet1 and Tet2 double knockout mice. These results indicate that Tet1 and Tet2 play a critical role in maintaining BMMSC and bone homeostasis through demethylation of P2rX7 to control exosome and miRNA release. This Tet/P2rX7/Runx2 cascade may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for osteopenia disorders.

  16. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  17. Quaternary ammonium oxidative demethylation: X-ray crystallographic, resonance Raman, and UV-visible spectroscopic analysis of a Rieske-type demethylase.

    Daughtry, Kelly D; Xiao, Youli; Stoner-Ma, Deborah; Cho, Eunsun; Orville, Allen M; Liu, Pinghua; Allen, Karen N

    2012-02-08

    Herein, the structure resulting from in situ turnover in a chemically challenging quaternary ammonium oxidative demethylation reaction was captured via crystallographic analysis and analyzed via single-crystal spectroscopy. Crystal structures were determined for the Rieske-type monooxygenase, stachydrine demethylase, in the unliganded state (at 1.6 Å resolution) and in the product complex (at 2.2 Å resolution). The ligand complex was obtained from enzyme aerobically cocrystallized with the substrate stachydrine (N,N-dimethylproline). The ligand electron density in the complex was interpreted as proline, generated within the active site at 100 K by the absorption of X-ray photon energy and two consecutive demethylation cycles. The oxidation state of the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy throughout X-ray data collection in conjunction with resonance Raman spectra collected before and after diffraction data. Shifts in the absorption band wavelength and intensity as a function of absorbed X-ray dose demonstrated that the Rieske center was reduced by solvated electrons generated by X-ray photons; the kinetics of the reduction process differed dramatically for the liganded complex compared to unliganded demethylase, which may correspond to the observed turnover in the crystal.

  18. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in colorectal cancer cells targets genomic DNA whilst promoter CpG island methylation persists

    Mossman, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. Aberrant epigenetic gene silencing in tumours is a frequent event, yet the factors which dictate which genes are targeted for inactivation are unknown. DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be modified with the chemical agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA) respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse de-methylation and re-methylation and its affect on gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines treated with 5-aza-dC alone and in combination with TSA. We also sought to identify methylation patterns associated with long term reactivation of previously silenced genes. Colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC, with and without TSA, to analyse global methylation decreases by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Re-methylation was observed with removal of drug treatments. Expression arrays identified silenced genes with differing patterns of expression after treatment, such as short term reactivation or long term reactivation. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was performed on the CpG island associated with these genes and expression was verified with real time PCR. Treatment with 5-aza-dC was found to affect genomic methylation and to a lesser extent gene specific methylation. Reactivated genes which remained expressed 10 days post 5-aza-dC treatment featured hypomethylated CpG sites adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS). In contrast, genes with uniformly hypermethylated CpG islands were only temporarily reactivated. These results imply that 5-aza-dC induces strong de-methylation of the genome and initiates reactivation of transcriptionally inactive genes, but this does not require gene associated CpG island de-methylation to occur. In addition, for three of our selected genes, hypomethylation at the TSS of an epigenetically silenced gene is associated with the long term reversion of

  19. Tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying

    2017-10-25

    The disclosure provides a tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier comprises Cu.sub.xFe.sub.yMn.sub.zO.sub.4-.delta., where Cu.sub.xFe.sub.yMn.sub.zO.sub.4-.delta. is a chemical composition. Generally, 0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2.0, 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.5, and 0.2.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.2.5, and in some embodiments, 0.8.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.2, y.ltoreq.1.2, and z.gtoreq.0.8. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier may be used in various applications for the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, including as an oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

  20. Tri-generation in urban networks; Trigeneration en reseau urbain

    Malahieude, J.M. [Trigen Energy Corp., New-York (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The concepts of tri-generation (simultaneous production of heat, electric power and refrigerating energy) and thermal energy distribution networks, are presented. The different components of the tri-generation system from Trigen Energy Corp. are ammonia as a refrigerant for the production of cooled water, screw compressors, gas turbines and an induction motor-generator in order to optimize the combined gas turbine and compressor utilization. The energy efficiency and pollution reduction of the system are evaluated; the system has been enhanced through re-powering and post combustion

  1. Crystal structures of fac-tri?chlorido?tris?(tri?methyl?phosphane-?P)rhodium(III) monohydrate and fac-tri?chlorido?tris?(tri?methyl?phosphane-?P)rhodium(III) methanol hemisolvate: rhodium structures that are isotypic with their iridium analogs

    Merola, Joseph S.; Franks, Marion A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of two solvates of fac-tri-chlorido-tris-(tri-methyl-phosphane-κP)rhodium(III) are reported, i.e. one with water in the crystal lattice, fac-[RhCl3(Me3P)3]·H2O, and one with methanol in the crystal lattice, fac-[RhCl3(Me3P)3]·0.5CH3OH. These rhodium compounds exhibit distorted octahedral coordination spheres at the metal and are isotypic with the analogous iridium compounds previously reported by us [Merola et al. (2013 ▶). Polyhedron, 54, 67-73]. Comparison is made bet...

  2. Di/tri-peptide transporters as drug delivery targets

    Nielsen, C U; Brodin, Birger

    2003-01-01

    -dependent, and the transporters thus belong to the Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter (POT)-family. The transporters are not drug targets per se, however due to their uniquely broad substrate specificity; they have proved to be relevant drug targets at the level of drug transport. Drug molecules such as oral active beta....../tri-peptide transporters from vesicular storages 3) changes in gene transcription/mRNA stability. The aim of the present review is to discuss physiological, patho-physiological and drug-induced regulation of di/tri-peptide transporter mediated transport....

  3. CONTINUOUS MODELING OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE OF USD VERSUS TRY

    Yakup Arı

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to construct continuous-time autoregressive (CAR model and continuous-time GARCH (COGARCH model from discrete time data of foreign exchange rate of United States Dollar (USD versus Turkish Lira (TRY. These processes are solutions to stochastic differential equation Lévy-driven processes. We have shown that CAR(1 and COGARCH(1,1 processes are proper models to represent foreign exchange rate of USD and TRY for different periods of time February 2002- June 2010.

  4. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of the CYP2D6 catalyzed O-demethylation of (+)-tramadol but does not reduce the hypoalgesic effect in experimental pain

    Noehr-Jensen, L; Zwisler, S T; Larsen, F

    2009-01-01

    Tramadol is O–demethylated to the active metabolite (+)–O–desmethyltramadol ((+)–M1) via CYP2D6, an enzyme that is weakly inhibited by escitalopram. We investigated the possibility of a pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of escitalopram on tramadol metabolism. Fifteen healthy...... subjects completed this randomized, double–blind, three–phase, crossover trial. Combinations of escitalopram 20 mg/day or placebo together with tramadol 150 mg or placebo were used. Blood samples for pharmacokinetics were drawn at 0–24 h after medication. The analgesic effect of (+)–M was assessed...... AUEC1–12 of CPT were 4,140 and 4,388 cm·s after placebo and escitalopram, respectively (P = 0.71). Although escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6, it does not impair the analgesic effect of tramadol....

  5. Demethylation regulation of BDNF gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is implicated in opioid-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats.

    Chao, Yu-Chieh; Xie, Fang; Li, Xueyang; Guo, Ruijuan; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Rong; Guan, Yun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Repeated administration of morphine may result in opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), which involves altered expression of numerous genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Yet, it remains unclear how BDNF expression is increased in DRG neurons after repeated morphine treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression. In the current study, we hypothesized that the demethylation regulation of certain BDNF gene promoters in DRG neurons may contribute to the development of OIH. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess changes in the mRNA transcription levels of major BDNF exons including exon I, II, IV, VI, as well as total BDNF mRNA in DRGs from rats after repeated morphine administration. The levels of exon IV and total BDNF mRNA were significantly upregulated by repeated morphine administration, as compared to that in saline control group. Further, ELISA array and immunocytochemistry study revealed a robust upregulation of BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons after repeated morphine exposure. Correspondingly, the methylation levels of BDNF exon IV promoter showed a significant downregulation by morphine treatment. Importantly, intrathecal administration of a BDNF antibody, but not control IgG, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity that developed in rats after repeated morphine treatment. Conversely, intrathecal administration of an inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) markedly upregulated the BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons and enhanced the mechanical allodynia after repeated morphine exposure. Together, our findings suggest that demethylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter may be implicated in the development of OIH through epigenetic control of BDNF expression in DRG neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  7. Redistribution of cell cycle by arsenic trioxide is associated with demethylation and expression changes of cell cycle related genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line (NB4).

    Hassani, Saeed; Khaleghian, Ali; Ahmadian, Shahin; Alizadeh, Shaban; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2018-01-01

    PML-RARα perturbs the normal epigenetic setting, which is essential to oncogenic transformation in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Transcription induction and recruitment of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) by PML-RARα and subsequent hypermethylation are components of this perturbation. Arsenic trioxide (ATO), an important drug in APL therapy, concurrent with degradation of PML-RARα induces cell cycle change and apoptosis. How ATO causes cell cycle alteration has remained largely unexplained. Here, we investigated DNA methylation patterns of cell cycle regulatory genes promoters, the effects of ATO on the methylated genes and cell cycle distribution in an APL cell line, NB4. Analysis of promoter methylation status of 22 cell cycle related genes in NB4 revealed that CCND1, CCNE1, CCNF, CDKN1A, GADD45α, and RBL1 genes were methylated 60.7, 84.6, 58.6, 8.7, 33.4, and 73.7%, respectively, that after treatment with 2 μM ATO for 48 h, turn into 0.6, 13.8, 0.1, 6.6, 10.7, and 54.5% methylated. ATO significantly reduced the expression of DNMT1, 3A, and 3B. ATO induced the expression of CCND1, CCNE1, and GADD45α genes, suppressed the expression of CCNF and CDKN1A genes, which were consistent with decreased number of cells in G1 and S phases and increased number of cells in G2/M phase. In conclusion, demethylation and alteration in the expression level of the cell cycle related genes may be possible mechanisms in ATO-induced cell cycle arrest in APL cells. It may suggest that ATO by demethylation of CCND1 and CCNE1 and their transcriptional activation accelerates G1 and S transition into the G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  8. KDM1A triggers androgen-induced miRNA transcription via H3K4me2 demethylation and DNA oxidation.

    Yang, Shu; Zhang, Jiyuan; Zhang, Yalong; Wan, Xuechao; Zhang, Congzhe; Huang, Xiaohui; Huang, Wenhua; Pu, Honglei; Pei, Chaohan; Wu, Hai; Huang, Yan; Huang, Shengdong; Li, Yao

    2015-06-15

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor that regulates the transcription of target genes. AR activity is closely involved in the maintenance and progression of prostate cancer. After the binding with androgen, AR moves into nucleus and binds to DNA sequence containing androgen response elements (ARE). Flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase KDM1A is necessary for AR driven transcription while the mechanism remains unclear. The association between androgen-dependent transcription and oxidation was tested through pharmaceutical inhibitions and siRNA knockdown of DNA oxidation repair components in prostate cancer cells. The recruitment of involved proteins and the histone methylation dynamics on ARE region was explored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Oxidation inhibition reduced AR dependent expression of KLK3, TMPRSS2, hsa-miR-125b2, and hsa-miR-133b. And such reduction could be restored by H2 O2 treatment. KDM1A recruitment and H3K4me2 demethylation on ARE regions, which produce H2 O2 , are associated with AR targets transcription. AR targets transcription and coupled oxidation recruit 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and the nuclease APEX1 to ARE regions. Such recruitment depends on KDM1A, and is necessary for AR targets transcription. Our work underlined the importance of histone demethylation and DNA oxidation/repairing machinery in androgen-dependent transcription. The present finds have implications for research into new druggable targets for prostate cancer relying on the cascade of AR activity regulation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  10. A Ground State Tri-pí-Methane Rearrangement

    Zimmerman, H. E.; Církva, Vladimír; Jiang, L.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 49 (2000), s. 9585-9587 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : tri-pi-methane * ground state Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.558, year: 2000

  11. Employing a tri-axial accelerometer for estimating energy ...

    The Tritrac-R3D, a portable tri-axial accelerometer, was assessed for its ability to estimate energy expenditure during simulated load carrying activities. The Tritrac data were compared to metabolic data collected simultaneously by a MetaMax ergospirometry system while ten, healthy male subjects (aged 20.7 ±1.4 years) ...

  12. Migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon

    Posselt, M.; Gao, F.; Zwicker, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed

  13. DECS tries out instructional materials on AIDS prevention education.

    1994-01-01

    A national try-out of the newly developed print and non-print instructional materials on AIDS Education is being conducted by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) this school year 1993-to 1994. To determine the effectiveness of these materials, various public and private schools in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), VII (Central Visayas) XI (Southern Mindanao) and National Capital Region (Metro, Manila) were chosen as try-out institutions. The AIDS education materials will be tried out in different subjects in some grade and year levels such as civics and culture (grade one); science and health (grades three and six); home economics and livelihood education (grade five); physical education, health and music (second year) and Pilipino Language (third year). The materials for the elementary level consist of posters, cut-out pictures, voice tapes, jingles, talking books and slides, while the secondary school level utilizes modules. For the tertiary level, a Resource Book on AIDS Prevention Education is used by the Teacher Training Institutions and the Non-Formal Education employs the Facilitator's Guide for Levels I-III. These materials will be tried out in both urban and rural schools, with control school and experimental school at each level. full text

  14. Composite germanium monochromators - results for the TriCS

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, S.; Boehm, M.; Keller, L.; Horisberger, M.; Medarde, M.; Fischer, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Composite germanium monochromators are in the beginning of their application in neutron diffraction. We show here the importance of the permanent quality control with neutrons on the example of the 311 wafers which will be used on the single crystal diffractometer TriCS at SINQ. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  15. Environmental Effects on the Polypyrrole Tri-layer Actuator

    Nirul Masurkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroactive polymer actuators such as polypyrrole (PPy are exciting candidates to drive autonomous devices that require low weight and low power. A simple PPy tri-layer bending type cantilever which operates in the air has been demonstrated previously, but the environmental effect on this actuator is still unknown. The major obstacle in the development of the PPy tri-layer actuator is to create proper packaging that reduces oxidation of the electrolyte and maintains constant displacement. Here, we report the variation in the displacement as well as the charge transfer at the different environmental condition. PPy trilayer actuators were fabricated by depositing polypyrrole on gold-coated porous poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF using the electro-synthesis method. It has been demonstrated that the charge transfer of tri-layer actuators is more in an inert environment than in open air. In addition, tri-layer actuators show constant deflection and enhancement of life due to the negligible oxidation rate of the electrolyte in an inert environment.

  16. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at

  17. NILAI BUDAYA TRI HITA KARANA DALAM PENETAPAN HARGA JUAL

    Tri Handayani Amaliah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Nilai-Nilai Budaya Tri Hita Karana dalam Penetapan Harga Jual. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengungkap nilai-nilai budaya yang terdapat di balik penetapan harga yang diimplementasi oleh masyarakat transmigran Bali. Jenis penelitian ini adalah kualitatif dengan pendekatan etnometodologi melalui tradisi, kebiasaan dan cara penetapan harga jual yang diimplementasikan oleh masyarakat transmigran Bali di Bolaang Mongondow. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam penetapan harga jual yang diterapkan oleh komunitas transmigran Bali di Bolaang Mongondow selain ditujukan untuk meraih keuntungan materi, juga terkandung nilai-nilai budaya Tri Hita Karanayang merefleksikan bahwa nilai ketundukan kepada Sang Pencipta, pelestarian lingkungan dan gotong royong. Abstract: Culture Values of Tri Hita Karana in Selling Price Determination. This research aims to shows the cultural values behind the determination of selling price by Bali transmigrant communities. This research is a qualitative research using ethnomethodoly approach based on tradition, habituation, and cost plus pricing that is implemented by Bali transmigrant communities in Bolaang Mongondow. The research result shows that the determination of selling price by Bali transmigrant communities not only to get the profit but also contains the culture values of Tri Hita Karana which reflects the values of the submission to the creator, environmental conservation, and mutual assistance.

  18. Validation of Pleiades Tri-Stereo DSM in Urban Areas

    Emmanouil Panagiotakis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate digital surface model (DSM derived from high-resolution Pleiades-1B 0.5 m panchromatic tri-stereo images, covering an area of 400 km2 over the Athens Metropolitan Area. Remote sensing and photogrammetry tools were applied, resulting in a 1 m × 1 m posting DSM over the study area. The accuracy of the produced DSM was evaluated against measured elevations by a differential Global Positioning System (d-GPS and a reference DSM provided by the National Cadaster and Mapping Agency S.A. Different combinations of stereo and tri-stereo images were used and tested on the quality of the produced DSM. Results revealed that the DSM produced by the tri-stereo analysis has a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.17 m in elevation, which lies within the best reported in the literature. On the other hand, DSMs derived by standard analysis of stereo-pairs from the same sensor were found to perform worse. Line profile data showed similar patterns between the reference and produced DSM. Pleiades tri-stereo high-quality DSM products have the necessary accuracy to support applications in the domains of urban planning, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, hydrological modelling, and natural hazards, being an important input for simulation models and morphological analysis at local scales.

  19. Queens Tri-School Confederation, 1991-92 Evaluation Report.

    Hannah, Susan; Dworkowitz, Barbara

    An evaluation was done of the Queens Tri-School Confederation, three high schools in the New York City Public Schools funded by a federal grant from the Magnet Schools Assistance Program. The grant provided Hillcrest, Jamaica, and Thomas A. Edison High Schools with funds to develop or expand emergency technician programs at Hillcrest; a law…

  20. Development of the Tri-ATHLETE Lunar Vehicle Prototype

    Heverly, Matt; Matthews, Jaret; Frost, Matt; Quin, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Tri-ATHLETE (All Terrain Hex Limed Extra Terrestrial Explorer) vehicle is the second generation of a wheel-on-limb vehicle being developed to support the return of humans to the lunar surface. This paper describes the design, assembly, and test of the Tri-ATHLETE robotic system with a specific emphasis on the limb joint actuators. The design and implementation of the structural components is discussed, and a novel and low cost approach to approximating flight-like cabling is also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the "second system effect" and other lessons learned as well as results from a three week long field trial of the vehicle in the Arizona desert.

  1. Remarks on the Colonized Libido: Trying to Think beyond Patriarchy

    Hilan Bensusan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In these remarks I attempt to think through some of the consequences of the way we conceive and live our desires. I try to contrast those desires with both our idea of freedom and the way we usually understand nature. This takes me quickly to issues such as pornography, male identity and then to how we gain and preserve our self-esteem. This, in turn, takes me to issues that are somehow linked to the institutional and emotional structures of patriarchy under a regime of heterosexuality as a norm. I try to consider these issues from the point of view of someone who was trained within the practices and thoughts of masculinity and is bothered by the consequences of such training. I endeavour to find a way to rethink the colonization of our desires so that we can find paths to an exercise of our capacities of desire that could be somehow freer.

  2. Single-crystal diffraction instrument TriCS at SINQ

    Schefer, J.; Könnecke, M.; Murasik, A.; Czopnik, A.; Strässle, Th; Keller, P.; Schlumpf, N.

    2000-03-01

    The single-crystal diffractometer TriCS at the Swiss Continuous Spallation Source (SINQ) is presently in the commissioning phase. A two-dimensional wire detector produced by EMBL was delivered in March 1999. The instrument is presently tested with a single detector. First measurements on magnetic structures have been performed. The instrument is remotely controlled using JAVA-based software and a UNIX DEC-α host computer.

  3. Pareceristas da RBHCS no Triênio 2015-2017

    Editores RBHCS

    2017-01-01

    Pareceristas da RBHCS no Triênio 2015-2017   Adelar Heinsfeld (UPF) Adilson Júnior Ishihara Brito (UFPA) Adilson Prizmic Momce (UFMS) Alcileide Cabral do Nascimento (UFRPE) Alexandre de Oliveira Karsburg (UNISINOS) Alfredo Veiga-Neto (UFRGS) Ana Carolina de Carvalho Viotti (UNESP) Ana Paula Korndörfer (UNISINOS) Ana Silvia Volpi Scott (NEPO/Unicamp) Anderson Roberti dos Reis (UFMT) Andréia Orsato (IFSul) Andrés Cobo de Guzmán (Université Gren...

  4. Untersuchungen zur Rauchgasentstickung mittels Schwefelwasserstoff in Tri-n-butylphosphat

    Homann, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Reaktion von Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) mit Schwefelwassersoff (H2S) in Tri-n-butylphosphat (TBP) im Hinblick auf ein alternatives Verfahren zur Entstickung von Rauchgasen untersucht. Mittels einer gasvolumetrischen Absorptionsapparatur wurden zuerst Daten zur physikalischen Löslichkeit in TBP ermittelt, die für den Erhalt kinetischer Daten der stofftransportüberlagerten Reaktionen in TBP relevant sind. Es sind dies die Henrykoeffizienten von NO, H2S und die d...

  5. Isotopic exchange reaction between barium ion and tri barium phosphate

    Bilgin, G.B.; Cetin, I.

    1982-01-01

    Heterogeneous exchange reaction of tri barium phosphate in barium chloride solution has been studied using 133 Ba as a tracer. The results show that the exchange fraction increases as barium chloride concentration increases for different mole ratio of the exchange ion on the solid surface and in the solution. The phenomenon was studied with respect to the previous treatment of the precipitate leading to different crystal sizes and the effect of reaction time. (author)

  6. Apolar Distal Pocket Mutants of Yeast Cytochrome c Peroxidase: Hydrogen Peroxide Reactivity and Cyanide Binding of the TriAla, TriVal, and TriLeu Variants

    Bidwai, Anil K.; Meyen, Cassandra; Kilheeney, Heather; Wroblewski, Damian; Vitello, Lidia B.; Erman, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Three yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) variants with apolar distal heme pockets have been constructed. The CcP variants have Arg48, Trp51, and His52 mutated to either all alanines, CcP(triAla), all valines, CcP(triVal), or all leucines, CcP(triLeu). The triple mutants have detectable enzymatic activity at pH 6 but the activity is less than 0.02% that of wild-type CcP. The activity loss is primarily due to the decreased rate of reaction between the triple mutants and H2O2 compared to wild-type CcP. Spectroscopic properties and cyanide binding characteristics of the triple mutants have been investigated over the pH stability region of CcP, pH 4 to 8. The absorption spectra indicate that the CcP triple mutants have hemes that are predominantly five-coordinate, high-spin at pH 5 and six-coordinate, low-spin at pH 8. Cyanide binding to the triple mutants is biphasic indicating that the triple mutants have two slowly-exchanging conformational states with different cyanide affinities. The binding affinity for cyanide is reduced at least two orders of magnitude in the triple mutants compared to wild-type CcP and the rate of cyanide binding is reduced by four to five orders of magnitude. Correlation of the reaction rates of CcP and 12 distal pocket mutants with H2O2 and HCN suggests that both reactions require ionization of the reactants within the distal heme pocket allowing the anion to bind the heme iron. Distal pocket features that promote substrate ionization (basic residues involved in base-catalyzed substrate ionization or polar residues that can stabilize substrate anions) increase the overall rate of reaction with H2O2 and HCN while features that inhibit substrate ionization slow the reactions. PMID:23022490

  7. Leaflet escape in a new bileaflet mechanical valve: TRI technologies.

    Bottio, Tomaso; Casarotto, Dino; Thiene, Gaetano; Caprili, Luca; Angelini, Annalisa; Gerosa, Gino

    2003-05-13

    Leaflet escape is a mode of structural valve failure for mechanical prostheses. This complication previously has been reported for both monoleaflet and bileaflet valve models. We report 2 leaflet escape occurrences observed in 2 patients who underwent valve replacement with a TRI Technologies valve prosthesis. At the University of Padua, between November 2000 and February 2002, 36 TRI Technologies valve prostheses (26 aortic and 10 mitral) were implanted in 34 patients (12 women and 22 men) with a mean age of 59.9+/-10.3 years (range, 30 to 75 years). There were 5 deaths: 3 in hospital, 1 early after discharge, and 1 late. Two patients experienced a catastrophic prosthetic leaflet escape; the first patient was a 52-year-old man who died 10 days after aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement, and the second was a 58-year-old man who underwent a successful emergency reoperation 20 months after mitral valve replacement. Examination of the explanted prostheses showed in both cases a leaflet escape caused by a leaflet's pivoting system fracture. Prophylactic replacement was then successfully accomplished so far in 12 patients, without evidence of structural valve failure in any of them. Among other significant postoperative complications, we observed 3 major thromboembolisms, 1 hemorrhage, and 1 paravalvular leak. These catastrophes prompted us to interrupt the implantation program, and they cast a shadow on the durability of the TRI Technologies valve prosthesis because of its high risk of structural failure.

  8. The reactants equation of state for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based explosive PBX 9502

    Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-07-01

    The response of high explosives (HEs), due to mechanical and/or thermal insults, is of great importance for both safety and performance. A major component of how an HE responds to these stimuli stems from its reactant equation of state (EOS). Here, the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene based explosive PBX 9502 is investigated by examining recent experiments. Furthermore, a complete thermal EOS is calibrated based on the functional form devised by Wescott, Stewart, and Davis [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005)]. It is found, by comparing to earlier calibrations, that a variety of thermodynamic data are needed to sufficiently constrain the EOS response over a wide range of thermodynamic state space. Included in the calibration presented here is the specific heat as a function of temperature, isobaric thermal expansion, and shock Hugoniot response. As validation of the resulting model, isothermal compression and isentropic compression are compared with recent experiments.

  9. Suppression of Wnt signaling by the miR-29 family is mediated by demethylation of WIF-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Tan, Min [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wu, Junjie, E-mail: wujunjiesh@126.com [Department of Pneumology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cai, Yong, E-mail: dryongcai@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dnmt3A and Dnmt3B are involved in the down-regulation of WIF-1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer. •MiR-29 family members could restore WIF-1 expression through demethylation. •MiR-29s suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibit tumor growth. •The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b could be regulated partially in a positive feedback loop. -- Abstract: Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) silencing induced by promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the activity of regulators associated with the methylation of the WIF-1 gene remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) in the expression of WIF-1. The three DNMTs were up-regulated in NSCLC tumor tissues and suppression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B restored the expression of WIF-1 in NSCLC cells. The miR-29 family (miR-29a, -29b, and -29c), which negatively regulates DNMT3A and DNMT3B, was examined in association with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. A positive correlation between the expression of WIF-1 and that of MiR-29s was observed in NSCLC tissues. Methylation-specific PCR and Western blotting indicated that miR-29s positively regulate WIF-1 expression by inhibiting the methylation of its promoter. Furthermore, miR-29 overexpression downregulated β-catenin expression, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b was partially regulated by DNMT3A and DNMT3B in a positive feedback loop. Taken together, our findings show that miR-29s suppress the Wnt signaling pathway through demethylation of WIF-1 in NSCLC.

  10. Monozygotic twins discordant for common variable immunodeficiency reveal impaired DNA demethylation during naïve-to-memory B-cell transition

    Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C.; del Pino-Molina, Lucia; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Ciudad, Laura; Gómez-Cabrero, David; Company, Carlos; Urquiza, José M.; Tegnér, Jesper; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; López-Granados, Eduardo; Ballestar, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent primary immunodeficiency characterized by loss of B-cell function, depends partly on genetic defects, and epigenetic changes are thought to contribute to its aetiology. Here we perform a high-throughput DNA methylation analysis of this disorder using a pair of CVID-discordant MZ twins and show predominant gain of DNA methylation in CVID B cells with respect to those from the healthy sibling in critical B lymphocyte genes, such as PIK3CD, BCL2L1, RPS6KB2, TCF3 and KCNN4. Individual analysis confirms hypermethylation of these genes. Analysis in naive, unswitched and switched memory B cells in a CVID patient cohort shows impaired ability to demethylate and upregulate these genes in transitioning from naive to memory cells in CVID. Our results not only indicate a role for epigenetic alterations in CVID but also identify relevant DNA methylation changes in B cells that could explain the clinical manifestations of CVID individuals. PMID:26081581

  11. Identification of three new phase II metabolites of a designer drug methylone formed in rats by N-demethylation followed by conjugation with dicarboxylic acids.

    Židková, Monika; Linhart, Igor; Balíková, Marie; Himl, Michal; Dvořáčková, Veronika; Lhotková, Eva; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    1. Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone, MDMC), which appeared on the illicit drug market in 2004, is a frequently abused synthetic cathinone derivative. Known metabolic pathways of MDMC include N-demethylation to normethylone (3,4-methylenedioxycathinone, MDC), aliphatic chain hydroxylation and oxidative demethylenation followed by monomethylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid and/or sulphate. 2. Three new phase II metabolites, amidic conjugates of MDC with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid, were identified in the urine of rats dosed subcutaneously with MDMC.HCl (20 mg/kg body weight) by LC-ESI-HRMS using synthetic reference standards to support identification. 3. The main portion of administered MDMC was excreted unchanged. Normethylone, was a major urinary metabolite, of which a minor part was conjugated with dicarboxylic acids. 4. Previously identified ring-opened metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethcathinone (4-OH-3-MeO-MC), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxymeth-cathinone (3-OH-4-MeO-MC) and 3,4-dihydroxymethcathinone (3,4-di-OH-MC) mostly in conjugated form with glucuronic and/or sulphuric acids were also detected. 5. Also, ring-opened metabolites derived from MDC, namely, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycathinone (4-OH-3-MeO-C), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycathinone (3-OH-4-MeO-C) and 3,4-dihydroxycathinone (3,4-di-OH-C) were identified for the first time in vivo.

  12. Abundance, genetic diversity and sensitivity to demethylation inhibitor fungicides of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from organic substrates with special emphasis on compost.

    Santoro, Karin; Matić, Slavica; Gisi, Ulrich; Spadaro, Davide; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria L

    2017-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical and also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides. A. fumigatus was isolated only rarely from soil and meadow/forest organic matter but high concentrations (10 3 to 10 7  cfu/g) were detected in substrates subjected to elevated temperatures, such as compost and silage. High genetic diversity of A. fumigatus from compost was found based on SSR markers, distinguishing among fungal isolates even when coming from the same substrate sample, while subclustering was observed based on mutations in cyp51A gene. Several cyp51A amino acid substitutions were found in 15 isolates, although all isolates were fully sensitive to the tested DMI fungicides, with exception of one isolate in combination with one fungicide. This study suggests that the tested A. fumigatus isolates collected in Italy, Spain and Hungary from the fungus' major living habitats (compost) and commercial growing substrates are not potential carriers for DMI resistance in the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  14. MINA controls proliferation and tumorigenesis of glioblastoma by epigenetically regulating cyclins and CDKs via H3K9me3 demethylation.

    Huang, M-Y; Xuan, F; Liu, W; Cui, H-J

    2017-01-19

    It is generally known that histone demethylases regulate gene transcription by altering the methylate status on histones, but their roles in cancers and the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA) is reported to be a histone demethylase and highly expressed in many cancers. Here, for the first time, we show that MINA is involved in glioblastoma carcinogenesis and reveal the probable mechanisms of it in cell-cycle control. Kaplan-Meier analysis of progression-free survival showed that high MINA expression was strongly correlated with poor outcome and advancing tumor stage. MINA knockdown significantly repressed the cell proliferation and tumorigenesis abilities of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo that were rescued by overexpressing the full-length MINA afterwards. Microarray analysis after knockdown of MINA revealed that MINA probably regulated glioblastoma carcinogenesis through the predominant cell-cycle pathways. Further investigation showed that MINA deficiency led to a cell-cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phases. And among the downstream genes, we found that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases were directly activated by MINA via the demethylation of H3K9me3.

  15. An innovative tri-directional broadband piezoelectric energy harvester

    Su, Wei-Jiun, E-mail: weijiun@mie.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2013-11-11

    This paper presents a tri-directional piezoelectric energy harvester that is able to harvest vibration energy over a wide bandwidth from three orthogonal directions. The harvester consists of a main beam, an auxiliary beam, and a spring-mass system, with magnets integrated to introduce nonlinear force and couple the three sub-systems. Theoretical analysis and experiments were performed at constant acceleration under frequency sweeps to acquire frequency responses. The experimental results show that the voltage can achieve more than 2 V over more than 5 Hz of bandwidth with 1 MΩ load in the three orthogonal directions.

  16. Adolescents' interest in trying flavoured e-cigarettes.

    Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Brewer, N T

    2016-11-01

    More US adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavours. A national sample of adolescents (n=1125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014 to June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavours (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavour on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs. Adolescents were more likely to report interest in trying an e-cigarette offered by a friend if it were flavoured like menthol (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.46 to 10.97), candy (OR=4.53, 95% CI 1.67 to 12.31) or fruit (OR=6.49, 95% CI 2.48 to 17.01) compared with tobacco. Adolescents believed that fruit-flavoured e-cigarettes were less harmful to health than tobacco-flavoured e-cigarettes (p<0.05). Perceived harm mediated the relationship between some flavours and interest in trying e-cigarettes. A minority of adolescents believed that e-cigarettes did not have nicotine (14.6%) or did not know whether they had nicotine (3.6%); these beliefs did not vary by flavour. Candy-flavoured, fruit-flavoured and menthol-flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to adolescents more than tobacco-flavoured or alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes. This appeal is only partially explained by beliefs about reduced harm. Given adolescents' interest in trying e-cigarettes with certain flavours, policymakers should consider restricting advertisements promoting flavoured products in media that reach large numbers of young people. Future research should examine other reasons for the appeal of individual flavours, such as novelty and perceived luxury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Microbialitas lacustres de secuencias triásicas de Argentina

    Benavente, Cecilia Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Las sucesiones triásicas Cerro de las Cabras y Cerro Puntudo corresponden al relleno sedimentario de la Cuenca Cuyana de rift. La cuenca presenta dos hemigrábenes asimétricos, uno ubicado al norte y otro al sur de polaridad opuesta y desvinculados por un alto topográfico. Los depocentros estudiados son Cerro Puntudo que forma parte del hemigraben norte en donde aflora la Formación Cerro Puntudo; y el depocentro Potrerillos que forma parte del hemigraben sur en el que aflora la Formación Cerro...

  18. Tri-functional cannula for retinal endovascular surgery

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-07-27

    A tri-functional cannula combines the functions of tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) solution delivery, illumination and venous pressure measurement. The cannula utilizes a tapered hollow-core optical fiber having an inlet for tPA solution, an attached fiber optic splitter configured to receive illumination light from an optical source such and a LED. A window in the cannula transmits the light to and from a central retinal vein. The return light is coupled to an optical detector to measure the pressure within the vein and determine whether an occlusion has been removed.

  19. ONE CANNOT BE TRIED FOR THE SAME DEED TWICE

    NICOLAE GRADINARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The principle of applying a single sanction for a single wrongful act. This principle involves the application of a single penalty for a single wrongful act; who has ignored the rule of law his conduct will meet once for illegal acts, violation of law for a corresponding one legal sanction. It does not preclude the simultaneous existence of several forms of legal liability for the unlawful act committed by the same person, when the same act is violated several rules of law. Article 4 of Protocol 7 of the Convention enshrines the "right not to be tried or punished twice", known as traditional „ne bis in idem”: "Nobody can be tried or punished by the criminal jurisdiction of the same State for an offense for which has already been acquitted or convicted by a final decision under the law and penal procedure of that State. (…” In two cases this will expose the principle settled by the European Courts non bis in idem.

