WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas-solid displacement reactions

  1. Gas-Solid Displacement Reactions for Converting Silica Diatom Frustules into MgO and TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalem, Tugba [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Technology for the microfabrication of freely moving parts began with a Bell Labs microgear spun by an air jet, and electrostatic silicon micro motors in the mid-1980s. It continued with development work on micropositioning of optics, miniature heat exchangers, small fluidic devices, and chemical reaction chambers. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest centered on the design and manufacture of devices of nanometer proportions and this speculation has spawned a new industry named, nanotechnology. Despite the technological and economic promise of this technology, current commercial micro/mesofabrication methods have largely been based upon two-dimensional processing principles which is not well suited to the low-cost mass production of three-dimensional micro devices with complex geometries and meso/nanoscale features. Diatoms are three dimensional (3D) microstructures from nature that provide a practical alternative for nanotechnology and microfabrication. Diatoms (Figure 1) are single-celled micro algae that form rigid cell walls (frustules) composed of amorphous silica. Their dimensions can range from less than 1 micron to several hundreds of microns. They are distributed throughout the world in aquatic, semi-aquatic and moist habitats, and extremely abundant in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Diatoms are thought to be responsible for up to 25% of the world's net primary production of organic carbon (by transforming of carbon dioxide and water into sugars by photosynthesis). Approximately 105 unique diatom frustule shapes have been claimed to exist in nature. The frustules are composed of two valves that fit together like a petri-dish, connected to each other by one or more girdle bands. The frustule wall consists of a nanoporous assembly of silica nanoparticles. They absorb soluble silica from water even at extremely low concentrations and metabolize and deposit it as an external skeleton. Continued reproduction of a single parent

  2. Ultrasonic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouras, A.; Krammer, G.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental setup based on acoustic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions is presented. In this setup single particles in the diameter range 1 mm-30 μm can be held against gravity for any wanted time in a defined gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The change of particle size, shape, and position can be measured and recorded using an optical device, consisting of a camera and a long range microscope. Basic experiments with inert particles of different shape and solid density have shown that the axial position of a reacting particle can be employed to derive its weight change. A method to evaluate this change of the recorded position for the according weight change is proposed. Exemplary results in the context of dry flue gas cleaning using Ca(OH) 2 powder are presented. Single Ca(OH) 2 particles are exposed to a well defined gas atmosphere and after some time these particles are retrieved from the ultrasonic field for further analyses. Only an in situ measurement of the particle weight change (i.e., without removing the particle from the well defined reactive atmosphere) brings information regarding the uptake of water by the sorbent, which accompanies SO 2 and HCl absorption

  3. Transport processes in exothermic gas-solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, P.L.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    1997-01-01

    The variation of the concentration of gaseous reactant, temperature distribution for an exothermic reaction, the diffusivity factor and the reaction ratio profiles with various radial positions of a solid reactant have been computed and illustrated for a specific case of reduction reaction of UO 3 by hydrogen

  4. Catalytic and Gas-Solid Reactions Involving HCN over Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    In coal-fired combustion systems solid calcium species may be present as ash components or limestone added to the combustion chamber. In this study heterogeneous reactions involving HCN over seven different limestones were investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed quartz reactor at 873-1,173 K...

  5. Contribution to the modelling of gas-solid reactions and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patisson, F.

    2005-09-01

    Gas-solid reactions control a great number of major industrial processes involving matter transformation. This dissertation aims at showing that mathematical modelling is a useful tool for both understanding phenomena and optimising processes. First, the physical processes associated with a gas-solid reaction are presented in detail for a single particle, together with the corresponding available kinetic grain models. A second part is devoted to the modelling of multiparticle reactors. Different approaches, notably for coupling grain models and reactor models, are illustrated through various case studies: coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln, production of uranium tetrafluoride in a moving bed furnace, on-grate incineration of municipal solid wastes, thermogravimetric apparatus, nuclear fuel making, steel-making electric arc furnace. (author)

  6. Prospects of Optical Single Atom Detection in Noble Gas Solids for Measurements of Rare Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep; Bailey, Kevin G.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Xu, Chen-Yu; Tang, Xiaodong

    2013-04-01

    Optical detection of single atoms captured in solid noble gas matrices provides an alternative technique to study rare nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics. I will describe the prospects of applying this approach for cross section measurements of the ^22Ne,,),25Mg reaction, which is the crucial neutron source for the weak s process inside of massive stars. Noble gas solids are a promising medium for the capture, detection, and manipulation of atoms and nuclear spins. They provide stable and chemically inert confinement for a wide variety of guest species. Because noble gas solids are transparent at optical wavelengths, the guest atoms can be probed using lasers. We have observed that ytterbium in solid neon exhibits intersystem crossing (ISC) which results in a strong green fluorescence (546 nm) under excitation with blue light (389 nm). Several groups have observed ISC in many other guest-host pairs, notably magnesium in krypton. Because of the large wavelength separation of the excitation light and fluorescence light, optical detection of individual embedded guest atoms is feasible. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  7. Evolution of weak perturbations in gas-solid suspension with chemical reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, O.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Anufriev, I.S. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Dynamics of weak finite-amplitude perturbations in two-phase homogeneous medium (gas + solid particles) with non-equilibrium chemical reaction in gas is studied theoretically. Non-linear model of plane perturbation evolution is substantiated. The model takes into account wave-kinetic interaction and dissipation effects, including inter-phase heat and momentum transfer. Conditions for uniform state of the system are analyzed. Non-linear equation describing evolution of plane perturbation is derived under weak dispersion and dissipation effects. The obtained results demonstrate self-organization in the homogeneous system: steady-state periodic structure arises, its period, amplitude and velocity depends on the features of the medium. The dependencies of these parameters on dissipation and chemical kinetics are analyzed.

  8. Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures

  9. Carbon-14 immobilization via the CO2-Ba(OH)2 hydrate gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although no restrictions have been placed on the release of carbon-14, it has been identified as a potential health hazard due to the ease in which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. The intent of the Carbon-14 Immobilization Program, funded through the Airborne Waste Program Management Office, is to develop and demonstrate a novel process for restricting off-gas releases of carbon-14 from various nuclear facilities. The process utilizes the CO 2 -Ba(OH) 2 hydrate gas-solid reaction to directly remove and immobilize carbon-14. The reaction product, BaCO 3 , possesses both the thermal and chemical stability desired for long-term waste disposal. The process is capable of providing decontamination factors in excess of 1000 and reactant utilization of greater than 99% in the treatment of high volumetric, airlike (330 ppM CO 2 ) gas streams. For the treatment of an air-based off-gas stream, the use of packed beds of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes to remove CO 2 has been demonstrated. However, the operating conditions must be maintained between certain upper and lower limits with respect to the partial pressure of water. If the water vapor pressure in the gas is less than the dissociation vapor pressure of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O, the bed will deactivate. If the vapor pressure is considerably greater, pressure drop problems will increase with increasing humidity as the particles curl and degrade. Results have indicated that when operated in the proper regime, the bulk of the increase in pressure drop results from the conversion of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O to BaCO 3 and not from the hydration of the commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O (i.e. Ba(OH) 2 .7.50H 2 O) to Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O

  10. Contribution to the modelling of gas-solid reactions and reactors; Contribution a la modelisation des reactions et des reacteurs gaz-solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patisson, F

    2005-09-15

    Gas-solid reactions control a great number of major industrial processes involving matter transformation. This dissertation aims at showing that mathematical modelling is a useful tool for both understanding phenomena and optimising processes. First, the physical processes associated with a gas-solid reaction are presented in detail for a single particle, together with the corresponding available kinetic grain models. A second part is devoted to the modelling of multiparticle reactors. Different approaches, notably for coupling grain models and reactor models, are illustrated through various case studies: coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln, production of uranium tetrafluoride in a moving bed furnace, on-grate incineration of municipal solid wastes, thermogravimetric apparatus, nuclear fuel making, steel-making electric arc furnace. (author)

  11. Gas-Solid Reaction Properties of Fluorine Compounds and Solid Adsorbents for Off-Gas Treatment from Semiconductor Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yasui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have been developing a new dry-type off-gas treatment system for recycling fluorine from perfluoro compounds present in off-gases from the semiconductor industry. The feature of this system is to adsorb the fluorine compounds in the exhaust gases from the decomposition furnace by using two types of solid adsorbents: the calcium carbonate in the upper layer adsorbs HF and converts it to CaF2, and the sodium bicarbonate in the lower layer adsorbs HF and SiF4 and converts them to Na2SiF6. This paper describes the fluorine compound adsorption properties of both the solid adsorbents—calcium carbonate and the sodium compound—for the optimal design of the fixation furnace. An analysis of the gas-solid reaction rate was performed from the experimental results of the breakthrough curve by using a fixed-bed reaction model, and the reaction rate constants and adsorption capacity were obtained for achieving an optimal process design.

  12. Study of the obtainment of Mo_2C by gas-solid reaction in a fixed and rotary bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, C.P.B. de; Souza, C.P. de; Souto, M.V.M.; Barbosa, C.M.; Frota, A.V.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbides' synthesis via gas-solid reaction overcomes many of the difficulties found in other processes, requiring lower temperatures and reaction times than traditional metallurgic routes, for example. In carbides' synthesis in fixed bed reactors (FB) the solid precursor is permeated by the reducing/carburizing gas stream forming a packed bed without mobility. The use of a rotary kiln reactor (RK) adds a mixing character to this process, changing its fluid-particle dynamics. In this work ammonium molybdate was subjected to carbo-reduction reaction (CH4 / H2) in both reactors under the same gas flow (15L / h) and temperature (660 ° C) for 180 minutes. Complete conversion was observed Mo2C (dp = 18.9nm modal particles sizes' distribution) in the fixed bed reactor. In the RK reactor this conversion was only partial (∼ 40%) and Mo2C and MoO3 (34nm dp = bimodal) could be observed on the produced XRD pattern. Partial conversion was attributed to the need to use higher solids loading in the reactor CR (50% higher) to avoid solids to centrifuge. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the chlorination of uranium oxide by gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.; Park, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine the operating condition of an uranium chlorination process with U 3 O 8 -C-Cl 2 system, the experimental conditions have been evaluated preliminarily by the thermochemical analysis and experimentally confirmed in this study. The dry-type chlorination of U 3 O 8 occurs as irreversible and exothermic reaction and produces many kinds of chloride compounds such as UCl 3 , UCl 4 , UCl 5 , and UCl 6 in the air and humidity controlled argon environment. Taking account of Gibbs free energy and vapor pressure for various chloride compounds, the proper temperature range of chlorination appears to be 863 to 953 K in aspects of increasing reaction rate and the yield of nonvolatile product. In the course of the experimental confirmation the powder of U 3 O 8 is perfectly converted into uranium chlorides within 4 hours above 863 K, and then the maximum fraction of uranium chloride remaining in the reactor is about 30% of total conversion mass. (author)

  14. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  15. ON THE SYNTHESIS OF MOLYBDENUM CARBIDE WITH COBALT ADDITION VIA GAS-SOLID REACTIONS IN A CH4/H2 ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. B. Araujo

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to ever more severe environmental regulations regarding SOx, NOx and other pollutants' emissions, there has been an interest in developing new and improved catalysts for hydroprocessing reactions. Mo2C has been reported to display good selectivity and activity for those reactions, especially for HDS. Addition of another metal to the carbide structure may improve catalytic properties. Mo2C with low cobalt addition (2.5 and 5% was obtained via gas-solid reaction in a fixed bed reactor with CH4 (5%/H2 atmosphere. XRD and TG/DTA analysis of the precursors were carried out in order to understand its mass loss profile, doping metal presence and phase distributions. CoMoO4 as well as MoO3 were identified after calcining doped precursors at 600 °C/180min. SEM, XRD, XRF, TOC, BET and laser granulometric analysis of the reaction products were also performed. Compositions verified by XRF and theoretical values were compatible. At 700 °C both carbide (Mo2C and oxide (MoO2 phases are present, as identified in XRD analysis and observed by SEM. At 750 °C only single phase Mo2C was verified by XRD, indicating Co dispersion on the carbide matrix. Morphology at this temperature is compatible with pure Mo2C, though XRF indicates Co presence on the material.

  16. Application of the carbon dioxide-barium hydroxide hydrate gas-solid reaction for the treatment of dilute carbon dioxide-bearing gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The removal of trace components from gas streams via irreversible gas-solid reactions in an area of interest to the chemical engineering profession. This research effort addresses the use of fixed beds of Ba(OH) 2 hydrate flakes for the removal of an acid gas, CO 2 , from air that contains approx. 330 ppM/sub v/ CO 2 . Areas of investigation encompassed: (1) an extensive literature review of Ba(OH) 2 hydrate chemistry, (2) microscale studies on 0.150-g samples to develop a better understanding of the reaction, (3) process studies at the macroscale level with 10.2-cm-ID fixed-bed reactors, and (4) the development of a model for predicting fixed-bed performance. Experimental studies indicated fixed beds of commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes at ambient temperatures to be capable of high CO 2 -removal efficiencies (effluent concentrations 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop (1.8 kPa/m at a superficial gas velocity of 13 cm/s). Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O was determined to be more reactive toward CO 2 than either Ba(OH) 2 .3H 2 O or Ba(OH) 2 .1H 2 O. A key variable in the development of this fixed-bed process was relative humidity. Operation at conditions with effluent relative humidities >60% resulted in significant recrystallization and restructuring of the flake and subsequent pressure-drop problems

  17. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten carbide doped cobalt via gas-solid reaction in rotary bed reactor; Sintese e caracterizacao de carbeto de tungstenio dopado com cobalto via reacao gas-solido em reator de leito rotativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertuliano, R.S.C.; Araujo, C.P.B. de; Frota, A.V.V.M.; Moriyama, A.L.L.; Souza, C.P. de, E-mail: ruasavio@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2016-07-01

    The search for materials with high added value, high applicability and sustainability, motivates innovations in all areas of engineering. In this context, so-called doped carbides, ceramic and metal compounds are included. This work proposes the synthesis and characterization of tungsten carbide doped cobalt (WC-Co) through the gas-solid reaction in a rotating bed reactor. The production stages of the material are: precursor synthesis by wetting, drying at 80 deg C, characterization of the precursor by MEV, DRX and FRX, gas-solid reaction at 750 deg C in a reducing atmosphere of CH{sub 4} / H{sub 2} in a rotary reactor at 34 rpm and characterization of the reaction product by the techniques already mentioned. The results showed that tungsten carbide powders were produced with cobalt inserted into the structure, with high surface area, nanometric grains and with potential for applications in the areas of catalysis, reactors and fuel cells, showing the relevance of this type of research.

  18. Mechanism of chimera formation during the Multiple Displacement Amplification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Timothy B

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA is a method used for amplifying limiting DNA sources. The high molecular weight amplified DNA is ideal for DNA library construction. While this has enabled genomic sequencing from one or a few cells of unculturable microorganisms, the process is complicated by the tendency of MDA to generate chimeric DNA rearrangements in the amplified DNA. Determining the source of the DNA rearrangements would be an important step towards reducing or eliminating them. Results Here, we characterize the major types of chimeras formed by carrying out an MDA whole genome amplification from a single E. coli cell and sequencing by the 454 Life Sciences method. Analysis of 475 chimeras revealed the predominant reaction mechanisms that create the DNA rearrangements. The highly branched DNA synthesized in MDA can assume many alternative secondary structures. DNA strands extended on an initial template can be displaced becoming available to prime on a second template creating the chimeras. Evidence supports a model in which branch migration can displace 3'-ends freeing them to prime on the new templates. More than 85% of the resulting DNA rearrangements were inverted sequences with intervening deletions that the model predicts. Intramolecular rearrangements were favored, with displaced 3'-ends reannealing to single stranded 5'-strands contained within the same branched DNA molecule. In over 70% of the chimeric junctions, the 3' termini had initiated priming at complimentary sequences of 2–21 nucleotides (nts in the new templates. Conclusion Formation of chimeras is an important limitation to the MDA method, particularly for whole genome sequencing. Identification of the mechanism for chimera formation provides new insight into the MDA reaction and suggests methods to reduce chimeras. The 454 sequencing approach used here will provide a rapid method to assess the utility of reaction modifications.

  19. Overcoming Short-Circuit in Lead-Free CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells via Kinetically Controlled Gas-Solid Reaction Film Fabrication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takamichi; Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Song, Tze-Bin; Sato, Yoshiharu; Aramaki, Shinji; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-03-03

    The development of Sn-based perovskite solar cells has been challenging because devices often show short-circuit behavior due to poor morphologies and undesired electrical properties of the thin films. A low-temperature vapor-assisted solution process (LT-VASP) has been employed as a novel kinetically controlled gas-solid reaction film fabrication method to prepare lead-free CH3NH3SnI3 thin films. We show that the solid SnI2 substrate temperature is the key parameter in achieving perovskite films with high surface coverage and excellent uniformity. The resulting high-quality CH3NH3SnI3 films allow the successful fabrication of solar cells with drastically improved reproducibility, reaching an efficiency of 1.86%. Furthermore, our Kelvin probe studies show the VASP films have a doping level lower than that of films prepared from the conventional one-step method, effectively lowering the film conductivity. Above all, with (LT)-VASP, the short-circuit behavior often obtained from the conventional one-step-fabricated Sn-based perovskite devices has been overcome. This study facilitates the path to more successful Sn-perovskite photovoltaic research.

  20. Double Displacement: an Improved Bioorthogonal Reaction Strategy for Templated Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinbaum, Daniel J.; Miller, Gregory P.; Kool, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Quenched autoligation probes have been employed previously in a target-templated nonenzymatic ligation strategy for detecting nucleic acids in cells by fluorescence. A common source of background signal in such probes is undesired reaction with water and other cellular nucleophiles. Here we describe a new class of self-ligating probes, double displacement (DD) probes, that rely on two displacement reactions to fully unquench a nearby fluorophore. Three potential double displacement architectu...

  1. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.

  2. Spectator Ions ARE Important! A Kinetic Study of the Copper-Aluminum Displacement Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Sabrina G.; Cohen, Skyler

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, spectator ions are responsible for unexpected kinetics in the biphasic copper(II)-aluminum displacement reaction, with the rate of reaction dependent on the identity of the otherwise ignored spectator ions. Application of a published kinetic analysis developed for a reaction between a rotating Al disk and a Cu(II) ion solution to the…

  3. Internal Displacement Reactions in Multicomponent Oxides: Part I. Line Compounds with Narrow Homogeneity Range

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, SNS; Leonard, DN; Wiggins, LB; Jacob, KT

    2005-01-01

    As a model of an internal displacement reaction involving a ternary oxide line compound, the following reaction was studied at 1273 K as a function of time, t: $Fe+NiTiO_3 = Ni + FeTiO_3$ Both polycrystalline and single-crystal materials were used as the starting $NiTiO_3$ oxide. During the reaction, the Ni in the oxide compound is displaced by Fe and it precipitates as a \\gamma -(Ni-Fe) alloy. The reaction preserves the starting ilmenite structure. The product oxide has a consta...

  4. Excitons in the rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Excitons play a prominent role in the chemistry and physics of condensed matter. Excitons in the rare gas solids, the prototypical van der Waals insulators, will be the focus of the remainder of this report. The goal here is to investigate the controversies surrounding the description of excitons in insulators and, therefore the simplest class of these solids, namely the rare gas solids, is chosen as the exemplary system. Specific problems associated with molecular crystals are, therefore, avoided and only the salient features of excitons are thus considered. 47 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Double displacement: An improved bioorthogonal reaction strategy for templated nucleic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbaum, Daniel J; Miller, Gregory P; Kool, Eric T

    2010-06-16

    Quenched autoligation probes have been employed previously in a target-templated nonenzymatic ligation strategy for detecting nucleic acids in cells by fluorescence. A common source of background signal in such probes is the undesired reaction with water and other cellular nucleophiles. Here, we describe a new class of self-ligating probes, double displacement (DD) probes, that rely on two displacement reactions to fully unquench a nearby fluorophore. Three potential double displacement architectures, all possessing two fluorescence quencher/leaving groups (dabsylate groups), were synthesized and evaluated for templated reaction with nucleophile (phosphorothioate) probes both in vitro and in intact bacterial cells. All three DD probe designs provided substantially better initial quenching than a single-Dabsyl control. In isothermal templated reactions in vitro, double displacement probes yielded considerably lower background signal than previous single displacement probes; investigation into the mechanism revealed that one dabsylate acts as a sacrificial leaving group, reacting nonspecifically with water, but yielding little signal because another quencher group remains. Templated reaction with the specific nucleophile probe is required to activate a signal. The double displacement probes provided a ca. 80-fold turn-on signal and yielded a 2-4-fold improvement in signal/background over single Dabsyl probes. The best-performing probe architecture was demonstrated in a two-color, FRET-based two-allele discrimination system in vitro and was shown to be capable of discriminating between two closely related species of bacteria differing by a single nucleotide at an rRNA target site.

  6. A lateral flow biosensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism by circular strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuo; Lie, Puchang; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yu, Luxin; Chen, Junhua; Liu, Jie; Ge, Chenchen; Zhou, Xuemeng; Zeng, Lingwen

    2012-09-04

    A lateral flow biosensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism based on circular strand displacement reaction (CSDPR) has been developed. Taking advantage of high fidelity of T4 DNA ligase, signal amplification by CSDPR, and the optical properties of gold nanoparticles, this assay has reached a detection limit of 0.01 fM.

  7. Preparation of molybdenum borides by combustion synthesis involving solid-phase displacement reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.L.; Hsu, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of molybdenum borides of five different phases in the Mo-B binary system (including Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 , Mo 2 B 5 , and MoB 4 ) was performed by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with two kinds of the reactant samples. When elemental powder compacts with an exact stoichiometry corresponding to the boride phase were employed, self-sustaining reaction was only achieved in the sample with Mo:B = 1:1 and nearly single-phase MoB was yielded. Therefore, the other four boride compounds were prepared from the reactant compacts composed of MoO 3 , Mo, and B powders, within which the displacement reaction of MoO 3 with boron was involved in combustion synthesis. Experimental evidence shows that the extent of displacement reaction in the overall reaction has a significant impact on sustainability of the synthesis reaction, combustion temperature, reaction front velocity, and composition of the end product. An increase in the solid-phase displacement reaction taking place during the SHS process contributes more heat flux to the synthesis reaction, thus resulting in the increase of combustion temperature and enhancement of the reaction front velocity. Based upon the XRD analysis, formation of Mo 2 B, MoB 2 , and Mo 2 B 5 as the dominant boride phase in the end product was successful through the SHS reaction with powder compacts under appropriate stoichiometries between MoO 3 , Mo, and B. However, a poor conversion was observed in the synthesis of MoB 4 . The powder compact prepared for the production of MoB 4 yielded mostly Mo 2 B 5

  8. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Ashton C; Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives) increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1) map the prismatic displacement of a progressive lens, and 2) test whether this displacement impaired reaction time and accuracy. The reaction times of healthy ≥75-year-olds (31 participants) were measured when grasping for a bar and touching a black line. Participants performed each test twice, wearing their progressives and new, matched single vision (distance) glasses in random order. The line and bar targets were positioned according to the maximum and minimum prismatic displacement effect through the progressive lens, mapped using a focimeter. Progressive spectacle lenses have large areas of prismatic displacement in the central visual axis and edges. Reaction time was faster for progressives compared with single vision glasses with a centrally-placed horizontal grab bar (mean difference 101 ms, P=0.011 [repeated measures analysis]) and a horizontal black line placed 300 mm below center (mean difference 80 ms, P=0.007). There was no difference in accuracy between the two types of glasses. Older people appear to adapt to the false projection of progressives in the central visual axis. This adaptation means that swapping to new glasses or a large change in prescription may lead to a fall. Frequently updating glasses may be more beneficial.