  20. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  1. Adolescents’ Interest in Trying Flavored E-Cigarettes

    Pepper, J.K.; Ribisl, K.M.; Brewer, N.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background More U.S. adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavored e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavors. Methods A national sample of adolescents (n=1,125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014-June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavors (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy, or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavor on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs. Results Adolescents were more likely to report interest in trying an e-cigarette offered by a friend if it were flavored like menthol (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.46-10.97), candy (OR=4.53, 95% CI 1.67-12.31), or fruit (OR=6.49, 95% CI 2.48-17.01) compared to tobacco. Adolescents believed that fruit-flavored e-cigarettes were less harmful to health than tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes (preasons for the appeal of individual flavors, such as novelty and perceived prestige. PMID:27633762

  2. Les particules et leurs symétries

    Chanfray, Guy

    1997-01-01

    Les particules élémentaires, initialement au nombre de trois (proton, neutron, électron) se sont rapidement révélées plus nombreuses, notamment grâce aux expériences menées dans des accélérateurs de plus en plus puissants. L'interprétation théorique des données a permis de fonder une classification qui permet aujourd'hui de parler des " vrais " constituants fondamentaux : les quards et les leptons. Ce livre expose la manière dont les lois de symétrie, externes et internes, déterminent les propriétés des particules élémentaires. Il montre comment ces symétries mènent aux lois de conservation, comment le formalisme canonique de la théorie des champs permet de retrouver les diagrammes de Feynman et comment la compréhension des symétries SU(2) et SU (3)F détermine la classification des hadrons en multiples. La deuxième partie de l'ouvrage est consacrée aux grandes théories de jauge, la chromodynamique quantique et la théorie électrofaible. La QCD permet aujourd'hui de comprendre la...

  3. DataTri, a database of American triatomine species occurrence

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Balsalobre, Agustín; Medone, Paula; Cano, María Eugenia; Gurgel Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Feliciangeli, Dora; Vezzani, Darío; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina; Gorla, David E.; Marti, Gerardo A.; Rabinovich, Jorge E.

    2018-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to mammals - including humans - by insect vectors of the subfamily Triatominae. We present the results of a compilation of triatomine occurrence and complementary ecological data that represents the most complete, integrated and updated database (DataTri) available on triatomine species at a continental scale. This database was assembled by collecting the records of triatomine species published from 1904 to 2017, spanning all American countries with triatomine presence. A total of 21815 georeferenced records were obtained from published literature, personal fieldwork and data provided by colleagues. The data compiled includes 24 American countries, 14 genera and 135 species. From a taxonomic perspective, 67.33% of the records correspond to the genus Triatoma, 20.81% to Panstrongylus, 9.01% to Rhodnius and the remaining 2.85% are distributed among the other 11 triatomine genera. We encourage using DataTri information in various areas, especially to improve knowledge of the geographical distribution of triatomine species and its variations in time.

  4. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Integrated Tri-generation Systems

    Cetinkaya, Eda

    Energy demand in the world is increasing with population growth and higher living standards. Today, the need for energy requires a focus on renewable sources without abandoning fossil fuels. Efficient use of energy is one of the most important tasks in modern energy systems to achieve. In addition to the energy need, growing environmental concerns are linked with energy is emerged. Multi-purpose energy generation allows a higher efficiency by generating more outputs with the same input in the same system. Tri-generation systems are expected to provide at least three commodities, such as heating, cooling, desalination, storable fuel production and some other useful outputs, in addition to power generation. In this study, an experimental investigation of gasification is presented and two integrated tri-generation systems are proposed. The first integrated tri-generation system (System 1) utilizes solar energy as input and the outputs are power, fresh water and hot water. It consists of four sub-systems, namely solar power tower system, desalination system, Rankine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second integrated tri-generation system (System 2) utilizes coal and biomass as input and the outputs are power, fuel and hot water. It consists of five sub-systems: gasification plant, Brayton cycle, Rankine cycle, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis plant and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Experimental investigation includes coal and biomass gasification, where the experimental results of synthesis gas compositions are utilized in the analysis of the second systems. To maximize efficiency, heat losses from the system should be minimized through a recovery system to make the heat a useful commodity for other systems, such as ORCs which can utilize the low-grade heat. In this respect, ORCs are first analyzed for three different configurations in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies altering working fluids to increase the power output. Among two types of coal and one type

  5. Predictors of Sexual Intercourse Frequency Among Couples Trying to Conceive.

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the predictors of sexual intercourse frequency (SIF) among couples trying to conceive despite the well-established link between SIF and fecundity. To evaluate men's and women's demographic, occupational, and lifestyle predictors of SIF among couples. 469 Couples without a history of infertility participating in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (2005-2009) were followed up for ≤1 year while trying to conceive. At enrollment, both partners were interviewed about demographic, occupational, lifestyle, and psychological characteristics using standardized questionnaires. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate the adjusted percent difference in SIF across exposure categories. SIF was recorded in daily journals and summarized as average SIF/mo. The median (interquartile range) SIF during follow-up was 6 (4-9) acts/mo. For every year increase in age for women and men, SIF decreased by -0.8% (95% CI -2.5 to 1.0%) and -1.7% (95% CI -3.1 to -0.3%). Women with high school education or less and those of non-white race had 34.4% and 16.0% higher SIF, respectively. A similar trend was seen for men's education and race. Only couples where both partners (but not just 1 partner) worked rotating shifts had -39.1% (95% CI -61.0 to -5.0%) lower SIF compared to couples where neither partner worked rotating shifts. Men's (but not women's) exercise was associated with 13.2% (95% CI 1.7-26.0%) higher SIF. Diagnosis of a mood or anxiety disorder in men (but not women) was associated with a 26.0% (95% CI -42.7 to -4.4%) lower SIF. Household income, smoking status, body mass index, night work, alcohol intake, and psychosocial stress were not associated with SIF. Even among couples trying to conceive, there was substantial variation in SIF. Both partners' age, education, race, and rotating shift work as well as men's exercise and mental health play an important role in determining

  6. Using ELECTRE TRI to support maintenance of water distribution networks

    Flavio Trojan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems encountered in the context of the maintenance management of water supply are evidenced by the lack of decision support models which gives a manager overview of the system. This paper, therefore, develops a model that uses, in its framework, the multicriteria outranking method ELECTRE TRI. The objective is to sort the areas of water flow measurement of a water distribution network, by priority of maintenance, with data collected from an automated system of abnormalities detection. This sorting is designed to support maintenance decisions in terms of the measure more appropriate to be applied per region. To illustrate the proposed model, an application was performed in a city with 100 thousand water connections. With this model it becomes possible to improve the allocation of maintenance measures for regions and mainly to improve the operation of the distribution network.

  7. Tri-State Current Source Inverter With Improved Dynamic Performance

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wong, Chow Pang

    2008-01-01

    Traditional dc-ac current source inverter (CSI) has a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in its control-to-output transfer function. This RHP zero causes the inverter output to fall before rising when a step increase in command reference is required (commonly known as non-minimum-phase effect). To achieve...... a better dynamic response, this paper proposes the design of a tri-state CSI using only an additional semiconductor switch for introducing unique freewheeling states to the traditional six active and three null states of a CSI. With the freewheeling states inserted appropriately within the inverter state...... sequence, the inductive boosting and discharging intervals can be decoupled, allowing the RHP zero to be eliminated with only minor circuit modifications (high level control schemes like predictive and multiloop voltage/current control remain unchanged). The designed inverter can be controlled using...

  8. The ethical plausibility of the 'Right To Try' laws.

    Carrieri, D; Peccatori, F A; Boniolo, G

    2018-02-01

    'Right To Try' (RTT) laws originated in the USA to allow terminally ill patients to request access to early stage experimental medical products directly from the producer, removing the oversight and approval of the Food and Drug Administration. These laws have received significant media attention and almost equally unanimous criticism by the bioethics, clinical and scientific communities. They touch indeed on complex issues such as the conflict between individual and public interest, and the public understanding of medical research and its regulation. The increased awareness around RTT laws means that healthcare providers directly involved in the management of patients with life-threatening conditions such as cancer, infective, or neurologic conditions will deal more frequently with patients' requests of access to experimental medical products. This paper aims to assess the ethical plausibility of the RTT laws, and to suggest some possible ethical tools and considerations to address the main issues they touch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.

    2011-01-01

    species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant...... trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy‐in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits...... is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs...

  10. The Stack-Size of Combinatorial Tries Revisited

    Markus E. Nebel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we consider a generalized class of extended binary trees in which leaves are distinguished in order to represent the location of a key within a trie of the same structure. We prove an exact asymptotic equivalent to the average stack-size of trees with α internal nodes and β leaves corresponding to keys; we assume that all trees with the same parameters α and β have the same probability. The assumption of that uniform model is motivated for example by the usage of tries for the compression of blockcodes. Furthermore, we will prove asymptotics for the r-th moments of the stack-size and we will show that a normalized stack-size possesses a theta distribution in the limit.

  11. Tri-band small monopole antenna based on SRR units

    Gehan Shehata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel design for a tri-band monopole antenna coupled with metamaterial units is introduced. The proposed antenna was designed to cover WiMAX (2.5, 3.5 and WLAN (5.2 bands. In our proposal, a coplanar waveguide (CPW fed circular-disk monopole antenna is coupled with three split ring resonator (SRR units which exist on its back side. In our design a monopole antenna and SRR units are designed first to resonate at 5.2 GHz and 2.5 GHz respectively. In addition, antenna is loaded with post to force resonance at 3.5 GHz. SRR units are used for 2.5 GHz resonance to miniaturize antenna size, and our proposed antenna considered an electrically small antenna (ESA at its first resonance frequency. Simulated and measured results exhibit a good agreement that validate our design.

  12. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  13. A new unextracted-sample radioimmunoassay method for hepatic endogenous nuclear L-tri-iodothyronine content

    Yagura, T.; Walfish, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Endogenous L-tri-iodothyronine content in an hepatic nuclear extract was measured by a new unextracted-sample radioimmunoassay method using 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid to inhibit the L-[ 125 I]tri-iodothyronine binding to the nuclear L-tri-iodothyronine receptor within the extract. The amount of endogenous L-tri-iodothyronine was 10-40 pg/0.2 ml of hepatic nuclear extract from euthyroid rats, compared with less than 3.125 pg/0.2ml from thyroidectomized rats. The results obtained were compared with a Sephadex G-25 column extracted-sample radioimmunoassay method and showed a good agreement. The values for the endogenous L-tri-iodothyronine content were utilized to correct for the L-tri-iodothyronine concentration within the binding assay mixture in order to accurately determine by Scatchard analysis the binding characteristics of the nuclear L-tri-iodothyronine receptor. The validity of the correction for endogenous L-tri-iodothyronine was demonstrated by using a nuclear extract from a thyroidectomized rat which was preincubated with a small known amount of L-tri-iodothyronine before determining the nuclear L-tri-iodothyronine receptor binding characteristics. It is concluded that the necessity and validity of using endogenous L-tri-iodothyronine corrections in the Scatchard analytical computations of the nuclear L-tri-iodothyronine receptor binding characteristics has been demonstrated, being particularly more important for affinity constant than maximum binding capacity. (author)

  14. Hanford, diversification, and the Tri-Cities Economy FY 1998

    SCOTT, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (DOE/RL) are to safely manage the Hanford Site, to manage and clean up its legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy new science and technology in the environmental and energy fields. Collectively, DOE/RL and its contractors are the most important single entity in the Tri-Cities local economy (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland, Washington, and the surrounding area). Although the relevant economic region affected by DOE/RL and its contractors actually embraces a geographic area reaching from Yakima in the west to Walla Walla in the east and from Moses Lake in the north to Pendleton, Oregon, in the south, over 90% of economic impacts likely occur in Benton and Franklin Counties. These two counties are defined as the ''local'' Tri-Cities economy for purposes of this study (see Figure 1). In the federal fiscal year (IV) 1998 (October 1, 1997 through September 30, 1998), the total impact of DOEs local $1.6 billion budget was felt through payrolls of $519 million and local purchases of goods and services of $246 million. The total local spending of $765 million was down slightly from the FY 1997 total of $774 million. Taking into account the slightly greater multiplier effects of this spending due to changes in its mix, the DOE/RL budget sustained an estimated 36% of all local employment (31,200 out of 86,000 jobs) and up to 64% of local wage income ($1.55 billion out of $2.40 billion). This was up slightly from the year before (29,500 jobs, $1.49 billion income). DOE budget increases in FY 1999 are expected to result in a net increase of about 200 local DOE contractor jobs over the September 30, 1998 level, or about equal to the FY 1998 average. In addition, economic diversification more than offset the impact of the local DOE losses in FY 1998 and, together with an initial economic boost from privatization of Hanford's tank waste cleanup, is expected to play a significant expansive role in FY 1999

  15. Hanford Diversification and the Tri-Cities Economy FY 1999

    SCOTT, M.J.

    2000-06-05

    The missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (DOE/RL) are to safely manage the Hanford Site, to manage and clean up its legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy new science and technology in the environmental and energy fields. Collectively, DOE/RL and its contractors are the most important single entity in the Tri-Cities local economy (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland, Washington, and the surrounding area). Although the relevant economic region affected by DOE/RL and its contractors actually embraces a geographic area reaching from Yakima in the west to Walla Walla in the east and from Moses Lake in the north to Pendleton, Oregon, in the south, over 90% of economic impacts likely occur in Benton and Franklin Counties. These two counties are defined as the ''local'' Tri-Cities economy for purposes of this study. In the federal fiscal year (FY) 1999 (October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999), the total impact of DOE'S local $1.59 billion budget was felt through payrolls of $542 million and local purchases of goods and services of $226 million. The total local spending of $768 million was up slightly from the FY 1998 total of $765 million. Taking into account the multiplier effects of this spending, the DOE/RL budget sustained an estimated 32% of all local employment (28,250 out of 88,100 jobs) and about 35% of local earned income (almost $1.08 billion out of $3.08 billion). The decrease in these percentages from last year's report reflects an update of the model's economic structure based on the 1997 economic census year, a correction of a programming error in the model found during the update, and a broader definition of earnings that includes proprietor income, not just wages (see the Appendix for revisions to the previous forecasts). DOE budget increases in FY 2000 are expected to result in no change to the number of local DOE contractor jobs and about a $29 million increase in direct local

  16. Hanford Diversification and the Tri-Cities Economy FY 1999

    SCOTT, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (DOE/RL) are to safely manage the Hanford Site, to manage and clean up its legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy new science and technology in the environmental and energy fields. Collectively, DOE/RL and its contractors are the most important single entity in the Tri-Cities local economy (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland, Washington, and the surrounding area). Although the relevant economic region affected by DOE/RL and its contractors actually embraces a geographic area reaching from Yakima in the west to Walla Walla in the east and from Moses Lake in the north to Pendleton, Oregon, in the south, over 90% of economic impacts likely occur in Benton and Franklin Counties. These two counties are defined as the ''local'' Tri-Cities economy for purposes of this study. In the federal fiscal year (FY) 1999 (October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999), the total impact of DOE'S local $1.59 billion budget was felt through payrolls of $542 million and local purchases of goods and services of $226 million. The total local spending of $768 million was up slightly from the FY 1998 total of $765 million. Taking into account the multiplier effects of this spending, the DOE/RL budget sustained an estimated 32% of all local employment (28,250 out of 88,100 jobs) and about 35% of local earned income (almost $1.08 billion out of $3.08 billion). The decrease in these percentages from last year's report reflects an update of the model's economic structure based on the 1997 economic census year, a correction of a programming error in the model found during the update, and a broader definition of earnings that includes proprietor income, not just wages (see the Appendix for revisions to the previous forecasts). DOE budget increases in FY 2000 are expected to result in no change to the number of local DOE contractor jobs and about a $29 million increase in direct local spending

  17. Synthesis, Structural, Viscosimetric, And Rheological Study, of A New Trifunctional Phosphorus Epoxyde Prepolymer , Tri-Glycidyl Ether Tri-Mercaptoethanol Of Phosphore (TGETMEP

    Atiqa Bekhta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to synthesize a new phosphorus tri-functional epoxy resin tri-glycidyl ether tri-mercaptoethanol of phosphorus (TGETMEP in two stages. In the first stage, we got the precursor molecule of the epoxy matrix tri-mercaptoethanol phosphate (METR. The second step led us to the synthesis of tri-functional resin TMEP condensation with epichlorohydrin. The standard TGETMEP resin was characterized by the Fourier infrared transformation (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, on one hand. The viscosimetric analysis was investigated by the Hebbelod capillary viscometer and rheometer Rheomat 01, on the other hand. The cross-linked resins and tertiary formulated composites have been studied by the rheometer 01 which was observed by means of SEM.

  18. What Did You Try Last Semester? How Did It Work?

    Moore, John W.

    1999-02-01

    As I write this, the end of the semester is less than a week away. This is a good time to reflect on what I tried this time that I had not done before, how well it worked, and how that applies to the process of change and reform in chemical education. Nearly a year ago, a good friend gave me a copy of a brief note by the Executive Director of the National Science Teachers Association, Gerald Wheeler (1). Its title was "Why doesn't change stick?" Quoting the Red Queen from Alice in Wonderland, Wheeler suggested that it might be taking all the running we could do just to maintain the status quo. He asked readers to look systematically at "the failed reform efforts begun in the 1960s" and questioned whether those efforts had actually changed anything. Although the reform efforts Wheeler questioned were aimed at the pre-college level, his point is a good one for college as well as high school teachers to consider, especially at a time when new projects are aiming to reform science education systemically. (See pages 158-160 and page 163 for more information on these projects.) If reform efforts are typically meteoric, burning brightly for but a short time and then disappearing, what might we do to make them less so? I think that the power to make reform less meteoric lies within all of us. It involves incremental, rather than revolutionary, change. My model for reform is one in which each of us continually experiments with manageable changes in courses and pedagogy, evaluating their effectiveness, casting out the less than successful ones, retaining and refining those that help students learn more effectively, and keeping the rest of the community informed about what works and what does not. This model requires continual work and dedication from all of us, but not superhuman effort that is impossible to sustain over the long term. A meteor shower definitely gets our attention, but far more light is shed by the fixed stars, and they'll still be there next week. The

  19. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo; Relacion de la desmetilacion del ADN con la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) In vivo

    Toribio E, E

    2005-07-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  20. Determination of total and organic mercury and evaluation of methylation and demethylation processes in sediments of the Rio Grande Reservoir, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Franklin, Robson Leocadio

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is a very important water supply for this region. In the present study bottom waters and sediment samples collected in this reservoir, in four sampling points, in four campaigns, from September 2008 to January 2010, were analyzed. Firstly total Hg was determined in sediment and bottom waters by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). Following, the analytical methodology for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. The validation of this methodology, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by means of IAEA 405 and BCR-CRM 580 reference materials analyses. For methylation and demethylation processes evaluation in this environment, the following physical and chemical parameters were assessed, in situ: pH, water temperature, redox potential (EH), transparency and depth. For the sediment samples, granulometry, total organic carbon, sulphate-reducing bacteria, total N and P, besides the metals Co, Cu, Fe and Mn were evaluated. The selection of these parameters was related to the factors that influence the behavior of MeHg in the sediments and its transition zone. Total Hg ranging from 1.0 to 71.0 mg kg'- 1 and organic mercury from -1 in sediments and methylation rates from 0.06 to 1.4% were found, along the reservoir. Different methylation conditions along the reservoir and its influences were also discussed. As supplementary study the concentration of some metals and trace elements in the sediments by neutron activation analysis technique was determined. As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm and Yb were determined. The enrichment factor in relation to earth crust values using Sc as normalizer element reached values higher than 2.0 for the elements As, Br

  1. A Try-Out of the February Revolution?

    Sergei A. Nefedov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question about the causes and actors of the February revolution can be understood only in the context of previous events. In this connection, of great importance is the analysis of the causes and circumstances of a strike wave that swept through Petrograd in October 1916. Up to 100 thousand strikers (together with locked-out workers were involved in these labor unrests that were accompanied by demonstrations and clashes with the police. In many ways (bread shortage as the main motivation, bakeshops pillage, spontaneity, suddenness, involvement of adolescents and women, Cossacks’ refusal to shoot into the crowd, solders’ desertion to the side of people, these events recall those of February 23–28, 1917. The American historians L. Haimson and E. Brian called them “a try-out of the February revolution”. Short information about these strikes is available in the papers of a number of Soviet authors; however, it is presented to some extent tendentiously, based on the desire to show the directing and organizational role of the Bolshevik party. In this regard, it seems important to restore the actual course of the events and give them an objective interpretation. The study shows that the October strikes were the first reaction of Petrograd workers to the emerging food crisis, whereas the February revolution was the reaction to the second, a much more acute phase of this crisis. The mechanism of these events was similar: in the both cases, famine was the major factor pushing for protests. In the both cases, protests were spontaneous and massive, externally similar to a hunger riot. The food crisis determined the army’s position as well: both in October and in February, Cossacks and soldiers sympathized with the starving population and refused to use weapons to crackdown demonstrators

  2. A comparison of the interfacial tension of tri-iso-amyl phosphate and tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Sreenivasulu, B.; Rajeswari, S.; Suresh, A.; Antony, M.P.; Sivaraman, N.

    2016-01-01

    In our recent studies, Tri-iso-amyl Phosphate (TiAP) was found to be a potential extractant for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. It has excellent extraction characteristics, higher capacity to load Pu(IV) without third phase formation, lower aqueous solubility etc. Mixer-Settler runs with TiAP showed excellent extraction and stripping behavior of uranium and plutonium. Physiochemical properties are considered to be important parameters for a solvent to be qualified for the processing of spent nuclear fuels. Prior to the deployment of TiAP in a reprocessing plant, it is necessary to measure the interfacial tension of TiAP. The present study deals with the measurement of interfacial tension (G/IFT) of neat and 1.1M solutions of TiAP and TBP in n-dodecane (DD) (degraded and undegraded solvents). The samples were irradiated in a 60 Co gamma chamber with a dose rate of 5 kGy/hr. IFT of neat and 1.1M solutions of TiAP and TBP in n-DD were measured against 4M HNO 3 at 303K by Drop weight method in which G is given by G = (V´ (r aq - r org ) ´ g) / (2 ´ p ´ r ´ f s ), where f s is the Smith's correction factor, f s = (1 - r/R), V is the volume of the drop at the moment of separation, r aq and r org are the densities of the aqueous and the organic phases, respectively, r is the radius at the capillary tip, R is the drop radius at the moment of separation and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Results indicate that IFT of neat TiAP-HNO 3 system (11.2) is marginally lower than that of 1.1M TiAP/DD-HNO 3 system

  3. TRI HITA KARANA AND HYDROLIC CYCLE BASED ON VEDA

    A.A. Kade Sri Yudari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic cycle refers to the route of water cycle or the journey made by water on the earth’s surface. Water can change in form, and flows in various places before finally it gets back to the biggest source, that is, the ocean. Approximately 71% of the earth is covered with the ocean. Talking about the hydrologic cycle cannot be separated from talking about the sun and the ocean, that is, the impact of the rise and fall of the tides. In Veda, the traditional geography, in general, and in Tatwa and Purana, in particular, it is stated that the earth is divided into two parts; they are the main land and the ocean. The question is how deep the Hindu theology and philosophy about the hydrologic cycle is. The water on the earth’s surface evaporates, resulting from the hot ray radiated by the sun. In Reg. Veda Samhita.I.164.51, it is strongly stated that “the water on the earth’s surface rises due to evaporation”. After evaporation, water changes into water drops or fine dews referred to as clouds. There are many types and forms of clouds which may lead to storms; however, some have no impact. When such clouds are already formed, they are brought to every area of the earth’s surface. When they reach the saturation point, a natural phenomenon appears which is referred to as rain. The falling water makes the earth wet, fills up dams, flows along rivers, and fertilize every type of life on earth. Rain measures how the hydrologic cycle takes place. Therefore, it should be recognized that it is important to maintain the hydrologic cycle, which determines that the earth’s fertility and prosperity will not be disturbed. The Hindu teaching is rich in such a philosophy referred to as Tri Hita Karana. Even in very religious ritual water is always mainly used for purification. The sources of water such as wells, rivers, lakes, showers, and oceans are made to be physically and spiritually sacred. The concepts of balance and harmony are easily found

  4. Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster 2007 SOW

    Seager, M.

    2007-01-01

    well, the budget demands are extreme and new, more cost effective ways of fielding these systems must be developed. This Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster (TLCC) procurement represents the ASC first investment vehicle in these capacity systems. It also represents a new strategy for quickly building, fielding and integrating many Linux clusters of various sizes into classified and unclassified production service through a concept of Scalable Units (SU). The programmatic objective is to dramatically reduce the overall Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of these 'capacity' systems relative to the best practices in Linux Cluster deployments today. This objective only makes sense in the context of these systems quickly becoming very robust and useful production clusters under the crushing load that will be inflicted on them by the ASC and SSP scientific simulation capacity workload.

  5. Planning of aid for adolescents in Kaunas who have tried to commit suicide

    Grigonytė, Daina

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the study: To investigate the possibilities of planning, succession and development of aid for adolescents in Kaunas city who have tried to commit suicide. Objectives: 1. to define the main stages in providing help for adolescents who have tried to commit suicide; 2. to clarify interdepartmental obstacles providing help for adolescents in crisis; 3. to formulate recommendations for the development of aid for adolescents in Kaunas who have tried to commit suicide. Methods: Qualit...

  6. Southern California Seismic Network: Caltech/USGS Element of TriNet 1997-2001

    Hauksson, Egill; Small, Patrick; Hafner, Katrin; Busby, Robert; Clayton, Robert; Goltz, James; Heaton, Tom; Hutton, Kate; Kanamori, Hiroo; Polet, Jascha

    2001-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) are completing the implementation of TriNet, a modern seismic information system for southern California. TriNet consists of two elements, the Caltech-USGS element and the CDMG element (Mori et al., 1998). The Caltech-USGS element (Caltech-USGS TriNet) concentrates on rapid notification and archiving...

  7. Automated extraction of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and N-demethyl-LSD from blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples using the Zymark RapidTrace with LC/MS/MS confirmation.

    de Kanel, J; Vickery, W E; Waldner, B; Monahan, R M; Diamond, F X

    1998-05-01

    A forensic procedure for the quantitative confirmation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and the qualitative confirmation of its metabolite, N-demethyl-LSD, in blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples is presented. The Zymark RapidTrace was used to perform fully automated solid-phase extractions of all specimen types. After extract evaporation, confirmations were performed using liquid chromatography (LC) followed by positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) without derivatization. Quantitation of LSD was accomplished using LSD-d3 as an internal standard. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for LSD was 0.05 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) for both LSD and N-demethyl-LSD was 0.025 ng/mL. The recovery of LSD was greater than 95% at levels of 0.1 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL. For LSD at 1.0 ng/mL, the within-run and between-run (different day) relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.2% and 4.4%, respectively.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF JOB STRESS AND COMPENSATION TO JOB SATISFACTION AT PT. TRI MEGAH MAKMUR

    R Sudiarditha, I Ketut; Baqi, Fikri Haikal; Handaru, Agung Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research are: 1 ) To know description and how picture level job stress, compensation and job satisfaction atPT Tri Megah Makmur. 2) To know the influence of job stress tojob satisfaction atPT Tri Megah Makmur. 3) To know the influence of compensation to job satisfaction atPT Tri Megah Makmur. 4) To know empirically the influence of job stress and compensation tojob satisfaction atPT Tri Megah Makmur. 5) To know how far the contribution of job stress and compensation tojob ...

  9. The cytosolic chaperonin CCT/TRiC and cancer cell proliferation.

    Chafika Boudiaf-Benmammar

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone CCT/TRiC plays a central role in maintaining cellular proteostasis as it mediates the folding of the major cytoskeletal proteins tubulins and actins. CCT/TRiC is also involved in the oncoprotein cyclin E, the Von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein, cyclin B and p21(ras folding which strongly suggests that it is involved in cell proliferation and tumor genesis. To assess the involvement of CCT/TRiC in tumor genesis, we quantified its expression levels and activity in 18 cancer, one non-cancer human cell lines and a non-cancer human liver. We show that the expression levels of CCT/TRiC in cancer cell lines are higher than that in normal cells. However, CCT/TRiC activity does not always correlate with its expression levels. We therefore documented the expression levels of CCT/TRiC modulators and partners PhLP3, Hop/P60, prefoldin and Hsc/Hsp70. Our analysis reveals a functional interplay between molecular chaperones that might account for a precise modulation of CCT/TRiC activity in cell proliferation through changes in the cellular levels of prefoldin and/or Hsc/p70 and CCT/TRiC client protein availability. Our observation and approaches bring novel insights in the role of CCT/TRiC-mediated protein folding machinery in cancer cell development.

  10. The VA, VCD, Raman and ROA spectra of tri-L-serine in aqueous solution

    Jürgensen, Vibeke Würtz; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of one conformer of the nonionic neutral and zwitterionic species of L-serinyl L-serinyl L-serine (SSS or tri-L-serine), together with its cationic and anionic species and the capped N-acetyl tri-L-serine N'-methylamide analog were optimized with density functional theory with the ......The structures of one conformer of the nonionic neutral and zwitterionic species of L-serinyl L-serinyl L-serine (SSS or tri-L-serine), together with its cationic and anionic species and the capped N-acetyl tri-L-serine N'-methylamide analog were optimized with density functional theory...

  11. Examination of evidence for collinear cluster tri-partition

    Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Goryainova, Z. I.; Malaza, V.; Mkaza, N.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.

    2017-12-01

    Background: In a series of experiments at different time-of-flight spectrometers of heavy ions we have observed manifestations of a new at least ternary decay channel of low excited heavy nuclei. Due to specific features of the effect, it was called collinear cluster tri-partition (CCT). The obtained experimental results have initiated a number of theoretical articles dedicated to different aspects of the CCT. Special attention was paid to kinematics constraints and stability of collinearity. Purpose: To compare theoretical predictions with our experimental data, only partially published so far. To develop the model of one of the most populated CCT modes that gives rise to the so-called "Ni-bump." Method: The fission events under analysis form regular two-dimensional linear structures in the mass correlation distributions of the fission fragments. The structures were revealed both at a highly statistically reliable level but on the background substrate, and at the low statistics in almost noiseless distribution. The structures are bounded by the known magic fragments and were reproduced at different spectrometers. All this provides high reliability of our experimental findings. The model of the CCT proposed here is based on theoretical results, published recently, and the detailed analysis of all available experimental data. Results: Under our model, the CCT mode giving rise to the Ni bump occurs as a two-stage breakup of the initial three body chain like the nuclear configuration with an elongated central cluster. After the first scission at the touching point with one of the side clusters, the predominantly heavier one, the deformation energy of the central cluster allows the emission of up to four neutrons flying apart isotropically. The heavy side cluster and a dinuclear system, consisting of the light side cluster and the central one, relaxed to a less elongated shape, are accelerated in the mutual Coulomb field. The "tip" of the dinuclear system at the moment

  12. Compression response of tri-axially braided textile composites

    Song, Shunjun

    2007-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with characterizing the compression stiffness and compression strength of 2D tri-axially braided textile composites (2DTBC). Two types of 2DTBC are considered differing only on the resin type, while the textile fiber architecture is kept the same with bias tows at 45 degrees to the axial tows. Experimental, analytical and computational methods are described based on the results generated in this study. Since these composites are manufactured using resin transfer molding, the intended and as manufactured composite samples differ in their microstructure due to consolidation and thermal history effects in the manufacturing cycle. These imperfections are measured and the effect of these imperfections on the compression stiffness and strength are characterized. Since the matrix is a polymer material, the nonuniform thermal history undergone by the polymer at manufacturing (within the composite and in the presence of fibers) renders its properties to be non-homogenous. The effects of these non-homogeneities are captured through the definition of an equivalent in-situ matrix material. A method to characterize the mechanical properties of the in-situ matrix is also described. Fiber tow buckling, fiber tow kinking and matrix microcracking are all observed in the experiments. These failure mechanisms are captured through a computational model that uses the finite element (FE) technique to discretize the structure. The FE equations are solved using the commercial software ABAQUS version 6.5. The fiber tows are modeled as transversely isotropic elastic-plastic solids and the matrix is modeled as an isotropic elastic-plastic solid with and without microcracking damage. Because the 2DTBC is periodic, the question of how many repeat units are necessary to model the compression stiffness and strength are examined. Based on the computational results, the correct representative unit cell for this class of materials is identified. The computational models and

  13. Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster 2007 SOW

    Seager, M

    2007-03-22

    ). However, given the growing need for 'capability' systems as well, the budget demands are extreme and new, more cost effective ways of fielding these systems must be developed. This Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster (TLCC) procurement represents the ASC first investment vehicle in these capacity systems. It also represents a new strategy for quickly building, fielding and integrating many Linux clusters of various sizes into classified and unclassified production service through a concept of Scalable Units (SU). The programmatic objective is to dramatically reduce the overall Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of these 'capacity' systems relative to the best practices in Linux Cluster deployments today. This objective only makes sense in the context of these systems quickly becoming very robust and useful production clusters under the crushing load that will be inflicted on them by the ASC and SSP scientific simulation capacity workload.

  14. Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby

    Goff, John Eric; Lipscombe, Trevor Davis

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of sports fans were stirred recently by the fastest-ever try scored in international rugby. Welsh winger Dafydd Howells crossed the Fijian try line to score a mere six seconds after Angus O'Brien had started the game with a kickoff, in one of the fixtures in rugby's Junior World Cup played on June 2, 2014, in New Zealand. This…

  15. Build of tri-crosscheck platform for complex HDL design in LHCb's DAQ system

    Hou Lei; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei

    2008-01-01

    TELL1 is the off-detector electronics acquisition readout board for the LHCb experiment. In the development of TELL1, three data stream systems are built to tri-crosscheck the complex VHDL implementation for the FPGAs employed by TELL1. This paper will introduce the tri-crosscheck platform as well as the way they are used in the testing. (authors)

  16. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo; Relacion de la desmetilacion del ADN con la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) In vivo

    Toribio E, E

    2005-07-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  17. An investigation of the tri-bar gripping system on isometric muscular endurance.

    Drury, Daniel G; Faggiono, Heath; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2004-11-01

    Recently, a new product called the Tri-Bar has been introduced as an alternative to the standard round weightlifting bar. The Tri-Bar has the same weight, length, and circumference as a standard weightlifting bar and differs only in that the shape of the bar is formed like a triangle with rounded edges. Theoretically, the shape of the bar will enhance gripping comfort and increase muscular endurance. We studied 32 moderately trained males who were free from upper-body injury or limitation. Each participant completed 4 visits to the lab as part of 2 separate investigations. The first investigation was a comparison of straight-arm hang times while grasping a standard Olympic bar or a Tri-Bar attached to the top of a power rack. The second investigation involved grasping a standard revolving cable handle or a Tri-Bar revolving handle attached to a weight equal to half the subject's body weight. In both investigations, time was used as a measure of isometric muscular endurance. Differences were determined using a dependent t-test, and a level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Mean hang times were significantly longer when the men hung from the Tri-Bar (107.6 seconds) versus the standard bar (95.4 seconds) (p = 0.015). Conversely, in the investigation using the revolving handles, the round bar produced longer grasping times (71.5 seconds) than the Tri-Bar (62.6 seconds) (p = 0.000). The results of this investigation indicate that a fixed and stable Tri-Bar may help to increase hang time, but a Tri-Bar free to rotate within the grasp may decrease grasping time in comparison to a standard round handle. With regard to exercises that require isometric grasping, the Tri-Bar may be an effective alternative to the standard bar for increasing isometric grasping endurance.

  18. Color agreement between nanofluorapatite ceramic discs associated with try-in pastes and with resin cements

    Paulo Rigoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro color agreement between nanofluorapatite ceramic discs (e.max Ceram / Ivoclar Vivadent / A2 associated with try-in pastes and those bonded with resin cements (Vitique / DMG/ try-in shade A2½ and cement shade A2½, Variolink II / Ivoclar Vivadent / try-in shade A1 and cement shade A1, and Choice 2 / Bisco / try-in shade A2 and cement shade A2, and to evaluate the shade stability of the discs bonded with resin cements. The shades of composite resin discs (Lliss / FGM / A2 and nanofluorapatite ceramic discs with try-in pastes or cements were evaluated according to the Vita Classical shade guide by a digital spectrophotometer (Micro EspectroShade, MHT immediately after placing the try-in pastes or resin cements between composite resin discs and ceramic discs. Other evaluations were performed at 2, 5, and 6 day intervals after cementation with the resin cements. All ceramic discs that received try-in pastes presented an A2 shade. There was no statistical difference in the shade of the ceramic specimens fixed with different cements at the different intervals, as evaluated by the Friedman test (p > 0.05. Two try-in pastes presented shade compatibility with those recommended by the manufacturers. There was no similarity of shades between the ceramic discs with try-in pastes and those with the respective resin cements. Shade stability was observed in ceramic discs with resin cements within the intervals evaluated.