  9. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ashton C Ellison, A John Campbell, M Clare Robertson, Gordon F SandersonDunedin School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Dunedin, New ZealandBackground: Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1 map the prismatic displacement of a progressive lens, and 2 test whether this displacement impaired reaction time and accuracy.Methods: The reaction times of healthy ≥75-year-olds (31 participants were measured when grasping for a bar and touching a black line. Participants performed each test twice, wearing their progressives and new, matched single vision (distance glasses in random order. The line and bar targets were positioned according to the maximum and minimum prismatic displacement effect through the progressive lens, mapped using a focimeter.Results: Progressive spectacle lenses have large areas of prismatic displacement in the central visual axis and edges. Reaction time was faster for progressives compared with single vision glasses with a centrally-placed horizontal grab bar (mean difference 101 ms, P=0.011 [repeated measures analysis] and a horizontal black line placed 300 mm below center (mean difference 80 ms, P=0.007. There was no difference in accuracy between the two types of glasses.Conclusion: Older people appear to adapt to the false projection of progressives in the central visual axis. This adaptation means that swapping to new glasses or a large change in prescription may lead to a fall. Frequently updating glasses may be more beneficial.Keywords: fall prevention, false projection, stored visual spatial information

  10. Model for transport and reaction of defects and carriers within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation

  11. Highly sensitive chemiluminescent point mutation detection by circular strand-displacement amplification reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Ge, Yujie; Gu, Hongxi; Ma, Cuiping

    2011-08-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is attracting extensive attentions owing to its direct connections with human diseases including cancers. Here, we have developed a highly sensitive chemiluminescence biosensor based on circular strand-displacement amplification and the separation by magnetic beads reducing the background signal for point mutation detection at room temperature. This method took advantage of both the T4 DNA ligase recognizing single-base mismatch with high selectivity and the strand-displacement reaction of polymerase to perform signal amplification. The detection limit of this method was 1.3 × 10(-16)M, which showed better sensitivity than that of most of those reported detection methods of SNP. Additionally, the magnetic beads as carrier of immobility was not only to reduce the background signal, but also may have potential apply in high through-put screening of SNP detection in human genome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Size Controlled Synthesis of Tellurium Nanorices by Galvanic Displacement Reaction of Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tingjun; Myung, Lawrence Youngjae; Zhang, Miluo; Lee, Kyu-Hwan; Lee, Yeheun Laura; Lim, Hyo-Ryong; Kim, Bum Sung; Choa, Yong-Ho; Myung, Nosang V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Tellurium nanostructures were synthesized by galvanic displacement reaction (GDR) of aluminum in an alkaline solution containing TeO 3 2− ions. Due to negative redox potential of Al/AlO 2 − (i.e., −2.50 V vs. sat. Ag/AgCl), TeO 3 2− (+IV) can be reduced to Te 2 2− (-I) and Te 2− (-II), which resulted in the deposition of Te (0) nanostructures in the solution via chemical reaction between Te 2 2− or Te 2− and TeO 3 2− . The deposition mechanism led to the formation of unique “rice-like” nanostructures in the solution instead of branched structures on the substrate. The sharp tips of the “rice-like” nanostructures may be attributed to the high density of surface charges at the tips. The morphology, diameter and aspect ratio of Te “rice-like” nanostructures were altered by the TeO 3 2− concentration, solution pH, reaction time and the reaction temperature. Electrochemical analytical methods, including open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarizations (LPs), were used to investigate the reaction mechanisms. The enhancement of piezoelectric constant (d 11 ) of nanorices at small diameter was probably due to a flexoelectric effect

  13. Study of the obtainment of Mo{sub 2}C by gas-solid reaction in a fixed and rotary bed reactor; Estudo da obtencao de Mo{sub 2}C por reacao gas-solido em reator de leito fixo e rotativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, C.P.B. de; Souza, C.P. de; Souto, M.V.M.; Barbosa, C.M.; Frota, A.V.V.M., E-mail: cpbaraujo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Carbides' synthesis via gas-solid reaction overcomes many of the difficulties found in other processes, requiring lower temperatures and reaction times than traditional metallurgic routes, for example. In carbides' synthesis in fixed bed reactors (FB) the solid precursor is permeated by the reducing/carburizing gas stream forming a packed bed without mobility. The use of a rotary kiln reactor (RK) adds a mixing character to this process, changing its fluid-particle dynamics. In this work ammonium molybdate was subjected to carbo-reduction reaction (CH4 / H2) in both reactors under the same gas flow (15L / h) and temperature (660 ° C) for 180 minutes. Complete conversion was observed Mo2C (dp = 18.9nm modal particles sizes' distribution) in the fixed bed reactor. In the RK reactor this conversion was only partial (∼ 40%) and Mo2C and MoO3 (34nm dp = bimodal) could be observed on the produced XRD pattern. Partial conversion was attributed to the need to use higher solids loading in the reactor CR (50% higher) to avoid solids to centrifuge. (author)

  14. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  15. Pneumatic tool torque reaction: reaction forces, displacement, muscle activity and discomfort in the hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlberg, S; Kjellberg, A; Lindbeck, L

    1993-06-01

    Reaction forces, hand-arm displacement, muscle activity and discomfort ratings were studied during the securing of threaded fasteners with three angle nutrunners with different shut-off mechanisms, but with the same spindle torque (72-74 Nm). The three tools were tested according to the method specified in ISO 6544. One of the tools had an almost instantaneous shut-off. Another had a more slowly declining torque curve. For the third tool the maximum torque was maintained for a while before shut-off. Twelve male subjects participated in the study. A force platform measured the reaction force between the subject and the floor. The option of the hand-arm system and the shoulder was measured with an optoelectronic measuring system. The muscle activity (EMG) in six muscles in the arm and shoulder was measured with surface electrodes. Significant differences in the arm movements and ground reaction forces were found between the three tools. The smallest values were found with the fast shut-off tool while the delayed shut-off tool caused the largest values. The EMG measures gave inconsistent response patterns. Discomfort ratings were highly correlated with the time for which the tool torque exceeded 90% of peak preset torque, but the time for which the tool torque exceeded 90% of peak calculated by the method specified in ISO 6544. Nutrunners with a shut-off mechanism that causes a slowly decreasing torque or a torque that is maintained for a while before shut-off should be avoided. If no substitutes are available, then a torque reaction bar should be mounted on the tool.

  16. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-01

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.

  17. Removing antimony from waste lead storage batteries alloy by vacuum displacement reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2018-04-05

    With the wide application of lead acid battery, spent lead acid battery has become a serious problem to environmental protection and human health. Though spent battery can be a contaminant if not handled properly, it is also an important resource to obtain refined lead. Nowadays, the Sb-content in lead storage batteries is about 0.5-3 wt%, which is higher than the Sb-content in the crude lead. However, there are few reports about the process of removing antimony from high-antimony lead bullion. In this study, vacuum displacement reaction technology, a new process for removing antimony from high-antimony lead melts, was investigated. During this process, lead oxide was added to the system and antimony from lead melts was converted into antimony trioxide, which easily was evaporated under vacuum so that antimony was removed from lead melts. The experimental results demonstrated that Sb-content in lead melts decreased from 2.5% to 23 ppm under following conditions: mass ratio of PbO/lead bullion of 0.33, residual gas pressure of 30 Pa, melt temperature of 840 °C, reaction time of 60 min. The distillate gotten can be used as by-product to produce antimony white. Moreover, this study is of importance to recycling of waste lead storage batteries alloy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasmid-derived DNA Strand Displacement Gates for Implementing Chemical Reaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Rao, Sundipta D; Seelig, Georg

    2015-11-25

    DNA nanotechnology requires large amounts of highly pure DNA as an engineering material. Plasmid DNA could meet this need since it is replicated with high fidelity, is readily amplified through bacterial culture and can be stored indefinitely in the form of bacterial glycerol stocks. However, the double-stranded nature of plasmid DNA has so far hindered its efficient use for construction of DNA nanostructures or devices that typically contain single-stranded or branched domains. In recent work, it was found that nicked double stranded DNA (ndsDNA) strand displacement gates could be sourced from plasmid DNA. The following is a protocol that details how these ndsDNA gates can be efficiently encoded in plasmids and can be derived from the plasmids through a small number of enzymatic processing steps. Also given is a protocol for testing ndsDNA gates using fluorescence kinetics measurements. NdsDNA gates can be used to implement arbitrary chemical reaction networks (CRNs) and thus provide a pathway towards the use of the CRN formalism as a prescriptive molecular programming language. To demonstrate this technology, a multi-step reaction cascade with catalytic kinetics is constructed. Further it is shown that plasmid-derived components perform better than identical components assembled from synthetic DNA.

  19. Highly sensitive "signal-on" electrochemiluminescent biosensor for the detection of DNA based on dual quenching and strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jing; Wang, Zhaoyin; Wang, Xiao; Bao, Jianchun; Tu, Wenwen; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-10-07

    A "signal-on" electrochemiluminescent DNA biosensing platform was proposed based on the dual quenching and strand displacement reaction. This novel "signal-on" detection strategy revealed its sensitivity in achieving a detection limit of 2.4 aM and its selectivity in distinguishing single nucleotide polymorphism of target DNA.

  20. Interactions of cephalexin with bovine serum albumin: displacement reaction and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hamishehkar

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The outcomes of spectroscopic methods revealed that the conformation of BSA changed during drug-BSA interaction. The results of FRET propose that CPL quenches the fluorescence of BSA by static quenching and FRET. The displacement study showed that phenylbutazon and ketoprofen displaced CPL, indicating that its binding site on albumin is site I and Gentamicin cannot be displaced from the binding site of CPL. All results of molecular docking method agreed with the results of experimental data.

  1. The gas-solid trickle-flow reactor for the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide: a trickle-phase model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, A.B.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation of H2S by O2 producing elemental sulphur has been studied at temperatures of 100–300°C and at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory-scale gas-solid trickle-flow reactor. In this reactor one of the reaction products, i.e. sulphur, is removed continuously by flowing solids. A porous,

  2. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  3. Accurate Quantification of microRNA via Single Strand Displacement Reaction on DNA Origami Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs. PMID:23990889

  4. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Feng, Xiaolu; Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  5. Ultraselective electrochemiluminescence biosensor based on locked nucleic acid modified toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and junction-probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Dongzhi; Liu, Zhijing; Cai, Shuxian; Chen, Mei; Zhao, Yanping; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-12-07

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is applied in toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) to develop a junction-probe electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection in the BRCA1 gene related to breast cancer. More than 65-fold signal difference can be observed with perfectly matched target sequence to single-base mismatched sequence under the same conditions, indicating good selectivity of the ECL biosensor.

  6. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.

    1980-09-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  7. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions. the displacement of zinc-nickel complexes with quantitative determination of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Saiki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper presents a method for the determination of small quantities of nickel radioactive tracers. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between nickel and zinc ethylenediaminetetraacetate labeled with zinc-65 is pursued. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate into a dithizone-carbon tetrachloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. The method is very sensitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0.1 μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and the accuracy of the method are determined. The problem of interferences is also investigated and an attempt is made in order to eliminate them by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation between nickel and other interfering metals. (Author) [pt

  8. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Ashton C; Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2014-01-01

    Ashton C Ellison, A John Campbell, M Clare Robertson, Gordon F SandersonDunedin School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Dunedin, New ZealandBackground: Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives) increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1) map the prismatic displacement of a progr...

  9. Selected Topics on Mass Transport in Gas-solid Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The present article is a short review containing examples of the role of mass transport in the solid state during gas-solid interactions. Examples are taken from the authors' research on the interaction of carbon and/or nitrogen with iron-based metals. Topics dealt with are diffusion-controlled d......The present article is a short review containing examples of the role of mass transport in the solid state during gas-solid interactions. Examples are taken from the authors' research on the interaction of carbon and/or nitrogen with iron-based metals. Topics dealt with are diffusion...... on the kinetics of phenomena in the solid state. Various experimental techniques were applied to investigate these phenomena; it is however beyond the scope of the present article to treat experimental conditions in detail. The interested reader is referred to the original work for in depth discussions...