  19. Study of Dynamic Flow and Mixing Performances of Tri-Screw Extruders with Finite Element Method

    X. Z. Zhu; G. Wang; Y. D. He; Z. F. Cheng

    2013-01-01

    There is a special circumfluence in the center region of cross-section for a tri-screw extruder. To study the effect of the dynamic center region on the flow and mixing mechanism of the tri-screw extruder, 2D finite element modeling was used to reduce the axial effects. Based on the particle tracking technology, the nonlinear dynamics of a typical particle motions in the center region was carried out and the mixing process in the tri-screw extruder was analyzed with Poincaré maps. Moreover, m...

  20. Bi-integrable and tri-integrable couplings of a soliton hierarchy associated with SO(4

    Zhang Jian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our paper, the theory of bi-integrable and tri-integrable couplings is generalized to the discrete case. First, based on the six-dimensional real special orthogonal Lie algebra SO(4, we construct bi-integrable and tri-integrable couplings associated with SO(4 for a hierarchy from the enlarged matrix spectral problems and the enlarged zero curvature equations. Moreover, Hamiltonian structures of the obtained bi-integrable and tri-integrable couplings are constructed by the variational identities.

  1. Fast Bayesian Non-Negative Matrix Factorisation and Tri-Factorisation

    Brouwer, Thomas; Frellsen, Jes; Liò, Pietro

    We present a fast variational Bayesian algorithm for performing non-negative matrix factorisation and tri-factorisation. We show that our approach achieves faster convergence per iteration and timestep (wall-clock) than Gibbs sampling and non-probabilistic approaches, and do not require additional...... samples to estimate the posterior. We show that in particular for matrix tri-factorisation convergence is difficult, but our variational Bayesian approach offers a fast solution, allowing the tri-factorisation approach to be used more effectively....

  2. Assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell tri-generation system for building applications

    Elmer, Theo; Worall, Mark; Wu, Shenyi; Riffat, Saffa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental assessment of a first-of-its-kind tri-generation system. • High tri-generation efficiencies of 68–71%. • Inclusion of liquid desiccant provides efficiency increase of 9–15%. • System only economically viable with a government’s financial support. - Abstract: The paper provides a performance analysis assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) liquid desiccant tri-generation system for building applications. The work presented serves to build upon the current literature related to experimental evaluations of SOFC tri-generation systems, particularly in domestic built environment applications. The proposed SOFC liquid desiccant tri-generation system will be the first-of-its-kind. No research activity is reported on the integration of SOFC, or any fuel cell, with liquid desiccant air conditioning in a tri-generation system configuration. The novel tri-generation system is suited to applications that require simultaneous electrical power, heating and dehumidification/cooling. There are several specific benefits to the integration of SOFC and liquid desiccant air conditioning technology, including; very high operational electrical efficiencies even at low system capacities and the ability to utilise low-grade thermal energy in a (useful) cooling process. Furthermore, the novel tri-generation system has the potential to increase thermal energy utilisation and thus the access to the benefits achievable from on-site electrical generation, primarily; reduced emissions and operating costs. Using empirical SOFC and liquid desiccant component data, an energetic, economic and environmental performance analysis assessment of the novel system is presented. Significant conclusions from the work include: (1) SOFC and liquid desiccant are a viable technological pairing in the development of an efficient and effective tri-generation system. High tri-generation efficiencies in the range of 68–71% are attainable. (2) The inclusion of

  3. Immunocytological and biochemical analysis of the mode of action of bis (tri-n-butyltin) tri-oxide (TBTO) in Jurkat cells

    Katika, M.R.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Loveren, van H.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) is one of the organotin compounds known to induce immunosuppression. Previously, we examined the effect of TBTO on whole-genome mRNA expression in the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat, which led to the hypothesis that induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

  4. 77 FR 59573 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN; Revocation of Class E Airspace; Tri...

    2012-09-28

    ... at Hawkins County Airport, Rogersville, TN, and Virginia Highlands Airport, Abington, VA. The Tri... separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding Virginia Highlands Airport, Abingdon, VA, and Hawkins... publication, the FAA reassessed the proposal to show the separation of Hawkins County Airport, and Virginia...

  5. R2 TRI facilities with 1999-2011 risk related estimates throughout the census blockgroup

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset delineates the distribution of estimate risk from the TRI facilities for 1999 - 2011 throughout the census blockgroup of the region using Office of...

  6. Studies of selected transuranium and lanthanide tri-iodides under pressure using absorption spectrophotometry

    Haire, R.G.; Young, J.P.; Peterson, J.R.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville; Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    The anhydrous tri-iodides of plutonium, americium and curium under pressure have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry. These initial studies on plutonium and curium tri-iodides together with the published data for americium tri-iodide show that the rhombohedral form of these compounds (BiI 3 -type structure) can be converted to the orthorhombic form (PuBr 3 -type structure) by applying pressure at room temperature. Absorption spectrophotometry can often differentiate between two crystallographic forms of a material and has been used in the present high-pressure studies to monitor the effects of pressure on the tri-iodides. A complication in these studies of the tri-iodides is a significant shift of their absorption edges with pressure from the near UV to the visible spectral region. With curium tri-iodide this shift causes interference with the major f-f absorption peaks and precludes identification by absorption spectrophotometry of the high pressure phase of CmI 3 . (orig.)

  7. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic chemicals were released and how the 2015 TRI data compare to data from previous years. This dataset reports US state, county, large aquatic ecosystem, metro/micropolitan statistical area, and facility level statistics from 2015 TRI releases, including information on: number of 2015 TRI facilities in the geographic area and their releases (total, water, air, land); population information, including populations living within 1 mile of TRI facilities (total, minority, in poverty); and Risk Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model related pounds, toxicity-weighted pounds, and RSEI score. The source of administrative boundary data is the 2013 cartographic boundary shapefiles. Location of facilities is provided by EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS). Large Aquatic Ecosystems boundaries were dissolved from the hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States of America (November 2002), and updated to match the streams file created by the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) for the National Atlas of the United States of America.

  8. Tri-allelic SNP markers enable analysis of mixed and degraded DNA samples.

    Westen, Antoinette A; Matai, Anuska S; Laros, Jeroen F J; Meiland, Hugo C; Jasper, Mandy; de Leeuw, Wiljo J F; de Knijff, Peter; Sijen, Titia

    2009-09-01

    For the analysis of degraded DNA in disaster victim identification (DVI) and criminal investigations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been recognized as promising markers mainly because they can be analyzed in short sized amplicons. Most SNPs are bi-allelic and are thereby ineffective to detect mixtures, which may lead to incorrect genotyping. We developed an algorithm to find non-binary (i.e. tri-allelic or tetra-allelic) SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP database. We selected 31 potential tri-allelic SNPs with a minor allele frequency of at least 10%. The tri-allelic nature was confirmed for 15 SNPs residing on 14 different chromosomes. Multiplex SNaPshot assays were developed, and the allele frequencies of 16 SNPs were determined among 153 Dutch and 111 Netherlands Antilles reference samples. Using these multiplex SNP assays, the presence of a mixture of two DNA samples in a ratio up to 1:8 could be recognized reliably. Furthermore, we compared the genotyping efficiency of the tri-allelic SNP markers and short tandem repeat (STR) markers by analyzing artificially degraded DNA and DNA from 30 approximately 500-year-old bone and molar samples. In both types of degraded DNA samples, the larger sized STR amplicons failed to amplify whereas the tri-allelic SNP markers still provided valuable information. In conclusion, tri-allelic SNP markers are suited for the analysis of degraded DNA and enable the detection of a second DNA source in a sample.

  9. Tri-fuel (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol) emulsion characterization, stability and the corrosion effect

    Low, M. H.; Mukhtar, N. A. M.; Yohaness Hagos, Ftwi; Noor, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the result of experimenting emulsified tri-fuel in term of stability, physico-chemical properties and corrosion effect on three common metals. The results were interpreted in terms of the impact of five minutes emulsification approach. Tri-fuel emulsions were varied in proportion ratio consist of biodiesel; 0%, 5%, 10%, and ethanol; 5%, 10%, 15%. Fuel characterization includes density, calorific value, flash point, and kinematic viscosity. Flash point of tri-fuel emulsion came with range catalog. Calorific value of tri-fuel emulsion appeared in declining pattern as more ethanol and biodiesel were added. Biodiesel promoted flow resistance while ethanol with opposite effect. 15% ethanol content in tri-fuel emulsion separated faster than 10% ethanol content but ethanol content with 5% yield no phase separation at all. Close cap under static immersion with various ratio of tri-fuel emulsions for over a month, corrosiveness attack was detected via weight loss technique on aluminum, stainless steel and mild steel.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF JOB STRESS AND COMPENSATION TO JOB SATISFACTION AT PT. TRI MEGAH MAKMUR

    I Ketut R Sudiarditha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: 1 To know description and how picture level job stress, compensation and job satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 2 To know the influence of job stress tojob satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 3 To know the influence of compensation to job satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 4 To know empirically the influence of job stress and compensation tojob satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 5 To know how far the contribution of job stress and compensation to job satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. This research is using descriptive and explanatory survey analysis. This research is taken to 70 sales employees at PT Tri Megah Makmur, While the data collection technique was carried out by spreading kuisioner, which are then processed using SPSS versi 21.00.The analysis shows that: 1 level of compensation and job satisfaction are on a lower level, while the job stress are high. 2Job stress have negative effects and significantly on job satisfaction. 3 compensation have positive effect and significantly on job satisfaction. 4 job stress and compensation significantly influence on job satisfaction.

  11. Clinical and histopathological results following TriPollar radiofrequency skin treatments.

    Kaplan, Haim; Gat, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Skin laxity, wrinkles and cellulite are common aesthetic problems associated with the aging process. These symptoms are due to the weakening and thinning of dermal connective tissue and the enlargement of hypodermal fat cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar RF technology in reducing fat and collagen regeneration. Twelve healthy patients underwent weekly treatments on different body sites using the TriPollar technology. Treatment areas were photographed and measured and patient satisfaction was monitored. One abdominal patient consented to a series of TriPollar treatments prior to her scheduled abdominoplasty. A controlled histopathology analysis was performed on skin samples taken during the abdominoplasty procedure. Histopathological examination revealed marked differences between treated and non-treated abdominal skin areas. An increase of 49% in dermal thickness, focal thickening of collagen fibers and focal shrinkage of fat cells was shown following TriPollar treatments. Average patient satisfaction indicated clear satisfaction with the clinical results achieved. The TriPollar is a safe and effective non-invasive technology leading to skin tightening and body shaping. Histology results indicate changes at the dermal and fat layers following TriPollar treatments resulting in increased collagen regeneration and stimulated fat metabolism.

  12. 77 FR 10475 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Notice of Intent To Hold Public Scoping...

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Tri-State Generation and Transmission... proposed project in Colorado by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. (Tri-State). The... Association and Y-W Electric Association. In addition, the following repositories will have the AES and MCS...

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin, E-mail: j.wang63@gmail.com

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO.

  14. Nutritional and Weight-Management Behaviors in Low-Income Women Trying to Conceive

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women trying to conceive as compared to women not trying to conceive. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women aged 16–40 years who were low-income, racially diverse, (n=1,711) and attending reproductive health clinics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and various health behaviors after adjusting for demographic variables, gravidity, and obesity status. Results At total of 8.9% (n=153) of the participants stated they were trying to get pregnant. Women trying to conceive were more likely than those not trying to have participated in a number of unhealthy weight loss practices in the past year. These included taking diet pills, supplements or herbs (13.5% vs. 8.8%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–3.49;), using laxatives or diuretics or inducing vomiting (7.7% vs. 3.0%; aOR 2.70, CI 1.23–5.91;), and fasting for 24 hours (10.7% vs. 5.5%; aOR 2.15, CI 1.03–4.51;). There were no significant differences between the two groups in amount of exercise, current smoking status or current alcohol consumption Further, fruit, green salad and other vegetables, and intake of soda and fast food were unrelated to pregnancy intention. Conclusion This study highlights that women trying to conceive are more likely to participate in unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss practices than women not trying to conceive. PMID:25162259

  15. Nutritional and weight management behaviors in low-income women trying to conceive.

    Berenson, Abbey B; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women trying to conceive as compared with women not trying to conceive. This was a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women aged 16-40 years who were low income, racially diverse, (n=1,711), and attending reproductive health clinics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and various health behaviors after adjusting for demographic variables, gravidity, and obesity status. A total of 8.9% (n=153) of the participants stated they were trying to get pregnant. Women trying to conceive were more likely than those not trying to have participated in a number of unhealthy weight loss practices in the past year. These included taking diet pills, supplements, or herbs (13.5% compared with 8.8%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.49), using laxatives or diuretics or inducing vomiting (7.7% compared with 3.0%; adjusted OR 2.70, CI 1.23-5.91), and fasting for 24 hours (10.7% compared with 5.5%; adjusted OR 2.15, CI 1.03-4.51). There were no significant differences between the two groups in amount of exercise, current smoking status, or current alcohol consumption Furthermore, fruit, green salad and other vegetables, and intake of soda and fast food were unrelated to pregnancy intention. This study highlights that women trying to conceive are more likely to participate in unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss practices than women not trying to conceive. II.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J sc and V oc were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO

  17. Tri-party agreement databases, access mechanism and procedures. Revision 2

    Brulotte, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the information required for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to access databases related to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). It identifies the procedure required to obtain access to the Hanford Site computer networks and the Tri-Party Agreement related databases. It addresses security requirements, access methods, database availability dates, database access procedures, and the minimum computer hardware and software configurations required to operate within the Hanford Site networks. This document supersedes any previous agreements including the Administrative Agreement to Provide Computer Access to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Administrative Agreement to Provide Computer Access to Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), agreements that were signed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) in June 1990, Access approval to EPA and Ecology is extended by RL to include all Tri-Party Agreement relevant databases named in this document via the documented access method and date. Access to databases and systems not listed in this document will be granted as determined necessary and negotiated among Ecology, EPA, and RL through the Tri-Party Agreement Project Managers. The Tri-Party Agreement Project Managers are the primary points of contact for all activities to be carried out under the Tri-Party Agreement. Action Plan. Access to the Tri-Party Agreement related databases and systems does not provide or imply any ownership on behalf of Ecology or EPA whether public or private of either the database or the system. Access to identified systems and databases does not include access to network/system administrative control information, network maps, etc

  18. Equilibrium and kinetics of co-extraction of U(VI) and HNO3 using tri-n-butyl phosphate and tri-iso-amyl phosphate in paraffin

    Das, Diptendu; Juvekar, V.A.; Biswas, Sujoy; Roy, S.B.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is versatile solvent for recovery of actinides as it is cheaper and the extracted actinides can be stripped from the loaded organic phase using plain water. However there are inherent problems associated TBP such as i) formation of the third phase ii) high solubility in aqueous phase iii) radiolytic hydrolysis at high radiation environment and iv) high propensity for extraction of mineral acids. The last mentioned property makes it less suitable for liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) extraction where acid transport to the strip phase drastically reduces extraction efficiency. Therefore there is need to replace TBP with an extractant which has lesser propensity for acid extraction. Many researcher reported Tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP) as an alternative extractant which can sustain high radiation environment without chemical/radiative degradation. However there are no studies available on co-extraction of U(VI) and mineral acids by TiAP. In this research paper equilibrium and kinetics of co-extraction of U(VI) and HNO 3 from nitric acid medium into a hydrocarbon phase (paraffin) using Tri n- butyl phosphate (TBP), Tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP) has been studied. Relative rates of extraction of uranium(VI) and HNO 3 by TiAP and TBP were measured simultaneously using bulk-liquid membrane (BLM) system. Study reveals although TiAP is less efficient in extracting U(IV), than TBP, it transfers lesser quantity of nitric acid to organic phase. Hence TiAP is more suitable as a carrier for LEM extraction than TBP

  19. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2017-06-01

    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO{sub 3} loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  20. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO_3)_4 by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO_3 at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO_3 loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  1. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  2. Square lattice honeycomb tri-carbide fuels for 50 to 250 KN variable thrust NTP design

    Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis; Gouw, Reza; Furman, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Ultrahigh temperature solid solution of tri-carbide fuels are used to design an ultracompact nuclear thermal rocket generating 950 seconds of specific impulse with scalable thrust level in range of 50 to 250 kilo Newtons. Solid solutions of tri-carbide nuclear fuels such as uranium-zirconium-niobium carbide. UZrNbC, are processed to contain certain mixing ratio between uranium carbide and two stabilizing carbides. Zirconium or niobium in the tri-carbide could be replaced by tantalum or hafnium to provide higher chemical stability in hot hydrogen environment or to provide different nuclear design characteristics. Recent studies have demonstrated the chemical compatibility of tri-carbide fuels with hydrogen propellant for a few to tens of hours of operation at temperatures ranging from 2800 K to 3300 K, respectively. Fuel elements are fabricated from thin tri-carbide wafers that are grooved and locked into a square-lattice honeycomb (SLHC) shape. The hockey puck shaped SLHC fuel elements are stacked up in a grooved graphite tube to form a SLHC fuel assembly. A total of 18 fuel assemblies are arranged circumferentially to form two concentric rings of fuel assemblies with zirconium hydride filling the space between assemblies. For 50 to 250 kilo Newtons thrust operations, the reactor diameter and length including reflectors are 57 cm and 60 cm, respectively. Results of the nuclear design and thermal fluid analyses of the SLHC nuclear thermal propulsion system are presented

  3. Shade evaluation of ceramic laminates according to different try-in materials.

    Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Vaz, Maysa Magalhaes; de Magalhaes, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Cardoso, Paula Carvalho; de Souza, Joao Batista; de Torres, Erica Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The porcelain laminate replaces the visible portion of enamel with a ceramic, which is attached to the dental surface. To enhance cosmetic results, a preliminary color matching procedure is performed prior to cementing the veneers. This procedure can be performed using water, water-soluble gel, or try-in paste. The different shades of cement and try-in pastes are intended to obtain better color and esthetics of the final restoration. This study sought to evaluate the shade of ceramic veneers produced by different try-in materials. Forty bovine teeth and 40 ceramic discs (0.6 mm thick) were prepared. The samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 10). For Group 1 samples, no material was used between the tooth and the ceramic, Group 2 interposed samples with water, Group 3 used a water-soluble gel, and Group 4 used try-in paste (value 0). The color was measured with a spectrophotometer, obtaining L*, a*, and b* values to calculate the color difference (ΔE*). The data were subjected to normality tests and 1-way ANOVA. No significant statistical differences were found among the groups, indicating that the different try-in materials had similar effects on the color of the ceramic laminates.

  4. Clinical and histopathological study of the TriPollar home-use device for body treatments.

    Boisnic, Sylvie; Branchet, Marie-Christine; Birnstiel, Oliver; Beilin, Ghislaine

    2010-01-01

    Professional non invasive treatments for body contouring based on radiofrequency (RF) became popular in aesthetic clinics due to proven efficacy and safety. A new home-use RF device for body treatments has been developed based on TriPollar technology. Our objective was to evaluate the TriPollar home-use device for circumference reduction, cellulite improvement and skin tightening using objective and subjective methods. An ex-vivo human skin model was used for histological and biochemical evaluations of the TriPollar clinical effect. Additionally, twenty four subjects used the new device on the abdomen and thigh areas and the circumference reduction was measured. Ex-vivo models indicated a significant increase of 82% in hypodermal glycerol release. Histology revealed a 34% alteration in adipocyte appearance. Collagen synthesis increased by 31% following TriPollar treatment. A significant average reduction of 2.4 cm was measured on the treated thighs. On the control thighs a lesser, non-significant reduction was found. Average abdominal laxity was reduced from 1.4 at baseline to 0.8 following treatments. A certain reduction was measured in the abdomen circumferences, although it was not significant. The reported results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the new TriPollar home-use device for body contouring and skin tightening. Treatment may lead to discrete circumference reduction and moderate laxity improvement.

  5. Opportunity, satisfaction and regret: trying long acting reversible contraception in a unique scientific circumstance.

    Burke, Holly M; Packer, Catherine A; Spector, Hannah L; Hubacher, David

    2018-06-19

    Increased use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) can reduce unintended pregnancies. However, significant barriers exist to LARC uptake, particularly high up-front costs. In North Carolina in 2014, we interviewed 34 purposively-selected participants (aged 20-30 years) enrolled in a partially randomized patient preference trial to learn about their experiences with and attitudes toward contraception in this unique trial context. Cost of LARC was important in participants' decision-making. Experiencing an unintended pregnancy motivated women to switch to LARC. No participants who tried LARC, even those who experienced side effects, regretted it. Several participants regretted discontinuing their LARC. Concerns about insertion and removal did not influence future willingness to try LARC. Participants discussed the importance of affordability and feeling in control when choosing a contraceptive method. Cost, combined with uncertainty over whether LARC is the right method for them, may deter young women from trying LARC. Intrauterine devices and implants should be made affordable so that women can try them without significant financial commitment. Affordability will likely increase uptake, which will reduce unintended pregnancies. Regret from discontinuing LARC was more more frequently reported than regret from trying LARC. Providers should offer young women LARC and counsel to support continuation.

  6. An OMIC biomarker detection algorithm TriVote and its application in methylomic biomarker detection.

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Jiamei; Yang, Weifeng; Shu, Yayun; Wei, Zhipeng; Zheng, Weiwei; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2018-04-01

    Transcriptomic and methylomic patterns represent two major OMIC data sources impacted by both inheritable genetic information and environmental factors, and have been widely used as disease diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Modern transcriptomic and methylomic profiling technologies detect the status of tens of thousands or even millions of probing residues in the human genome, and introduce a major computational challenge for the existing feature selection algorithms. This study proposes a three-step feature selection algorithm, TriVote, to detect a subset of transcriptomic or methylomic residues with highly accurate binary classification performance. TriVote outperforms both filter and wrapper feature selection algorithms with both higher classification accuracy and smaller feature number on 17 transcriptomes and two methylomes. Biological functions of the methylome biomarkers detected by TriVote were discussed for their disease associations. An easy-to-use Python package is also released to facilitate the further applications.

  7. A new miniaturized negative-index meta-atom for tri-band applications

    Hossain Mohammad Jakir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a miniature negative index meta-atom was designed; simulated, fabricated and measured based on parallel incidence of electromagnetic wave that can maintain a tri-band applications in microwave spectra. Compare to the other multi-band conventional metamaterial, the proposed meta-atom structure allows miniaturization factor and follows better effective medium ratio (EMR. Finite-integration technique (FIT based computer simulation technology (CST electromagnetic simulator was adopted to examine the design of the meta-atom. It exhibits tri-band response in conjunction with backward wave property over a certain frequency band in the microwave regime. Furthermore, the effective medium ratio is considerably improved compared to previously reported metamaterial. Moreover, few parametric analyses were done with the meta-atom. The size, scattering parameters and effective medium parameters of the proposed negative index miniaturized meta-atom is appropriate for tri-band applications.

  8. Tri-potassium phosphate as a solid catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

    Guan, Guoqing; Kusakabe, Katsuki; Yamasaki, Satoko [Department of Living Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women' s University, 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8529 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol, using tri-potassium phosphate as a solid catalyst, was investigated. Tri-potassium phosphate shows high catalytic properties for the transesterification reaction, compared to CaO and tri-sodium phosphate. Transesterification of waste cooking oil required approximately two times more solid catalyst than transesterification of sunflower oil. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 97.3% when the transesterification was performed with a catalyst concentration of 4 wt.% at 60 C for 120 min. After regeneration of the used catalyst with aqueous KOH solution, the FAME yield recovered to 88%. Addition of a co-solvent changed the reaction state from three-phase to two-phase, but reduced the FAME yield, contrary to the results with homogeneous catalysts. The catalyst particles were easily agglomerated by the glycerol drops derived from the homogeneous liquid in the presence of co-solvents, reducing the catalytic activity. (author)

  9. Magnetic uni- and tri-axial grain-orientation in superconductors with layered structures

    Horii, S.; Yamaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the grain-orientation effects under a modulated rotation magnetic field for Y-based cuprate superconductors and LaFeAsO (La1111). Tri-axial orientation has been successfully achieved only for orthorhombic Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O y and YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 powders without a twin microstructure, while separation of three crystallographic axes could not be observed in twinned YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (Y123) and tetragonal La1111 powders. The morphology of grains, in addition to the symmetry of crystal structures, seriously affects the degrees of tri-axial orientation, which means that the control of twin microstructures is required for the tri-axial magnetic orientation in Y123.

  10. Uptake of CrO42- ions by Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate

    Serrano G, J.; Ramirez S, J. L.; Bonifacio M, J.; Granados C, F.; Badillo A, V. E.

    2010-01-01

    CrO 4 2- ion adsorption of Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate was studied by batch experiments as a function of contact time, initial concentration of metal ion and temperature. Adsorption results showed that at ph 5.5 and 1.0 x 10 -4 M chromium concentration the adsorption capacity of Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate for CrO 4 2- ions was 7.10 x 10 -3 mmol/g. Chromium adsorption data on Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate at various initial concentration fitted the Freundlich isotherm. By temperature studies the thermodynamic parameters ΔH 0 , ΔG 0 and ΔS 0 were estimated and the obtained results showed that the adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    Yang, Jen Ming; Huang, Huei Tsz

    2012-01-01

    Tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared with epoxidation, ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer and layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte technique. The tri-steps modified SBS membrane was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The structures of the modified SBS membranes were identified with methylene blue and azocarmine G. The content of amino group on the surface of the modified membrane was calculated from uptake of an acid dye. The values of the contact angle, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate and the adsorption of fibronectin on the membranes were determined. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the tri-steps modified SBS membrane, the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and growth profile of the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane were evaluated. The bactericidal activity was found on the modified SBS. From the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the tri-steps modified SBS membranes. As the membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent allowing wound checks, they can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates. - Highlights: ► Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was modified with tri-steps. ► The tri-steps are epoxidation, ring opening reaction and layer-by-layer assembly. ► Modified SBS membrane for wound dressing is evaluated. ► Membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent. ► Membranes can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates.

  12. Evaluation of tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Huang, Huei Tsz

    2012-08-01

    Tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared with epoxidation, ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer and layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte technique. The tri-steps modified SBS membrane was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The structures of the modified SBS membranes were identified with methylene blue and azocarmine G. The content of amino group on the surface of the modified membrane was calculated from uptake of an acid dye. The values of the contact angle, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate and the adsorption of fibronectin on the membranes were determined. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the tri-steps modified SBS membrane, the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and growth profile of the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane were evaluated. The bactericidal activity was found on the modified SBS. From the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the tri-steps modified SBS membranes. As the membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent allowing wound checks, they can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was modified with tri-steps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tri-steps are epoxidation, ring opening reaction and layer-by-layer assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified SBS membrane for wound dressing is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates.

  13. Coulomb effect in the tri nucleon system in an optical potential model

    Adhikari, S.K.; Delfino, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-02-01

    A Saxon-Woods type nucleon-deuteron optical potential in suggested and applied numerically to the study of the static Coulomb effect in the low-energy tri nucleon system. In particular, the observed correlations between the static Coulomb energy of 3 He and the triton binding energy, and that between the neutron-deuteron and the proton-deuteron scattering lengths are simulated with this optical potential. In view of this study and a previous one employing two other effective potentials its is unlikely that a a study of the usual static Coulomb effect in the tri nucleon system will reveal new and meaningful physics. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  14. Hanford and the tri-cities economy: Review and outlook, March 1989

    Scott, M.J.; Belzer, D.B.; March, S.J.; Beck, D.M.; Schultz, R.W.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The economy of the Tri-Cities, Washington area (primarily, Benton and Franklin Counties) is in transition due to major changes in two Department of Energy programs at Hanford---the abrupt ending of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) in December 1987 and the placing of the N Reactor in ''cold standby'' status in February 1988. This report reviews the economic situation in the Tri-Cities during 1988 and presents forecasts for key economic indicators for 1989. This report will be updated about every six months to review the changes in the area economy and forecast the near-term outlook. 6 figs., 33 tabs

  15. Multi-bi- and tri-stability using nonlinear plasmonic Fano resonators

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    A plasmonic Fano resonator embedding Kerr nonlinearity is used to achieve multi-bi- and tri-stability. Fano resonance is obtained by inducing higher-order plasmon modes on metallic surfaces via geometrical symmetry breaking. The presence of the multiple higher order plasmon modes provides the means for producing multi-bi- or tri-stability in the response of the resonator when it is loaded with a material with Kerr nonlinearity. The multi-stability in the response of the proposed resonator enables its use in three-state all optical memory and switching applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Measurement of erythema and tanning responses in human skin using a tri-stimulus colorimeter.

    Seitz, J C; Whitmore, C G

    1988-01-01

    A 'Minolta Tri-Stimulus Colorimeter II' was evaluated for obtaining objective measurements of early changes in erythema and tanning. The meter showed a subtle, continuous transition between the primary erythematous response and the delayed tanning of skin which was below the visual threshold for detection. Thereafter, the a* (redness) value of the meter showed a significant linear correlation with the dermatologist's perception of erythema while the b* (yellow) value showed a significant correlation with the perception of tanning. This capability of the tri-stimulus colorimeter to simultaneously evaluate the hue and saturation of skin color affords an improved opportunity to quantitate the transition from erythema to tanning without subjective bias.

  17. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Close M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary System BX Tri

    Perdelwitz, V.; Czesla, S.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first detailed X-ray study of the close dMe binary system BX Tri, whose optical variation has been continously monitored in the frame of the DWARF project (Pribulla et al.(2012)). We observed BX Tri with XMM-Newton for two full orbital periods and confirm that the system is an ultra-active M-dwarf binary showing frequent flares and an X-ray luminosity close to the saturation limit. The strong magnetic activity could have influenced the angular momentum evolution of the system via magnetic braking.

  18. Hanford and the tri-cities economy: Review and outlook, March 1989

    Scott, M.J.; Belzer, D.B.; March, S.J.; Beck, D.M.; Schultz, R.W.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The economy of the Tri-Cities, Washington area (primarily, Benton and Franklin Counties) is in transition due to major changes in two Department of Energy programs at Hanford---the abrupt ending of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) in December 1987 and the placing of the N Reactor in ''cold standby'' status in February 1988. This report reviews the economic situation in the Tri-Cities during 1988 and presents forecasts for key economic indicators for 1989. This report will be updated about every six months to review the changes in the area economy and forecast the near-term outlook. 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. A tri-modality image fusion method for target delineation of brain tumors in radiotherapy.

    Lu Guo

    Full Text Available To develop a tri-modality image fusion method for better target delineation in image-guided radiotherapy for patients with brain tumors.A new method of tri-modality image fusion was developed, which can fuse and display all image sets in one panel and one operation. And a feasibility study in gross tumor volume (GTV delineation using data from three patients with brain tumors was conducted, which included images of simulation CT, MRI, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET examinations before radiotherapy. Tri-modality image fusion was implemented after image registrations of CT+PET and CT+MRI, and the transparency weight of each modality could be adjusted and set by users. Three radiation oncologists delineated GTVs for all patients using dual-modality (MRI/CT and tri-modality (MRI/CT/PET image fusion respectively. Inter-observer variation was assessed by the coefficient of variation (COV, the average distance between surface and centroid (ADSC, and the local standard deviation (SDlocal. Analysis of COV was also performed to evaluate intra-observer volume variation.The inter-observer variation analysis showed that, the mean COV was 0.14(± 0.09 and 0.07(± 0.01 for dual-modality and tri-modality respectively; the standard deviation of ADSC was significantly reduced (p<0.05 with tri-modality; SDlocal averaged over median GTV surface was reduced in patient 2 (from 0.57 cm to 0.39 cm and patient 3 (from 0.42 cm to 0.36 cm with the new method. The intra-observer volume variation was also significantly reduced (p = 0.00 with the tri-modality method as compared with using the dual-modality method.With the new tri-modality image fusion method smaller inter- and intra-observer variation in GTV definition for the brain tumors can be achieved, which improves the consistency and accuracy for target delineation in individualized radiotherapy.

  20. Genomic sequencing and in vivo footprinting of an expression-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site of avian vitellogenin II promoter reveal a demethylation of a mCpG and a change in specific interactions of proteins with DNA.

    Saluz, H P; Feavers, I M; Jiricny, J; Jost, J P

    1988-01-01

    Genomic sequencing was used to study the in vivo methylation pattern of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the avian vitellogenin gene. The CpG at position +10 was fully methylated in DNA isolated from tissues that do not express the gene but was unmethylated in the liver of mature hens and estradiol-treated roosters. In the latter tissue, this site became demethylated and DNase I hypersensitive after estradiol treatment. A second CpG (position -52) was unmethylated in all tissues examined. In vivo genomic footprinting with dimethyl sulfate revealed different patterns of DNA protection in silent and expressed genes. In rooster liver cells, at least 10 base pairs of DNA, including the methylated CpG, were protected by protein(s). Gel-shift assays indicated that a protein factor, present in rooster liver nuclear extract, bound at this site only when it was methylated. In hen liver cells, the same unmethylated CpG lies within a protected region of approximately equal to 20 base pairs. In vitro DNase I protection and gel-shift assays indicate that this sequence is bound by a protein, which binds both double- and single-stranded DNA. For the latter substrate, this factor was shown to bind solely the noncoding (i.e., mRNA-like) strand. Images PMID:3413118

  1. Investigations into the post-natal development of demethylating enzyme systems by determination of carbon dioxide 14 in the air exhaled by mice after applications of carbon 14 dimethyl amino-antipyrine

    Schmidt, H.

    1982-01-01

    Albino mice were subcutaneously injected with carbon 14 dimethyl aminopyrines, the methyl group of which can be metabolised in the organism into carbon dioxide 14. The following results were obtained: In the carbon dioxide 14 exhalation of neonate, young and adult animals after administration of carbon 14 aminopyrine, distinct differences were noted. The maximum of elimination via the lungs occurs after 20-30 minutes in grown-up mice, in neonates or young animals distinctly later (60-90 min). The carbon dioxide 14 exhalation was also measured after additional subcutaneous application of methrotrexate. In mice aged 8 and 10 days a distinct decrease in carbon dioxide 14 exhalation was found. By contrast, a rise in carbon dioxide 14 exhaled was found in mice aged 2 days. The orientating experiments with folic acid and carbon 14 dimethyl aminopyrine show that leucovorin leads to a distinct increase in carbon dioxide 14 exhalation during the first 30 minutes. As a cause of the different degrees of stimulation respectively inhibition of demethylation, different biochemical ways of formaldehyde formation are pointed out. One of these probably includes the folate-dependent reaction. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Simultaneous determination of the novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor meditinib and its active metabolite demethylation meditinib in monkey plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Liang, Feng; Kong, Qi; Guo, Yongqi; Wang, Yu; Sun, Dejie; Liu, Shi; Cai, Jinling; Guan, Yongbiao; Ding, Rigao

    2015-08-01

    Meditinib (ME) is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor used as an antichronic myeloid leukemia drug. A simple, sensitive and specific LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of ME and its metabolite demethylation meditinib (PI) in monkey plasma using naltrexone as the internal standard. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with methanol. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent C8 column (3.5 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm). Elution was achieved with a mobile phase gradient varying the proportion of a water solution containing 0.1% formic acid (solvent A) and a 0.1% formic acid in methanol solution (solvent B) at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The method had a linear calibration curve over the concentration range of 2-1000 ng/mL for ME and 2-1000 ng/mL for PI. The lower limits of quantification of ME and PI were 2 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision values were 85%. The assay has been successfully used for pharmacokinetic evaluation of ME and PI using the monkey as an animal model, and those data are reported for the first time. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tri-Band PCB Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Transceivers in Home Automation Applications

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2012-01-01

    A novel tri-band antenna design for wireless sensor network devices in home automation applications is proposed. The design is based on a combination of a conventional monopole wire antenna and discrete distributed load impedances. The load impedances are employed to ensure the degrees of freedom...

  4. Permeability changes of coal cores and briquettes under tri-axial stress conditions

    Wierzbicki, M.; Konečný, Pavel; Kožušníková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 1129-1138 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal * gas permeability * tri-axial stress * coal briquettes Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.608, year: 2013 http://mining.archives.pl

  5. Ambipolar organic tri-gate transistor for low-power complementary electronics

    Torricelli, F.; Ghittorelli, M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Roelofs, C.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Kovács-Vajna, Z.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar transistors typically suffer from large off-current inherently due to ambipolar conduction. Using a tri-gate transistor it is shown that it is possible to electrostatically switch ambipolar polymer transistors from ambipolar to unipolar mode. In unipolar mode, symmetric characteristics

  6. Isolation and investigation of antimicrobial effect of 3,4,3'-tri-O ...

    3,4,3'-Tri-O-methylflavellagic acid and its glucoside (reported for the first time) were isolated from Anogeissus leocarpus. These compounds were analysed by GC-MS, IR, 1D and 2D-NMR, and also as acetates. Antimicrobial effect of the glucoside on S. aureus, E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and C. albicans show that it possesses ...

  7. Investment in hydrogen tri-generation for wastewater treatment plants under uncertainties

    Gharieh, Kaveh; Jafari, Mohsen A.; Guo, Qizhong

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present a compound real option model for investment in hydrogen tri-generation and onsite hydrogen dispensing systems for a wastewater treatment plant under price and market uncertainties. The ultimate objective is to determine optimal timing and investment thresholds to exercise initial and subsequent options such that the total savings are maximized. Initial option includes investment in a 1.4 (MW) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) fed by mixture of waste biogas from anaerobic digestion and natural gas, along with auxiliary equipment. Produced hydrogen in MCFC via internal reforming, is recovered from the exhaust gas stream using Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) purification technology. Therefore the expansion option includes investment in hydrogen compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) systems which creates additional revenue by selling hydrogen onsite in retail price. This work extends current state of investment modeling within the context of hydrogen tri-generation by considering: (i) Modular investment plan for hydrogen tri-generation and dispensing systems, (ii) Multiple sources of uncertainties along with more realistic probability distributions, (iii) Optimal operation of hydrogen tri-generation is considered, which results in realistic saving estimation.

  8. Semi-supervised adaptation in ssvep-based brain-computer interface using tri-training

    Bender, Thomas; Kjaer, Troels W.; Thomsen, Carsten E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and computationally simple tri-training based semi-supervised steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI). It is implemented with autocorrelation-based features and a Naïve-Bayes classifier (NBC). The system uses nine characters...

  9. A new calibration method for tri-axial field sensors in strap-down navigation systems

    Li, Xiang; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel calibration method for tri-axial field sensors, such as magnetometers and accelerometers, in strap-down navigation systems. Strap-down tri-axial sensors have been widely used as they have the advantages of small size and low cost, but they need to be calibrated in order to ensure their accuracy. The most commonly used calibration method for a tri-axial field sensor is based on ellipsoid fitting, which has no requirement for external references. However, the self-calibration based on ellipsoid fitting is unable to determine and compensate the mutual misalignment between different sensors in a multi-sensor system. Therefore, a novel calibration method that employs the invariance of the dot product of two constant vectors is introduced in this paper. The proposed method, which is named dot product invariance method, brings a complete solution for the error model of tri-axial field sensors, and can solve the problem of alignment in a multi-sensor system. Its effectiveness and superiority over the ellipsoid fitting method are illustrated by numerical simulations, and its application on a digital magnetic compass shows significant enhancement of the heading accuracy. (paper)

  10. Vervluchtiging van EPTC, tri-allaat en parathion na bespuiting van een kleigrond

    Bor, G.; Berg, van den F.; Smelt, J.H.; Peppel-Groen, van de A.E.; Leistra, M.

    1995-01-01

    Op tien tijdstippen na de bespuiting van een onbegroeide kleigrond met EPTC, tri-allaat en parathion werden de snelheden van vervluchtiging van deze middelen bepaald met de kapmethode en de theoretisch-profielmethode (TP-methode). De vervluchtiging was het hoogst op de dag van toepassing. In de

  11. "Right to Try" Legislation Moving Through Congress: But Drug Companies and Some Patient Groups Want Changes.

    Barlas, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    State "Right to Try" laws, which allow terminally ill patients to seek investigational treatments under certain circumstances, have created pressure for Congress to follow up with a federal law. Though facing opposition from patient advocates and the drug industry, a bill passed by the Senate is now making its way to the House.

  12. Tri(t-butyl)phosphine-assisted selective hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient and regio-/stereoselective method of hydrosilylating terminal alkynes was developed using Pt(DVDS)-tri(t-butyl) phosphine catalyst system at room temperature.Trans-products or alpha-products were obtained almost exclusively depending on the alkynes and silanes employed.

  13. Changes in lipid membrane mechanics induced by di- and tri-phenyltins

    Przybyło, Magda; Drabik, Dominik; Szostak, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    properties of biological membranes. It was found that the membrane/water partition coefficient equals 4, a value significantly higher than octanol/water partition coefficient. In addition, the effect of di- and tri-phenyltin chlorides on the mechanics of model lipid membranes was measured for the first time...

  14. 77 FR 23409 - Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Reporting for Facilities Located in Indian Country and...

    2012-04-19

    ... manufactures (including imports), processes, or otherwise uses a TRI chemical yet does not meet the full... chemical or explain why EPA denied the petition. Unlike the analogous process for petitions to add a... deadlines. The risks from chemical accidents are real and current, and EPA encourages the communities in...

  15. Tri-block copolymers with mono-disperse crystallizable diamide segments: synthesis, analysis and rheological properties

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Tri-block copolymers with polyether mid-segments and mono-disperse amide end segments were synthesized, analyzed and some properties studied. The end segment was an aromatic diamide (diaramide, TΦB). The polyether mid-segment was a difunctional poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO, 1000 and 2900 g/mol).

  16. Tri-P-LETS: Changing the Face of High School Computer Science

    Sherrell, Linda; Malasri, Kriangsiri; Mills, David; Thomas, Allen; Greer, James

    2012-01-01

    From 2004-2007, the University of Memphis carried out the NSF-funded Tri-P-LETS (Three P Learning Environment for Teachers and Students) project to improve local high-school computer science curricula. The project reached a total of 58 classrooms in eleven high schools emphasizing problem solving skills, programming concepts as opposed to syntax,…

  17. Generation and application of tri-dimensional animation in mechanical design

    Liu Li

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical design can be understood vividly and accurately and can be improved in time when there is any mistake if it is made in tri-dimensional animation. The author introduces the generation process and methods for animation in mechanical design with an example

  18. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells with an indium-free tri-layer cathode

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Lucas, Bruno; Schirr-Bonnans, Martin; Ratier, Bernard; Kraft, Thomas M.; Torchio, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated without the need of an additional electron transport layer. The indium-free transparent electrode consists of a tri-layer stack ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (14 nm)/ZnO (30 nm) deposited on glass and plastic substrates via ion-beam sputtering. The tri-layer electrodes exhibit similar physical properties to its ITO counterpart, specifically yielding high transmittance and low resistivity (76.5% T at 550 nm, R sq of 8 Ω/◻) on plastic substrates. The novel tri-layer electrode allows for the fabrication of inverted PSCs without the additional ZnO interfacial layer commonly deposited between ITO and the photoactive layer. This allows for the preparation of thinner plastic solar cells using less material than conventional architectures. Initial studies involving the newly realized architecture (tri-layer electrode/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) have shown great promise for the transition from ITO to other viable electrodes in organic electronics

  19. Columbia TriStar omandas "Nimed marmortahvlil" leviõigused / Kairit Tsäro

    Tsäro, Kairit, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Lõppes Albert Kivikase romaani "Nimed marmortahvlil" järgi tehtava mängufilmi võtteperiood. Filmi tootja Taska Productionsi koostööpartner Matila-Röhr Productions sõlmis Columbia TriStariga lepingu, mis tagab filmi levitamise Soomes

  20. A MECHANISTIC STUDY OF RHODIUM TRI(ORTHO-TERT-BUTYLPHENYL)PHOSPHITE COMPLEXES AS HYDROFORMYLATION CATALYSTS

    JONGSMA, T; CHALLA, G; VANLEEUWEN, PWNM

    1991-01-01

    A mechanistic study of the hydroformylation cycle with a rhodium tri(o-t-butylphenyl)phosphite complex as catalyst is presented. Spectroscopic experiments prove that under hydroformylation conditions this complex is coordinated by only one phosphite. The complex has a high activity in the

  1. Coronary Heart Disease Knowledge and Risk Factors among Tri-Ethnic College Students

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.; Ciccazzo, Michele W.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and Europe. This study identified and compared nutritional knowledge associated with CHD risk factors among tri-ethnic college students. Design: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study using questionnaires. Setting: University laboratory.…

  2. Adaptive behaviour, tri-trophic food-web stability and damping of chaos

    Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio; Pigolotti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of adaptive foraging behaviour within a tri-trophic food web with intra-guild predation. The intra-guild prey is allowed to adjust its foraging effort so as to achieve an optimal per capita growth rate in the face of realized feeding, predation risk and foraging cost. Adapti...

  3. A model for additive transport in metal halide lamps containing mercury and dysprosium tri-iodide

    Beks, M.L.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of additives in a metal halide lamp is examined through numerical modelling. A model for a lamp containing sodium iodide additives has been modified to study a discharge containing dysprosium tri-iodide salts. To study the complex chemistry the method of Gibbs minimization is used

  4. Wood-based Tri-Axial Sandwich Composite Materials: Design, Fabrication, Testing, Modeling and Application

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for sustainable materials increases, there are unique challenges and opportunities to develop light-weight green composites materials for a wide range of applications. Thus wood-based composite materials from renewable forests may provide options for some niche applications while helping to protect our environment. In this paper, the wood-based tri-axial...

  5. Biomass production, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and inorganic N use in dual tri-component annual intercrops

    Andersen, M.K.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The interspecific complementary and competitive interactions between pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), grown as dual and tri-component intercrops were assessed in a field study in Denmark. Total biomass production and N use at two levels of ...

  6. PENGARUH LATIHAN POWER OTOT LENGAN TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN CHEST PASS BOLA BASKET SMP TRI BHAKTI PEKANBARU

    M. Fransazeli Makorohim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out about how much influence of muscle power training arm of the ability of basketball Chest passjunior high school students’ extracurricular son of tri bhakti pekanbaru. This study is an experiment that uses the Chest pass test before and after exercise. The study was conducted of Tri Bhakti Pekanbaru. The research data gathered through the data Pree and post test and treated with t-test technique. The analysis shows encountered in the study between Pree test and post test students’ ability to Chest pass significance level. Based on these data it is clear that the alternative hypothesis is accepted that are significant influence of muscle power training arm of the ability of basketball Chest pass junior high school students’ extracurricular Tri Bhakti Pekanbaru. Thus the results of research done to say that exercise variation influence of muscle power training arm of the ability of basketball Chest pass junior high school students’ extracurricular of Tri Bhakti Pekanbaru.

  7. Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle

    Ratha Z. Mathkor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC, single-effect desalination (SED, and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water.

  8. Multiple attractors and boundary crises in a tri-trophic food chain.

    Boer, M.P.; Kooi, B.W.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The asymptotic behaviour of a model of a tri-trophic food chain in the chemostat is analysed in detail. The Monod growth model is used for all trophic levels, yielding a non-linear dynamical system of four ordinary differential equations. Mass conservation makes it possible to reduce the dimension

  9. Reasons for Trying E-cigarettes and Risk of Continued Use.

    Bold, Krysten W; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-09-01

    Longitudinal research is needed to identify predictors of continued electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth. We expected that certain reasons for first trying e-cigarettes would predict continued use over time (eg, good flavors, friends use), whereas other reasons would not predict continued use (eg, curiosity). Longitudinal surveys from middle and high school students from fall 2013 (wave 1) and spring 2014 (wave 2) were used to examine reasons for trying e-cigarettes as predictors of continued e-cigarette use over time. Ever e-cigarette users (n = 340) at wave 1 were categorized into those using or not using e-cigarettes at wave 2. Among those who continued using e-cigarettes, reasons for trying e-cigarettes were examined as predictors of use frequency, measured as the number of days using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days at wave 2. Covariates included age, sex, race, and smoking of traditional cigarettes. Several reasons for first trying e-cigarettes predicted continued use, including low cost, the ability to use e-cigarettes anywhere, and to quit smoking regular cigarettes. Trying e-cigarettes because of low cost also predicted more days of e-cigarette use at wave 2. Being younger or a current smoker of traditional cigarettes also predicted continued use and more frequent use over time. Regulatory strategies such as increasing cost or prohibiting e-cigarette use in certain places may be important for preventing continued use in youth. In addition, interventions targeting current cigarette smokers and younger students may also be needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Reasons for Trying E-cigarettes and Risk of Continued Use

    Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal research is needed to identify predictors of continued electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth. We expected that certain reasons for first trying e-cigarettes would predict continued use over time (eg, good flavors, friends use), whereas other reasons would not predict continued use (eg, curiosity). METHODS: Longitudinal surveys from middle and high school students from fall 2013 (wave 1) and spring 2014 (wave 2) were used to examine reasons for trying e-cigarettes as predictors of continued e-cigarette use over time. Ever e-cigarette users (n = 340) at wave 1 were categorized into those using or not using e-cigarettes at wave 2. Among those who continued using e-cigarettes, reasons for trying e-cigarettes were examined as predictors of use frequency, measured as the number of days using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days at wave 2. Covariates included age, sex, race, and smoking of traditional cigarettes. RESULTS: Several reasons for first trying e-cigarettes predicted continued use, including low cost, the ability to use e-cigarettes anywhere, and to quit smoking regular cigarettes. Trying e-cigarettes because of low cost also predicted more days of e-cigarette use at wave 2. Being younger or a current smoker of traditional cigarettes also predicted continued use and more frequent use over time. CONCLUSIONS: Regulatory strategies such as increasing cost or prohibiting e-cigarette use in certain places may be important for preventing continued use in youth. In addition, interventions targeting current cigarette smokers and younger students may also be needed. PMID:27503349

  11. Male injection drug users try new drugs following U.S. deportation to Tijuana, Mexico.

    Robertson, Angela M; Rangel, M Gudelia; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2012-01-01

    Among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, U.S. deportation is associated with HIV transmission. Changing drug use behaviors following deportation, including the use of new drugs, may increase HIV risk but are understudied. We identify correlates of trying new drugs following male IDUs' most recent U.S. deportation to Mexico. In 2010, we recruited 328 deported male IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Questionnaires collected retrospective data on drug use and other HIV risk behaviors throughout migratory events. Logistic regression identified correlates of trying new drugs/combinations following their most recent deportations. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Nearly one in six men (n=52, 16%) tried new drugs following their most recent deportation, including heroin (n=31), methamphetamine (n=5), and heroin/methamphetamine combined (n=17). Trying new drugs following deportation was independently associated with U.S. incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.96; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.78, 8.84), increasing numbers of U.S. deportations (AOR=1.11 per deportation; C.I. 1.03, 1.20), feeling sad following deportation (AOR 2.69; C.I. 1.41, 5.14), and perceiving that one's current lifestyle increases HIV/AIDS risk (AOR 3.91; C.I. 2.05, 7.44). Trying new drugs following U.S. deportation may be related to the unique contexts and stressors experienced by drug-abusing migrants as they attempt to reestablish their lives in Mexico. Findings imply an unmet need for health and social programs to alleviate pre- and post-deportation stressors faced by undocumented and return migrants in the U.S.-Mexico context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Assay Coupled with Redox Activity Testing Reduces Artifacts and False Positives in Lysine Demethylase Screening.

    Wigle, Tim J; Swinger, Kerren K; Campbell, John E; Scholle, Michael D; Sherrill, John; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Kuntz, Kevin W; Chesworth, Richard; Moyer, Mikel P; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Demethylation of histones by lysine demethylases (KDMs) plays a critical role in controlling gene transcription. Aberrant demethylation may play a causal role in diseases such as cancer. Despite the biological significance of these enzymes, there are limited assay technologies for study of KDMs and few quality chemical probes available to interrogate their biology. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of self-assembled monolayer desorption/ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry for the investigation of quantitative KDM enzyme kinetics and for high-throughput screening for KDM inhibitors. SAMDI can be performed in 384-well format and rapidly allows reaction components to be purified prior to injection into a mass spectrometer, without a throughput-limiting liquid chromatography step. We developed sensitive and robust assays for KDM1A (LSD1, AOF2) and KDM4C (JMJD2C, GASC1) and screened 13,824 compounds against each enzyme. Hits were rapidly triaged using a redox assay to identify compounds that interfered with the catalytic oxidation chemistry used by the KDMs for the demethylation reaction. We find that overall this high-throughput mass spectrometry platform coupled with the elimination of redox active compounds leads to a hit rate that is manageable for follow-up work. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Structure study of the tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 by electron crystallography

    Zhang, Daliang

    2011-12-01

    High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) has unique advantages for structural determination of nano-sized porous materials compared to X-ray diffraction, because it provides the important structure factor phase information which is lost in diffraction. Here we demonstrate the structure determination of the first tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 by electron crystallography. IBN-9 has a hexagonal unit cell with the space group P6 3/mcm and a = 88.4 , c = 84.3 . HRTEM images taken along three main directions, [0 0 1], [11̄0] and [1 0 0] were combined to reconstruct the 3D electrostatic potential map, from which the tri-continuous pore structure of IBN-9 was discovered. The different steps of structure determination of unknown mesoporous structures by electron crystallography are described in details. Similar procedures can also be applied for structure determination of other porous and nonporous crystalline materials. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrino tri-bi-maximal mixing from a non-Abelian discrete family symmetry

    Varzielas, I M; Ross, Graham G

    2007-01-01

    The observed neutrino mixing, having a near maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle and a large solar mixing angle, is close to tri-bi-maximal. We argue that this structure suggests a family symmetric origin in which the magnitude of the mixing angles are related to the existence of a discrete non-Abelian family symmetry. We construct a model in which the family symmetry is the non-Abelian discrete group $\\Delta(27)$, a subgroup of $SU(3)$ in which the tri-bi-maximal mixing directly follows from the vacuum structure enforced by the discrete symmetry. In addition to the lepton mixing angles, the model accounts for the observed quark and lepton masses and the CKM matrix. The structure is also consistent with an underlying stage of Grand Unification.

  15. PENGUNGKAPAN TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL LEMBAGA PERKREDITAN DESA (LPD BERDASARKAN FILOSOFI TRI HITA KARANA

    I G.A. EKA DAMAYANTHI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of Tri Hita Karana has been implemented in the social system of Hindu and nonHindu Balinese society. This philosophy emphasize on harmonizing relationship of human to the God (Parhyangan, human to human (Pawongan, and human to the environment (Palemahan. LPD as the custom village financial institution has a social responsibility to the society. This article explains that as a financial institution raising capital from the society has social and economic responsibility to them. According to Regional Act of Bali Province No.8 Year 2002, twenty percent of LPD’s net income shall be provided for the village development plan, and 5 percent for social fund of the village. This shows the role of LPD in increasing the society welfare. This article also describes several implementations of social responsibilities of LPD with Tri Hita Karana philosophy. To be able to show the responsibility, it is suggested for LPD to prepare social responsibility report periodically.

  16. Solar tri-diurnal variation of cosmic rays in a wide range of rigidity

    Mori, S.; Ueno, H.; Fujii, Z.; Morishita, I.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar tri-diurnal variations of cosmic rays have been analyzed in a wide range of rigidity, using data from neutron monitors, and the surface and underground muon telescopes for the period 1978-1983. The rigidity spectrum of the anisotropy in space is assumed to be of power-exponential type as (P/gamma P sub o) to the gamma exp (gamma-P/P sub o). By means of the best-fit method between the observed and the expected variations, it is obtained that the spectrum has a peak at P (=gamma P sub o) approx = 90 GV, where gamma=approx 3.0 and P sub o approx. 30 GV. The phase in space of the tri-diurnal variation is also obtained as 7.0 hr (15 hr and 23 hr LT), which is quite different from that of approx. 1 hr. arising from the axisymmetric distribution of cosmic rays with respect to the IMF.

  17. Dampak Penerapan Kultur Lokal Tri Hita Karana terhadap Orientasi Kewirausahaan dan Orientasi Pasar

    I Gede Riana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of Tri Hita Karana culture toward entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation of SMEs of silver craft in Bali. The population of this research is all small and medium size enterprises of silver craft in Bali. By using purposive random sampling, 110 small and medium size enterprises located in four regencies in Bali were selected as samples. The data collection technique was distributing questionnaires. Furthermore, to test the inter-variabels influence, inferential analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is applied using Partial Least Square (PLS approach. The findings of this research are Tri Hita Karana culture could improve the entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation. It was also found that the entrepreneurial orientation influence the market orientation.

  18. A tri-continuous mesoporous material with a silica pore wall following a hexagonal minimal surface

    Han, Yu

    2009-04-06

    Ordered porous materials with unique pore structures and pore sizes in the mesoporous range (2-50nm) have many applications in catalysis, separation and drug delivery. Extensive research has resulted in mesoporous materials with one-dimensional, cage-like and bi-continuous pore structures. Three families of bi-continuous mesoporous materials have been made, with two interwoven but unconnected channels, corresponding to the liquid crystal phases used as templates. Here we report a three-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica, IBN-9, with a tri-continuous pore structure that is synthesized using a specially designed cationic surfactant template. IBN-9 consists of three identical continuous interpenetrating channels, which are separated by a silica wall that follows a hexagonal minimal surface. Such a tri-continuous mesostructure was predicted mathematically, but until now has not been observed in real materials. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Third family corrections to tri-bimaximal lepton mixing and a new sum rule

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the theoretical stability of the predictions of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing with respect to third family wave-function corrections. Such third family wave-function corrections can arise from either the canonical normalisation of the kinetic terms or renormalisation group running effects. At leading order both sorts of corrections can be subsumed into a single universal parameter. For hierarchical neutrinos, this leads to a new testable lepton mixing sum rule s=rcosδ+2/3 a (where s,r,a describe the deviations of solar, reactor and atmospheric mixing angles from their tri-bimaximal values, and δ is the observable Dirac CP phase) which is stable under all leading order third family wave-function corrections, as well as Cabibbo-like charged lepton mixing effects

  20. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  1. Design of HTS tri-axial cable in steady-state operation

    Hu, N.; Toda, M.; Ozcivan, A.N.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2010-01-01

    By the advantage of more compact structure, small leakage field, and low heat loss, tri-axial cable become to be mainstream design in recently HTS practical project. However, the imbalance current problem was also reported by some practice experiments. Since the HTS tri-axial cable is composed of three concentric phases, an unsymmetrical inductance and capacitance distribution which is determined by twist pitches and radii, gives an inherent imbalance in three-phase currents distribution. In our previous research, we proposed a two sections structure design to overcome this limitation. Inductance has been balanced by twist pitch adjusting. In that case, the imbalance ratio of current only can be caused by capacitance distribution which is depending on voltage and line length. In this paper, we evaluate the thickness of insulation, the unsymmetrical capacitance distribution and cable fabrication error. Then we investigate the imbalance ratio due to the capacitance as functions of voltage and length by using Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP).

  2. "Trying" times: Medicalization, intent, and ambiguity in the definition of infertility.

    Greil, Arthur L; McQuillan, Julia

    2010-06-01

    Researchers studying infertility from the perspective of anthropology and other the social sciences seldom examine the assumptions embedded in the biomedical definition of infertility. Implicit in the biomedical definition is the assumption that people can be divided straightforwardly into those who are trying to conceive and those who are not trying to conceive. If being infertile implies "intent to conceive," we must recognize that there are various degrees of intent and that the line between the fertile and the infertile is not as sharp as is usually imagined. Drawing on structured interview data collected from a random sample of Midwestern U.S. women and from qualitative interviews, we demonstrate that that there is a wide range of intent among those classified as infertile according to the biomedical definition. We explore the implications of this for research.

  3. Dual and tri-band bandpass filters based on novel Π-shaped resonator

    Xiao, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A novel Π-shaped resonator is proposed, and compact dual-band and tri-band bandpass filters that meet IEEE 802.11 application requirements by using the new resonator are designed. The dual-band bandpass filter centres at 2.45 and 5.6 GHz with a simulated passband insertion loss of no more than 0.8 dB, and the tri-band bandpass filter which is got by two-path coupling achieves simulated passband insertion loss of no more than 1.1 dB. The new designs are demonstrated by experiment. The new filters have advantages of simple and compact structures, low passband insertion losses, good frequency selectivity and miniature circuit sizes. All these have prospect to be applied in future wireless communication systems.

  4. A tri-continuous mesoporous material with a silica pore wall following a hexagonal minimal surface

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Daliang; Chng, Leng Leng; Sun, Junliang; Zhao, L. J.; Zou, Xiaodong; Ying, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Ordered porous materials with unique pore structures and pore sizes in the mesoporous range (2-50nm) have many applications in catalysis, separation and drug delivery. Extensive research has resulted in mesoporous materials with one-dimensional, cage-like and bi-continuous pore structures. Three families of bi-continuous mesoporous materials have been made, with two interwoven but unconnected channels, corresponding to the liquid crystal phases used as templates. Here we report a three-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica, IBN-9, with a tri-continuous pore structure that is synthesized using a specially designed cationic surfactant template. IBN-9 consists of three identical continuous interpenetrating channels, which are separated by a silica wall that follows a hexagonal minimal surface. Such a tri-continuous mesostructure was predicted mathematically, but until now has not been observed in real materials. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Topics and Trends in Military Dental Research: A Tri-Service Panel Discussion

    2016-05-09

    Tri- Service Panel Discussion presented at/published to SURF 2016 (San Antonio Military Health System & Universities Research Forum), UT San Antonio...meting.) SURF 2016 (San Antonio Mili tary Health System & U niversities Research Forum), UT San Antonio, TX; 20 May 2016 D 11e. OTHER (Describe...if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department has told you they cannot fund your publication, the 59th Clinical Research

  6. Tri-n-butyl phosphate - the universal solvent for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Naylor, A.; Eccles, H.

    1988-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphates (TBP) is now Widely used in the processes of solvent extraction, especially in those, used in nuclear fuel cycle. Problems, related with actinide separation and purification, can be solved easily by accurate sampling of diluent, concentration and purification degree of a solvent, aqueous phase acidity and temperature. Physical and chemical properties of TBP, mechanism of actinide solvent extraction, TBP hydrolysis and radiolysis are considered

  7. Uranyl ion complexation by the tripodal ligand nitrilo-tri-acetate

    Thuery, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Reaction of uranyl nitrate with N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (ADA) under hydrothermal conditions resulted in the hydrolysis of the amide group and the isolation of the complex [(UO{sub 2})(HNTA)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], in which each nitrilo-tri-acetate ligand, protonated at the N site, bridges three metal atoms to give rise to infinite ladder-like ribbons built from 2:2 metallacycles. (author)

  8. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate

    Boyang Huang; Guilherme Caetano; Cian Vyas; Jonny James Blaker; Carl Diver; Paulo Bártolo

    2018-01-01

    The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)) were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). Scaffolds with different material compositions were produced using an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. The produced scaffolds were physi...

  9. Rapid purification of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine protein conjugates for antibody production.

    Burke, C W; Shakespear, R A

    1975-04-01

    Thyroxine (T-4) and tri-iodothyronine (T-3) were coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) with carbodi-imide. By adsorption chromatography on Sephadex G-25, fractions containing purified conjugate, but not reversibly-bound T-3 or T-4, were obtained, and this procedure took 5 h; considerably less than the conventional dialysis technique. Highly specific high-titre antisera were produced in rabbits and guinea-pigs by injection of these fractions in Freund's adjuvant.

  10. Effect of ionizing and nonionizing radiations on the mechanical properties of cellulose tri acetate polymer

    Sallam, M M; El-Fiki, S A; Nooh, S A [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Chams Univ, Cairo (Egypt); Eissa, H M [National Institute for Standard, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Several quantities including modulus of elasticity, fracture stress, fracture strain, yield tress and yield strain, were calculated for cellulose tri acetate polymer. These samples were exposed to different gamma doses in the range from (32 kg y), and different energies of infrared pulsated laser of 5 watt power in the range (Zero to 9 j/cm 2). The changes in these parameters were found to be due to changes in degree of crystallinity of polymers.4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. "I didn't know if it would work, but I tried it anyway".

    Davidhizar, R

    1996-03-01

    To be an excellent manager, daring, creative, and innovative solutions should be tried for management problems. A manager may feel he or she is treading on ground where no one walked before; however, the manager who takes no risk will never come up with the novel and original solutions. This article supplies guidelines for the evaluation of creative and innovative solutions. These guidelines are especially appropriate for the employee who needs a smooth transition into management.

  12. Insights into operation of planar tri-gate tunnel field effect transistor for dynamic memory application

    Navlakha, Nupur; Kranti, Abhinav

    2017-07-01

    Insights into device physics and operation through the control of energy barriers are presented for a planar tri-gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) based dynamic memory. The architecture consists of a double gate (G1) at the source side and a single gate (G2) at the drain end of the silicon film. Dual gates (G1) effectively enhance the tunneling based read mechanism through the enhanced coupling and improved electrostatic control over the channel. The single gate (G2) controls the holes in the potential barrier induced through the proper selection of bias and workfunction. The results indicate that the planar tri-gate achieves optimum performance evaluated in terms of two composite metrics (M1 and M2), namely, product of (i) Sense Margin (SM) and Retention Time (RT) i.e., M1 = SM × RT and (ii) Sense Margin and Current Ratio (CR) i.e., M2 = SM × CR. The regulation of barriers created by the gates (G1 and G2) through the optimal use of device parameters leads to better performance metrics, with significant improvement at scaled lengths as compared to other tunneling based dynamic memory architectures. The investigation shows that lengths of G1, G2 and lateral spacing can be scaled down to 25 nm, 50 nm, and 30 nm, respectively, while achieving reasonable values for (M1, M2). The work demonstrates a systematic approach to showcase the advancement in TFET based Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) through the use of planar tri-gate topology at a lower bias value. The concept, design, and operation of planar tri-gate architecture provide valuable viewpoints for TFET based DRAM.

  13. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to appraise and evaluate the groundwater resources of a tri-state region adjacent to the lower Delaware River that is centered around Philadelphia, Pa., and Camden, N. J., and includes Wilmington, Del., and Trenton, N.J. Specifically, the region includes New Castle County, Del.; Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Mercer, and Salem Counties in New Jersey; and Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties in Pennsylvania.

  14. Fatigue behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    The static and fatigue bending behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP) has been investigated by four-point bending tests. Fatigue panels and weakened panels (wESCP) with an initial interface defect were manufactured for the fatigue tests. Stress σ vs. number of cycles curves (S-N) were recorded under the different stress...

  15. Discovery of aryl-tri-fluoroborates as potent sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The structure-based design of sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors identified new active compounds. The organo-tri-fluoroborate shown was found to inhibit iodide uptake with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM on rat-derived thyroid cells. The biological activity is rationalized by the presence of the BF3 - ion as a minimal binding motif for substrate recognition at the iodide binding site. (authors)

  16. Discovery of aryl-tri-fluoroborates as potent sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y. [CEA, DSV, Dept Bioorgan Chem and Isotop Labelling, Inst Biol and Technol, iBiTecS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The structure-based design of sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors identified new active compounds. The organo-tri-fluoroborate shown was found to inhibit iodide uptake with an IC50 value of 0.4 {mu}M on rat-derived thyroid cells. The biological activity is rationalized by the presence of the BF3{sup -} ion as a minimal binding motif for substrate recognition at the iodide binding site. (authors)

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of auto-stripped tri-layer wound dressing for extensive burn injury

    Lin, F.-H.; Tsai, J.-C.; Chen, T.-M.; Chen, K.-S.; Yang, J.-M.; Kang, P.-L.; Wu, T-H.

    2007-01-01

    In the study, we are going to develop a tri-layer membrane as the artificial skin for extensive burn injury. The first layer is a three-dimensional tri-copolymer sponge of gelatin/hyaluronan/chodroitin-6-sulfate with 70% in porosity and 20-100 μm in pore size. The layer is constructed as a dermis analogous layer to stimulate capillaries penetration, to promote dermal fibroblast migration and to induce the secretion of extra-cellular matrix, which provides a better physiological environment for burn patient recovery. The second layer is as so called auto-stripped layer composed by poly-N-isopropyacrylamide (PNIPAAm). The layer will be automatically peeled off from the tri-copolymer layer once the wound site closed and recovered. The third layer is composed by polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric, which provides an open structure for exudates drainage out that will reduce the risk of second infection. The tri-layer wound dressing has been successfully prepared by subsequently high-energy plasma treatment, γ-ray irradiation, UV light exposure, and lyophilized process. From the results of MTT, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α measurement, the developed material will not induce tissue inflammatory or immune response. The dermal fibroblasts showed initial contact with the material surface through the radial extension of filopodia followed by cytoplasmic webbing that could be examined by SEM. Dermal fibroblasts subsequently flattened for further proliferation and extra-cellular matrix secretion. Dermal analog layer provides a three-dimensional architecture for normal dermis regeneration. The layer can be completely biodegraded within 4 weeks post-operation. After served as a scaffold for the ingrowth of self-fibroblasts, a normal dermis like layer will be regenerated. The dressing will fall off automatically without any damage once the wound site healed completely

  18. Induction of the mesenchymal to epithelial transition by demethylation-activated microRNA-125b is involved in the anti-migration/invasion effects of arsenic trioxide on human chondrosarcoma.

    Bao, Xing; Ren, Tingting; Huang, Yi; Wang, Shidong; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Kuisheng; Zheng, Bingxin; Guo, Wei

    2016-08-30

    In addition to treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, arsenic trioxide (ATO) suppresses other solid tumors, including chondrosarcoma. However, the effects of ATO on metastasis in chondrosarcoma cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of ATO on the migratory and invasive capacities of chondrosarcoma cells were investigated by Wound healing, Transwell and EMT assays. The expression of miR-125b in human chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines was detected by real-time PCR analysis. Bisulfite sequencing analysis (BSP) was used to detect the effects of ATO on the expression of miR-125b. The gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were performed on chondrosarcoma cell lines to investigate the effects of miR-125b on chondrosarcoma invasion, and to determine whether signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(Stat3) mediates these effects. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify whether Stat3 is a direct target of miR-125b. MiR-125b was significantly downregulated in human metastatic chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines but not in non-metastatic chondrosarcoma tissues. ATO up-regulates the expression of miR-125b by the demethylation of DNA. ATO induces MET and attenuates the invasive capacities of chondrosarcoma cells through miR-125b. Stat3 was verified as a direct target of miR-125b, which is involved in ATO regulating EMT-associated traits. These findings, for the first time, provides evidence that the miR-125b-mediated inhibition of Stat3 is involved in the ATO-induced attenuation of metastasis in chondrosarcoma cells.

  19. Generate tri-directional spectra-compatible time histories using HHT method

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hilbert–Huang Transform are applied to modify real earthquake records. • Generate tri-directional time histories compatible with target spectra. • Both GRS and FRS are considered as target spectra. • Target spectra with multiple damping ratios are considered. - Abstract: This paper proposes two algorithms to generate spectrum-compatible time histories based on two approaches recommended by USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.7.1. Hilbert–Huang Transform technique is used to analyze frequency contents and amplitudes of seed motions. Through adjusting the frequency contents and amplitudes of seed motions, spectrum-compatible time histories are obtained. The first algorithm is to generate tri-directional time histories compatible with multi-damping target design spectra (ground response spectra or floor response spectra). The second algorithm is to generate tri-directional time histories compatible with single-damping target design spectra. Examples are presented to demonstrate versatility of these two proposed algorithms to generate spectra-compatible time histories.