  10. Fabrication of dendritic silver-coated copper powders by galvanic displacement reaction and their thermal stability against oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yu-Seon [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Farad Materials Co., Ltd., Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); An, Chang Yong; Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Seo, Nary [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Zhuo, Kai [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Farad Materials Co., Ltd., Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Tae Kyong [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chan-Hwa, E-mail: chchung@skku.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Farad Materials Co., Ltd., Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The dendritic silver-coated copper powders with high specific surface area have been prepared using a simple wet chemical reduction process at room temperature. • It is found that the Cu starts to be oxidized into Cu{sub 2}O followed by CuO at elevated temperatures. • The more amount of Ag-coating provides the less oxidation, which confirms that the Ag-shell prevents the Cu-core from oxidation. • The resistivity of dendritic 33.27 wt.% Ag-coated Cu powders was measured to 25.67 μΩ cm after the annealing at 150 °C for 30 min. - Abstract: Two steps of wet chemical processes have been developed for the preparation of core-shell nanostructures of copper and silver, which is a facile and low cost method for the production of large quantity of dendritic powders. First step involves a galvanic displacement reaction with hydrogen evolution which is the motive force of spontaneous electrochemical reaction. To achieve the core-shell structure, silver has been coated on the dendritic copper using the galvanic displacement reaction. The dendritic silver-coated copper powders exhibit high surface-area, excellent conductivity, and good oxidation resistance. It has been found that silver-coated copper powders maintain the electrical conductivity even after annealing at 150 °C for several to tens of minutes, thus it is a promising material and an alternative to pure silver powders in printed electronics application.

  11. Fabrication of dendritic silver-coated copper powders by galvanic displacement reaction and their thermal stability against oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yu-Seon; An, Chang Yong; Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Seo, Nary; Zhuo, Kai; Yoo, Tae Kyong; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The dendritic silver-coated copper powders with high specific surface area have been prepared using a simple wet chemical reduction process at room temperature. • It is found that the Cu starts to be oxidized into Cu_2O followed by CuO at elevated temperatures. • The more amount of Ag-coating provides the less oxidation, which confirms that the Ag-shell prevents the Cu-core from oxidation. • The resistivity of dendritic 33.27 wt.% Ag-coated Cu powders was measured to 25.67 μΩ cm after the annealing at 150 °C for 30 min. - Abstract: Two steps of wet chemical processes have been developed for the preparation of core-shell nanostructures of copper and silver, which is a facile and low cost method for the production of large quantity of dendritic powders. First step involves a galvanic displacement reaction with hydrogen evolution which is the motive force of spontaneous electrochemical reaction. To achieve the core-shell structure, silver has been coated on the dendritic copper using the galvanic displacement reaction. The dendritic silver-coated copper powders exhibit high surface-area, excellent conductivity, and good oxidation resistance. It has been found that silver-coated copper powders maintain the electrical conductivity even after annealing at 150 °C for several to tens of minutes, thus it is a promising material and an alternative to pure silver powders in printed electronics application.

  12. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  13. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhao; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-01-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, w...... G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection......., which can be detected by a shift in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between dyes attached to the DNA strands. In the present study we have integrated an ATP aptamer in the strand B and demonstrated the optical detection of ATP. Furthermore we explore a new readout method using a split...

  14. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Birkedal, V.; Gothelf, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, which can be detected by a shift in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between dyes attached to the DNA strands. In the present study we have integrated an ATP aptamer in the strand B and demonstrated the optical detection of ATP. Furthermore we explore a new readout method using a split G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection.

  15. Flow regimes in vertical gas-solid contact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Cankurt, N. T.; Geldart, D.; Liss, B.

    1976-01-01

    The flow characteristics in fluidized beds, i.e., gas-solid systems, was studied to determine the flow regimes, the interaction of gas and solid in the various flow regimes and the dependence of this interaction and of transition between flow regimes on the properties of the gas and solid, on the gas and solid flow rates, and on the containing vessel. Fluidized beds with both coarse and fine particles are considered. Test results using high speed photography to view the operation of a 2-dimensional bed are discussed. (LCL)

  16. Development of a Tandem Repeat-Based Polymerase Chain Displacement Reaction Method for Highly Sensitive Detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Binghai; Song, Yaqin; RoyChowdhury, Moytri; Deng, Chongling; Niu, Ying; Fan, Qijun; Tang, Yan; Zhou, Changyong

    2018-02-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases in citrus production worldwide. Early detection of HLB pathogens can facilitate timely removal of infected citrus trees in the field. However, low titer and uneven distribution of HLB pathogens in host plants make reliable detection challenging. Therefore, the development of effective detection methods with high sensitivity is imperative. This study reports the development of a novel method, tandem repeat-based polymerase chain displacement reaction (TR-PCDR), for the detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', a widely distributed HLB-associated bacterium. A uniquely designed primer set (TR2-PCDR-F/TR2-PCDR-1R) and a thermostable Taq DNA polymerase mutant with strand displacement activity were used for TR-PCDR amplification. Performed in a regular thermal cycler, TR-PCDR could produce more than two amplicons after each amplification cycle. Sensitivity of the developed TR-PCDR was 10 copies of target DNA fragment. The sensitive level was proven to be 100× higher than conventional PCR and similar to real-time PCR. Data from the detection of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' with filed samples using the above three methods also showed similar results. No false-positive TR-PCDR amplification was observed from healthy citrus samples and water controls. These results thereby illustrated that the developed TR-PCDR method can be applied to the reliable, highly sensitive, and cost-effective detection of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'.

  17. Toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction-dependent fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yushu; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2017-03-15

    Sensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) activity is beneficial for evaluating the repairing process of DNA lesions. Here, toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TSDR)-dependent fluorescent strategy was constructed for sensitive detection of UDG activity. A single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe with two uracil bases and a trigger sequence were designed. A hairpin probe with toehold domain was designed, and a reporter probe was also designed. Under the action of UDG, two uracil bases were removed from ssDNA probe, generating apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Then, the AP sites could inhibit the TSDR between ssDNA probe and hairpin probe, leaving the trigger sequence in ssDNA probe still free. Subsequently, the trigger sequence was annealed with the reporter probe, initiating the polymerization and nicking amplification reaction. As a result, numerous G-quadruplex (G4) structures were formed, which could bind with N-methyl-mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) to generate enhanced fluorescent signal. In the absence of UDG, the ssDNA probe could hybridize with the toehold domain of the hairpin probe to initiate TSDR, blocking the trigger sequence, and then the subsequent amplification reaction would not occur. The proposed strategy was successfully implemented for detecting UDG activity with a detection limit of 2.7×10 -5 U/mL. Moreover, the strategy could distinguish UDG well from other interference enzymes. Furthermore, the strategy was also applied for detecting UDG activity in HeLa cells lysate with low effect of cellular components. These results indicated that the proposed strategy offered a promising tool for sensitive quantification of UDG activity in UDG-related function study and disease prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Universal, colorimetric microRNA detection strategy based on target-catalyzed toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonkyung; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kang, Shinyoung; Kim, Hansol; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we developed a novel, label-free, and enzyme-free strategy for the colorimetric detection of microRNA (miRNA), which relies on a target-catalyzed toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) reaction. The system employs a detection probe that specifically binds to the target miRNA and sequentially releases a catalyst strand (CS) intended to trigger the subsequent TMSD reaction. Thus, the presence of target miRNA releases the CS that mediates the formation of an active G-quadruplex DNAzyme which is initially caged and inactivated by a blocker strand. In addition, a fuel strand that is supplemented for the recycling of the CS promotes another TMSD reaction, consequently generating a large number of active G-quadruplex DNAzymes. As a result, a distinct colorimetric signal is produced by the ABTS oxidation promoted by the peroxidase mimicking activity of the released G-quadruplex DNAzymes. Based on this novel strategy, we successfully detected miR-141, a promising biomarker for human prostate cancer, with high selectivity. The diagnostic capability of this system was also demonstrated by reliably determining target miR-141 in human serum, showing its great potential towards real clinical applications. Importantly, the proposed approach is composed of separate target recognition and signal transduction modules. Thus, it could be extended to analyze different target miRNAs by simply redesigning the detection probe while keeping the same signal transduction module as a universal signal amplification unit, which was successfully demonstrated by analyzing another target miRNA, let-7d.

  19. Studies on displacement behavior between hydrogen and deuterium in hydride column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Guangda; Li Gan; Jiang Guoqiang

    2001-01-01

    A series displacement experiments between hydrogen and deuterium in ZrCo, LaNi 5 , LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 and Pd hydride column had been conducted at room temperature about. Results indicate that displacement characteristics related to factors such as temperature, gas flow rate, ratio surface area of solid phase and hydrogen isotope separation factor of the metal-hydrogen system. The palladium hydride have the best displacement characteristics, and LaNi 5 , LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 and ZrCo are in the next places. Theoretical study reveals that the rule of the exchange reaction of hydrogen isotopes in gas-solid interface determines the displacement behavior and the displacing efficiency depends on exchange rate. The ideal stage mode could be used to describe the displacement breakthrough curve. The height equivalent to theoretical place (HETP) indicates the displacing effects. Also, the separation factor has a serious influence to HETP under the same condition

  20. Experimenting with a Visible Copper-Aluminum Displacement Reaction in Agar Gel and Observing Copper Crystal Growth Patterns to Engage Student Interest and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Wang, Xiaogang; Yang, Yangyiwei; Shi, Xiang; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The reaction process of copper-aluminum displacement in agar gel was observed at the microscopic level with a stereomicroscope; pine-like branches of copper crystals growing from aluminum surface into gel at a constant rate were observed. Students were asked to make hypotheses on the pattern formation and design new research approaches to prove…

  1. Correlation dimension estimate and its potential use in analysis of gas-solid flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Gas-solid flows are nonlinear systems. Therefore state-space analysis, a tool developed within the framework of nonlinear dynamics, could provide more useful insights into complex gas-solid flows. One of the positive aspects of state-space analysis is that the major properties of a system can be ...

  2. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  3. Kinetics of the gas-solid hydroxyethylation of potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Beenackers, A.A C M

    The kinetics of the reaction between gaseous ethylene oxide and semidry granular potato starch was studied in a pressure-controlled semibatch reactor with and without impregnation of the starch with the catalyst sodium hydroxide. Four parallel reactions are involved: the catalyzed (with reaction

  4. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-06-30

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed

  5. Effects of Turbulent Reynolds Number on the Displacement Speed Statistics in the Thin Reaction Zones Regime of Turbulent Premixed Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    nature of the correlations remains unaffected. The dependence of displacement speed on strain rate and curvature is found to weaken with increasing turbulent Reynolds number when either Damköhler or Karlovitz number is held constant, but the qualitative nature of the correlation remains unaltered. The implications of turbulent Reynolds number effects in the context of Flame Surface Density (FSD modelling have also been addressed, with emphasis on the influence of displacement speed on the curvature and propagation terms in the FSD balance equation.