  20. Generate tri-directional spectra-compatible time histories using HHT method

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau, E-mail: xie@uwaterloo.ca; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hilbert–Huang Transform are applied to modify real earthquake records. • Generate tri-directional time histories compatible with target spectra. • Both GRS and FRS are considered as target spectra. • Target spectra with multiple damping ratios are considered. - Abstract: This paper proposes two algorithms to generate spectrum-compatible time histories based on two approaches recommended by USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.7.1. Hilbert–Huang Transform technique is used to analyze frequency contents and amplitudes of seed motions. Through adjusting the frequency contents and amplitudes of seed motions, spectrum-compatible time histories are obtained. The first algorithm is to generate tri-directional time histories compatible with multi-damping target design spectra (ground response spectra or floor response spectra). The second algorithm is to generate tri-directional time histories compatible with single-damping target design spectra. Examples are presented to demonstrate versatility of these two proposed algorithms to generate spectra-compatible time histories.

  1. STDP-based behavior learning on the TriBot robot

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Pollino, M.; Ventura, C.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a correlation-based navigation algorithm, based on an unsupervised learning paradigm for spiking neural networks, called Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP). This algorithm was implemented on a new bio-inspired hybrid mini-robot called TriBot to learn and increase its behavioral capabilities. In fact correlation based algorithms have been found to explain many basic behaviors in simple animals. The main interesting consequence of STDP is that the system is able to learn high-level sensor features, based on a set of basic reflexes, depending on some low-level sensor inputs. TriBot is composed of 3 modules, the first two being identical and inspired by the Whegs hybrid robot. The peculiar characteristics of the robot consists in the innovative shape of the three-spoke appendages that allow to increase stability of the structure. The last module is composed of two standard legs with 3 degrees of freedom each. Thanks to the cooperation among these modules, TriBot is able to face with irregular terrains overcoming potential deadlock situations, to climb high obstacles compared to its size and to manipulate objects. Robot experiments will be reported to demonstrate the potentiality and the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. An iterative method for tri-level quadratic fractional programming problems using fuzzy goal programming approach

    Kassa, Semu Mitiku; Tsegay, Teklay Hailay

    2017-08-01

    Tri-level optimization problems are optimization problems with three nested hierarchical structures, where in most cases conflicting objectives are set at each level of hierarchy. Such problems are common in management, engineering designs and in decision making situations in general, and are known to be strongly NP-hard. Existing solution methods lack universality in solving these types of problems. In this paper, we investigate a tri-level programming problem with quadratic fractional objective functions at each of the three levels. A solution algorithm has been proposed by applying fuzzy goal programming approach and by reformulating the fractional constraints to equivalent but non-fractional non-linear constraints. Based on the transformed formulation, an iterative procedure is developed that can yield a satisfactory solution to the tri-level problem. The numerical results on various illustrative examples demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is very much promising and it can also be used to solve larger-sized as well as n-level problems of similar structure.

  3. Tri-Clustered Tensor Completion for Social-Aware Image Tag Refinement.

    Tang, Jinhui; Shu, Xiangbo; Qi, Guo-Jun; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Yan, Shuicheng; Jain, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Social image tag refinement, which aims to improve tag quality by automatically completing the missing tags and rectifying the noise-corrupted ones, is an essential component for social image search. Conventional approaches mainly focus on exploring the visual and tag information, without considering the user information, which often reveals important hints on the (in)correct tags of social images. Towards this end, we propose a novel tri-clustered tensor completion framework to collaboratively explore these three kinds of information to improve the performance of social image tag refinement. Specifically, the inter-relations among users, images and tags are modeled by a tensor, and the intra-relations between users, images and tags are explored by three regularizations respectively. To address the challenges of the super-sparse and large-scale tensor factorization that demands expensive computing and memory cost, we propose a novel tri-clustering method to divide the tensor into a certain number of sub-tensors by simultaneously clustering users, images and tags into a bunch of tri-clusters. And then we investigate two strategies to complete these sub-tensors by considering (in)dependence between the sub-tensors. Experimental results on a real-world social image database demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Bottom-Up Tri-gate Transistors and Submicrosecond Photodetectors from Guided CdS Nanowalls.

    Xu, Jinyou; Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2017-11-08

    Tri-gate transistors offer better performance than planar transistors by exerting additional gate control over a channel from two lateral sides of semiconductor nanowalls (or "fins"). Here we report the bottom-up assembly of aligned CdS nanowalls by a simultaneous combination of horizontal catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth and vertical facet-selective noncatalytic vapor-solid growth and their parallel integration into tri-gate transistors and photodetectors at wafer scale (cm 2 ) without postgrowth transfer or alignment steps. These tri-gate transistors act as enhancement-mode transistors with an on/off current ratio on the order of 10 8 , 4 orders of magnitude higher than the best results ever reported for planar enhancement-mode CdS transistors. The response time of the photodetector is reduced to the submicrosecond level, 1 order of magnitude shorter than the best results ever reported for photodetectors made of bottom-up semiconductor nanostructures. Guided semiconductor nanowalls open new opportunities for high-performance 3D nanodevices assembled from the bottom up.

  5. Interface-induced spin Hall magnetoresistance enhancement in Pt-based tri-layer structure.

    Huang, Shun-Yu; Li, Hong-Lin; Chong, Cheong-Wei; Chang, Yu-Ying; Lee, Min-Kai; Huang, Jung-Chun-Andrew

    2018-01-08

    In this study, we integrated bilayer structure of covered Pt on nickel zinc ferrite (NZFO) and CoFe/Pt/NZFO tri-layer structure by pulsed laser deposition system for a spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) study. In the bilayer structure, the angular-dependent magnetoresistance (MR) results indicate that Pt/NZFO has a well-defined SMR behavior. Moreover, the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length, which were 0.0648 and 1.31 nm, respectively, can be fitted by changing the Pt thickness in the longitudinal SMR function. Particularly, the MR ratio of the bilayer structure (Pt/NZFO) has the highest changing ratio (about 0.135%), compared to the prototype structure Pt/Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) because the NZFO has higher magnetization. Meanwhile, the tri-layer samples (CoFe/Pt/NZFO) indicate that the MR behavior is related with CoFe thickness as revealed in angular-dependent MR measurement. Additionally, comparison between the tri-layer structure with Pt/NZFO and CoFe/Pt bilayer systems suggests that the SMR ratio can be enhanced by more than 70%, indicating that additional spin current should be injected into Pt layer.

  6. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    2010-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix, Arizona...

  7. 75 FR 24799 - Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick...

    2010-05-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick...-City Water Follies Association hosts annual hydroplane races on the Columbia River in Kennewick... Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick, WA (a...

  8. An Effective Tri-Clustering Algorithm Combining Expression Data with Gene Regulation Information

    Ao Li

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Bi-clustering algorithms aim to identify sets of genes sharing similar expression patterns across a subset of conditions. However direct interpretation or prediction of gene regulatory mechanisms may be difficult as only gene expression data is used. Information about gene regulators may also be available, most commonly about which transcription factors may bind to the promoter region and thus control the expression level of a gene. Thus a method to integrate gene expression and gene regulation information is desirable for clustering and analyzing. Methods: By incorporating gene regulatory information with gene expression data, we define regulated expression values (REV as indicators of how a gene is regulated by a specific factor. Existing bi-clustering methods are extended to a three dimensional data space by developing a heuristic TRI-Clustering algorithm. An additional approach named Automatic Boundary Searching algorithm (ABS is introduced to automatically determine the boundary threshold. Results: Results based on incorporating ChIP-chip data representing transcription factor-gene interactions show that the algorithms are efficient and robust for detecting tri-clusters. Detailed analysis of the tri-cluster extracted from yeast sporulation REV data shows genes in this cluster exhibited significant differences during the middle and late stages. The implicated regulatory network was then reconstructed for further study of defined regulatory mechanisms. Topological and statistical analysis of this network demonstrated evidence of significant changes of TF activities during the different stages of yeast sporulation, and suggests this approach might be a general way to study regulatory networks undergoing transformations.

  9. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  10. Falls classification using tri-axial accelerometers during the five-times-sit-to-stand test.

    Doheny, Emer P; Walsh, Cathal; Foran, Timothy; Greene, Barry R; Fan, Chie Wei; Cunningham, Clodagh; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-09-01

    The five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSS) is an established assessment of lower limb strength, balance dysfunction and falls risk. Clinically, the time taken to complete the task is recorded with longer times indicating increased falls risk. Quantifying the movement using tri-axial accelerometers may provide a more objective and potentially more accurate falls risk estimate. 39 older adults, 19 with a history of falls, performed four repetitions of the FTSS in their homes. A tri-axial accelerometer was attached to the lateral thigh and used to identify each sit-stand-sit phase and sit-stand and stand-sit transitions. A second tri-axial accelerometer, attached to the sternum, captured torso acceleration. The mean and variation of the root-mean-squared amplitude, jerk and spectral edge frequency of the acceleration during each section of the assessment were examined. The test-retest reliability of each feature was examined using intra-class correlation analysis, ICC(2,k). A model was developed to classify participants according to falls status. Only features with ICC>0.7 were considered during feature selection. Sequential forward feature selection within leave-one-out cross-validation resulted in a model including four reliable accelerometer-derived features, providing 74.4% classification accuracy, 80.0% specificity and 68.7% sensitivity. An alternative model using FTSS time alone resulted in significantly reduced classification performance. Results suggest that the described methodology could provide a robust and accurate falls risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity profiles of U.S. adults trying to lose weight: NHIS 1998.

    Kruger, Judy; Galuska, Deborah A; Serdula, Mary K; Kohl, Harold W

    2005-03-01

    Physical activity is an integral part of weight control programs, but recommended amounts vary. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence and characteristics of those who reported using exercise as a weight loss strategy (N=14,716), and to determine the prevalence of meeting various institutionally recommended levels of physical activity (N=8538) among that population. Data were obtained from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey, a face-to-face nationally representative household interview. Questions on leisure-time physical activity were analyzed using SUDAAN. Among those who reported trying to lose weight, 55% reported using exercise as a weight loss strategy alone, and of those, 58% reported eating fewer calories. The prevalence of using exercise as a weight loss strategy was directly associated with education and inversely associated with age and body mass index. Among those who reported using exercise as a weight loss strategy, 57% met the minimal 1998 National Institutes of Health recommendation of >or=150 min.wk; 46% met the lower end of the 2001 American College of Sports Medicine recommendation of 200 min.wk; and 30% met the upper end for 300 min.wk. Only 19% met the 2002 Institute of Medicine recommendation of 420 min.wk. Despite the importance of physical activity in a weight loss program, only about half of the persons trying to lose weight reported using exercise. Even among those, only slightly more than half met the minimal recommendations for physical activity. Efforts are needed to aid those trying to lose weight to incorporate appropriate levels of physical activity into their weight loss strategy.

  12. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers.

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-11-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cretaceous biota of the Triângulo Mineiro region (Brazil: A review of recent finds

    Candeiro, C. R. A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Group (Adamantina, Uberaba, and Marília Formations crop out in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and yield a rich continental biota. Invertebrate and vertebrate taxa from underlying and overlying strata, as well as biostratigraphical correlations with other fossil sites in Argentina, suggest an Upper Cretaceous age for this biota. The diversity of the fossil assemblage recorded in these formations is summarized here and includes: frogs, lizards, crocodiles, titanosaurs, abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs. This fossil assemblage provides important clues to understand faunas from other southern landmasses, particularly those from the Cretaceous of the African continent.Los afloramientos del Grupo Bauru (formaciones Adamantina, Uberaba y Marília en la región del Triângulo Mineiro, Provincia de Minas Gerais, Brasil, posee un rico contenido de biota continental. Los taxa de invertebrados y vertebrados de estos estratos, así como las correlaciones biostratigráficas con otros yacimientos fósiles de Argentina, sugieren una edad del Cretácico Tardío. La diversidad de la asociación fósil registrada en las formaciones del Triângulo Mineiro se resume en el presente trabajo e incluye: sapos, lagartos, tortugas, cocodrilianos, titanosaurideos, dinosaurios abelisaurideos y carcharodontosaurideos. Esta asociación es importante para la comprensión de las faunas del sur de América y también de las del Cretácico de África.

  14. Ultrasonic spot welding of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets

    Macwan, A.; Patel, V.K.; Jiang, X.Q.; Li, C.; Bhole, S.D.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal welding condition is achieved at 100 J and 0.1 s. • Failure load first increases and then decreases with increasing welding energy. • The highest failure load after welding is close to that of the clad sheets. • At low energy levels failure occurs in the mode of interfacial failure. • At high energy levels failure takes place at the edge of nugget region. - Abstract: Solid-state ultrasonic spot welding (USW) was used to join Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets, aiming at exploring weldability and identifying failure mode in relation to the welding energy. It was observed that the application of a low welding energy of 100 J was able to achieve the optimal welding condition during USW at a very short welding time of 0.1 s for the tri-layered clad sheets. The optimal lap shear failure load obtained was equivalent to that of the as-received Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets. With increasing welding energy, the lap shear failure load initially increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum value. At a welding energy of 25 J, failure occurred in the mode of interfacial failure along the center Al/Al weld interface due to insufficient bonding. At a welding energy of 50 J, 75 J and 100 J, failure was also characterized by the interfacial failure mode, but it occurred along the Al/Mg clad interface rather than the center Al/Al weld interface, suggesting stronger bonding of the Al/Al weld interface than that of the Al/Mg clad interface. The overall weld strength of the Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets was thus governed by the Al/Mg clad interface strength. At a welding energy of 125 J and 150 J, thinning of weld nugget and extensive deformation at the edge of welding tip caused failure at the edge of nugget region, leading to a lower lap shear failure load

  15. Optimization of radiographic spot for the TriMeV accelerator

    Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Olson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors are examining diode configurations for the 3-MeV, 30-kA TriMeV electron-beam accelerator at Bechtel Nevada. These include a flat-cathode diode with focusing into a gas cell and a magnetically-immersed diode similar to that used on HERMES III at Sandia National Laboratories. They are in the process of optimizing the diode designs using the hybrid kinetic-fluid simulation code IPROP which models both vacuum flow and gas breakdown. These configurations will be fielded on TriMeV this year. The TriMeV voltage pulse is somewhat unique in that it has a 3-ns rise and fall time with a 14-ns flat top. This sharp rise and fall in voltage make it ideal for studying beam focusing. The flat-cathode diode uses a 3.5-cm radius velvet electron emitter and a 4-cm anode-cathode gap that has produced a 23 kA beam self-focused in vacuum into a gas cell of 2.8-cm radius. The time-integrated beam spot has been optimized experimentally with 10 Torr nitrogen in the ballistic focusing regime where self fields are minimal. New currents < 5 kA were measured at the gas cell wall for 5--15 Torr nitrogen. Below 2 Torr, the net current increases rapidly to the full beam current. IPROP has simulated this behavior in reasonable agreement with experiment. The code predicts that, due to finite plasma current decay, the time-integrated spot is increased as the beam focus moves upstream of the target. If the diode voltage is sufficiently stable, IPROP predicts a root-mean-square (RMS) radius <2 mm in the runaway regime (1 Torr). In an immersed TriMeV diode, a 10--15 kA electron beam is emitted from a sub-millimeter needle cathode into a strong 12--18 Tesia solenoidal field. The remaining current is lost to the outer wall. The large fields are necessary to limit growth of the magnetized ion-hose instability. With careful design of the cathode structure, the authors can minimize the current flowing into the diode from large radius. IPROP calculates an RMS radius <1 mm. With close

  16. Numerical study of electron-leakage power loss in a tri-plate transmission line

    Barker, R.J.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been conducted using NRL's DIODE2D computer code to model the steady-state behavior of electron flow in a radial diode and in its adjacent tri-plate transmission line (TTL). Particular attention was paid to the magnitude of the electron current flowing from the cathode to the anode surface in the TTL. A quantitative value for this effective power loss is given. The electron current is restricted mainly to the transition region in the TTL into which there is seepage of the B/sub z/ that is imposed in the diode gap. This finding highlights the importance of that region to diode designers

  17. Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of South America

    2003-07-01

    do Iguaçu], “Muslims Prevail Among Small Religions in Foz,” February 3, 2003, as translated for FBIS, “Highlights From the Tri-Border Press for the...www.ajc.org/InTheMedia/PublicationsPrint.asp?did=555] 23 Gazeta do Iguaçu [Foz do Iguaçu], “Muslims Prevail Among Small Religions in Foz,” February 3...la Seguridad y Delitos del Siglo XXI, Escuela Superior de Gendarmería, Buenos Aires, 1996, 13-16. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division

  18. Zinc and palladium traces separation from uranium by tri-n-octylamine extraction

    Moraes, S. de; Cipriani, M.; Abrao, A.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for the extraction and determination of Zn and Pd as traces from nuclear grade uranium ADU, UO 2 , UO 3 , U 3 O 8 is introduced. The elements are extracted from UO 2 CI 2 -HCI-KI solution with tri-n-octylamine in benzene and determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The adition of potassium iodide to the UO 2 CI 2 -HCI solutions improved the extraction of both elements. Direct burn of the organic phase in the atomic absorption spectrophotometer using hydrogen-air flame provided enhancement of the absorbance for both elements. The relative standard deviations were Zn, 3% and PD, 2.9%

  19. Serious games – How do they try to make players think about immigration issues? An overview

    Sonja Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immigration has become a popular topic for digital games, most of them wanting players to empathize with (illegal immigrants. There are different game elements that can be used to embody empathy and having a look at different games one can see that they are sometimes more successfully applied, sometimes less. Apart from empathy these games often try to teach facts and information, but also (unintentionally convey misconceptions and/or political messages. This article is going to look at various examples of digital games discussing and comparing these areas.

  20. Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) embedded polymer electret for mechanical sensing application

    Murugan, S.; Praveen, E.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) particles were synthesized by precipitation assisted high temperature solid state reaction. The particles were embedded in chitosan polymer and used as an electret. This electret was characterized for the suitability as a sensing element in vibration accelerometer. It is observed that LiB3O5 embedded electret exhibiting piezoelectric property. The electret is also giving an isolation of > 999 MΩ at 100 Vdc, 250 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1kVdc confirms compatible for intrinsically safe sensing alternative in vibration accelerometer.

  1. Effect of n-octanol on -uranyl extraction by tri-n-octylammonium sulfate

    Ochkin, A.V.; Kudrov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of n-octanol on the extraction of uranyl sulfate by solutions of tri-n-octylamine sulfate in benzene has been studied. With the increase of alcohol concentration the coefficient of uranium distribution passes through the maximum. At low alcohol concentrations a decrease in water content in the organic phase is observed. It is shown that the increase in ammonium salt activity in replacement of part of hydrate At high alcohol concentration the decrease in uranium distribution coefficients is observed, which is related to TOA sulfate solvation by alcohol

  2. Synthesis and 125I labeling of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate

    Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Yongxian; Zhou Wei; Wang Lihua; Xia Jiaoyun; Yin Duanzhi

    2005-01-01

    N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE) and N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-benzoate (SIB) is synthesized. The structures of ATE and SIB are confirmed with 1 HNMR, MS and IR. The yields of ATE and SIB are 45.4% and 71.4%, respectively. ATE is labeled with 125 I. The labeling field is 93.0% and radiochemical purity is over 98.0%. The synthesis and the labeling of ATE have a important value for indirect label of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  3. Extraction of gold(I) cyanide by the methyl tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride

    Zhang Tianxi; Yan Wenfei; Wu Jinguang

    2000-01-01

    The solvent extraction of KAu(CN) 2 from alkaline solution by the tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride (N263) using 198 Au tracer has been investigated. The effects of various parameters, such as gold (I) concentration in aqueous phase, cosolvent, phase ratio on the extraction of gold (I) are studied. The results demonstrate that almost all of gold (I) in aqueous phase can be extracted into the organic phase. Water concentration decreases significantly with the increase of gold (I) concentration in the organic phase. No water molecule could be involved in the extraction of gold (I)

  4. Shape of vaginal suppositories affects willingness-to-try and preference.

    Li, Bangde; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-03-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global threat to public health that may be countered, in part, by microbicides. A successful microbicide must be both biologically efficacious and highly acceptable to users. Sensory attributes have a direct influence on product acceptability. We created a series of vaginal suppositories appropriate for use as microbicides to investigate the influence of shape on women's willingness-to-try. The influence of perceived size and firmness on acceptability was also assessed. Sexually-active women (n=99) were invited to participate in an evaluation of vaginal suppositories in 5 different shapes including: Bullet, Long Oval, Round Oval, Teardrop and Tampon. The volume (3mL) and formulation for these five prototypes were identical. After manipulating prototypes ex vivo (in their hands), participants rated their willingness-to-try on a 100-point visual analog scale. The appropriateness of size and firmness were evaluated using 5-point just-about-right (JAR) scales. Each participant evaluated all five prototypes individually. Samples were presented in a counterbalanced monadic sequence using a Williams design. Mean willingness-to-try varied by shape, with Bullet and Long Oval receiving significantly higher scores. This was consistent with JAR data for size, as 70% and 65% of women indicated these shapes were 'just-about-right', respectively. In contrast, a minority of women endorsed the other 3 shapes as having a size that was 'just-about-right'. The proportion of women who felt the firmness was 'just-about-right' was uniformly high, irrespective of shape, suggesting prior attempts to optimize the formula were successful. Perceptions of size and firmness were influenced by the physical length and width of the prototypes, in spite of having constant volume. Women showed high willingness-to-try when asked to assume they were at risk. These results are relevant for behavioral and formulation scientists working on

  5. April 2009 “Tri-elections” in Malaysia: Maintaining the Status Quo

    Tunku Mohar Mokhtar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available By-elections held after the 12th general elections held on March 8, 2008 are of special significance as they indicate the level of support gained by the opposition as well as the receding popularity of the ruling coalition. The three by-elections (hence called tri-elections, one parliamentary and two state assemblies, held in April 2009 show that the composition of the federal parliament and the state assembly of Kedah and Sarawak remained the same. The PR garnered multiethnic support in the peninsula while BN remains strong in Sarawak.

  6. Business Strategy Formulation Using Business Model Case Study: PT. Kartina Tri Satria

    Priandita, Audria; Toha, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Muslim fashion in Indonesia is rapidly growing. Until a few decades ago the Islamic fashion is not particularly common in Indonesia, but recently has become a trend, not only among those wearing them, but also as a production sector. PT. Kartina Tri Satria is one of the companies that are in the competition of products or brand fashions which going on at the moment. PT. Kartina can perform some steps to strengthening the quality of the product and to providing excellent service to their custo...

  7. Synthesis of ABA Tri-Block Co-Polymer Magnetopolymersomes via Electroporation for Potential Medical Application

    Jennifer Bain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ABA tri-block copolymer poly(2-methyloxazoline–poly(dimethylsiloxane–poly(2-methyloxazoline (PMOXA–PDMS–PMOXA is known for its capacity to mimic a bilayer membrane in that it is able to form vesicular polymersome structures. For this reason, it is the subject of extensive research and enables the development of more robust, adaptable and biocompatible alternatives to natural liposomes for biomedical applications. However, the poor solubility of this polymer renders published methods for forming vesicles unreproducible, hindering research and development of these polymersomes. Here we present an adapted, simpler method for the production of PMOXA–PDMS–PMOXA polymersomes of a narrow polydispersity (45 ± 5.8 nm, via slow addition of aqueous solution to a new solvent/polymer mixture. We then magnetically functionalise these polymersomes to form magnetopolymersomes via in situ precipitation of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs within the PMOXA–PDMS–PMOXA polymersome core and membrane. This is achieved using electroporation to open pores within the membrane and to activate the formation of MNPs. The thick PMOXA–PDMS–PMOXA membrane is well known to be relatively non-permeable when compared to more commonly used di-block polymer membranes due a distinct difference in both size and chemistry and therefore very difficult to penetrate using standard biological methods. This paper presents for the first time the application of electroporation to an ABA tri-block polymersome membrane (PMOXA–PDMS–PMOXA for intravesicular in situ precipitation of uniform MNPs (2.6 ± 0.5 nm. The electroporation process facilitates the transport of MNP reactants across the membrane yielding in situ precipitation of MNPs. Further to differences in length and chemistry, a tri-block polymersome membrane structure differs from a natural lipid or di-block polymer membrane and as such the application and effects of electroporation on this type of

  8. A Radiation Learning Support System by Tri-sensory Augmented Reality using a Mobile Phone

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Weida; Ishii, Hirotake

    2011-01-01

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its influence on the human body by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and tactile sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its influence on the human body under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation to auditory and tactile sensation is more effective than that to visual sensation

  9. April 2009 “Tri-elections” in Malaysia: Maintaining the Status Quo

    Tunku Mohar Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    By-elections held after the 12th general elections held on March 8, 2008 are of special significance as they indicate the level of support gained by the opposition as well as the receding popularity of the ruling coalition. The three by-elections (hence called tri-elections), one parliamentary and two state assemblies, held in April 2009 show that the composition of the federal parliament and the state assembly of Kedah and Sarawak remained the same. The PR garnered multiethnic support in the...

  10. Was Wundt the first to try to make psychology an independent discipline?

    Karlos Luna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent research rediscovered the figure of Ferdinand Bernard Ueberwasser, a professor at the University of Münster who tried to make psychology an independent discipline almost a century before Wundt. In 1787, Ueberwasser published a book in which he proposed a scientific psychology based on the manipulation of variables and the replication of observations, and that should study areas such as perception, memory, creativity, or empathy. The Napoleonic Wars and the discontinuation of the University of Münster made Ueberwasser's legacy to be almost completely forgotten, until today.

  11. Matrices Aléatoires Tri-diagonales et Par Blocs.

    MEKKI, Slimane

    2014-01-01

    Dans ce mémoire l'étude porte sur la densité de matrice aléatoire, les densités des valeurs propres d'une matrice pour les trois ensembles G.O.E, G.U.E, G.S.E. Après nous avons explicité les formules des densités de valeurs propres des matrices tri-diagonales dans les cas HERMITE et LAGUERRE Des simulations sur les constantes de normalisations pour les densités des matrices aléatoires ou des valeurs propres sont présentées.

  12. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: ► Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. ► A possible cause is exposure to tricresyl phosphate in engine lubricating oil. ► A blood

  13. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    Liyasova, Mariya, E-mail: mliyasov@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Nachon, Florian, E-mail: fnachon@nachon.net [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Masson, Patrick, E-mail: pmasson@unmc.edu [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Furlong, Clement E., E-mail: clem@uw.edu [Department of Medicine (Div. Medical Genetics) and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such 'fume events'. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible cause is exposure to

  14. Fabrication of planar, layered nanoparticles using tri-layer resist templates.

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Mingliang; Wilson, Robert J; Koh, Ai Leen; Wi, Jung-Sub; Tang, Mary; Sinclair, Robert; Wang, Shan X

    2011-05-06

    A simple and universal pathway to produce free multilayer synthetic nanoparticles is developed based on lithography, vapor phase deposition and a tri-layer resist lift-off and release process. The fabrication method presented in this work is ideal for production of a broad range of nanoparticles, either free in solution or still attached to an intact release layer, with unique magnetic, optical, radioactive, electronic and catalytic properties. Multi-modal capabilities are implicit in the layered architecture. As an example, directly fabricated magnetic nanoparticles are evaluated to illustrate the structural integrity of thin internal multilayers and the nanoparticle stability in aggressive biological environments, which is highly desired for biomedical applications.

  15. Sistem Reservasi On Line dan Penerapan Metode Servqual pada Hotel TriJaya Cirebon

    Kasih, Julianti; Suprato, Gabriela Stefiyani

    2017-01-01

    — Information and technology are growing rapidly and are being used in numerous fields. Hotel industry is one of the many fields that utilize information and technology. Hotel is an industry that provides lodging services, food, and also some other services. TriJaya is a hotel that's located in Cirebon. This hotel does not a website yet, so customers need to come to the hotel and manually process their reservation. These reservation processes will be a lot more difficult if there are a lot of...

  16. Thermal decomposition studies on tri-iso-amyl phosphate in n-dodecane-nitric acid system

    Chandran, K.; Sreenivasalu, B.; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Tri-iso-amyl Phosphate (TiAP) is a promising alternative solvent to TBP, with near similar extraction behaviour and physical properties but lower aqueous phase solubility and does not form third phase during the extraction of Pu(IV). In addition to the solubilised extractant, inadvertent entrainment of the extractant into the aqueous stream is a concern during the evaporation operation as the extractant comes into contact with higher nitric acid concentrations and metal nitrates. Hence the thermal decomposition behaviour of TiAP-HNO 3 systems has been studied using an adiabatic calorimeter in closed air ambience, under heat-wait-search mode (H-W-S)

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of chromium (VI) from sulfuric acid solutions using tri-n-dodecylamine/kerosene

    Stas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of chromium (VI) from sulfuric acid solutions with tri-n-dodecylamine containing octanol-1 as a modifier in kerosene was investigated. All parameters influencing the extraction of chromium (VI) (time of agitation, concentrations of chromium (VI), sulfuric acid, tri-n-dodecylamine and temperature) were studied. Forst of all, tri-n-dodecylamine reacts with sulfuric acid to form tri-n-dodecylamine sulfate and bisulfate salts, then, dichromate ions is extracted by amine bisulfate. The mathematical treatment of the obtained date enabled us to calculate the formation of equilibrium constant of (TDAH) 2 SO 4 TDAHHSO 4 and (TDAH) 2 Cγ 2 O 7 at 25 Centigrade and have been found to be K 1 =10 9.642 (14/mol 4 ), K 2 = 10 -0.899 (L/mol) and K ex 10 10.55 respectively. Stripping of more than 99% of chromium (VI) from the organic phase of tri-n-dodecylamine/kerosene can be easily achieved in two stages using 0.05 M sodium carbonate solution. The synergistic effect of tri-n-butylphosphate and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide on the extraction of chromium (VI) were also studied. (author)

  18. The effects of traditional, superset, and tri-set resistance training structures on perceived intensity and physiological responses.

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben

    2017-09-01

    Investigate the acute and short-term (i.e., 24 h) effects of traditional (TRAD), superset (SS), and tri-set (TRI) resistance training protocols on perceptions of intensity and physiological responses. Fourteen male participants completed a familiarisation session and three resistance training protocols (i.e., TRAD, SS, and TRI) in a randomised-crossover design. Rating of perceived exertion, lactate concentration ([Lac]), creatine kinase concentration ([CK]), countermovement jump (CMJ), testosterone, and cortisol concentrations was measured pre, immediately, and 24-h post the resistance training sessions with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within/between protocols. TRI reported possible to almost certainly greater efficiency and rate of perceived exertion, although session perceived load was very likely lower. SS and TRI had very likely to almost certainly greater lactate responses during the protocols, with changes in [CK] being very likely and likely increased at 24 h, respectively. At 24-h post-training, CMJ variables in the TRAD protocol had returned to baseline; however, SS and TRI were still possibly to likely reduced. Possible increases in testosterone immediately post SS and TRI protocols were reported, with SS showing possible increases at 24-h post-training. TRAD and SS showed almost certain and likely decreases in cortisol immediately post, respectively, with TRAD reporting likely decreases at 24-h post-training. SS and TRI can enhance training efficiency and reduce training time. However, acute and short-term physiological responses differ between protocols. Athletes can utilise SS and TRI resistance training, but may require additional recovery post-training to minimise effects of fatigue.

  19. Pengaruh Locus Of Control terhadap Kinerja dan Kepuasan Kerja Internal Auditor dengan Tri Hita Karana sebagai Variabel Moderasi

    Komang Adi Kurniawan Saputra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Locus of Control on Performance and Auditor internal Work Satisfaction with Tri Hita Karana Local Culture as Moderating Variable. This study aims to determine the effect of Locus of Control on performance and job satisfaction of internal auditors star hotels in Bali, as well as local culture Tri Hita Karana as a moderation of this influence. There were 62 internal auditors of star hotels involved in this research. The results of this study indicate a significant influence between Locus of Control on performance and job satisfaction of internal auditors with the local culture Tri Hita Karana as a variable moderation.

  20. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    Lu, Kang-Jia; Zuo, Jian; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  1. Resolution enhancement of tri-stereo remote sensing images by super resolution methods

    Tuna, Caglayan; Akoguz, Alper; Unal, Gozde; Sertel, Elif

    2016-10-01

    Super resolution (SR) refers to generation of a High Resolution (HR) image from a decimated, blurred, low-resolution (LR) image set, which can be either a single frame or multi-frame that contains a collection of several images acquired from slightly different views of the same observation area. In this study, we propose a novel application of tri-stereo Remote Sensing (RS) satellite images to the super resolution problem. Since the tri-stereo RS images of the same observation area are acquired from three different viewing angles along the flight path of the satellite, these RS images are properly suited to a SR application. We first estimate registration between the chosen reference LR image and other LR images to calculate the sub pixel shifts among the LR images. Then, the warping, blurring and down sampling matrix operators are created as sparse matrices to avoid high memory and computational requirements, which would otherwise make the RS-SR solution impractical. Finally, the overall system matrix, which is constructed based on the obtained operator matrices is used to obtain the estimate HR image in one step in each iteration of the SR algorithm. Both the Laplacian and total variation regularizers are incorporated separately into our algorithm and the results are presented to demonstrate an improved quantitative performance against the standard interpolation method as well as improved qualitative results due expert evaluations.

  2. Tri-generation System based on Municipal Waste Gasification, Fuel Cell and an Absorption Chiller

    Giannis Katsaros

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the design of a novel tri-generation system based on gasification of municipal solid wastes, a solid oxide fuel cell and an ammonia-water absorption chiller. Tri-generation systems can be implemented in buildings such as hospitals and hotels, where there is a continuous and large demand for electricity, heating and cooling. The system is modelled in Aspen Plus and the influence of different operating parameters on the system performance was studied. The findings suggest that low air equivalent ratios and high gasification temperatures enhance the overall system performance. Syngas cleaning with metal sorbents zinc oxide and sodium bicarbonate for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride concentrations proved to be very effective, reducing the concentration of contaminants to < 1 ppm (part per million levels. The possibility of covering the demand profiles of a specific building was also investigated: the system could fully meet the electricity and cooling demands, whereas the heat requirements could be satisfied only up to 55%. Moreover, assuming 20 years of operation, the payback period was 4.5 years and the net present value exceeded 5 million euros.

  3. Effective detection method for falls according to the distance between two tri-axial accelerometers

    Kim, Jae-Hyung; Park, Geun-Chul; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Soo-Sung; Lee, Hae-Rim; Jeon, Gye-Rok

    2016-04-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a significant problem in the elderly population. A number of different approaches for detecting falls and activities of daily living (ADLs) have been conducted in recent years. However, distinguishing between real falls and certain fall-like ADL is often difficult. The aim of this study is to discriminate falls from fall-like ADLs such as jogging, jumping, and jumping down. The distance between two tri-axial accelerometers attached to the abdomen and the sternum was increased from 10 to 30 cm in 10-cm intervals. Experiments for falls and ADLs were performed to investigate the feasibility of the detection system for falls developed in this study. When the distances between the two tri-axial electrometers were 20 and 30 cm, fall-like ADLs were effectively distinguished from falls. The thresholds for three parameters — SVM, Diff Z, and Sum_diff_Z — were set; falls could be distinguished from ADL action sequences when the SVM value was larger than 4 g (TH1), the Diff_Z parameter was larger than 1.25 g (TH2), and the Sum_diff_Z parameter was larger than 15 m/s (TH3). In particular, when the SVM, Diff_Z, and Sum_diff_Z parameter were sequentially applied to thresholds (TH1, TH2, and TH3), fall-like ADL action sequences were accurately discriminated from falls.