  6. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kuriyama, K., E-mail: kuri@ionbeam.hosei.ac.jp [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kushida, K. [Department of Arts and Science, Osaka Kyouiku University, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Kinomura, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼10{sup 3} Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10{sup −2} Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  8. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼103 Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10-2 Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  9. Direct gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite residues in the absence and presence of water vapor: a feasibility study for carbon dioxide sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Sanoopkumar Puthiya; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Kentish, Sandra; Mercier, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Mineral carbonation of serpentinite mining residue offers an environmentally secure and permanent storage of carbon dioxide. The strategy of using readily available mining residue for the direct treatment of flue gas could improve the energy demand and economics of CO2 sequestration by avoiding the mineral extraction and separate CO2 capture steps. The present is a laboratory scale study to assess the possibility of CO2 fixation in serpentinite mining residues via direct gas-solid reaction. The degree of carbonation is measured both in the absence and presence of water vapor in a batch reactor. The gas used is a simulated gas mixture reproducing an average cement flue gas CO2 composition of 18 vol.% CO2. The reaction parameters considered are temperature, total gas pressure, time, and concentration of water vapor. In the absence of water vapor, the gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite mining residues is negligible, but the residues removed CO2 from the feed gas possibly due to reversible adsorption. The presence of small amount of water vapor enhances the gas-solid carbonation, but the measured rates are too low for practical application. The maximum CO2 fixation obtained is 0.07 g CO2 when reacting 1 g of residue at 200 °C and 25 barg (pCO2 ≈ 4.7) in a gas mixture containing 18 vol.% CO2 and 10 vol.% water vapor in 1 h. The fixation is likely surface limited and restricted due to poor gas-solid interaction. It was identified that both the relative humidity and carbon dioxide-water vapor ratio have a role in CO2 fixation regardless of the percentage of water vapor.

  10. Development of [18F]halofluorination and [18F]fluoride ion displacement reactions for the synthesis of F-18 labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two fluorine-18 labeling methods, [ 18 F]halofluorination and [ 18 F]fluoride ion displacement reactions, have been developed to assess their potential for labeling molecules with the positron-emitting radionuclide fluorine-18 at the no-carrier-added level. Olefin halofluorination involves the in situ generation of a halogen-fluoride reagent and subsequent addition to an olefin. The characteristics of this reaction were investigated with three model olefins (allylbenzene, 1-hexene, and propene). A two-step method for the preparation of fluoroalkyl substituted amines and amides has been achieved. The sequence involves fluoride ion displacement of trifluoromethanesulfonates (triflates) from short-chain haloalkyl triflates, followed by fluoroalkylation of the amine or amide. Alternatively, short-chain fluoroalkyl halides can be prepared by halofluorination of a terminal olefin. These reactions have been used to prepare various fluoroalkyl derivatives of 1-phenylpiperazine and N-fluoroalkyl derivatives of the neuroleptic agent spiperone. A series of fluorine-18 labeled N-fluoroalkylated spiperone derivatives were synthesized by N-alkylation of spiperone with fluoroalkyl halides

  11. Gold nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence anisotropy for the assay of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on toehold-mediated strand-displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Zou, Mingjian; Huang, Hongduan; Ren, Yuqian; Li, Limei; Yang, Xiaoda; Li, Na

    2013-03-15

    We developed a highly differentiating, homogeneous gold nanoparticle (AuNP) enhanced fluorescence anisotropic method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at nanomolar level using toehold-mediated strand-displacement reaction. The template strand, containing a toehold domain with an allele-specific site, was immobilized on the surface of AuNPs, and the solution fluorescence anisotropy was markedly enhanced when the fluorescein-labeled blocking DNA was attached to the AuNP via hybridization. Strand-displacement by the target ssDNA strand resulted in detachment of fluorescein-labeled DNA from AuNPs, and thus decreased fluorescence anisotropy. The drastic kinetic difference in strand-displacement from toehold design was used to distinguish between the perfectly matched and the single-base mismatched strands. Free energy changes were calculated to elucidate the dependence of the differentiation ability on the mutation site in the toehold region. A solid negative signal change can be obtained for single-base mismatched strand in the dynamic range of the calibration curve, and a more than 10-fold signal difference can still be observed in a mixed solution containing 100 times the single-base mismatched strand, indicating the good specificity of the method. This proposed method can be performed with a standard spectrofluorimeter in a homogeneous and cost-effective manner, and has the potential to be extended to the application of fluorescence anisotropy method of SNP detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Label-free and sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity via coupling DNA strand displacement reaction with enzymatic-aided amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Tao, Mangjuan; Shi, Zhilu; Zhang, Xiafei; Jin, Yan; Li, Baoxin

    2015-11-15

    Several fluorescence signal amplification strategies have been developed for sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) activity, but they need fluorescence dye labeled DNA probe. We have addressed the limitation and report here a label-free strategy for sensitive detection of PNK activity by coupling DNA strand displacement reaction with enzymatic-aided amplification. A hairpin oligonucleotide (hpDNA) with blunt ends was used as the substrate for T4 PNK phosphorylation. In the presence of T4 PNK, the stem of hpDNA was phosphorylated and further degraded by lambda exonuclease (λ exo) from 5' to 3' direction to release a single-stranded DNA as a trigger of DNA strand displacement reaction (SDR). The trigger DNA can continuously displace DNA P2 from P1/P2 hybrid with the help of specific cleavage of nicking endonuclease (Nt.BbvCI). Then, DNA P2 can form G-quadruplex in the presence of potassium ions and quadruplex-selective fluorphore, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), resulting in a significant increase in fluorescence intensity of NMM. Thus, the accumulative release of DNA P2 led to fluorescence signal amplification for determining T4 PNK activity with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-4) U/mL, which is superior or comparative with established approaches. By ingeniously utilizing T4 PNK-triggered DNA SDR, T4 PNK activity can be specifically and facilely studied in homogeneous solution containing complex matrix without any external fluorescence labeling. Moreover, the influence of different inhibitors on the T4 PNK activity revealed that it also can be explored to screen T4 PNK inhibitors. Therefore, this label-free amplification strategy presents a facile and cost-effective approach for nucleic acid phosphorylation related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A cascade autocatalytic strand displacement amplification and hybridization chain reaction event for label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemical nucleic acid biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying; Xin, Chen; Zhao, Jikuan; Liu, Shufeng

    2018-04-23

    Herein, an autocatalytic strand displacement amplification (ASDA) strategy was proposed for the first time, which was further ingeniously coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) event for the isothermal, label-free and multiple amplification toward nucleic acid detection. During the ASDA module, the target recognition opens the immobilized hairpin probe (IP) and initiates the annealing of the auxiliary DNA strand (AS) with the opened IP for the successive polymerization and nicking reaction in the presence of DNA polymerase and nicking endonuclease. This induces the target recycling and generation of a large amount of intermediate DNA sequences, which can be used as target analogy to execute the autocatalytic strand displacement amplification. Simultaneously, the introduced AS strand can propagate the HCR between two hairpins (H1 and H2) to form a linear DNA concatamer with cytosine (C)-rich loop region, which can facilitate the in-situ synthesis of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) as electrochemical tags for further amplification toward target responses. With current cascade ASDA and HCR strategy, the detection of target DNA could be achieved with a low detection limit of about 0.16 fM and a good selectivity. The developed biosensor also exhibits the distinct advantages of flexibility and simplicity in probe design and biosensor fabrication, and label-free electrochemical detection, thus opens a promising avenue for the detection of nucleic acid with low abundance in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of a Gas-Solid Separation Process for Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Clement, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The gas/solid heat exchanger (2D-HX), developed to replace the cyclone preheaters in cement plants is presented. This design aims at reducing construction height and operation costs. The separation process in the 2D-HX is experimentally investigated, and the results show that separation efficienc......The gas/solid heat exchanger (2D-HX), developed to replace the cyclone preheaters in cement plants is presented. This design aims at reducing construction height and operation costs. The separation process in the 2D-HX is experimentally investigated, and the results show that separation...

  15. Anomalous low-temperature desorption from preirradiated rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, E.V.; Gumenchuk, G.B.; Yurtaeva, E.M.; Belov, A.G.; Khyzhniy, I.V.; Frankowski, M.; Beyer, M.K.; Smith-Gicklhorn, A.M.; Ponomaryov, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    The role for the exciton-induced defects in the stimulation of anomalous low-temperature desorption of the own lattice atoms from solid Ar and Ne preirradiated by an electron beam is studied. The free electrons from shallow traps-structural defects-was monitored by the measurements of a yield of the thermally induced exoelectron emission (TSEE). The reaction of recombination of self-trapped holes with electrons is considered as a source of energy needed for the desorption of atoms from the surface of preirradiated solids. A key part of the exciton-induced defects in the phenomenon observed is demonstrated

  16. Highly selective and sensitive detection of miRNA based on toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and DNA tetrahedron substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Ding, Yongshun; Wang, Lei

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a variety of biological processes and have been regarded as tumor biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this work, a single-molecule counting method for miRNA analysis was proposed based on toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (SDR) and DNA tetrahedron substrate. Firstly, a specially designed DNA tetrahedron was assembled with a hairpin at one of the vertex, which has an overhanging toehold domain. Then, the DNA tetrahedron was immobilized on the epoxy-functional glass slide by epoxy-amine reaction, forming a DNA tetrahedron substrate. Next, the target miRNA perhybridized with the toehold domain and initiated a strand displacement reaction along with the unfolding of the hairpin, realizing the selective recognization of miRNA. Finally, a biotin labeled detection DNA was hybridized with the new emerging single strand and the streptavidin coated QDs were used as fluorescent probes. Fluorescent images were acquired via epi-fluorescence microscopy, the numbers of fluorescence dots were counted one by one for quantification. The detection limit is 5 fM, which displayed an excellent sensitivity. Moreover, the proposed method which can accurately be identified the target miRNA among its family members, demonstrated an admirable selectivity. Furthermore, miRNA analysis in total RNA samples from human lung tissues was performed, suggesting the feasibility of this method for quantitative detection of miRNA in biomedical research and early clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass transfer between gas and particles in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    Gas-solids mass transfer was studied for counter-current flow of gas and millimetre-sized solid particles over an inert packing at dilute phase or trickle flow conditions. Experimental data were obtained from the adsorption of water vapour on 640 and 2200 ¿m diameter molecular sieve spheres at

  18. Numerical Simulation of Dense Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds: A Multiscale Modeling Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoef, Martin Anton; van Sint Annaland, M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Gas-solid fluidized beds are widely applied in many chemical processes involving physical and/or chemical transformations, and for this reason they are the subject of intense research in chemical engineering science. Over the years, researchers have developed a large number of numerical models of

  19. Numerical simulation of dense gas-solid fluidized beds : a multiscale modeling strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoef, van der M.A.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Gas-solid fluidized beds are widely applied in many chemical processes involving physical and/or chemical transformations, and for this reason they are the subject of intense research in chemical engineering science. Over the years, researchers have developed a large number of numerical models of

  20. Methanol synthesis in a countercurrent gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczynski, M.; Oyevaar, M.H.; Pieters, R.T.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of methanol from CO and H2 was executed in a gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. The reactor consisted of three tubular reactor sections with cooling sections in between. The catalyst was Cu on alumina, the adsorbent was a silica-alumina powder and the experimental range 498–523 K,

  1. Gas-solid hydroxyethylation of potato starch in a stirred vibrating fluidized bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Stamhuis, Eize; Beenackers, A.A C M

    A novel reactor for modifying cohesive C-powders such as in the gas-solid hydroxyethylation of semidry potato starch is characterized, the so-called stirred vibrating fluidized bed reactor. Good fluidization characteristics are obtained in this reactor for certain combinations of stirring and

  2. Signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for microRNA-319a detection based on two-stage isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghui; Zhou, Yunlei; Yin, Huanshun; Jiang, Wenjing; Wang, Haiyan; Ai, Shiyun

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs play crucial role in regulating gene expression in organism, thus it is very necessary to exploit an efficient method for the sensitive and specific detection of microRNA. Herein, a signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor was fabricated for microRNA-319a detection based on two-stage isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction (ISDPR). In the presence of target microRNA, amounts of trigger DNA could be generated by the first ISDPR. Then, the trigger DNA and the primer hybridized simultaneously with the hairpin probe to open the stem of the probe, and then the ECL signal will be emitted. In the presence of phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTPs, the trigger DNA could be displaced to initiate a new cycle which was the second ISDPR. Due to the two-stage amplification, this method presented excellent detection sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 fM. Moreover, the applicability of the developed method was demonstrated by detecting the change of microRNA-319a content in the leaves of rice seedlings after the rice seeds were incubated with chemical mutagen of ethyl methanesulfonate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical simulation of coupled binary gas-solid interaction during carbon dioxide sequestration in a coal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qiyan; Zhou Lai; Chen Zhongwei; Liu Jishan

    2008-01-01

    Complicated coupled binary gas-solid interaction arises during carbon dioxide sequestration in a coal seam, which combines effects of CO 2 -CH 4 counter adsorption, CO 2 -CH 4 counter diffusion, binary gas flow and coal bed deformation. Through solving a set of coupled field governing equations, a novel full coupled Finite Element (FE) model was established by COMSOL Multiphysics. The new FE model was applied to the quantification of coal porous pressure, coal permeability, gas composition fraction and coal displacement when CO 2 was injected in a CH 4 saturated coal bed. Numerical results demonstrate that CH 4 is swept by the injected CO 2 accompanied by coal volumetric deformation. Compared to the single CH 4 in situ, CH 4 -CO 2 counter-diffusion induced coal swelling can make more compensation for coal shrinkage due to effective stress. Competing influences between the effective stress and the CH 4 -CO 2 counter-diffusion induced volume change governs the evolution of porous pressure and permeability, which is controlled by the porous pressure correspondingly. This achievement extends our ability to understand the coupled multi-physics of the CO 2 geological sequestration and CO 2 enhanced coal bed methane recovery under field conditions. (authors)

  4. Dissolution kinetics of small amounts of oxygen in tantalum alloy T-111 and internal oxide displacement reactions during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Oxygen was added to T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf, wt. %) at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about 0.0003 torr. The technique employed permitted predetermined and reproducible doping of T-111 up to 3.0 at. % oxygen. Based on the temperature dependence of the doping reaction, it is concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the latter oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and of other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high-temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent affect on the doping reaction.

  5. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  6. Carbon-14 immobilization via the CO2-Ba(OH)2 hydrate gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1981-08-01

    For the treatment of an air-based off-gas stream, the use of packed beds of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes to remove CO 2 has been demonstrated. However, the operating conditions must be maintained between certain upper and lower limits with respect to the partial pressure of water. If the water vapor pressure in the gas is less than the dissociation vapor pressure of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O, the bed will deactivate. If the vapor pressure is considerably greater, pressure drop problems will increase with increaseing humidity as the particles curl and degrade. Results have indicted that when operated in the proper regime, the bulk of the increase in pressure drop results from the conversion of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O to BaCO 3 and not from the hydration of the commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O (i.e., Ba(OH) 2 .7.50H 2 O) to Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O

  7. In Situ Insight into Reversible O2 Gas-Solid Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegeberg, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Non-porous crystalline solids containing a series of cationic tetracobalt complexes reversibly, selectively and stoichiometrically chemisorb dioxygen in temperature/O2 partial pressure induced processes involving the oxidation of cobalt with concurrent reduction of two equivalents of sorbed O2 to...

  8. Toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction triggered isothermal DNA amplification for highly sensitive and selective fluorescent detection of single-base mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Ding, Yongshun; Liu, Xingti; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-09-15

    Highly sensitive and selective detection strategy for single-base mutations is essential for risk assessment of malignancy and disease prognosis. In this work, a fluorescent detection method for single-base mutation was proposed based on high selectivity of toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TSDR) and powerful signal amplification capability of isothermal DNA amplification. A discrimination probe was specially designed with a stem-loop structure and an overhanging toehold domain. Hybridization between the toehold domain and the perfect matched target initiated the TSDR along with the unfolding of the discrimination probe. Subsequently, the target sequence acted as a primer to initiate the polymerization and nicking reactions, which released a great abundant of short sequences. Finally, the released strands were annealed with the reporter probe, launching another polymerization and nicking reaction to produce lots of G-quadruplex DNA, which could bind the N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX to yield an enhanced fluorescence response. However, when there was even a single base mismatch in the target DNA, the TSDR was suppressed and so subsequent isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence response process could not occur. The proposed approach has been successfully implemented for the identification of the single-base mutant sequences in the human KRAS gene with a detection limit of 1.8 pM. Furthermore, a recovery of 90% was obtained when detecting the target sequence in spiked HeLa cells lysate, demonstrating the feasibility of this detection strategy for single-base mutations in biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of process tomography in gas-solid fluidised beds in different scales and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. G.; Che, H. Q.; Ye, J. M.; Tu, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Yang, W. Q.; Ocone, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-solid fluidised beds are commonly used in particle-related processes, e.g. for coal combustion and gasification in the power industry, and the coating and granulation process in the pharmaceutical industry. Because the operation efficiency depends on the gas-solid flow characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the flow behaviour. This paper is about the application of process tomography, including electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave tomography (MWT), in multi-scale gas-solid fluidisation processes in the pharmaceutical and power industries. This is the first time that both ECT and MWT have been applied for this purpose in multi-scale and complex structure. To evaluate the sensor design and image reconstruction and to investigate the effects of sensor structure and dimension on the image quality, a normalised sensitivity coefficient is introduced. In the meantime, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis based on a computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) model and a two-phase fluid model (TFM) is used. Part of the CPFD-TFM simulation results are compared and validated by experimental results from ECT and/or MWT. By both simulation and experiment, the complex flow hydrodynamic behaviour in different scales is analysed. Time-series capacitance data are analysed both in time and frequency domains to reveal the flow characteristics.

  10. Non-intrusive measurement and hydrodynamics characterization of gas-solid fluidized beds: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Gas-solid fluidization is a well-established technique to suspend or transport particles and has been applied in a variety of industrial processes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of fluidization hydrodynamics is still limited for the design, scale-up and operation optimization of fluidized bed reactors. It is, therefore, essential to characterize the two-phase flow behaviours in gas-solid fluidized beds and monitor the fluidization processes for control and optimization. A range of non-intrusive techniques have been developed or proposed for measuring the fluidization dynamic parameters and monitoring the flow status without disturbing or distorting the flow fields. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the non-intrusive measurement techniques and the current state of knowledge and experience in the characterization and monitoring of gas-solid fluidized beds. These techniques are classified into six main categories as per sensing principles, electrostatic, acoustic emission and vibration, visualization, particle tracking, laser Doppler anemometry and phase Doppler anemometry as well as pressure-fluctuation methods. Trends and future developments in this field are also discussed.

  11. Approximate deconvolution model for the simulation of turbulent gas-solid flows: An a priori analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Simon; Saeedipour, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    Highly resolved two-fluid model (TFM) simulations of gas-solid flows in vertical periodic channels have been performed to study closures for the filtered drag force and the Reynolds-stress-like contribution stemming from the convective terms. An approximate deconvolution model (ADM) for the large-eddy simulation of turbulent gas-solid suspensions is detailed and subsequently used to reconstruct those unresolved contributions in an a priori manner. With such an approach, an approximation of the unfiltered solution is obtained by repeated filtering allowing the determination of the unclosed terms of the filtered equations directly. A priori filtering shows that predictions of the ADM model yield fairly good agreement with the fine grid TFM simulations for various filter sizes and different particle sizes. In particular, strong positive correlation (ρ > 0.98) is observed at intermediate filter sizes for all sub-grid terms. Additionally, our study reveals that the ADM results moderately depend on the choice of the filters, such as box and Gaussian filter, as well as the deconvolution order. The a priori test finally reveals that ADM is superior compared to isotropic functional closures proposed recently [S. Schneiderbauer, "A spatially-averaged two-fluid model for dense large-scale gas-solid flows," AIChE J. 63, 3544-3562 (2017)].

  12. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  13. Simulation of granular and gas-solid flows using discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyalakuntla, Dhanunjay S.

    2003-10-01

    In recent years there has been increased research activity in the experimental and numerical study of gas-solid flows. Flows of this type have numerous applications in the energy, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals process industries. Typical applications include pulverized coal combustion, flow and heat transfer in bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, hopper and chute flows, pneumatic transport of pharmaceutical powders and pellets, and many more. The present work addresses the study of gas-solid flows using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and discrete element simulation methods (DES) combined. Many previous studies of coupled gas-solid flows have been performed assuming the solid phase as a continuum with averaged properties and treating the gas-solid flow as constituting of interpenetrating continua. Instead, in the present work, the gas phase flow is simulated using continuum theory and the solid phase flow is simulated using DES. DES treats each solid particle individually, thus accounting for its dynamics due to particle-particle interactions, particle-wall interactions as well as fluid drag and buoyancy. The present work involves developing efficient DES methods for dense granular flow and coupling this simulation to continuum simulations of the gas phase flow. Simulations have been performed to observe pure granular behavior in vibrating beds. Benchmark cases have been simulated and the results obtained match the published literature. The dimensionless acceleration amplitude and the bed height are the parameters governing bed behavior. Various interesting behaviors such as heaping, round and cusp surface standing waves, as well as kinks, have been observed for different values of the acceleration amplitude for a given bed height. Furthermore, binary granular mixtures (granular mixtures with two particle sizes) in a vibrated bed have also been studied. Gas-solid flow simulations have been performed to study fluidized beds. Benchmark 2D

  14. Effect of the walking speed to the lower limb joint angular displacements, joint moments and ground reaction forces during walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2004-06-17

    The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in ground reaction forces (GRF), joint angular displacements (JAD), joint moments (JM) and electromyographic (EMG) activities that occur during walking at various speeds in water and on land. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. In the water experiments, the water depth was adjusted so that body weight was reduced by 80%. A video-motion analysis system and waterproof force platform was used to obtain kinematics and kinetics data and to calculate the JMs. Results revealed that (1) the anterior-posterior GRF patterns differed between walking in water and walking on land, whereas the medio-lateral GRF patterns were similar, (2) the JAD patterns of the hip and ankle were similar between water- and land-walking, whereas the range of motion at the knee joint was lower in water than on land, (3) the JMs in all three joints were lower in water than on land throughout the stance phase, and (4) the hip joint extension moment and hip extensor muscle EMG activity were increased as walking speed increase during walking in water. Rehabilitative water-walking exercise could be designed to incorporate large-muscle activities, especially of the lower-limb extensor muscles, through full joint range of motion and minimization of joint moments.

  15. Highly selective detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor based on the toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingzhong; Tang, Wei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Gengjia; Chen, Qiang; Li, Na; Liu, Feng

    2012-08-21

    Toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (SDR) is first introduced to develop a simple quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor without an enzyme or label at normal temperature for highly selective and sensitive detection of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. A hairpin capture probe with an external toehold is designed and immobilized on the gold electrode surface of QCM. A successive SDR is initiated by the target sequence hybridization with the toehold domain and ends with the unfolding of the capture probe. Finally, the open-loop capture probe hybridizes with the streptavidin-coupled reporter probe as an efficient mass amplifier to enhance the QCM signal. The proposed biosensor displays remarkable specificity to target the p53 gene fragment against single-base mutant sequences (e.g., the largest discrimination factor is 63 to C-C mismatch) and high sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.3 nM at 20 °C. As the crucial component of the fabricated biosensor for providing the high discrimination capability, the design rationale of the capture probe is further verified by fluorescence sensing and atomic force microscopy imaging. Additionally, a recovery of 84.1% is obtained when detecting the target sequence in spiked HeLa cells lysate, demonstrating the feasibility of employing this biosensor in detecting SNPs in biological samples.

  16. Visual detection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yong; Xing, Tao; Du, Li-Xin; Li, Qing-Min; Liu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Ji-Yue; Cai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. Detection of GDNF is vital to monitoring the survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, the specific method for GDNF detection is also un-discovered. The purpose of this study is to explore the method for protein detection of GDNF. A novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction (ISDPR) has been proposed for the detection of GDNF. In this study, a molecular translator was employed to convert the input protein to output deoxyribonucleic acid signal, which was further amplified by ISDPR. The product of ISDPR was detected by a lateral flow biosensor within 30 minutes. This novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and ISDPR has very high sensitivity and selectivity, with a dynamic response ranging from 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 1 pg/mL of GDNF. This novel visual detection method exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity, which is very simple and universal for GDNF detection to help disease therapy in clinical practice.