  4. Tri-code inductance control rod position indicator with several multi-coding-bars

    Shi Jibin; Jiang Yueyuan; Wang Wenran

    2004-01-01

    A control rod position indicator named as tri-code inductance control rod position indicator with multi-coding-bars, which possesses simple structure, reliable operation and high precision, is developed. The detector of the indicator is composed of K coils, a compensatory coil and K coding bars. Each coding bar consists of several sections of strong magnetic cores, several sections of weak magnetic cores and several sections of non-magnetic portions. As the control rod is withdrawn, the coding bars move in the center of the coils respectively, while the constant alternating current passes the coils and makes them to create inductance alternating voltage signals. The outputs of the coils are picked and processed, and the tri-codes indicating rod position can be gotten. Moreover, the coding principle of the detector and its related structure are introduced. The analysis shows that the indicator owns more advantage over the coils-coding rod position indicator, so it can meet the demands of the rod position indicating in nuclear heating reactor (NHR). (authors)

  5. Hideout and hideout return of tri-sodium phosphate in PWR steam generators

    Feron, D.; You, D.; Turluer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Tri-sodium phosphate is used as a chemical conditioner of several sub-systems in secondary circuits of PWR. As confirmed by the international experience feedback of the secondary water chemistry, it can appear as a pollutant of the secondary water circuits, whereby it can concentrate in some areas of restricted flow or deposits in the steam generators. The issues raised by those occurrences prompted the safety French authorities (IPSN) to develop a model boiler investigation programme to assess the respective sodium/phosphate behaviour as a result of hideout and hideout return processes. Hideout and hideout return experiments have been performed with three model boilers in order to investigate the behaviour of tri-sodium phosphate pollution with three different configurations: only tube-tube support plate crevices, only sludge at the bottom of the tubes, or with only ''free'' tube surfaces. Obtained results, with discontinuous pollutions at some mg.kg -1 , can be summarised as follow: low hideout on the free surface of the tubes (less than 10%), hideout is more important when tube-tube support plate crevices are present (10 to 30%), maximum hideout is obtained when there is some sludge at the bottom of the tubes (30 to 90%), Hideout return data are always very low compared to the hideout quantities, due to the formation of solid compound with alumina and silica. (authors)

  6. CKM and Tri-bimaximal MNS Matrices in a SU(5) x (d)T Model

    Chen, Mu-Chun; UC, Irvine; Mahanthappa, K.T.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a model based on SU(5) x (d) T which successfully gives rise to near tri-bimaximal leptonic mixing as well as realistic CKM matrix elements for the quarks. The Georgi-Jarlskog relations for three generations are also obtained. Due to the (d) T transformation property of the matter fields, the b-quark mass can be generated only when the (d) T symmetry is broken, giving a dynamical origin for the hierarchy between m b and m t . There are only nine operators allowed in the Yukawa sector up to at least mass dimension seven due to an additional Z 12 x Z(prime) 12 symmetry, which also forbids, up to some high orders, operators that lead to proton decay. The resulting model has a total of nine parameters in the charged fermion and neutrino sectors, and hence is very predictive. In addition to the prediction for θ 13 ∼θ c /3√2, the model gives rise to a sum rule, tan 2 θ # circle d ot∼#tan 2 θ # circle d ot# ,TBM - 1/2 θ c cosβ, which is a consequence of the Georgi-Jarlskog relations in the quark sector. This deviation could account for the difference between the experimental best fit value for the solar mixing angle and the value predicted by the tri-bimaximal mixing matrix

  7. Physicochemical properties and radiolytic degradation studies on tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP)

    Sreenivasulu, B.; Sivaraman, Nagarajan [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Homi Bhabha National Inst.; Suresh, A.; Rajeswari, S.; Ramanathan, N.; Antony, M.P.; Joseph, M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Chemistry Group

    2017-06-01

    The solvent composed of tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP) in n-dodecane (n-DD) is regarded as a promising candidate for reprocessing of spent fuel. In this context, the radiolytic degradation of a solution of TiAP in n-dodecane was investigated by irradiating the solvent to various absorbed dose levels of γ-radiation. The neat extractant or a solution of extractant in n-dodecane was irradiated in the presence of nitric acid. Physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) were measured for unirradiated and irradiated solutions. The extent of degradation was determined by measuring the variation in extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with irradiated solvent systems. Uranium and plutonium retention with irradiated solvents was also measured. The distribution ratio of uranium and plutonium increased with increase in absorbed dose. Effect of alpha degradation was studied by plutonium retention as a function of time using 1.1 M TiAP/n-DD. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric technique was employed to identify the possible radiolytic degradation products. Similar studies were also carried out with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) based solvent system under identical experimental conditions and the results are compared.

  8. Theoretical Investigation on the Molecular Structure, Vibrational and NMR Spectra of N, N, 4-Tri chlorobenzenesulfonamide

    Cinar, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the structural properties of N,N,4-Tri chlorobenzenesulfonamide have been studied extensively using Density Functional Theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectrum was calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned based on the scaled theoretical wavenumbers. The 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the compound were calculated using the Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. To investigate the basis set effects, calculations were performed at the 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p), 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) levels. Finally, geometric parameters, vibrational bands and isotropic chemical shifts were compared with available experimental data of compound. The fully optimized geometry of the molecule was found to be consistent with the X-ray crystal structure. The observed and calculated frequencies and chemical shifts were found to be in very good agreement. The computed results appear that the basis set has slight effect on the molecular geometry of N,N,4-Tri chlorobenzenesulfonamide

  9. Hideout and hideout return of tri-sodium phosphate in PWR steam generators

    Feron, D.; You, D. [CEA/DEN - Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Saclay (France); Turluer, G. [CEA/IPSN-Service d' Analyse des Materiels et des Structures, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2002-07-01

    Tri-sodium phosphate is used as a chemical conditioner of several sub-systems in secondary circuits of PWR. As confirmed by the international experience feedback of the secondary water chemistry, it can appear as a pollutant of the secondary water circuits, whereby it can concentrate in some areas of restricted flow or deposits in the steam generators. The issues raised by those occurrences prompted the safety French authorities (IPSN) to develop a model boiler investigation programme to assess the respective sodium/phosphate behaviour as a result of hideout and hideout return processes. Hideout and hideout return experiments have been performed with three model boilers in order to investigate the behaviour of tri-sodium phosphate pollution with three different configurations: only tube-tube support plate crevices, only sludge at the bottom of the tubes, or with only ''free'' tube surfaces. Obtained results, with discontinuous pollutions at some mg.kg{sup -1}, can be summarised as follow: low hideout on the free surface of the tubes (less than 10%), hideout is more important when tube-tube support plate crevices are present (10 to 30%), maximum hideout is obtained when there is some sludge at the bottom of the tubes (30 to 90%), Hideout return data are always very low compared to the hideout quantities, due to the formation of solid compound with alumina and silica. (authors)

  10. Elemental composition and structural characteristics of as-received TriTaniumTM orthodontic archwire

    Ilievska, I.; Petrov, V.; Mihailov, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Andreeva, L.; Zaleski, A.; Mikli, V.; Gueorgieva, M.; Petrova, V.; Stoyanova-Ivanova, A.

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic archwires are among the most important devices of fixed orthodontic therapy. Many types of archwires are made available on the market by various manufacturers with different elemental composition and structural characteristics. Knowing this information is important when choosing a suitable archwire for a particular stage of orthodontic treatment. The aim of our study is to characterize a new type orthodontic archwires (TriTaniumTM, American Orthodontics) before their placement in the oral cavity. To achieve the aim, we used modern methods for determining their elemental composition and structural characteristics: laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIBS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained from the qualitative elemental analysis by LIBS and the quantitative elemental analysis by EDX showed that Ni and Ti are the main elements in the archwire studied. The room-temperature XRD patterns showed peaks typical for a Ni-Ti alloy with an austenite-type structure. Monitoring the phase transitions by means of DSC measurements in the temperature range from –50 °C to +50 °C, we showed that in TriTaniumTM archwires, besides the austenite to martensite transition, there exists a rhombohedral intermediate phase (R phase). This study will be useful in assisting orthodontists in applying appropriate nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires in the clinical practice.

  11. Application of tri-generation systems to the food retail industry

    Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Sugiartha, N.; Ge, Y.-T. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Design; Marriott, D. [Doug Marriott Associates (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    The food industry, both food manufacturing and retailing has a need for heating and electrical power as well as refrigeration. Invariably, plant is installed, which consists of heating systems employing low pressure hot water, high pressure hot water or steam, vapour compression refrigeration systems and an electrical power supply derived from the National Grid. The overall utilisation efficiency of these processes is low, because of the relatively low electricity generation efficiency in power stations and distribution losses in the grid. A way of increasing the energy utilisation efficiency of food manufacturing and retail facilities is through tri-generation. This paper considers tri-generation technology and the feasibility of its application to the food retail industry and examines the economics and environmental impacts of the technology compared to conventional systems. The results indicate that the economic viability of these systems is dependent on the relative cost of natural gas and grid electricity. The system investigated can provide payback periods of less than 4.0 years when the relative cost of gas to electricity is below 0.3. (author)

  12. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    Lu, Kang-Jia

    2016-04-26

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  13. Performance evaluation of a tri-generation system with simulation and experiment

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Suguartha, N.

    2009-01-01

    A test rig for a tri-generation system was set up in the laboratory to investigate the system performance and application feasibility. The rig was composed of three modules, a power component containing a microturbine, a refrigeration unit consisting of an absorption chiller with gas pipe connection, and a supermarket section containing a display cabinet. This system was supposed to be effectively applied into a supermarket energy control system where cooling, heating and electricity power are simultaneously required and subsequently, valuable test results have been produced. In the mean time, a simulation model for the particular tri-generation system has been established by integrating the component models of the system in accordance with the components' actual flow paths and energy streams. These component models, which include a compressor, recuperator, combustion chamber, gas turbine, electric generator, gas pipes, generator (desorber), rectifier, absorbers, condenser and evaporator etc., were developed based upon the balance of heat and mass. The calculations of heat transfer and phase equilibrium were included in the component models and chemical reaction balances were considered in the model of the combustion chamber. The system model has been validated with the test results and has consequently been used to predict the system performance at different operating and design conditions, such as varied ambient temperature, fuel flow rate and pressure ratio etc. The ultimate results of the performance analysis formulated by the system model can contribute significantly to the optimal component and system designs in various practical applications.

  14. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of SiO2/PMMA/CE tri-component interpenetrating polymer network composites

    Wang Junlong; Wang Chuang; Jiao Gengsheng; Wang Qiuya

    2010-01-01

    A technology of conjugated tri-component interpenetrating polymer networks was applied to synthesize a nano-SiO 2 /polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/cyanate (CE) composite through an asynchronous synthesis way. The microstructure of the composite was characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical properties were measured in German-made DL-1000B and XCL-40 universal material test machines, respectively. Results showed that both the impact strength and the flexural strength were in the optimum status when 3% SiO 2 /PMMA/CE was chosen as a sample with the PMMA/CE ratio of 20/80. Compared with the strengths of pure cyanate, those of the composite were raised by 137.28% and 31.29%, respectively. When 3% nano-SiO 2 was added, the impact strength was increased by 29.96% and the flexural strength by 20.05%, compared with the strengths of polymers without SiO 2 . Analysis and measurements by IR and TEM indicated that no chemical reactions took place among components in the composite. The interpenetration of the conjugated tri-component improved the loading capacity of the polymer, hence the toughness enhancement of cyanate.

  16. Fuzzy-Based Hybrid Control Algorithm for the Stabilization of a Tri-Rotor UAV.

    Ali, Zain Anwar; Wang, Daobo; Aamir, Muhammad

    2016-05-09

    In this paper, a new and novel mathematical fuzzy hybrid scheme is proposed for the stabilization of a tri-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fuzzy hybrid scheme consists of a fuzzy logic controller, regulation pole-placement tracking (RST) controller with model reference adaptive control (MRAC), in which adaptive gains of the RST controller are being fine-tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Brushless direct current (BLDC) motors are installed in the triangular frame of the tri-rotor UAV, which helps maintain control on its motion and different altitude and attitude changes, similar to rotorcrafts. MRAC-based MIT rule is proposed for system stability. Moreover, the proposed hybrid controller with nonlinear flight dynamics is shown in the presence of translational and rotational velocity components. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via MATLAB simulations, in which the proposed fuzzy hybrid controller is compared with the existing adaptive RST controller. It shows that our proposed algorithm has better transient performance with zero steady-state error, and fast convergence towards stability.

  17. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  18. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-02-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  19. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-03-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e., the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oilshale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  20. Application of tri-generation systems to the food retail industry

    Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Sugiartha, N.; Ge, Y.-T.; Marriott, D.

    2007-01-01

    The food industry, both food manufacturing and retailing has a need for heating and electrical power as well as refrigeration. Invariably, plant is installed, which consists of heating systems employing low pressure hot water, high pressure hot water or steam, vapour compression refrigeration systems and an electrical power supply derived from the National Grid. The overall utilisation efficiency of these processes is low, because of the relatively low electricity generation efficiency in power stations and distribution losses in the grid. A way of increasing the energy utilisation efficiency of food manufacturing and retail facilities is through tri-generation. This paper considers tri-generation technology and the feasibility of its application to the food retail industry and examines the economics and environmental impacts of the technology compared to conventional systems. The results indicate that the economic viability of these systems is dependent on the relative cost of natural gas and grid electricity. The system investigated can provide payback periods of less than 4.0 years when the relative cost of gas to electricity is below 0.3

  1. PENERAPAN TRI HITA KARANA DALAM HARMONISASI KONSERVASI DAN BUDAYA DI DAYA TARIK WISATA KEBUN RAYA BALI

    I Gst Ngurah Putu Dedy Wirawan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the application of Tri Hita Karana (THK values involving the harmonisation of conservation and culture at the Bali Botanic Garden, Tabanan, Bali. THK is an Hindu beliefs with three main harmonious concepts including harmony among people, harmony with the natural environment and harmony with God. Balinese recognise ecosystem-based nature management, as in the term Tri Mandala, three different level of spaces according to the purpose and benefits of parhyangan (holy place, palemahan (environment and pawongan (human. These three spaces according to Balinese culture must be harmonious, balanced and preserved in order to support conservation efforts. Combined conservation efforts with cultural values is also a theme that has been utilized by the Bali Botanic Garden in building thematic collections, such as the collection of medicinal plants, traditional ceremonial plants, and ethnobotany artefacts. This collections insight into Balinese cultural conservation supports educational and tourism services at Bali Botanic Garden. The implementation of THK philosophy at Bali Botanic Garden has an important to improves resource efficiency, maintains relationships with the creators, conserves the environment and culture, and maintains harmony in reducing conflict, social imbalances and ensures the sustainability of regional development.

  2. Circumference reduction and cellulite treatment with a TriPollar radiofrequency device: a pilot study.

    Manuskiatti, W; Wachirakaphan, C; Lektrakul, N; Varothai, S

    2009-07-01

    A wide variety of treatments for circumference reduction and cellulite are available, but most procedures offer suboptimal clinical effect and/or delayed therapeutic outcome. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar radiofrequency device for cellulite treatment and circumference reduction. Thirty-nine females with cellulite received eight weekly TriPollar treatments. Treatment areas included the abdomen, thighs, buttocks and arms. Subjects were evaluated using standardized photographs and measurements of body weight, circumference, subcutaneous thickness, and skin elasticity of the treatment sites at baseline, immediately after and 4 weeks after the final treatment. Physicians' evaluation of clinical improvement scores using a quartile grading scale was recorded. Thirty-seven patients (95%) completed the treatment protocol. There was significant circumference reduction of 3.5 and 1.7 cm at the abdomen (P = 0.002) and thigh (P = 0.002) regions, respectively. At 4 weeks after the last treatment, the average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thighs were sustained. No significant circumferential reductions of the buttocks and arms at the last treatment visit compared to baseline were demonstrated (P = 0.138 and 0.152, respectively). Quartile grading scores correlating to approximately 50% improvement in cellulite appearance were noted. Tripollar radiofrequency provided beneficial effects on the reduction of abdomen and thigh circumference and cellulite appearance.

  3. ConDeTri--a content dependent read trimmer for Illumina data.

    Smeds, Linnéa; Künstner, Axel

    2011-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA and RNA sequencing have started to play an increasingly important role in biological and medical applications, especially due to the greater amount of sequencing data yielded from the new sequencing machines and the enormous decrease in sequencing costs. Particularly, Illumina/Solexa sequencing has had an increasing impact on gathering data from model and non-model organisms. However, accurate and easy to use tools for quality filtering have not yet been established. We present ConDeTri, a method for content dependent read trimming for next generation sequencing data using quality scores of each individual base. The main focus of the method is to remove sequencing errors from reads so that sequencing reads can be standardized. Another aspect of the method is to incorporate read trimming in next-generation sequencing data processing and analysis pipelines. It can process single-end and paired-end sequence data of arbitrary length and it is independent from sequencing coverage and user interaction. ConDeTri is able to trim and remove reads with low quality scores to save computational time and memory usage during de novo assemblies. Low coverage or large genome sequencing projects will especially gain from trimming reads. The method can easily be incorporated into preprocessing and analysis pipelines for Illumina data. Freely available on the web at http://code.google.com/p/condetri.

  4. A mass balance of tri-hexabrominated diphenyl ethers in lactating cows.

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; De Wit, Cynthia A; Asplund, Lillemor; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-04-01

    Beef and dairy products can be important vectors of human exposure to polybrominated diphenylethers (BDEs), and hence an understanding of BDE transfer from feed to cows' milk and tissue is important for BDE exposure assessment The fate of tri- to hexaBDEs in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet was studied by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a mass balance study. Tissue distribution was studied in one cowslaughtered afterthe experiment The carryover rates from feed to milk ranged from 0.15 to 0.35 for the major congeners. Lower values were observed for several of the tetrabrominated congeners, and this was attributed to metabolism. The dietary absorption efficiency decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the BDE congener. The absorption behavior was consistent with a model based on chemical lipophilicity, but agreed less well with a model based on effective molecular diameter, and it violated Lipinski's "rule of 5". The lipid normalized concentrations were similar in all tissues analyzed including liver and milk, suggesting that tissue distribution is governed by partitioning into lipids. Overall, the behavior of the tri- to hexaBDEs was consistent with that observed for other classes of halogenated aromatic contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs, but it differed markedly from the behavior of the hepta- decaBDEs.

  5. Tissue distribution and excretion of tri-(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate in rats

    Martis, L.; Woods, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The disposition kinetics of tri-(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM), a new plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, was studied in rats following intravenous administration of [ 14 C-carbonyl]tri-(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate using an oil in water emulsion as the vehicle. The distribution half-life, elimination half-life, and clearance values estimated from the plasma concentration of radioactivity data obtained following iv administration of 10.5 mg/kg of TEHTM (59.9 μCi/kg), were 46.2 min, 5.34 d, and 40.5 ml/kg x h, respectively. Following iv dosage of 15.6 mg/kg of TEHTM (28.0 μCi/kg), significant accumulation of radioactivity was found in the liver, lungs, and spleen, with liver accounting for 72% of the administered dosage at 24. Excretion of TEHTM and its biotransformation products was slow, with 21.3% of the administered radioactivity found in the feces and 2.8% in the urine during the 14-d collection period. Biliary excretion seems to be the major route of elimination of TEHTM. The pharmacokinetic data gathered in the present investigation are compared to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer for PVC

  6. Performance evaluation of a tri-generation system with simulation and experiment

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Suguartha, N. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Chaer, I. [Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment, London South Bank University (T617), Borough Road, London SE1 0AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    A test rig for a tri-generation system was set up in the laboratory to investigate the system performance and application feasibility. The rig was composed of three modules, a power component containing a microturbine, a refrigeration unit consisting of an absorption chiller with gas pipe connection, and a supermarket section containing a display cabinet. This system was supposed to be effectively applied into a supermarket energy control system where cooling, heating and electricity power are simultaneously required and subsequently, valuable test results have been produced. In the mean time, a simulation model for the particular tri-generation system has been established by integrating the component models of the system in accordance with the components' actual flow paths and energy streams. These component models, which include a compressor, recuperator, combustion chamber, gas turbine, electric generator, gas pipes, generator (desorber), rectifier, absorbers, condenser and evaporator etc., were developed based upon the balance of heat and mass. The calculations of heat transfer and phase equilibrium were included in the component models and chemical reaction balances were considered in the model of the combustion chamber. The system model has been validated with the test results and has consequently been used to predict the system performance at different operating and design conditions, such as varied ambient temperature, fuel flow rate and pressure ratio etc. The ultimate results of the performance analysis formulated by the system model can contribute significantly to the optimal component and system designs in various practical applications. (author)

  7. Push and pull factors determing wine tourism development in the 'Tri Morave' sub-region

    Jovanović-Tončev Melita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper are the factors affecting the decision of wine tourists to take a trip to a particular destination. These factors can be divided into internal (push and external (pull factors. The purpose of this study is to determine the development potential as well as the factors that influence participation in wine tourism in Tri Morave sub-region. In order to do that, two researches were conducted: one on the offer side and another on the demand side. Based on the results of the survey on the offer side, one can conclude that Tri Morave sub-region abounds in natural and anthropological resources that should be turned into an integrated wine product. On the other hand, research concerning tourist demand was conducted by polling winery visitors. The obtained data confirms assumptions about the appearance of modern tourists seeking authentic experience, satisfaction of hedonistic needs, and enjoyment of high-quality wine and food. Based on the results of the survey, the purchase of wine and wine tasting are the highest ranked benefits that tourists expect from visits to wineries. The application of Spearman's correlation coefficient points to statistically significant correlation between respondents, who referred to tasting, wine purchase, and authentic tourist experience as the basic motives of their visit, and future behavior of tourists in terms of revisiting and recommendations of the given wine destination to friends.

  8. ConDeTri--a content dependent read trimmer for Illumina data.

    Linnéa Smeds

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: During the last few years, DNA and RNA sequencing have started to play an increasingly important role in biological and medical applications, especially due to the greater amount of sequencing data yielded from the new sequencing machines and the enormous decrease in sequencing costs. Particularly, Illumina/Solexa sequencing has had an increasing impact on gathering data from model and non-model organisms. However, accurate and easy to use tools for quality filtering have not yet been established. We present ConDeTri, a method for content dependent read trimming for next generation sequencing data using quality scores of each individual base. The main focus of the method is to remove sequencing errors from reads so that sequencing reads can be standardized. Another aspect of the method is to incorporate read trimming in next-generation sequencing data processing and analysis pipelines. It can process single-end and paired-end sequence data of arbitrary length and it is independent from sequencing coverage and user interaction. ConDeTri is able to trim and remove reads with low quality scores to save computational time and memory usage during de novo assemblies. Low coverage or large genome sequencing projects will especially gain from trimming reads. The method can easily be incorporated into preprocessing and analysis pipelines for Illumina data. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at http://code.google.com/p/condetri.

  9. Design, Simulation and Experimental Evaluation of Tri-Phasic Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Tamez, Juan Pedro

    Piezoelectric ceramics exhibit excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties that is the basis of practically all transducers and piezoelectric devices, but their inherent properties, such as brittleness, non-ductility and poor shapeability may limit their applications in areas such as vibration sensing, impact detection, structural health monitoring and other reinforced structures and energy harvesting. To compensate for such limitations, the 1-3 piezoelectric composites transducers have become the material of choice for many high performance ultrasound transducers since it was invented in the late 1970's [ref. Newnham/Cross]. Extensive studies on 1-3 composites have been performed since then to improve the performance of a transducer by modifying their electromechanical coupling, bandwidth, quality factor, and flexibility and by reducing or eliminating the cross talk, i.e., induced noise between the active piezoelectric elements, especially in high power and low frequency applications. These fundamental issues, their possible solutions and their wide impact underline the motivation of the current work in this dissertation report. The motivation for this dissertation was to study and provide a foundation to designing multiphasic piezoelectric transducers that could be useful for multitude of applications. The goal was to improve the 1-3 diphasic composite transducer by eliminating the cross talk between the active piezoelectric elements while maintaining and improving the figures of merit of the design. To achieve the ultimate goal, the steps outlined below were followed: i. Understanding the theoretical and mathematical modeling for tri-phasic piezoelectric composite. ii. Implement Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and simulations of tri-phasic piezoelectric composites where the different active piezoelectric material PZT-5H and PMN-30%PT is surrounded by a vacuum phase that is enclosed by a hexagonal polymer walls. iii. Propose a redesign of the tri

  10. Headway Deviation Effects on Bus Passenger Loads : Analysis of Tri-Met's Archived AVL-APC Data

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze the relationship between transit service headway deviations and passenger loads, using archived data from Tri-Met's automatic vehicle location and automatic passenger counter systems. The analysis employs twostage...

  11. Neutron activation analysis of the arovenance relation of tang tri-color glazed potteryies of huangye kiln and yaozhou kiln

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Guo Min

    2006-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln and Yaozhou kiln. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data. The results indicate that the places of origin of raw materials of body samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln are very concentrated, and that the places of origin of raw materials of body and glaze samples are scattered the places of origin of raw materials of the body and glaze raw material cover that of the body raw material. The source of raw materials of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln is obviously different from that of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Yaozhou kiln. (authors)

  12. Isothermal and non-isothermal cure of a tri-functional epoxy resin (TGAP): a stochastic TMDSC study

    Hutchinson, John M.; Shiravand, Fatemeh; Calventus Solé, Yolanda; Fraga Rivas, Iria

    2012-01-01

    The isothermal cure of a highly reactive tri-functional epoxy resin, tri-glycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS), at two different cure temperatures Tc has been studied by both conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by a stochastic temperature modulated DSC technique, TOPEM. From a series of isothermal cure experiments for increasing cure times, the glass transition temperature Tg as a function of isothermal cure time is determined by co...

  13. Constitutive Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Membrane Elements under Tri-directional Shear

    Labib, Moheb

    The two-dimensional behavior of typical reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been extensively studied in the past several decades by investigating the constitutive behavior of full-scale reinforced concrete elements subjected to a bi-axial state of stress. In order to understand the true behavior of many large complex structures, the goal of this investigation is to develop new constitutive relationships for RC elements subjected to tri-directional shear stresses. Recently, additional out-of-plane jacks were installed on the panel tester at University of Houston so that concrete elements could be subjected to tri-directional shear stresses. This upgrade makes the panel tester the only one of its kind in the US that is capable of applying such combinations of stresses on full-scale reinforced concrete elements. This dissertation presents the details of the mounting and installation of the additional hydraulic jacks on the universal panel tester. The experimental program includes a series of seven reinforced concrete elements subjected to different combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses. Increasing the applied out-of-plane shear stresses reduced the membrane shear strength of the elements. The effect of applying out-of-plane shear stresses on the in-plane shear strength was represented by modifying the softening coefficient in the compression stress strain curve of concrete struts. The modified model was able to capture the behavior and the ultimate capacity of the tested elements. The effect of the in-plane shear reinforcement ratio on the interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses was evaluated. The model was implemented in the Finite Element package FEAP and was used to predict the ultimate capacity of many structures subjected to a combination of in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses. The results of the analytical model were used to develop simplified design equations for members subjected to bi-directional shear loads

  14. Gait and posture discrimination in sheep using a tri-axial accelerometer.

    Radeski, M; Ilieski, V

    2017-07-01

    Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep. The acceleration values recorded on the vertical and horizontal axes, as well as the total acceleration values were categorized. The relative frequencies of the acceleration categories (RFACs) were calculated in 3-s epochs. Reliable RFACs for gait and posture discrimination were identified with discriminant function and canonical analyses. Post hoc predictions for the two axes and total acceleration were conducted, using classification functions and classification scores for each epoch. Mahalanobis distances were used to determine the level of accuracy of the method. The highest discriminatory power for gait discrimination yielded four RFACs on the vertical axis, and five RFACs each on the horizontal axis and total acceleration vector. Classification functions showed the highest accuracy for walking and galloping. The highest total accuracy on the vertical and horizontal axes were 90% and 91%, respectively. Regarding posture discrimination, the vertical axis exhibited the highest discriminatory power, with values of RFAC (0, 1]=99.95% for standing; and RFAC (-1, 0]=99.50% for lying. The horizontal axis showed strong discrimination for the lying side of the animal, as values were in the acceleration category of (0, 1] for lying on the left side and (-1, 0] on the right side. The algorithm developed by

  15. Wet-Oxidation of Spent Organic Waste Tri-butyl Phosphate/Diluents

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; Abed El-Aziz, M.M.; El-Mossalamy, E.H.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Tri-Butyl Phosphate was used in reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in the purex process. The amount of uranium retained in the organic phase depends on the type of TBP/Diluent. Destruction of spent TBP is of high interest in waste management. In the present work, oxidative degradation of TBP diluted with kerosene, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and toluene using potassium permanganate as oxidant was carried out to produce stable inorganic dry particle residue which is then immobilized in different matrices. The different factors affecting the destruction of spent waste was investigated. The up take and decontamination factor for both 152 and 154 Eu and 181 Hf and the analysis of the final product have been studied

  16. A radiation learning support system by tri-sensory augmented reality using a mobile phone

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Weida; Ishii, Hirotake

    2011-01-01

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its strength of human body impact by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and haptic sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its strength of human body impact under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation of the radiation strength to auditory and haptic sensation is more comprehensive than that to visual sensation. (author)

  17. Work in process level definition: a method based on computer simulation and electre tri

    Isaac Pergher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for defining the levels of work in progress (WIP in productive environments managed by constant work in process (CONWIP policies. The proposed method combines the approaches of Computer Simulation and Electre TRI to support estimation of the adequate level of WIP and is presented in eighteen steps. The paper also presents an application example, performed on a metalworking company. The research method is based on Computer Simulation, supported by quantitative data analysis. The main contribution of the paper is its provision of a structured way to define inventories according to demand. With this method, the authors hope to contribute to the establishment of better capacity plans in production environments.

  18. Growth of bi- and tri-layered graphene on silicon carbide substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with simulated annealing method is used to study the growth process of bi- and tri-layered graphene on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulation. Tersoff-Albe-Erhart (TEA) potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the atoms in the system. The formation temperature, averaged carbon-carbon bond length, pair correlation function, binding energy and the distance between the graphene formed and the SiC substrate are quantified. The growth mechanism, graphitization of graphene on the SiC substrate and characteristics of the surface morphology of the graphene sheet obtained in our MD simulation compare well to that observed in epitaxially grown graphene experiments and other simulation works.

  19. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate

    Boyang Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL. Scaffolds with different material compositions were produced using an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. The produced scaffolds were physically and chemically assessed, considering mechanical, wettability, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric tests. Cell viability, attachment and proliferation tests were performed using human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs. Results show that scaffolds containing HA present better biological properties and TCP scaffolds present improved mechanical properties. It was also possible to observe that the addition of ceramic particles had no effect on the wettability of the scaffolds.

  20. ASC Tri-lab Co-design Level 2 Milestone Report 2015

    Hornung, Rich [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, Holger [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keasler, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Neely, Rob [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pearce, Olga [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammond, Si [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trott, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Rob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bergen, Ben [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Payne, Josh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Womeldorff, Geoff [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-23

    In 2015, the three Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories that make up the Advanced Sci- enti c Computing (ASC) Program (Sandia, Lawrence Livermore, and Los Alamos) collaboratively explored performance portability programming environments in the context of several ASC co-design proxy applica- tions as part of a tri-lab L2 milestone executed by the co-design teams at each laboratory. The programming environments that were studied included Kokkos (developed at Sandia), RAJA (LLNL), and Legion (Stan- ford University). The proxy apps studied included: miniAero, LULESH, CoMD, Kripke, and SNAP. These programming models and proxy-apps are described herein. Each lab focused on a particular combination of abstractions and proxy apps, with the goal of assessing performance portability using those. Performance portability was determined by: a) the ability to run a single application source code on multiple advanced architectures, b) comparing runtime performance between \

  1. When it hurts (and helps to try: the role of effort in language learning.

    Amy S Finn

    Full Text Available Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood. The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation versus bad (grammar at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar. Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1 learn the words, 2 learn the categories, or 3 learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories.

  2. TRI mu P - a radioactive isotope trapping facility under construction at KVI

    Berg, G P; Dermois, O; Harakeh, M N; Hoekstra, R; Jungmann, Klaus; Kopecky, S; Morgenstern, R; Rogachevskiy, A; Timmermans, R; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2003-01-01

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut a new facility (TRI mu P) is under development which aims to investigate fundamental interactions using radioactive ions. A spectrum of radioactive isotopes will be produced in inverse-kinematics and fragmentation reactions using heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. The reaction products will be separated from the primary beam in a dual-mode recoil and fragment separator. The beam of isotopes of interest will be transformed into a low-energy, high-quality, bunched beam and, after neutralization, stored in an atom trap. The emphasis will be put on studying the origin of parity violation via beta-nu angular correlations and the search for permanent electric dipole moments of atoms and nuclei. The facility will be open to outside users; suggestions for collaborations to extend the scientific program are encouraged.

  3. Eros, Thánatos y Psique: una complicidad triádica

    Carolina Serrano Barquín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se parte de personajes mitológicos para analizar la relación triádica entre erotismo/ creación, sufrimiento/pulsión de muerte y psicoanálisis, disertación que hacen los autores desde sus diversas prácticas docentes y de investigación. Para ello se retoma la idea de que la creatividad no es coto de poder de algún campo disciplinar específico, que se puede abordar como proceso epistémico, comunicativo, artístico, sensoperceptual, inconsciente. Entrar al mundo de la creación es entrar al mundo de las posibilidades, para imaginar y recrear universos excluidos.

  4. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate.

    Huang, Boyang; Caetano, Guilherme; Vyas, Cian; Blaker, Jonny James; Diver, Carl; Bártolo, Paulo

    2018-01-14

    The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)) were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). Scaffolds with different material compositions were produced using an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. The produced scaffolds were physically and chemically assessed, considering mechanical, wettability, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric tests. Cell viability, attachment and proliferation tests were performed using human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs). Results show that scaffolds containing HA present better biological properties and TCP scaffolds present improved mechanical properties. It was also possible to observe that the addition of ceramic particles had no effect on the wettability of the scaffolds.

  5. Evidence of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in tri-layer targets

    Galmiche, D.; Holstein, P.A.; Meyer, B.; Rostaing, M.; Wilke, N.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the experiments carried out on a laser system are reported. The work is performed in order to investigate the problem of target instability under ablative acceleration and to get direct evidence of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Tri-layer experiments assert the validity of X-ray spectroscopy measurements as experimental method to investigate the problem. A mixing zone is evidenced and general trends of mixing development versus target acceleration are coherent with numerical simulations. Results obtained with optical smoothing demonstrate that the apparent mixing is not due to large scale illumination non uniformities. Numerical simulations confirm that Rayleigh-Taylor instability seems to be the dominant process responsible for the mixing. Benefit of time resolved spectroscopy appears attractive and gives a real knowledge of the mixing layer

  6. Assembling photoluminescent tri(8-quinolinolato)aluminum into periodic mesoporous organosilicas.

    Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Kan, Qiubin

    2013-12-01

    Mesostructured and mesoporous materials are emerging as a new class of optical materials. However, their synthesis is nontrivial. In this work, periodic mesostructured metal complex-containing silicas of MCM- and SBA-type bearing homogeneously distributed photoluminescent tri(8-quinolinolato)aluminum inside the channel walls (denoted as Alq3@PMO-MCM and Alq3@PMO-SBA, respectively) have been achieved via one-pot co-assembling of inorganic/surfactant/optically active species. A comprehensive multianalytical characterization of the structural and optical properties demonstrates that both Alq3@PMO-MCM and Alq3@PMO-SBA series gainfully combine the photoluminescent properties of Alq3 with the porous features of PMOs. Regularly arranged pores provide high surface area to disperse optically active components well and render Alq3-containing PMOs promising materials for optoelectronic applications. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Simultaneous two-wavelength tri-window common-path digital holography

    Liu, Lei; Shan, Mingguang; Zhong, Zhi

    2018-06-01

    Two-wavelength common-path off-axis digital holography is proposed with a tri-window in a single shot. It is established using a standard 4f optical image system with a 2D Ronchi grating placed outside the Fourier plane. The input plane consists of three windows: one for the object and the other two for reference. Aided by a spatial filter together with two orthogonal linear polarizers in the Fourier plane, the two-wavelength information is encoded into a multiplexed hologram with two orthogonal spatial frequencies that enable full separation of spectral information in the digital Fourier space without resolution loss. Theoretical analysis and experimental results illustrate that our approach can simultaneously perform quantitative phase imaging at two wavelengths.