  17. Synergistic effect of displacement damage, helium and hydrogen on microstructural change of SiC/SiC composites fabricated by reaction bonding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T.; Igawa, N.; Wakai, E.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hasegawa, A. [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engr., Sendai (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Continuous silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are known to be attractive candidate materials for first wall and blanket components in fusion reactors. In the fusion environment, helium and hydrogen are produced and helium bubbles can be formed in the SiC by irradiation of 14-MeV neutrons. Authors reported the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen as transmutation products on swelling behavior and microstructural change of the SiC/SiC composites fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. Authors also reported about the fabrication of high thermal conductive SiC/SiC composites by reaction bonding (RB) process. The matrix fabricated by RB process has different microstructures such as bigger grain size of SiC and including Si phase as second phase from that by CVI process. It is, therefore, investigated the synergistic effect of displacement damage, helium and hydrogen as transmutation products on the microstructure of SiC/SiC composite by RB process in this study. The SiC/SiC composites by RB process were irradiated by the simultaneous triple ion irradiation (Si{sup 2+}, He{sup +} and H{sup +}) at 800 and 1000 deg. C. The displacement damage was induced by 6.0 MeV Si{sup 2+} ion irradiation up to 10 dpa. The microstructures of irradiated SiC/SiC composites by RB process were observed by TEM. The double layer of carbon and SiC as interphase between fiber and matrix by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was coated on SiC fibers in the SiC/SiC composites by RB process. The TEM observation revealed that He bubbles were formed both in the matrix by RB and SiC interphase by CVD process. Almost all He bubbles were formed at the grain boundary in SiC interphase by CVD process. On the other hand, He bubbles were formed both at the grain boundary and in Si grain of the matrix by RB process. The average size of He bubbles in the matrix by RB was smaller than that in SiC interphase by CVD

  18. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  19. Photoemission from excited states in rare gas solids by combining synchrotronradiation with a laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstorff, S.

    1984-09-01

    A new spectroscopic method has been developed to study excited states in rare gas solids: Excitons and conductionband-states are populated by synchrotron radiation (photon energy hw SR =5 - 30 eV). Subsequently electrons from these bound or conduction band-states are excited above the vacuum level of the solid by a pulsed dye laser (hw L =1.9 - 3.7 eV). This experimental technique was applied to solid Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne. (orig./GSCH)

  20. A ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for the exosomal microRNAs detection based on bipedal DNA walkers propelled by locked nucleic acid modified toehold mediate strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liang-Liang; Hou, Mei-Feng; Xia, Yao-Kun; He, Wen-Hui; Yan, An; Weng, Yun-Ping; Zeng, Lu-Peng; Chen, Jing-Hua

    2018-04-15

    Sensitive and selective detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer cells derived exosomes have attracted rapidly growing interest owing to their potential in diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we design a ratiometric electrochemical biosensor based on bipedal DNA walkers for the attomolar detection of exosomal miR-21. In the presence of miR-21, DNA walkers are activated to walk continuously along DNA tracks, resulting in conformational changes as well as considerable increases of the signal ratio produced by target-respond and target-independent reporters. With the signal cascade amplification of DNA walkers, the biosensor exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity with the limit of detection (LOD) down to 67 aM. Furthermore, owing to the background-correcting function of target-independent reporters termed as reference reporters, the biosensor is robust and stable enough to be applied in the detection of exosomal miR-21 extracted from breast cancer cell lines and serums. In addition, because locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified toehold mediate strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) has extraordinary discriminative ability, the biosensor displays excellent selectivity even against the single-base-mismatched target. It is worth mentioning that our sensor is regenerative and stable for at least 5 cycles without diminution in sensitivity. In brief, the high sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility, together with cheap, make the proposed biosensor a promising approach for exosomal miRNAs detection, in conjunction with early point-of-care testing (POCT) of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Establishment of a novel HLA genotyping method for preimplantation genetic diagnonis using multiple displacement amplification-polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Luo, Haining; Zhang, Yunshan

    2015-12-01

    To establish a novel HLA genotyping method for preimplantation genetic diagnonis (PGD) using multiple displacement amplification-polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based technique (MDA-PCR-SBT). Peripheral blood samples and 76 1PN, 2PN, 3PN discarded embryos from 9 couples were collected. The alleles of HLA-A, B, DR loci were detected from the MDA product with the PCR-SBT method. The HLA genotypes of the parental peripheral blood samples were analyzed with the same protocol. The genotypes of specific HLA region were evaluated for distinguishing the segregation of haplotypes among the family members, and primary HLA matching was performed between the embryos. The 76 embryos were subjected to MDA and 74 (97.4%) were successfully amplified. For the 34 embryos from the single blastomere group, the amplification rate was 94.1%, and for the 40 embryos in the two blastomeres group, the rate was 100%. The dropout rates for DQ allele and DR allele were 1.3% and 0, respectively. The positive rate for MDA in the single blastomere group was 100%, with the dropout rates for DQ allele and DR allele being 1.5% and 0, respectively. The positive rate of MDA for the two blastomere group was 100%, with the dropout rates for both DQ and DR alleles being 0. The recombination rate of fetal HLA was 20.2% (30/148). Due to the improper classification and abnormal fertilized embryos, the proportion of matched embryos HLA was 20.3% (15/74),which was lower than the theoretical value of 25%. PGD with HLA matching can facilitate creation of a HLA-identical donor (saviour child) for umbilical cord blood or bone marrow stem cells for its affected sibling with a genetic disease. Therefore, preimplantation HLA matching may provide a tool for couples desiring to conceive a potential donor progeny for transplantation for its sibling with a life-threatening disorder.

  2. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  3. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  4. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  5. Reaction-based Indicator displacement Assay (RIA) for the selective colorimetric and fluorometric detection of peroxynitrite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03983a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Lacina, Karel; Ramsamy, Elena C.; Flower, Stephen E.; Fossey, John S.; Qian, Xuhong

    2015-01-01

    Using the self-assembly of aromatic boronic acids with Alizarin Red S (ARS), we developed a new chemosensor for the selective detection of peroxynitrite. Phenylboronic acid (PBA), benzoboroxole (BBA) and 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)phenylboronic acid (NBA) were employed to bind with ARS to form the complex probes. In particular, the ARS–NBA system with a high binding affinity can preferably react with peroxynitrite over hydrogen peroxide and other ROS/RNS due to the protection of the boron via the solvent-insertion B–N interaction. Our simple system produces a visible colorimetric change and on–off fluorescence response towards peroxynitrite. By coupling a chemical reaction that leads to an indicator displacement, we have developed a new sensing strategy, referred to herein as RIA (Reaction-based Indicator displacement Assay). PMID:28706677

  6. Host-Guest Recognition-Assisted Electrochemical Release: Its Reusable Sensing Application Based on DNA Cross Configuration-Fueled Target Cycling and Strand Displacement Reaction Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuanyuan; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2017-08-15

    In this work, an elegantly designed host-guest recognition-assisted electrochemical release was established and applied in a reusable electrochemical biosensor for the detection of microRNA-182-5p (miRNA-182-5p), a prostate cancer biomarker in prostate cancer, based on the DNA cross configuration-fueled target cycling and strand displacement reaction (SDR) amplification. With such a design, the single target miRNA input could be converted to large numbers of single-stranded DNA (S1-Trp and S2-Trp) output, which could be trapped by cucurbit[8]uril methyl viologen (CB-8-MV 2+ ) based on the host-guest recognition, significantly enhancing the sensitivity for miRNA detection. Moreover, the nucleic acids products obtained from the process of cycling amplification could be utilized sufficiently, avoiding the waste and saving the experiment cost. Impressively, by resetting a settled voltage, the proposed biosensor could release S1-Trp and S2-Trp from the electrode surface, attributing that the guest ion methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) was reduced to MV +· under this settled voltage and formed a more-stable CB-8-MV +· -MV +· complex. Once O 2 was introduced in this system, MV +· could be oxidized to MV 2+ , generating the complex of CB-8-MV 2+ for capturing S1-Trp and S2-Trp again in only 5 min. As a result, the simple and fast regeneration of biosensor for target detection was realized on the base of electrochemical redox-driven assembly and release, overcoming the challenges of time-consuming, burdensome operations and expensive experimental cost in traditional reusable biosensors and updating the construction method for a reusable bisensor. Furthermore, the biosensor could be reused for more than 10 times with a regeneration rate of 93.20%-102.24%. After all, the conception of this work provides a novel thought for the construction of effective reusable biosensor to detect miRNA and other biomarkers and has great potential application in the area requiring the release of

  7. Detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using an ON-OFF switching of regenerated biosensor based on a locked nucleic acid-integrated and toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong Feng; Ling, Yu; Lu, Lu; Chen, Ning Yu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2014-03-04

    Although various strategies have been reported for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detection, development of a time-saving, specific, and regenerated electrochemical sensing platform still remains a realistic goal. In this study, an ON-OFF switching of a regenerated biosensor based on a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-integrated and toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction technique is constructed for detection of SNPs. The LNA-integrated and methylene blue-labeled capture probe with an external toehold is designed to switch on the sensing system. The mutant-type DNA probe completes complementary with the capture probe to trigger the strand displacement reaction, which switches off the sensing system. However, when the single-base mismatched wild-type DNA probe is presented, the strand displacement reaction cannot be achieved; therefore, the sensing system still keeps the ON state. This DNA sensor is stable over five reuses. We further testify that the LNA-integrated sequence has better recognition ability for SNPs detection compared to the DNA-integrated sequence. Moreover, this DNA senor exhibits a remarkable discrimination capability of SNPs among abundant wild-type targets and 6000-fold (m/m) excess of genomic DNA. In addition, it is selective enough in complex and contaminant-ridden samples, such as human urine, soil, saliva, and beer. Overall, these results demonstrate that this reliable DNA sensor is easy to be fabricated, simple to operate, and stable enough to be readily regenerated.

  8. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  9. Heat Transfer Analysis and Modification of Thermal Probe for Gas-Solid Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented work aims to measure the gas-solid two-phase mass flow-rate in pneumatic conveyor, and a novel modified thermal probe is applied. A new analysis of the local heat transfer coefficients of thermal probe is presented, while traditional investigations focus on global coefficients. Thermal simulations are performed in Fluent 6.2 and temperature distributions of the probe are presented. The results indicate that the probe has obviously stable and unstable heat transfer areas. Based on understanding of probe characteristics, a modified probe structure is designed, which makes the probe output signal more stable and widens the measuring range. The experiments are carried out in a special designed laboratory scale pneumatic conveyor, and the modified probe shows an unambiguous improvement of the performance compared with the traditional one.

  10. Time series analysis of pressure fluctuation in gas-solid fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alberto S. Felipe

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to study the differentiation of states of typical fluidization (single bubble, multiple bubble and slugging in a gas-solid fluidized bed, using spectral analysis of pressure fluctuation time series. The effects of the method of measuring (differential and absolute pressure fluctuations and the axial position of the probes in the fluidization column on the identification of each of the regimes studied were evaluated. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT was the mathematic tool used to analysing the data of pressure fluctuations, which expresses the behavior of a time series in the frequency domain. Results indicated that the plenum chamber was a place for reliable measurement and that care should be taken in measurement in the dense phase. The method allowed fluid dynamic regimes to be differentiated by their dominant frequency characteristics.