  8. Brain regions involved in observing and trying to interpret dog behaviour.

    Desmet, Charlotte; van der Wiel, Alko; Brass, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Humans and dogs have interacted for millennia. As a result, humans (and especially dog owners) sometimes try to interpret dog behaviour. While there is extensive research on the brain regions that are involved in mentalizing about other peoples' behaviour, surprisingly little is known of whether we use these same brain regions to mentalize about animal behaviour. In this fMRI study we investigate whether brain regions involved in mentalizing about human behaviour are also engaged when observing dog behaviour. Here we show that these brain regions are more engaged when observing dog behaviour that is difficult to interpret compared to dog behaviour that is easy to interpret. Interestingly, these results were not only obtained when participants were instructed to infer reasons for the behaviour but also when they passively viewed the behaviour, indicating that these brain regions are activated by spontaneous mentalizing processes.

  9. When It Hurts (and Helps) to Try: The Role of Effort in Language Learning

    Finn, Amy S.; Lee, Taraz; Kraus, Allison; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood). The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation) versus bad (grammar) at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar). Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1) learn the words, 2) learn the categories, or 3) learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories. PMID:25047901

  10. Tulongicin, an Antibacterial Tri-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Topsentia sp. Sponge.

    Liu, Hong-Bing; Lauro, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Robert D; Lohith, Katheryn; Kelly, Michelle; Colin, Patrick; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-09-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of an extract of a deep-water Topsentia sp. marine sponge led to the isolation of two new indole alkaloids, tulongicin A (1) and dihydrospongotine C (2), along with two known analogues, spongotine C (3) and dibromodeoxytopsentin (4). Their planar structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Their absolute configurations were determined through a combination of experimental and computational analyses. Tulongicin (1) is the first natural product to contain a di(6-Br-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl group linked to an imidazole core. The coexistence of tri-indole 1 and bis-indole alcohol 2 suggests a possible route to 1. All of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Endoscopic Tri-Modal Imaging (ETMI With Optical Magnification in the Detection of Barrett's Early Neoplasia

    Sarmed S. Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lesion detection and characterisation is vital to ensure accurate management in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia. Endoscopic Tri-modal Imaging (ETMI technology has been shown to improve the targeted detection of early dysplastic lesions in Barrett's Oesophagus, but these results were not confirmed in non-expert hands [1]. This technology incorporates high resolution while light endoscopy (HRE, Auto Fluorescence Imaging (AFI and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI in one endoscope. The mucosa is first inspected with HRE, and then AFI is switched on to help in highlighting any suspicious areas in the mucosa [2]. These areas can be further examined by switching to NBI mode with magnification which helps to characterise mucosal patterns and identify early neoplasia [3].

  12. Adaptive sliding mode control of tri-layer conjugated polymer actuators

    Wang, Xiangjiang; Alici, Gursel; Nguyen, Chuc Huu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode control methodology to enhance the positioning ability of conducting polymer actuators typified by tri-layer conjugated polymer actuators. This is motivated by the search for an effective control strategy to command such actuators to a desired configuration in the presence of parametric uncertainties and unmodeled disturbances. After analyzing the stability of the adaptive sliding mode control system, experiments were conducted to demonstrate its satisfactory tracking ability, based on a series of experimental results. Implementation of the control law requires a valid model of the conducting polymer actuator and boundaries of the uncertainties and disturbances. Based on the theoretical and experimental results presented, the adaptive sliding mode control methodology is very attractive in the field of smart actuators which contain significant uncertainties and disturbances. (paper)

  13. Electrochemical fabrication and modelling of mechanical behavior of a tri-layer polymer actuator

    Kaynak, Akif; Yang Chunhui; Lim, Yang C.; Kouzani, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Stability and performance of electrochemically synthesized tri-layer polypyrrole based actuators were reported. Concentrations were optimized as 0.05 M pyrrole and 0.05 M tetrabutylammonium hexaflurophosphate in propylene carbonate (PC). The force output of the actuators ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mN. Cyclic deflection tests on PC based actuators for a duration of 3 h indicated that the displacement decreased by 60%. However, actuation could be regenerated by immersing the actuator into the electrolyte solution. Surface resistivity measurements on the actuators prior to and after 3 h continuous deflection did not show any significant change in the resistivity of the PPy layer. A triple-layer model of the polymer actuator was developed based on the classic bending beam theory by considering strain continuity between PPy and PVDF. Results predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Tri-filial presentation of familial tuberous sclerosis with renal tumors

    Ghoshal, Sushil R; Chatterjee, Shankar D; Ray, Saugata; Chakraborty, Swarup; Achar, Arun; Pathak, TK

    2009-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome with autosomal dominant penetrance. Only some organs are involved, e.g., skin (earthy skin thickenings, ash leaf patches), cerebral cortex (hamartomatous nodules) and kidneys, (angiolipoma, adenocarcinoma). These hamartomatous swellings resemble potatoes and hence, referred to as tubers. We herein report on three patients (all familial), father, son and granddaughter, with this rare involvement, from the eastern part of India. The father and son had involvement of only the skin (i.e. nose) and kidneys while the disease penetrated further in the subsequent filial generations with son and granddaughter having skin, brain and bilateral kidney involvement. This kind of tri-filial progression has not till date, been reported from this region, making it an interesting case presentation. (author)

  15. Tri-filial presentation of familial tuberous sclerosis with renal tumors

    Ghoshal Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is a rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome with autosomal dominant penetrance. Only some organs are involved, e.g., skin (earthy skin thickenings, ash leaf patches, cerebral cortex (hamartomatous nodules and kidneys, (angiolipoma, adenocarcinoma. These hamar-tomatous swellings resemble potatoes and hence, referred to as tubers. We herein report on three patients (all familial, father, son and granddaughter, with this rare involvement, from the eastern part of India. The father and son had involvement of only the skin (i.e. nose and kidneys while the disease penetrated further in the subsequent filial generations with son and granddaughter having skin, brain and bilateral kidney involvement. This kind of tri-filial progression has not till date, been reported from this region, making it an interesting case presentation.

  16. Knitting neutrino mass textures with or without Tri-Bi maximal mixing

    Leontaris, G.K., E-mail: leonta@uoi.gr [Theoretical Physics Division, Ioannina University, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlachos, N.D. [Theoretical Physics Division, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-08-03

    The solar and baseline neutrino oscillation data suggest bimaximal neutrino mixing among the first two generations, and trimaximal mixing between all three neutrino flavors. It has been conjectured that this indicates the existence of an underlying symmetry for the leptonic fermion mass textures. The experimentally measured quantities, however, are associated to the latter indirectly and in a rather complicated way through the mixing matrices of the charged leptons and neutrinos. Motivated by these facts, we derive exact analytical expressions which directly link the charged lepton and neutrino mass and mixing parameters to measured quantities and obtain constraints on the parameter space. We discuss deviations from Tri-Bi mixing matrices and present minimal extensions of the Harrison, Perkins and Scott matrices capable of interpreting all neutrino data.

  17. Pulmonary hemorrhage and edema due to inhalation of resins containing tri-mellitic anhydride.

    Herbert, F A; Orford, R

    1979-11-01

    Seven young men developed acute pulmonary hemorrhage and edema from the inhalation of powder or fumes of a bisphenol epoxy resin containing tri-mellitic anhydride (TMA) while working in a steel pipe-coating plant. The illness was characterized by cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, fever, weakness and nausea or vomiting. Chest roentgenograms showed either a bilateral or unilateral pulmonary infiltrate. All patients had a normochromic type of anemia. Pulmonary function studies demonstrated a restrictive defect, hypoxemia, and increased A-a DO2 gradients. Light and electron microscopic studies of lung tissue revealed extensive bleeding into alveoli but no basement membrane deposits were seen and no antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were detected. The patients improved quickly without treatment. Follow-up studies of six patients three weeks to one year after their illness revealed apparent recovery. A detailed medical survey carried out on all 29 workers currently employed in the plant revealed five additional men had experienced severe recurrent pulmonary problems.

  18. High-throughput tri-colour flow cytometry technique to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in bioassays

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unbiased flow cytometry-based methods have become the technique of choice in many laboratories for high-throughput, accurate assessments of malaria parasites in bioassays. A method to quantify live parasites based on mitotracker red CMXRos was recently described but consistent...... distinction of early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum from uninfected red blood cells (uRBC) remains a challenge. METHODS: Here, a high-throughput, three-parameter (tri-colour) flow cytometry technique based on mitotracker red dye, the nucleic acid dye coriphosphine O (CPO) and the leucocyte marker CD45...... for enumerating live parasites in bioassays was developed. The technique was applied to estimate the specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in the antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay and compared to parasite quantification by microscopy and mitotracker red staining. The Bland-Altman analysis...

  19. A Tri-O-Bridged Diels-Alder Adduct from Cortex Mori Radicis

    An-Qi Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanggenon X, an unusual tri-O-bridged Diels-Alder adduct, was isolated from Cortex Mori Radicis. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HR-MS (High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Sanggenon X contained three O-bridged rings, where the oxygenated bridgeheads were all quaternary carbons. Chemical methylation was carried out to deduce the linkages of the three O-bridges. The absolute configuration was determined by calculating the ECD (Electronic Circular Dichroism using the TDDFT (Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory method. Sanggenon X showed significant antioxidant activity against Fe2+-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, and was as effective as the positive control, curcumin.

  20. Trying to make things right: adherence work in high-poverty, African American neighborhoods.

    Senteio, Charles; Veinot, Tiffany

    2014-12-01

    Adherence to treatment recommendations for chronic diseases is notoriously low across all patient populations. But African American patients, who are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and to have multiple chronic conditions, are even less likely to follow medical recommendations. Yet we know little about their contextually embedded, adherence-related experiences. We interviewed individuals (n = 37) with at least two of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Using an "invisible work" theoretical framework, we outline the adherence work that arose in patients' common life circumstances. We found five types: constantly searching for better care, stretching medications, eating what I know, keeping myself alive, and trying to make it right. Adherence work was effortful, challenging, and addressed external contingencies present in high-poverty African American neighborhoods. This work was invisible within the health care system because participants lacked ongoing, trusting relationships with providers and rarely discussed challenges with them. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Extraction and Separation of Uranium (VI) and Thorium (IV) Using Tri-n-dodecylamine Impregnated Resins

    Metwally, E.; Saleh, A.Sh.; El-Naggar, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from chloride and nitrate solutions with tri-n- dodecylamine impregnated on Amberlite XAD4, was investigated. The distribution of U(VI) and Th(IV) was studied at different concentrations of acid, salting-out agent, extractant, aqueous metal ion and other parameters. Absorption spectral studies have been investigated for uranium species in both aqueous HCl solution and the resin phase. From these studies, it is suggested that the tetrachloro complex of U(VI) is formed in the extraction of uranium (VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions by TDA impregnated resin. Stripping of the extracted U(VI) and Th(IV) was assayed with HCl and HNO 3 . Finally, the separation of uranium from thorium and fission products in HCl media was achieved

  2. Small Square Reconfigurable Antenna with Switchable Single/Tri-Band Functions

    M. Borhani Kakhki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel frequency reconfigurable slot antenna for suitable switchable radiations at WLAN and a tri-band at Bluetooth, WiMAX and upper WLAN applications is designed and fabricated. Switchable frequency responses are achieved by implementation of a PIN diode within the antenna ground plane. The antenna structure is consist of a square radiation patch with an E-shaped slot, a modified ground plane with an inverted T-shaped strip that act as a parasitic stub and two parallel slots and a protruded strip which is connected to the parasitic stub with a PIN diode. The presented antenna has a compact size of 20×20 mm2 while providing switchable radiations at 2.36-2.5 GHz Bluetooth, 3.51-3.79 GHz WiMAX, and 5.47-5.98 GHz WLAN when diode is ON and 5.04-6.13 GHz WLAN when diode is OFF.

  3. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  4. Clinical practice breastfeeding recommendations for primary care: applying a tri-core breastfeeding conceptual model.

    Busch, Deborah W; Logan, Kathleen; Wilkinson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Promotional practice efforts are needed in primary care to support and foster breastfeeding as the first and natural choice of nutrition for all infants regardless of race, ethnicity, educational, or income demographics in the United States. Societal awareness is increasing with regard to the significant protective qualities that human milk bestows upon public health. An estimated 75% of American mothers attempt to breastfeed, but according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, just 13% are able to exclusively breastfeed by 6 months. Early identification of lactation issues is crucial to establishing and sustaining breastfeeding for the first 6 to 12 months of the child's life and beyond. We propose a set of primary care guidelines, applying a Tri-Core Model approach, to promote and foster breastfeeding efforts in the postpartum period. Breastfeeding promotion is a fundamental public health endeavor, and pediatric nurse practitioners and other advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are uniquely qualified to become specialists and experts in lactation care and management. Lactation support, which should be an integral facet of an APRN's practice and education, will aid in improving national breastfeeding rates and patient care outcomes. Application of the Tri-Core Model approach will help APRNs develop and implement evidence-based practice efforts that incorporate the mother-baby dyad and other multiprofessionals who are vested in successful breastfeeding outcomes. The goal of pediatric health care is provide safe and effective health care to all infants, children, and adolescents, and lactation care is an integral and crucial component of this effort. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values

  6. A tri-modal molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node mapping

    Qin, Zhengtao; Hoh, Carl K.; Hall, David J.; Vera, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report an “instant kit” method to radiolabel fluorescent-tilmanocept with 68 Ga and 99m Tc for tri-modal molecular imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Methods: Solutions of sodium acetate, 68 GaCl 3 and Na 99m TcO 4 were added successively to a “kit vial” containing lyophilized 800CW-tilmanocept, SnCl 2 , trehalose and ascorbic acid. After a 30-min incubation, the pH was neutralized with PBS. No purification was required. Radiochemical and fluorescence purity was measured by HPLC and ITLC techniques. In vitro stability was measured by standing gel chromatography (SGC) and ITLC by a 100-fold dilution 0.25 h after radiolabeling. In vivo stability was measured by SGC and ITLC after an 11 h incubation in human plasma. A dose (0.1 nmol, ~ 1 MBq 68 Ga, ~ 25 MBq 99m Tc) was injected to the footpad of 4 mice. Popliteal SLNs were imaged by PET and fluorescence imaging systems at 0.5, 24, 48, 72 h, then excised and assayed for 99m Tc. Results: Radiochemical and fluorescent purity exceeded 98%. The in vitro stability assay demonstrated high irreversibility of both radiolabels and the fluorescent label, and in vivo stability assay demonstrated high stability of the technetium and fluorescent labels to plasma metabolism. Popliteal SLNs were identified by PET and fluorescence imaging within 0.5 h of injection. SLN fluorescence intensity remained constant for 72 h, when ~ 1% of the injected dose resided in the SLN. Conclusions: Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept can be radiolabeled with 68 Ga and 99m Tc by the sequential addition of each generator eluate to a lyophilized kit. The resulting tri-modal agent provides: PET images for pre-operative SLN mapping, fluorescence imaging up to 72 hours after injection, and quantitative radiometric measurement of SLN accumulation after excision.

  7. Parametric study on catalytic tri-reforming of methane for syngas production

    Chein, Rei-Yu; Wang, Chien-Yu; Yu, Ching-Tsung

    2017-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model for syngas production from tri-reforming of methane (TRM) in adiabatic tubular fixed-bed reactors was established. From the results obtained, it was found that reactant must be preheated to certain temperatures for TRM activation. Although the delay factor accounting for the varying catalytic bed activities produced different temperature and species mole fraction profiles in the reactor upstream, the reactor performance was delay factor independent if the reactor outlet results were used because nearly identical temperature and species mole fraction variations were obtained at the reactor downstream. The numerical results also indicated that reverse water-gas shift reaction plays an important role for H 2 and CO yields. With higher O 2 in reactant, high temperature resulted, leading to lower H 2 /CO ratio. The absence of H 2 O in the reactant caused dry reforming of methane as the dominant reaction, resulting in H 2 /CO ratio close to unity. With the absence of CO 2 in the reactant, steam reforming of methane was the dominant reaction, resulting in H 2 /CO ratio close to 3. Using flue gas from combustion as TRM feedstock, it was found that H 2 /CO ratio was enhanced using lower CH 4 amount in reactant. High-temperature flue gas was suggested for TRM for the activation requirement. - Highlights: • Reactant must be preheated to certain temperature for tri-reforming of methane (TRM) activation. • A delay factor is used to account for varying catalytic activity. • TRM performance is delay factor independent when reactor outlet results are used. • Water-gas shift reaction plays an important role in H 2 yield, CO yield and H 2 /CO ratio in TRM. • Low CH 4 and high temperature are suggested when flue gas is used in TRM.

  8. Introduction of tri-antennary N-glycans in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Nagels, Bieke; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico; Weterings, Koen

    2012-04-01

    Because the pathway for protein synthesis is largely conserved between plants and animals, plants provide an attractive platform for the cost effective and flexible production of biopharmaceuticals. However, there are some differences in glycosylation between plants and humans that need to be considered before plants can be used as an efficient expression platform. In the presented research the human genes encoding α1,3-mannosyl-β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) and α1,6-mannosyl-β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-V) were introduced in the fast cycling model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to synthesize tri-antennary N-glycans. The GnT-IV and -V enzymes were targeted to the Golgi apparatus with plant-specific localization signals. The experiments were performed both in a wild type background, as well as in plants lacking β1,2-xylosyltransferase (XylT) and α1,3-fucosyltransferase (FucT) activity. Glycan analysis of endogenous proteins in the transgenic lines using CE-LIF showed that tri-antennary N-glycans could be produced in the XylT/FucT deficient line, while these structures were not found in the wild type background. Since β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, that remove terminal GlcNAcs, are active in A. thaliana plants, the specificity of these enzymes for different GlcNAc linkages was tested. The results showed that there is no pronounced preference of the A. thaliana hexosaminidases for human-type GlcNAc-linkages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Los Triángulos de Delaunay como Procesamiento Previo para Extractores Difusos

    Manuel Ramírez Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La información biométrica que se extrae de las huellas dactilares tiende a ser diferente en cada adquisición, dada la incertidumbre existente en las mediciones y la presencia de ruido en las muestras, lo cual puede ocasionar que las palabras código generadas dentro de un extractor difuso posean un número de errores tal que rebase la capacidad de corrección de la codificación. Como consecuencia se tiene que lo anterior puede ocasionar que las huellas dactilares de una misma persona sean catalogadas como no coincidentes en su verificación o bien, que huellas de individuos diferentes parezcan demasiado similares. Para mitigar los efectos antes mencionados y sobrepasar las dificultades del pre-alineamiento de huellas dactilares, se propuso el uso de triángulos de Delaunay, lo cual permite proveer de estabilidad estructural local a la representación espacial de la información biométrica. En esa propuesta, las minucias de la huella son utilizadas como vértices de las triangulaciones y la red formada por éstas es tolerante a distorsiones, rotaciones y traslaciones. Sin embargo, en dicha propuesta se considera a la dispersión de minucias de huellas dactilares como no degenerativa y por tanto no se mencionan los umbrales o criterios necesarios para la formación de dichas triangulaciones, lo cual repercute en el desempeño de los extractores difusos. Con base en ello, este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos al probar la formación de triangulaciones de Delaunay en imágenes de huella dactilar, en donde se aplican umbrales y criterios geométricos para luego contabilizar los triángulos coincidentes entre las estructuras formadas y definir los umbrales que maximicen dichas coincidencias.

  10. Endocardial left ventricle feature tracking and reconstruction from tri-plane trans-esophageal echocardiography data

    Dangi, Shusil; Ben-Zikri, Yehuda K.; Cahill, Nathan; Schwarz, Karl Q.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) has been the clinical standard for over two decades for monitoring and assessing cardiac function and providing support via intra-operative visualization and guidance for minimally invasive cardiac interventions. Developments in three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and transducer design and technology have revolutionized echocardiography imaging enabling both real-time 3D trans-esophageal and intra-cardiac image acquisition. However, in most cases the clinicians do not access the entire 3D image volume when analyzing the data, rather they focus on several key views that render the cardiac anatomy of interest during the US imaging exam. This approach enables image acquisition at a much higher spatial and temporal resolution. Two such common approaches are the bi-plane and tri-plane data acquisition protocols; as their name states, the former comprises two orthogonal image views, while the latter depicts the cardiac anatomy based on three co-axially intersecting views spaced at 600 to one another. Since cardiac anatomy is continuously changing, the intra-operative anatomy depicted using real-time US imaging also needs to be updated by tracking the key features of interest and endocardial left ventricle (LV) boundaries. Therefore, rapid automatic feature tracking in US images is critical for three reasons: 1) to perform cardiac function assessment; 2) to identify location of surgical targets for accurate tool to target navigation and on-target instrument positioning; and 3) to enable pre- to intra-op image registration as a means to fuse pre-op CT or MR images used during planning with intra-operative images for enhanced guidance. In this paper we utilize monogenic filtering, graph-cut based segmentation and robust spline smoothing in a combined work flow to process the acquired tri-plane TEE time series US images and demonstrate robust and accurate tracking of the LV endocardial features. We reconstruct the endocardial LV

  11. Predictors of trying to lose weight among overweight and obese Mexican-Americans: a signal detection analysis.

    Bersamin, Andrea; Hanni, Krista D; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2009-01-01

    Signal detection analysis, a form of recursive partitioning, was used to identify combinations of sociodemographic and acculturation factors that predict trying to lose weight in a community-based sample of 957 overweight and obese Mexican-American adults (ages 18-69 years). Data were pooled from the 2004 and 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System conducted in a low-income, semi-rural community in California. Overall, 59 % of the population reported trying to lose weight. The proportion of adults who were trying to lose weight was highly variable across the seven mutually exclusive groups identified by signal detection (range 30-79 %). Significant predictors of trying to lose weight included BMI, gender, age and income. Women who were very overweight (BMI > 28.5 kg/m2) were most likely to be trying to lose weight (79 %), followed by very overweight higher-income men and moderately overweight (BMI = 25.0-28.5 kg/m2) higher-income women (72 % and 70 %, respectively). Moderately overweight men, aged 28-69 years, were the least likely to be trying to lose weight (30 %), followed by moderately overweight lower-income women (47 %) and very overweight lower-income men (49 %). The latter group is of particular concern since they have characteristics associated with medical complications of obesity (low education and poor access to medical care). Our findings highlight opportunities and challenges for public health professionals working with overweight Mexican-American adults - particularly lower-income adults who were born in Mexico - who are not trying to lose weight and are therefore at high risk for obesity-related co-morbidities.

  12. Trauma Risk Management (TRiM): Promoting Help Seeking for Mental Health Problems Among Combat-Exposed U.K. Military Personnel.

    Jones, Norman; Burdett, Howard; Green, Kevin; Greenberg, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) is a peer-led, occupational mental health support process that aims to identify and assist U.K. military personnel with persistent mental ill health related to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). This study compared help seeking, mental disorder symptoms, and alcohol use between TRiM recipients and personnel experiencing similar combat events who did not receive TRiM; an unexposed group provided context. Records of TRiM activity during a U.K. military deployment in Afghanistan were linked to contemporaneous survey data assessing mental health and combat experiences. The resulting deployment data set was amalgamated with mental health, alcohol use, and help-seeking data collected within 12 weeks of homecoming and again one to two years later. Mental health and help-seeking outcomes were compared between a nonexposed, non-TRiM sample (n = 161), an exposed, non-TRiM sample (n = 149), and an exposed, TRiM-recipient sample (n = 328) using logistic regression analyses. At follow-up, TRiM recipients were significantly more likely to seek help from mental health services than exposed, non-TRiM personnel. At baseline, TRiM recipients had significantly greater adjusted odds of reporting possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than exposed non-TRiM personnel; the difference was not significant at follow-up. TRiM recipients were significantly more likely to report persistent mental disorder and alcohol misuse caseness over the follow-up period. TRiM recipients were significantly more likely to seek help from mental health services than a similar PTE-exposed group that did not receive TRiM; however, TRiM recipients experienced more persistent mental ill-health symptoms and hazardous alcohol use over the period of follow-up despite seeking help.

  13. The process of trying to quit smoking from the perspective of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Lundh, Lena; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena

    2012-09-01

    To investigate why some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have difficulty quitting smoking and to develop a theoretical model that describes their perspectives on these difficulties. Grounded theory method was used from the selection of participants to the analyses of semi-structured interviews with 14 patients with COPD. Four additional interviews were conducted to ensure relevance. The analysis resulted in a theoretical model that illustrates the process of 'Patients with COPD trying to quit smoking'. The model illuminates factors related to the decision to try to quit smoking, including pressure-filled mental states and constructive or destructive pressure-relief strategies. The constructive strategies lead either to success in quitting or to continuing to try to quit. The destructive strategies can lead to losing hope and becoming resigned to continuing to smoke. The theoretical model 'Patients trying to quit smoking' contributes to a better understanding of the pressure-filled mental states and destructive strategies experienced by some patients with COPD in the process of trying to quit. This better understanding can help nurses individualise counselling. Moreover, patients' own awareness of these states and strategies may facilitate their efforts to quit. The information in the model can also be used as a supplement to methods such as motivational interviewing (MI). © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Exploring Environmental Inequity in South Korea: An Analysis of the Distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI Facilities and Toxic Releases

    D. K. Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, location data regarding the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI in South Korea was released to the public. This study investigated the spatial patterns of TRIs and releases of toxic substances in all 230 local governments in South Korea to determine whether spatial clusters relevant to the siting of noxious facilities occur. In addition, we employed spatial regression modeling to determine whether the number of TRI facilities and the volume of toxic releases in a given community were correlated with the community’s socioeconomic, racial, political, and land use characteristics. We found that the TRI facilities and their toxic releases were disproportionately distributed with clustered spatial patterning. Spatial regression modeling indicated that jurisdictions with smaller percentages of minorities, stronger political activity, less industrial land use, and more commercial land use had smaller numbers of toxic releases, as well as smaller numbers of TRI facilities. However, the economic status of the community did not affect the siting of hazardous facilities. These results indicate that the siting of TRI facilities in Korea is more affected by sociopolitical factors than by economic status. Racial issues are thus crucial for consideration in environmental justice as the population of Korea becomes more racially and ethnically diverse.

  15. Magnetic tri-axial orientation in (Y1-xErx)2Ba4Cu7O15-y superconductors

    Horii, S.; Okuhira, S.; Yamaki, M.; Haruta, M.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.

    2011-01-01

    (Y 1-x Er x ) 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15-y [(Y,Er)247] was synthesized for clarifying a magnetic role of Er ion. The three magnetization axes of (Y,Er)247 were obtained from tri-axial orientation using a modulated rotation magnetic field. Magnetic anisotropy of Er ion is roughly ten times higher than that for Y247 at room temperature. Importance of rare-earth ions was shown for reduction of required magnetic fields in the tri-axial magnetic orientation. We report the tri-axial grain-orientation effects under a modulated rotation magnetic field for (Y 1-x Er x ) 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O y [(Y, Er)247]. The magnetic easy axis at room temperature was drastically changed around x ∼ 0.1; however, the Er-doping levels for the conversion of magnetic easy axes from the c-axis to the ab-direction and from the a- to b-axes were quite different. Tri-axial single-ion magnetic anisotropy of Er 3+ was roughly 10 times greater than tri-axial magnetic anisotropy generated by both the superconducting CuO 2 plane and the blocking Cu-O chain layer. An appropriate choice of rare-earth (RE) ions in RE-based cuprate superconductors enables the reduction of the required magnetic field for the production of bulks and thick films based on the magnetic orientation technique.

  16. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    K.V. Suresh Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  17. Preliminary Survey on TRY Forest Traits and Growth Index Relations - New Challenges

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter; Chikalanov, Alexandre; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena; Peteva, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems provide critical ecosystem goods and services, including food, fodder, water, shelter, nutrient cycling, and cultural and recreational value. Forests also store carbon, provide habitat for a wide range of species and help alleviate land degradation and desertification. Thus they have a potentially significant role to play in climate change adaptation planning through maintaining ecosystem services and providing livelihood options. Therefore the study of forest traits is such an important issue not just for individual countries but for the planet as a whole. We need to know what functional relations between forest traits exactly can express TRY data base and haw it will be significant for the global modeling and IPBES. The study of the biodiversity characteristics at all levels and functional links between them is extremely important for the selection of key indicators for assessing biodiversity and ecosystem services for sustainable natural capital control. By comparing the available information in tree data bases: TRY, ITR (International Tree Ring) and SP-PAM the 42 tree species are selected for the traits analyses. The dependence between location characteristics (latitude, longitude, altitude, annual precipitation, annual temperature and soil type) and forest traits (specific leaf area, leaf weight ratio, wood density and growth index) is studied by by multiply regression analyses (RDA) using the statistical software package Canoco 4.5. The Pearson correlation coefficient (measure of linear correlation), Kendal rank correlation coefficient (non parametric measure of statistical dependence) and Spearman correlation coefficient (monotonic function relationship between two variables) are calculated for each pair of variables (indexes) and species. After analysis of above mentioned correlation coefficients the dimensional linear regression models, multidimensional linear and nonlinear regression models and multidimensional neural networks models are

  18. Testosterone replacement therapy among elderly males: the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS

    Bhattacharya RK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajib K Bhattacharya,1 Mohit Khera,2 Gary Blick,3 Harvey Kushner,4 Martin M Miner51Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3Circle Medical LLC, Norwalk, CT, USA; 4Biometrics, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Malvern, PA, USA; 5Men's Health Center, Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USABackground: Testosterone levels naturally decline with age in men, often resulting in testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism. However, few studies have examined hypogonadal characteristics and treatment in older (≥65 years men.Objective: To compare data at baseline and after 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT in hypogonadal men ≥65 vs <65 years old. Data for participants 65–74 vs ≥75 years old were also compared.Methods: Data were from TRiUS (Testim Registry in the United States, which enrolled 849 hypogonadal men treated with Testim® 1% (50–100 mg testosterone gel/day for the first time. Anthropometric, laboratory, and clinical measures were taken at baseline and 12 months, including primary outcomes of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Comparisons of parameters were made using Fisher's exact test or analysis of variance. Nonparametric Spearman's ρ and first-order partial correlation coefficients adjusted for the effect of age were used to examine bivariate correlations among parameters.Results: Of the registry participants at baseline with available age information, 16% (133/845 were ≥65 years old. They were similar to men <65 years old in the duration of hypogonadism prior to enrollment (~1 year, TT and FT levels at baseline, TT and FT levels at 12-month follow-up, and in reported compliance with treatment. Older patients were more likely to receive lower doses of TRT. PSA levels did not statistically differ between groups after 12 months of TRT (2.18 ± 2.18 ng

  19. First Measurements of Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes by a Tri-static Radar System

    La Hoz, C.

    2015-12-01

    Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) have been observed for the first time by a tri-static radar system comprising the EISCAT VHF (224 MHz, 0.67 m Bragg wavelength) active radar in Tromso (Norway) and passive receiving stations in Kiruna, (Sweden) and Sodankyla (Finland). The antennas at the receiving stations, originally part of the EISCAT tri-static UHF radar system at 930 MHz, have been refitted with new feeder systems at the VHF frequency of the transmitter in Tromso. The refitted radar system opens new opportunities to study PMSE for its own sake and as a tracer of the dynamics of the polar mesosphere, a region that is difficult to investigate by other means. The measurements show that very frequently both remote receiving antennas detect coherent signals that are much greater than the regular incoherent scattering due to thermal electrons and coinciding in time and space with PMSE measured by the transmitter station in Tromso. This represents further evidence that PMSE is not aspect sensitive, as was already indicated by a less sensitive radar system in a bi-static configuration, and implying that the underlying atmospheric turbulence, at least at sub-meter scales, is isotropic in agreement with Kolmogorov's hypothesis. Measurements also show that the vertical rate of fall of persistent features of PMSE is the same as the vertical line of sight velocity inferred from the doppler shift of the PMSE signals. This equivalence forms the basis for using PMSE as a tracer of the dynamics of the background mesosphere. Thus, it is possible to measure the 3-dimensional velocity field in the PMSE layer over the intersection volume of the three antennas. Since the signals have large signal-to-noise ratios (up to 30 dB), the inferred velocities have high accuracies and good time resolutions. This affords the possibility to make estimates of momentum flux in the mesosphere deposited by overturning gravity waves. Gravity wave momentum flux is believed to be the engine of a

  20. Saving our shared birds: Partners in Flight tri-national vision for landbird conservation

    Berlanga, Humberto; Kennedy, Judith A.; Rich, Terrell D.; Arizmendi, Maria del Coro; Beardmore, Carol J.; Blancher, Peter J.; Butcher, Gregory S.; Couturier, Andrew R.; Dayer, Ashley A.; Demarest, Dean W.; Easton, Wendy E.; Gustafson, Mary; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.; Krebs, Elizabeth A.; Panjabi, Arvind O.; Rodriguez Contreras, Vicente; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Ruth, Janet M.; Santana Castellon, Eduardo; Vidal, Rosa Ma.; Will, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Landbirds are the most abundant and diverse group of birds in North America, with nearly 900 species distributed across every major terrestrial habitat. Birds are indicators of environmental health; their populations track changes in habitat, water, disease, and climate. They are providers of invaluable ecosystem services, such as pest control, seed dispersal, and pollination. As the focus of bird watching, they help generate billions of dollars for national economies. Yet, we are in danger of losing this spectacular and irreplaceable bird diversity: landbirds are experiencing significant declines, ominous threats, and shrinking habitats across a continent with growing human populations, increasing resource consumption, and changing climate. Saving Our Shared Birds presents for the first time a comprehensive conservation assessment of landbirds in Canada, Mexico, and the continental United States. This new tri-national vision encompasses the complete range of many migratory species and highlights the vital links among migrants and highly threatened resident species in Mexico. It points to a set of continent-scale actions necessary to maintain the landbird diversity and abundance that are our shared responsibility. This collaborative effort of Partners in Flight (PIF) is the next step in linking the countries of the Western Hemisphere to help species at risk and keep common birds common through voluntary partnerships—our mission since 1990. Saving Our Shared Birds builds upon PIF’s 2004 North American Landbird Conservation Plan, which presented science-based priorities for the conservation of 448 landbird species in Canada and the United States. Our three nations have expressed their commitment to cooperative conservation through numerous international treaties, agreements, and programs, including formation of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI) a decade ago. The NABCI partnership recognizes that effective conservation requires a concerted

  1. Application of TRiMiCri for the evaluation of risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter on broiler meat

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two appr...... of microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in the EU is discussed. TRiMiCri provides user friendly software to evaluate the available data and can help risk managers in establishing risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat.......A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two...

  2. Perspective analysis of tri gate germanium tunneling field-effect transistor with dopant segregation region at source/drain

    Liu, Liang-kui; Shi, Cheng; Zhang, Yi-bo; Sun, Lei

    2017-04-01

    A tri gate Ge-based tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) has been numerically studied with technology computer aided design (TCAD) tools. Dopant segregated Schottky source/drain is applied to the device structure design (DS-TFET). The characteristics of the DS-TFET are compared and analyzed comprehensively. It is found that the performance of n-channel tri gate DS-TFET with a positive bias is insensitive to the dopant concentration and barrier height at n-type drain, and that the dopant concentration and barrier height at a p-type source considerably affect the device performance. The domination of electron current in the entire BTBT current of this device accounts for this phenomenon and the tri-gate DS-TFET is proved to have a higher performance than its dual-gate counterpart.

  3. Uptake of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions by Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate

    Serrano G, J.; Ramirez S, J. L.; Bonifacio M, J.; Granados C, F.; Badillo A, V. E., E-mail: juan.serrano@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion adsorption of Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate was studied by batch experiments as a function of contact time, initial concentration of metal ion and temperature. Adsorption results showed that at ph 5.5 and 1.0 x 10{sup -4} M chromium concentration the adsorption capacity of Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate for CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions was 7.10 x 10{sup -3} mmol/g. Chromium adsorption data on Fe-treated tri-calcium phosphate at various initial concentration fitted the Freundlich isotherm. By temperature studies the thermodynamic parameters {Delta}H{sup 0}, {Delta}G{sup 0} and {Delta}S{sup 0} were estimated and the obtained results showed that the adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous. (Author)

  4. Localization of ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 protein in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji

    2017-07-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) is a R3-type MYB transcription factor, which induces root-hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The CPC homologous gene ENHANCER TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) has a similar function to CPC, and acts in concert with CPC. The CPC protein moves between root epidermal cells, from hairless cells to the neighboring cells, and promotes root-hair differentiation. Therefore, ETC1 is predicted to have movement ability similar to that of CPC. In this study, we generated ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants to clarify whether ETC1 exhibits cell-to-cell movement. Transgenic plants showed many-root-haired and trichome-less phenotypes, similar to those observed in CPC:CPC:GFP plants, suggesting a similar function of ETC1 and CPC. However, the ETC1:GFP fusion protein located exclusively to the hairless cells in both ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants. These results indicate that, unexpectedly, the ETC1 protein cannot move in the root epidermis from hairless cells to the neighboring cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Assembly of photosynthetic reaction center with ABA tri-block polymersomes: highlights on the protein localization.

    Tangorra, Roberto Rocco

    2015-07-07

    The reconstitution of the integral membrane protein photosynthetic reaction center (RC) in polymersomes, i. e. artificial closed vesicles, was achieved by the micelle-to-vesicle transition technique, a very mild protocol based on size exclusion chromatography often used to drive the incorporation of proteins contemporarily to liposomes formation. An optimized protocol was used to successfully reconstitute the protein in a fully active state in polymersomes formed by the tri-block copolymers PMOXA22-PDMS61-PMOXA22. The RC is very sensitive to its solubilizing environment and was used to probe the positioning of the protein in the vesicles. According to charge-recombination experiments and to the enzymatic activity assay, the RC is found to accommodate in the PMOXA22 region of the polymersome, facing the water bulk solution, rather than in the PDMS61 transmembrane-like region. Furthermore, polymersomes were found to preserve protein integrity efficiently as the biomimetic lipid bilayers but show a much longer temporal stability than lipid based vesicles.

  6. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim, E-mail: eduardo.molina@unifran.edu.br [Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  7. Mesoporous Carbon Produced from Tri-constituent Mesoporous Carbon-silica Composite for Water Purification

    Yu, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous carbon-silica nanocomposites with interpenetrating carbon and silica networks were synthesized by the evaporation-induced tri-constituent co- assembly approach. The removal of silica by concentrated NaOH solution produced mesoporous carbons, which contained not only the primary large pores, but also the secondary mesopores in the carbon walls. The thus synthesized mesoporous carbon was further activated by using ZnCl2. The activated mesoporous carbon showed an improved surface area and pore volume. The synthesized mesoporous carbon was tested for diuron removal from water and the results showed that the carbon gave a fast diuron adsorption kinetics and a high diuron removal capacity, which was attributable to the primary mesopore channels being the highway for mass transfer, which led to short diffusion path length and easy accessibility of the interpenetrated secondary mesopores. The optimal adsorption capacity of the porous carbon was determined to be 390 mg/g, the highest values ever reported for diuron adsorption on carbon-based materials.

  8. Measurement of two-dimensional bubble velocity by Using tri-fiber-optical Probe

    Yang Ruichang; Zheng Rongchuan; Zhou Fanling; Liu Ruolei

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an advanced measuring system with a tri-single-fiber-optical-probe has been developed to measure two-dimensional vapor/gas bubble velocity. The use of beam splitting devices instead of beam splitting lens simplifies the optical system, so the system becomes more compact and economic, and more easy to adjust. Corresponding to using triple-optical probe for measuring two-dimensional bubble velocity, a data processing method has been developed, including processing of bubble signals, cancelling of unrelated signals, determining of bubble velocity with cross correlation technique and so on. Using the developed two-dimensional bubble velocity measuring method, the rising velocity of air bubbles in gravitational field was measured. The measured bubble velocities were compared with the empirical correlation available. Deviation was in the range of ±30%. The bubble diameter obtained by data processing is in good accordance with that observed with a synchro-scope and a camera. This shows that the method developed here is reliable.

  9. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  10. Retrieval of a leaflet escaped in a Tri-technologies bileaflet mechanical prosthetic valve.

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; Guidoin, Robert; Salvado, César M; Fernández, Adrián J; Prezioso, Horacio A

    2008-01-01

    The escape of the prosthetic heart valve disc is one of the causes of prosthetic dysfunction that requires emergency surgery. The removal of the embolized disc should be carried out because of the risk of a progressive extrusion on the aortic wall. Several imaging techniques can be used for the detection of the missing disc localization. In this report we describe a 32-year-old man who underwent mitral valve replacement with a Tri-technologies bileaflet valve three years ago, and was admitted in cardiogenic shock. Transesophageal echocardiography showed acute-onset massive mitral regurgitation. The patient underwent emergency replacement of the prosthetic valve. Only one of the two leaflets remained in the removed prosthetic valve. The missing leaflet could not be found within the cardiac cavity. The abdominal fluoroscopic study and plain radiography were unable to detect the escaped leaflet. The abdominal computed tomography scan and the ultrasound showed the escaped leaflet in the terminal portion of the aortic bifurcation. To retrieve the embolized disc laparotomy and aortotomy were performed three months later. The escaped leaflet shows a fracture of one of the pivot systems caused by structural failure. This kind of failure mode is usually the result of high stress concentration.

  11. Multi-channels coupling-induced pattern transition in a tri-layer neuronal network

    Wu, Fuqiang; Wang, Ya; Ma, Jun; Jin, Wuyin; Hobiny, Aatef

    2018-03-01

    Neurons in nerve system show complex electrical behaviors due to complex connection types and diversity in excitability. A tri-layer network is constructed to investigate the signal propagation and pattern formation by selecting different coupling channels between layers. Each layer is set as different states, and the local kinetics is described by Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. By changing the number of coupling channels between layers and the state of the first layer, the collective behaviors of each layer and synchronization pattern of network are investigated. A statistical factor of synchronization on each layer is calculated. It is found that quiescent state in the second layer can be excited and disordered state in the third layer is suppressed when the first layer is controlled by a pacemaker, and the developed state is dependent on the number of coupling channels. Furthermore, the collapse in the first layer can cause breakdown of other layers in the network, and the mechanism is that disordered state in the third layer is enhanced when sampled signals from the collapsed layer can impose continuous disturbance on the next layer.

  12. Study of lanthanide tri-cations in aqueous solution by molecular dynamic

    Duvail, M.

    2007-11-01

    This is essentially a lanthanide tri-cation hydration study by means of classical molecular dynamics (CLMD) simulations using explicit polarization. Explicit polarization is calculated with a Car-Parrinello type of dynamics on induced dipoles, which decreases the CPU time as compared to the self-consistent resolution. Several pair interaction potentials are parametrized from ab initio calculations (MP2) and tested for the La 3+ -OH 2 interaction. The best results are obtained with an exponential-6 Buckingham potential. Next, the La 3+ -OH 2 interaction potential parameters are extrapolated to the other Ln 3+ -OH 2 interactions, only by using the ionic radii. The CLMD results reproduce the reliable experimental data (EXAFS distances), and the sigmoidal variation of the coordination number (with S shape), from 9 for La 3+ to 8 for Lu 3+ . This variation is explained by the linear variation of DrG0 (9,298) vs. atomic number. Insights are also given on the Co 2+ hydration, CPMD simulations, reconstruction of EXAFS signal from MD simulations, and OH - complexation of La 3+ in aqueous solution. (author)

  13. Ekstraksi Pemisahan Neodimium dari Samarium, Itrium dan Praseodimium Memakai Tri Butil Fosfat

    Maria Veronica Purwani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Nd(OH3 (neodymium hydroxide concentrate containing Y (yttrium, Sm (samarium and Pr (praseodymium as product of monazite processed has been done. The purpose of this study is to determine the separation of Nd from Y, Pr and Nd Sm in Nd concentrate. The aqueous phase was concentrated Nd (OH3 in HNO3 and extractant while organic phase was Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP in kerosene. Parameters studied were pH and concentration feed, concentration of TBP in kerosene, extraction time and stirring speed. The result showed that the optimization of separation extraction neodymium from samarium, yttrium and praseodymium in Nd(OH3 concentrated with TBP, obtained the optimum condition of pH = 0.2, concentration of feed 100 g /L, concentration of TBP in kerosene 5%, extraction time 15 minutes and stirring speed 150 rpm. With the conditions, Separation Factor (SF obtained for Nd-Y, Nd-Pr, Nd-Sm are 2.242, 4.811, 4.002 respectively, while D and extraction efficiency of Nd are 0.236 and 19.07%.

  14. Coalescence of organic solutions in acid and metal extraction by tri-alkylamines

    Blain, J.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of two layers with tri-alkylammonium salts solutions in low polarity diluents could be explained on the basis of settling of micelles. Light scattering and viscosity measurements reveal that micelles size increases rather sharply before coalescence. The existence of micelles in the solution has been confirmed by ultracentrifuge experiments. The behaviour of these solutions, in general, is similar to that of colloidal soap solutions. The various parameters which promote third phase formation are: anion size in the order of Cl - ∼ Br - 3 4 - ; extraction of excess acid; metal cation size in the order of UO 2 ++ 4+ ∼ Th 4+ ; decreasing in the length of the n-alkyl chain in the alkyl-ammonium salts; decreasing in diluent polarity. The above phenomenon could be explained on the basis of the affinity between alkylammonium salts and organic solvent. The composition of the three phases is independent of the initial amine concentration for a fixed acid and metal concentration. This has been verified experimentally and is in conformity with phase rule. (author) [fr

  15. Solvent extraction of titanium (IV) from sulphuric acid media by cyanex 921 and tri-butylphosphate

    Nayl, A.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    titanium and its compounds found different useful applications in the nuclear and radioactive waste treatment fields. extraction behavior of titanium (IV) from sulfuric acid by commercial tri-octylphosphine oxide (CYANEX 921) and tributylphosphate (TBP)has been investigated. effects of contact time, sulfuric acid concentration in the aqueous phase, the extractants concentration in the organic phase, and the temperature on the extraction of titanium by the two systems were studied. it is found that extraction equilibrium of titanium is reached after 10-15 min and 4 min for CYANEX 921 and TBP, respectively . the extraction of Ti(IV) by 0.15 M CYANEX 921 in kerosene increases with the increase in sulfuric acid concentration to reach a maximum extraction of 91% at 7.0 m acid concentration. for the TBP system, the maximum extraction of titanium was 79% using 1.0 M TBP in kerosene from 4.0 m H 2 SO 4 solution . the effect of temperature was also evaluated. Na 2 CO 3 was used as a good stripping agent compared with other reagents. the interaction of Ti(IV) in sulfate medium and different sulfate species in sulfuric acid are reviewed. within the literature survey together with analysis of the extraction results , it can be concluded that titanium extracted by CYANEX 921 as Ti O (HSO 4 ) 2 .2 CYANEX 921 whereby in case of TBP, the extracted species is TiOSO 4 .2 TBP

  16. Using tri-axial accelerometers to identify wild polar bear behaviors

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Rode, Karyn D.; Cutting, A.; Owen, M.A.; Jensen, S.; Ware, J.V.; Robbins, C.T.; Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Obbard, M.E.; Middel, K.R.; Thiemann, G.W.; Williams, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tri-axial accelerometers have been used to remotely identify the behaviors of a wide range of taxa. Assigning behaviors to accelerometer data often involves the use of captive animals or surrogate species, as their accelerometer signatures are generally assumed to be similar to those of their wild counterparts. However, this has rarely been tested. Validated accelerometer data are needed for polar bears Ursus maritimus to understand how habitat conditions may influence behavior and energy demands. We used accelerometer and water conductivity data to remotely distinguish 10 polar bear behaviors. We calibrated accelerometer and conductivity data collected from collars with behaviors observed from video-recorded captive polar bears and brown bears U. arctos, and with video from camera collars deployed on free-ranging polar bears on sea ice and on land. We used random forest models to predict behaviors and found strong ability to discriminate the most common wild polar bear behaviors using a combination of accelerometer and conductivity sensor data from captive or wild polar bears. In contrast, models using data from captive brown bears failed to reliably distinguish most active behaviors in wild polar bears. Our ability to discriminate behavior was greatest when species- and habitat-specific data from wild individuals were used to train models. Data from captive individuals may be suitable for calibrating accelerometers, but may provide reduced ability to discriminate some behaviors. The accelerometer calibrations developed here provide a method to quantify polar bear behaviors to evaluate the impacts of declines in Arctic sea ice.

  17. Application of a tri-axial accelerometer to estimate jump frequency in volleyball.

    Jarning, Jon M; Mok, Kam-Ming; Hansen, Bjørge H; Bahr, Roald

    2015-03-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is prevalent among athletes, and most likely associated with a high jumping load. If methods for estimating jump frequency were available, this could potentially assist in understanding and preventing this condition. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of using peak vertical acceleration (PVA) or peak resultant acceleration (PRA) measured by an accelerometer to estimate jump frequency. Twelve male elite volleyball players (22.5 ± 1.6 yrs) performed a training protocol consisting of seven typical motion patterns, including jumping and non-jumping movements. Accelerometer data from the trial were obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer. In addition, we collected video data from the trial. Jump-float serving and spike jumping could not be distinguished from non-jumping movements using differences in PVA or PRA. Furthermore, there were substantial inter-participant differences in both the PVA and the PRA within and across movement types (p volleyball. A method for acquiring real-time estimates of jump frequency remains to be verified. However, there are several alternative approaches, and further investigations are needed.

  18. Transcriptome and H3K27 tri-methylation profiling of Ezh2-deficient lung epithelium

    Aliaksei Z. Holik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the lungs to air breathing at birth requires the fine orchestration of different processes to control lung morphogenesis and progenitor cell differentiation. However, there is little understanding of the role that epigenetic modifiers play in the control of lung development. We found that the histone methyl transferase Ezh2 plays a critical role in lung lineage specification and survival at birth. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome study combined with a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of H3K27 tri-methylation marks to interrogate the role of Ezh2 in lung epithelial cells. Lung cells isolated from Ezh2-deficient and control mice at embryonic day E16.5 were sorted into epithelial and mesenchymal populations based on EpCAM expression. This enabled us to dissect the transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by the loss of Ezh2 specifically in the lung epithelium. Here we provide a detailed description of the analysis of the RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data, including quality control, read mapping, differential expression and differential binding analyses, as well as visualisation methods used to present the data. These data can be accessed from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (super-series accession number GSE57393.

  19. Medical data sheet in safe havens - A tri-layer cryptic solution.

    Praveenkumar, Padmapriya; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan; Thenmozhi, K; Balaguru Rayappan, John Bosco

    2015-07-01

    Secured sharing of the diagnostic reports and scan images of patients among doctors with complementary expertise for collaborative treatment will help to provide maximum care through faster and decisive decisions. In this context, a tri-layer cryptic solution has been proposed and implemented on Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to establish a secured communication for effective referrals among peers without compromising the privacy of patients. In this approach, a blend of three cryptic schemes, namely Latin square image cipher (LSIC), discrete Gould transform (DGT) and Rubik׳s encryption, has been adopted. Among them, LSIC provides better substitution, confusion and shuffling of the image blocks; DGT incorporates tamper proofing with authentication; and Rubik renders a permutation of DICOM image pixels. The developed algorithm has been successfully implemented and tested in both the software (MATLAB 7) and hardware Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) environments. Specifically, the encrypted data were tested by transmitting them through an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel model. Furthermore, the sternness of the implemented algorithm was validated by employing standard metrics such as the unified average changing intensity (UACI), number of pixels change rate (NPCR), correlation values and histograms. The estimated metrics have also been compared with the existing methods and dominate in terms of large key space to defy brute force attack, cropping attack, strong key sensitivity and uniform pixel value distribution on encryption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fouling effects of tri-n-butylphosphate on reverse osmosis performance and techniques for performance recovery

    Poy, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) must be on-line by November 1988 to treat the low level activity wastes presently being discharged to the F- and H- areas' seepage basins. The three main processes of the F/H ETF are filtration, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange. Any dissolved organics present in the F/H ETF's feed have the potential to affect operation of the reverse osmosis system. Earlier studies with F/H ETF feed simulant and 70 volume percent kerosene and 30 volume percent tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) additions showed that the kerosene/TBP mixture results in partial fouling of reverse osmosis membranes. A more detailed analysis of the seepage basin feed has shown that TBP is the major dissolved organic compound. Since it is dissolved (soluble to about 400 ppM at 25 degree C), TBP will be present in the reverse osmosis feed unless removed by a means other than filtration. Thus the fouling effect of TBP (without kerosene) on reverse osmosis performance was investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. A Tri-National program for estimating the link between snow resources and hydrological droughts

    M. Zappa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate how summer low flows and droughts are affected by the winter snowpack, a Tri-National effort will analyse data from three catchments: Alpbach (Prealps, central Switzerland, Gudjaretis-Tskali (Little Caucasus, central Georgia, and Kamenice (Jizera Mountains, northern Czech Republic. Two GIS-based rainfall-runoff models will simulate over 10 years of runoff in streams based on rain and snowfall measurements, and further meteorological variables. The models use information on the geographical settings of the catchments together with knowledge of the hydrological processes of runoff generation from rainfall, looking particularly at the relationship between spring snowmelt and summer droughts. These processes include snow accumulation and melt, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge in spring that contributes to (the summer runoff, and will be studied by means of the environmental isotopes 18O and 2H. Knowledge about the isotopic composition of the different water sources will allow to identify the flow paths and estimate the residence time of snow meltwater in the subsurface and its contribution to the stream. The application of the models in different nested or neighbouring catchments will explore their potential for further development and allow a better early prediction of low-flow periods in various mountainous zones across Europe. The paper presents the planned activities including a first analysis of already available dataset of environmental isotopes, discharge, snow water equivalent and modelling experiments of the (already available datasets.

  2. On the ambiguities in the tri-bimaximal mixing matrix and corresponding charged lepton corrections

    Duarah, Chandan; Nimai Singh, N

    2013-01-01

    Two negative signs naturally appear in the U μ1 and U τ2 elements of the tri-bimaximal (TBM) matrix for positive values of the mixing angles θ 12 and θ 23 . Apart from this, in other TBM matrices negative signs are shifted to other elements in each case. They account for positive as well as negative values of θ 12 and θ 23 . We discuss the sign ambiguity in the TBM matrix and find that the TBM matrices, in fact, can be divided into two groups under certain circumstances. Interestingly, this classification of the TBM matrices is accompanied by two different μ − τ symmetric mass matrices which can separately be related to the groups. To accommodate the non-zero value of θ 13 and deviate θ 23 toward the first octant, we then perturb the TBM mixing ansatz with the help of charged lepton correction. The diagonalizing matrices for the charged lepton mass matrices also possess sign ambiguity and respect the grouping of the TBM matrices. They are parameterized in terms of the Wolfenstein parameter λ and satisfy the unitarity condition up to the second order in λ. (paper)

  3. Calorimetric measurement of the enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-amyl phosphate

    Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and its solutions in n-dodecane has been directly measured by solution calorimetry for the first time. Measurements have been made at 303±1 K, in both forward as well as the reverse extraction modes. The enthalpies of the accompanying reactions such as the dilution of the uranyl nitrate in the aqueous phase, the hydration of TAP, the mixing of TAP and n-dodecane, the mixing of the metal-solvate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2TAP) and n-dodecane and mixing of the metal-solvate and TAP have also been independently measured and used to derive both the equilibrium state enthalpies and the standard state enthalpies for the extraction. Two distinct standard states have been used for the organic phase, viz., 1) all solutes infinitely diluted in diluent (ΔH*) and 2) all solutes infinitely diluted in the water saturated extractant (ΔH 0 ). The results have been compared with the enthalpies of extraction measured by employing the temperature dependence of the distribution ratio as well as calorimetry reported in the literature for extraction of uranyl nitrate by TAP and TBP. (author)

  4. TRI Microspheres prevent key signs of dry eye disease in a murine, inflammatory model.

    Ratay, Michelle L; Balmert, Stephen C; Acharya, Abhinav P; Greene, Ashlee C; Meyyappan, Thiagarajan; Little, Steven R

    2017-12-13

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a highly prevalent, ocular disorder characterized by an abnormal tear film and ocular surface. Recent experimental data has suggested that the underlying pathology of DED involves inflammation of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU), comprising the cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland and interconnecting innervation. This inflammation of the LFU ultimately results in tissue deterioration and the symptoms of DED. Moreover, an increase of pathogenic lymphocyte infiltration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the propagation of DED-associated inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can mediate the inflammation caused by pathogenic lymphocytes. Thus, as an approach to treating the inflammation associated with DED, we hypothesized that it was possible to enrich the body's own endogenous Tregs by locally delivering a specific combination of Treg inducing factors through degradable polymer microspheres (TRI microspheres; TGF-β1, Rapamycin (Rapa), and IL-2). This local controlled release system is capable of shifting the balance of Treg/T effectors and, in turn, preventing key signs of dry eye disease such as aqueous tear secretion, conjunctival goblet cells, epithelial corneal integrity, and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu in the tissue.

  5. Non-isothermal cure and exfoliation of tri-functional epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    F. Shiravand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer silicate layered nanocomposites based on a tri-functional epoxy resin has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. From an analysis of the kinetics as a function of the clay content, it can be concluded that the non-isothermal cure reaction can be considered to consist of four different processes: the reaction of epoxy groups with the diamine curing agent; an intra-gallery homopolymerisation reaction which occurs concurrently with the epoxy-amine reaction; and two extra-gallery homopolymerisation reactions, catalysed by the onium ion of the organically modified clay and by the tertiary amines resulting from the epoxy-amine reaction. The final nanostructure displays a similar quality of exfoliation as that observed for the isothermal cure of the same nanocomposite system. This implies that the intra-gallery reaction, which is responsible for the exfoliation, is not significantly inhibited by the extra-gallery epoxy-amine cross-linking reaction.

  6. Liquid-Liquid extraction of sulfuric acid using tri-n-dodecylamine/kerosene

    Stas, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid has been investigated by trin- dodecylamine (over line TDA) in kerosene in the presence of octanol- 1 as modifier. The effect of octanol-1 has been studied on the equilibrium constant of (TDAH) 2 SO 4 and TDAHHSO 4 formation in the concentration range from 5 to 25% v/v and within the temperature range from 25 to 50 centigrade degree. The equilibrium constants (K 1 and K 2 , at 25 centigrade degree), the enthalpy (ΔH 0 1 , ΔH 0 2 ) and the entropy (ΔS 0 1 , ΔS 0 2 ) changes were calculated for two extraction reactions of sulfuric acid by tri-n-dodecylamine containing 10% octanol-1 and they were found to be 10 9 .642 l 4 /mol 4 , 10 - 0.899 l/mol, -99.11, -22.17 kJ/mol, -0.149, -0.063 kJ/mol.K, respectively. The two reactions are: 2/overline TDA +2 H + +SO 4 2 -/rightleftarrows K 1 /overline (TDAH) 2 SO 4 and /overline (TDHA) 2 SO 4 H + +HSO 4 - /rightleftarrows K 2 2/overline TDAHHSO 4 . (author)

  7. Facile reactions of gold(i) complexes with tri(tert-butyl)azadiboriridine.

    Shang, Rong; Saito, Souta; Jimenez-Halla, J Oscar C; Yamamoto, Yohsuke

    2018-04-17

    Direct structural evidence for group 11 metal-mediated B-B bond activation was obtained from reactions of tri(tert-butyl)azadiboriridine (1) with AuCl(L) complexes. The AuCl(SMe2) reaction afforded [η2-B,B-B(tBu)N(tBu)B(tBu)]AuCl (2) by ligand displacement. More donating phosphines as co-ligands led to B-B bond cleavage accompanied by either halide or L migration to form boron-gold complexes 3 (L = PPh3) and 4 (L = PMe3). A similar product 5, which is isostructural to 4, was obtained by the addition of dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) to 2-4. Complexes 2-5 constitute rare examples of metal complexes bearing two Lewis acidic centres. The effect of the boryl ligand was demonstrated in the formation of a gold(i) complex 6 bearing a 5-membered heterocycle from 3 and tert-butylisonitrile. Plausible reaction mechanisms that led to these complexes and their bonding situation were explored computationally at the DFT level.

  8. Inhomogeneous bimolecular recombination in partially crystallised tri-methylphenyl diamine glasses

    Goldie, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The rise and fall dynamics of transient photocurrents induced by exposure to ultraviolet radiation have been analysed for a series of glassy tri-methylphenyl diamine films that have been partially crystallised by ageing under ambient conditions following vapour deposition. An inhomogeneous bimolecular recombination model that uses coupled rate equations is found to provide a consistent fit for the observed photocurrent dynamics provided the recombination rate of holes in the crystallised regions of the films is lower compared to the amorphous regions. Parameters returned by the bimolecular model are investigated as a function of the film age but are observed to be highly sensitive to the initial experimental estimates that are supplied for the effective hole recombination time. The effective hole recombination time generated by the model is found to be relatively independent of film age, however, and has a value of around 0.16 s for a carrier generation rate of 7 × 10 14 cm −3 s −1 . The effective recombination time and steady-state photoconductivity magnitudes are found to be consistent with experimental hole mobility and photo-carrier generation efficiency values that are obtained using complementary time-of-flight and charge collection experiments. - Highlights: ► Transient photocurrents in evaporated diamine films have fast and slow components. ► Transient photocurrents are modelled using inhomogeneous bimolecular recombination. ► Recombination rates differ between crystallised and amorphous film regions. ► Recombination parameters evolve with film age as the films crystallise

  9. STS-103 Pilot Scott Kelly and MS John Grunsfeld try on oxygen masks

    1999-01-01

    In the bunker at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly (left) and Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) (right) try on oxygen masks during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members taking part are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  10. Why don't you try harder? An investigation of effort production in major depression.

    Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin

    Full Text Available Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder, associated with reduced approach behavior. It remains unclear whether the difficulty in energising behavior relates to abnormal emotional states or to a flattened response to potential rewards, as suggested by several neuroimaging studies. Here, we aimed to demonstrate a specific incentive motivation deficit in major depression, independent of patients' emotional state. We employed a behavioral paradigm designed to measure physical effort in response to both emotional modulation and incentive motivation. Patients did exert more effort following emotionally arousing pictures (whether positive or negative but not for higher monetary incentives, contrary to healthy controls. These results show that emotional and motivational sources of effort production are dissociable in pathological conditions. In addition, patients' ratings of perceived effort increased for high incentives, whereas controls' ratings were decreased. Thus, depressed patients objectively behave as if they do not want to gain larger rewards, but subjectively feel that they try harder. We suggest that incentive motivation impairment is a core deficit of major depression, which may render everyday tasks abnormally effortful for patients.

  11. Taiwan/TriG Radio Occultation Process System (TROPS): A Brief Introduction of Atmospheric Productions

    Huang, Cheng-Yung; Yeh, Wen-Hao; Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Chen, Linton J.

    2017-04-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique has been used to investigate the Earth's atmosphere since 1990s. In 2006, Taiwan has launched six low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites as a RO constellation mission, named FORMOSAT-3 /COSMIC (F-3/C). F-3/C mission can release 1500-2500 data sets per day for both neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. With the advent of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in ten years and FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F-7/C-2) mission, 12 LEO satellites are planned to be launched and deployed in two clusters of 6-satellites into the designated low and high inclination orbits in 2017 and 2020(TBD), respectively. The amount of RO data set will increase to about 8000 set per day with the using of GNSS TriG (GPS, Glonass, Galileo) receivers. The first phase of FS-7 mission is designed to low inclination (24 deg) orbit to improve the ability of server weather forecasting, like typhoon and monsoon rainfall around tropical region. The second is high inclination (72 deg) for global distribution. In order to observe better water vapor profiles, the 4x3 antennas arrays will be on board to receive weak signals which pass through low troposphere around earth surface. This report will introduce the status of F-7/C-2 mission and atmospheric part of occultation data process software TROPS.

  12. Biological, serological and molecular techniques to xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Ci tri Asymptomatic detection

    Peyrou, M.; Del Campo, R.; Russi, P.; Mara, H.; Rigamonti, N.; Larrechart, L.; Perez, E.

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. ci tri (X ac) produces citrus canker disease in all citrus commercial species. The bacteria can be disseminated through vegetative propagation material in asymptomatic form. To optimize bacteria detection techniques applicable to asymptomatic citrus plant tissue routine analysis, ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Pcr, qRT P CR and host plant inoculation (bioassay) diagnostic techniques were compared. Tests were made from decimal dilutions between 108 uf6.ml-1 and 102 ufc.mL-1 using a pure culture of 49b strain.The detection level obtained was 1.8 x 102 ufc.mL-1 using Inmunofluorescence; 1.8x104 ufc.mL-1 with indirect ELISA, 1.8 x 103 ufc.mL-1 by means of PCR; 10 ufc.mL-1 through of qRT P CR and 230 ufc.mL-1 in sour orange inoculated plants. The experiment was repeated at least three times for each technique. Considering this result, and taking into account that sensitivity, practicity and cost, are important when a great number of plants need to be tested, the PCR and inoculation in host plants were those that met the best characteristics to be evaluated in asymptomatic plant material

  13. Technetium-99m extraction and transport across tri-n-octylamine-xylene based supported liquid membranes

    Ashraf Chaudry, M.; Ahmad, B.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear properties of 99m Tc radionuclide are ideal for organ imaging. Study of the technetium transport across supported liquid membranes has been performed to get data for its separation from other elements. Tri-n-octylamine diluted in xylene was used to constitute the liquid membranes, supported in polypropylene microporous films. Stripping on the product solution side was performed with dilute NaOH solutions. The effect of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in the feed on transport of 99m Tc as TcO 4 - ions has been studied. The permeability of the given ions determined from kinetic activity data has been found to be in the order of PH 2 SO 4 >PHCl>PHNO 3 . The flux values have been calculated based on this permeability data. The increase in carrier concentration has shown an increase in flux and permeability values to a given optimum concentration. The increase in temperature has been found to reduce the transport of Tc ions. The optimum conditions for transport of 99m Tc for the given acid concentration have been determined. Mechanism of Tc ion transport has also been provided based on chemical reactions involved at the membrane interfaces and uptake of Tc ions by the membrane. MoO 4 2- ions do not permeate through membrane under optimum conditions of transport for TcO 4 2 - ions from H 2 SO 4 solution. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  14. Quantitative Resilience Assessment under a Tri-Stage Framework for Power Systems

    Han Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequent occurrence of natural disasters and malicious attacks has exerted unprecedented disturbances on power systems, accounting for the extensive attention paid to power system resilience. Combined with the evolving nature of general disasters, this paper proposes resilience assessment approaches for power systems under a tri-stage framework. The pre-disaster toughness is proposed to quantify the robustness of power systems against potential disasters, where the thinking of area division and partitioned multi-objective risk method (PMRM is introduced. In the case of information deficiency caused by disasters, the during-disaster resistance to disturbance is calculated to reflect the real-time system running state by state estimation (SE. The post-disaster restoration ability consists of response ability, restoration efficiency and restoration economy, which is evaluated by Sequential Monte-Carlo Simulation to simulate the system restoration process. Further, a synthetic metric system is presented to quantify the resilience performance of power systems from the above three aspects. The proposed approaches and framework are validated on the IEEE RTS 79 system, and helpful conclusions are drawn from extensive case studies.

  15. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  16. Supersymmetric deformations of 3D SCFTs from tri-Sasakian truncation

    Karndumri, Parinya [Chulalongkorn University, String Theory and Supergravity Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-02-15

    We holographically study supersymmetric deformations of N = 3 and N = 1 superconformal field theories in three dimensions using four-dimensional N = 4 gauged supergravity coupled to three-vector multiplets with non-semisimple SO(3) x (T{sup 3},T{sup 3}) gauge group. This gauged supergravity can be obtained from a truncation of 11-dimensional supergravity on a tri-Sasakian manifold and admits both N = 1,3 supersymmetric and stable non-supersymmetric AdS{sub 4} critical points. We analyze the BPS equations for SO(3) singlet scalars in detail and study possible supersymmetric solutions. A number of RG flows to non-conformal field theories and half-supersymmetric domain walls are found, and many of them can be given analytically. Apart from these ''flat'' domain walls, we also consider AdS{sub 3}-sliced domain wall solutions describing two-dimensional conformal defects with N = (1,0) supersymmetry within the dual N = 1 field theory while this type of solutions does not exist in the N = 3 case. (orig.)

  17. The Influence of the Tri-reference Points on Fairness and Satisfaction Perception

    Lei Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of three reference points (minimum requirements [MR], the status quo [SQ], and goal [G] proposed by the tri-reference point (TRP theory on fairness and satisfaction perceptions of pay in three laboratory experiments. To test the effects, we manipulated these three reference points both implicitly (Experiment 1 and explicitly (Experiments 2 and 3. We also provided the information of the salary offered to a peer person that was lower than, equal to, or higher than the salary offer to the participant. As hypothesized, the results demonstrated the important role of these reference points in judging the fairness of and satisfaction with pay when they were explicitly set (an interaction between reference points and social comparison in Experiments 2 and 3, but not in Experiment 1. Participants altered their judgments when the salary was in different regions. When the salary was below MR, participants perceived very low fairness and satisfaction, even when the offer was equal to/exceeded others. When the salary was above G, participants perceived much higher fairness and satisfaction, even with disadvantageous inequality. Participants were more impacted when they were explicitly instructed of the reference points (Experiments 2 and 3 than when they were not (Experiment 1. Moreover, MR appeared to be the most important, followed by G. A Salary below MR was judged as very unacceptable, with very low fairness and satisfaction ratings.

  18. Defending a single object against an attacker trying to detect a subset of false targets

    Peng, R.; Zhai, Q.Q.; Levitin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of false targets can be a very important and effective measure for enhancing the survivability of an object subjected to intentional attacks. Existing papers have assumed that false targets are either perfect or can be detected with a constant probability. In practice, the attacker may allocate part of its budget into intelligence actions trying to detect a subset of false targets. Analogously, the defender can allocate part of its budget into disinformation actions to prevent the false targets from being detected. In this paper, the detection probability of each false target is assumed to be a function of the intelligence and disinformation efforts allocated on the false target. The optimal resource distribution between target identification/disinformation and attack/protection efforts is studied as solutions of a non-cooperative two period min–max game between the two competitors for the case of constrained defense and attack resources. - Highlights: • A defense-attack problem is studied as a two-period min–max game. • Both intelligence contest over false targets and impact contest are considered. • Optimal defense and attack strategies are investigated with different parameters.

  19. Highly flexible SRAM cells based on novel tri-independent-gate FinFET

    Liu, Chengsheng; Zheng, Fanglin; Sun, Yabin; Li, Xiaojin; Shi, Yanling

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel tri-independent-gate (TIG) FinFET is proposed for highly flexible SRAM cells design. To mitigate the read-write conflict, two kinds of SRAM cells based on TIG FinFETs are designed, and high tradeoff are obtained between read stability and speed. Both cells can offer multi read operations for frequency requirement with single voltage supply. In the first TIG FinFET SRAM cell, the strength of single-fin access transistor (TIG FinFET) can be flexibly adjusted by selecting five different modes to meet the needs of dynamic frequency design. Compared to the previous double-independent-gate (DIG) FinFET SRAM cell, 12.16% shorter read delay can be achieved with only 1.62% read stability decrement. As for the second TIG FinFET SRAM cell, pass-gate feedback technology is applied and double-fin TIG FinFETs are used as access transistors to solve the severe write-ability degradation. Three modes exist to flexibly adjust read speed and stability, and 68.2% larger write margin and 51.7% shorter write delay are achieved at only the expense of 26.2% increase in leakage power, with the same layout area as conventional FinFET SRAM cell.

  20. 1,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-2-N-(trifluoroacetyl-β-l-fucose

    David C. McCutcheon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H18F3NO8, was produced through conjugation of 1,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-2-azidodeoxy-α,β-l-fucose with trifluoroacetyl chloride in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphinoethane in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that the β-anomer of the product mixture crystallizes from ethyl acetate/hexanes. The compound exists in a typical chair conformation with the maximum possible number of substituents, four out of five, located in the sterically preferred equatorial positions. The major directional force facilitating packing of the molecules are N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the amide moieties of neighboring molecules, which connect molecules stacked along the a-axis direction into infinite strands with a C11(4 graph-set motif. Formation of the strands is assisted by a number of weaker C—H...O interactions involving the methine and methyl H atoms. These strands are connected through further C—H...O and C—H...F interactions into a three dimensional network