  11. Electrostatic sensors applied to the measurement of electric charge transfer in gas-solids pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, S R; Denham, J C; Armour-Chelu, D I

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a number of electric charge sensors. The sensors have been developed specifically to investigate triboelectric charge transfer which takes place between particles and the pipeline wall, when powdered materials are conveyed through a pipeline using air. A number of industrial applications exist for such gas-solids pipelines, including pneumatic conveyors, vacuum cleaners and dust extraction systems. The build-up of electric charge on pipelines and powdered materials can lead to electrostatic discharge and so is of interest from a safety viewpoint. The charging of powders can also adversely affect their mechanical handling characteristics and so is of interest to handling equipment engineers. The paper presents the design of the sensors, the design of the electric charge test rig and electric charge measurement test results

  12. Revisiting low-fidelity two-fluid models for gas-solids transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Najeem; Adewumi, Michael; Ityokumbul, Thaddeus

    2016-08-01

    Two-phase gas-solids transport models are widely utilized for process design and automation in a broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications include proppant transport in gaseous fracking fluids, air/gas drilling hydraulics, coal-gasification reactors and food processing units. Systems automation and real time process optimization stand to benefit a great deal from availability of efficient and accurate theoretical models for operations data processing. However, modeling two-phase pneumatic transport systems accurately requires a comprehensive understanding of gas-solids flow behavior. In this study we discuss the prevailing flow conditions and present a low-fidelity two-fluid model equation for particulate transport. The model equations are formulated in a manner that ensures the physical flux term remains conservative despite the inclusion of solids normal stress through the empirical formula for modulus of elasticity. A new set of Roe-Pike averages are presented for the resulting strictly hyperbolic flux term in the system of equations, which was used to develop a Roe-type approximate Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is stable regardless of the choice of flux-limiter. The model is evaluated by the prediction of experimental results from both pneumatic riser and air-drilling hydraulics systems. We demonstrate the effect and impact of numerical formulation and choice of numerical scheme on model predictions. We illustrate the capability of a low-fidelity one-dimensional two-fluid model in predicting relevant flow parameters in two-phase particulate systems accurately even under flow regimes involving counter-current flow.

  13. Wall-to-bed heat transfer in gas-solid fluidized beds: a computational and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, D.J.; Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The wall-to-bed heat transfer in gas-solid fluidized beds is mainly determined by phenomena prevailing in a thermal boundary layer with a thickness in the order of magnitude of the size of a single particle. In this thermal boundary layer the temperature gradients are very steep and the local

  14. Influence of Bubble-Bubble interactions on the macroscale circulation patterns in a bubbling gas-solid fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The macro-scale circulation patterns in the emulsion phase of a gas-solid fluidized bed in the bubbling regime have been studied with a 3D Discrete Bubble Model. It has been shown that bubble-bubble interactions strongly influence the extent of the solids circulation and the bubble size

  15. Origin of melting point depression for rare gas solids confined in carbon pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Kataoka, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    To obtain insights into the mechanism of the melting-point depression of rare gas solids confined in crystalline carbon pores, we examined the freezing and melting behavior of Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline pores of ordered mesoporous carbons as well as compressed exfoliated graphite compared to the amorphous pores of ordered mesoporous silicas, by means of X-ray diffraction. For the Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline carbon pores, there was no appreciable thermal hysteresis between freezing and melting. Furthermore, the position of the main diffraction peak did not change appreciably on freezing and melting. This strongly suggests that the liquids confined in the carbon pores form a multilayered structure parallel to the smooth walls. For the Xe and Ar confined to the amorphous silica pores, on the other hand, the position of the main diffraction peak shifted into higher scattering angle on freezing suggested that the density of the confined solid is distinctly larger than for the confined liquid. Using compressed exfoliated graphite with carbon walls of higher crystallinity, we observed that three-dimensional (3D) microcrystals of Xe confined in the slit-shaped pores melted to leave the unmelted bilayers on the pore walls below the bulk triple point. The lattice spacing of the 3D microcrystals confined is larger by ∼0.7% than that of the bilayer next to the pore walls in the vicinity of the melting point

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies on the gas/solid/gas transformation cycle in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Hervé; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Chaquin, Patrick; Raulin, François; Bénilan, Yves

    2001-12-01

    The ubiquity of molecular material in the universe, from hydrogen to complex organic matter, is the result of intermixed physicochemical processes that have occurred throughout history. In particular, the gas/solid/gas phase transformation cycle plays a key role in chemical evolution of organic matter from the interstellar medium to planetary systems. This paper focuses on two examples that are representative of the diversity of environments where such transformations occur in the Solar System: (1) the photolytic evolution from gaseous to solid material in methane containing planetary atmospheres and (2) the degradation of high molecular weight compounds into gas phase molecules in comets. We are currently developing two programs which couple experimental and theoretical studies. The aim of this research is to provide data necessary to build models in order to better understand (1) the photochemical evolution of Titan's atmosphere, through a laboratory program to determine quantitative spectroscopic data on long carbon chain molecules (polyynes) obtained in the SCOOP program (French acronym for Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds Oriented for Planetology), and (2) the extended sources in comets, through a laboratory program of quantitative studies of photochemical and thermal degradation processes on relevant polymers (e.g., Polyoxymethylene) by the SEMAPhOrE Cometaire program (French acronym for Experimental Simulation and Modeling Applied to Organic Chemistry in Cometary Environment).

  17. Numerical simulation of gas-solid two-phase flow in U-beam separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X Y; Chen, X P; Dou, H S; Zhang, H Z; Ruan, J M

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation is carried out for gas-solid two-phase flow in a U-beam separator. In this study, the U-beam is altered with the inlet fins in order to improve the performance of the separator. The inlet fin angle of the separator are 30°, 35°, 40°, 45°, 50°, 55 ° and 60°. The governing equations are the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with the standard k-ε model and the discrete phase model (DPM) describing the discrete two - phase flow as well as stochastic tracking model. Results show that the pressure drop deviation with fins is within 3% from those without fins. It is found that there is a maximum separation efficiency at the fin angle of 35°. Fin induces generation of a stagnation region which could collect particles and lead to change of vortical structures. The fin induced flow also causes the turbulent intensity inside the baffle to decrease to facilitate separation

  18. Origin of melting point depression for rare gas solids confined in carbon pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu, E-mail: morishi@chem.ous.ac.jp; Kataoka, Takaaki [Department of Chemistry, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2015-07-21

    To obtain insights into the mechanism of the melting-point depression of rare gas solids confined in crystalline carbon pores, we examined the freezing and melting behavior of Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline pores of ordered mesoporous carbons as well as compressed exfoliated graphite compared to the amorphous pores of ordered mesoporous silicas, by means of X-ray diffraction. For the Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline carbon pores, there was no appreciable thermal hysteresis between freezing and melting. Furthermore, the position of the main diffraction peak did not change appreciably on freezing and melting. This strongly suggests that the liquids confined in the carbon pores form a multilayered structure parallel to the smooth walls. For the Xe and Ar confined to the amorphous silica pores, on the other hand, the position of the main diffraction peak shifted into higher scattering angle on freezing suggested that the density of the confined solid is distinctly larger than for the confined liquid. Using compressed exfoliated graphite with carbon walls of higher crystallinity, we observed that three-dimensional (3D) microcrystals of Xe confined in the slit-shaped pores melted to leave the unmelted bilayers on the pore walls below the bulk triple point. The lattice spacing of the 3D microcrystals confined is larger by ∼0.7% than that of the bilayer next to the pore walls in the vicinity of the melting point.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Ding, T.; Miao, J. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems.

  20. Stochastic four-way coupling of gas-solid flows for Large Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Thomas; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend

    2017-11-01

    The interaction of solid particles with turbulence has for long been a topic of interest for predicting the behavior of industrially relevant flows. For the turbulent fluid phase, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods are widely used for their low computational cost, leaving only the sub-grid scales (SGS) of turbulence to be modelled. Although LES has seen great success in predicting the behavior of turbulent single-phase flows, the development of LES for turbulent gas-solid flows is still in its infancy. This contribution aims at constructing a model to describe the four-way coupling of particles in an LES framework, by considering the role particles play in the transport of turbulent kinetic energy across the scales. Firstly, a stochastic model reconstructing the sub-grid velocities for the particle tracking is presented. Secondly, to solve particle-particle interaction, most models involve a deterministic treatment of the collisions. We finally introduce a stochastic model for estimating the collision probability. All results are validated against fully resolved DNS-DPS simulations. The final goal of this contribution is to propose a global stochastic method adapted to two-phase LES simulation where the number of particles considered can be significantly increased. Financial support from PetroBras is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Study of Parameters Effect on Hydrodynamics of a Gas-Solid Chamber Experimentally and Numerically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh Hassan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, gas velocity, initial static bed height and particle size effect on hydrodynamics of a non-reactive gas–solid fluidized bed chamber were studied experimentally and computationally. A multi fluid Eulerian model incorporating the kinetic theory for solid particles was applied to simulate the unsteady state behavior of this chamber and momentum exchange coefficients were calculated by using the Syamlal- O’Brien drag functions. Simulation results were compared with the experimental data in order to validate the CFD model. Pressure drops predicted by the simulations at different particle sizes and initial static bed height were in good agreement with experimental measurements at superficial gas velocity higher than the minimum fluidization velocity. Simulation results also indicated that small bubbles were produced at the bottom of the bed. These bubbles collided with each other as they moved upwards forming larger bubbles. Furthermore, this comparison showed that the model can predict hydrodynamic behavior of gas solid fluidized bed chambers reasonably well.

  2. Numerical simulation of the gas-solid flow in a square circulating fluidized bed with secondary air injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhengyang [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Post-doctor Station of Civil Engineering; Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.; Sun, Shaozeng; Zhao, Ningbo; Wu, Shaohua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.; Tan, Yufei [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of gas-solid flow in an experimental square circulating fluidized bed setup (0.25 m x 0.25 m x 6.07 m) is predicted with numerical simulation based on the theory of Euler-Euler gas-solid two-phase flow and the kinetic theory of granular flows. The simulation includes the operation cases with secondary injection and without air-staging. The pressure drop profile, local solids concentration and particle velocity was compared with experimental results. Both simulation and experimental results show that solids concentration increases significantly below the secondary air injection ports when air-staging is adopted. Furthermore, the flow asymmetry in the solid entrance region of the bed was investigated based on the particle concentration/velocity profile. The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results qualitatively.

  3. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  4. Development of a Reduced-Order Model for Reacting Gas-Solids Flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Dwayne [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Dulikravich, George [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Cizmas, Paul [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks and accomplishments made during the three year duration of this research project. The report presents the results obtained by applying advanced computational techniques to develop reduced-order models (ROMs) in the case of reacting multiphase flows based on high fidelity numerical simulation of gas-solids flow structures in risers and vertical columns obtained by the Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) software. The research includes a numerical investigation of reacting and non-reacting gas-solids flow systems and computational analysis that will involve model development to accelerate the scale-up process for the design of fluidization systems by providing accurate solutions that match the full-scale models. The computational work contributes to the development of a methodology for obtaining ROMs that is applicable to the system of gas-solid flows. Finally, the validity of the developed ROMs is evaluated by comparing the results against those obtained using the MFIX code. Additionally, the robustness of existing POD-based ROMs for multiphase flows is improved by avoiding non-physical solutions of the gas void fraction and ensuring that the reduced kinetics models used for reactive flows in fluidized beds are thermodynamically consistent.

  5. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  7. Eulerian numerical simulation of gas-solid flows with several particles species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino-Palacios, G.

    2007-11-01

    The simulation of the multiphase flows is currently an important scientific, industrial and economic challenge. The objective of this work is to improve comprehension via simulations of poly-dispersed flows and contribute the modeling and characterizing of its hydrodynamics. The study of gas-solid systems involves the models that takes account the influence of the particles and the effects of the collisions in the context of the momentum transfer. This kind of study is covered on the framework of this thesis. Simulations achieved with the Saturne-polyphasique-Tlse code, developed by Electricite de France and co-worked with the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, allowed to confirm the feasibility of approach CFD for the hydrodynamic study of the injectors and dense fluidized beds. The stages of validation concern, on the one hand, the placement of the tool for simulation in its current state to make studies of validation and sensitivity of the models and to compare the numerical results with the experimental data. In addition, the development of new physical models and their establishments in the code Saturne will allow the optimization of the industrial process. To carry out this validation in a satisfactory way, a key simulation is made, in particular a monodisperse injection and the radial force of injection in the case of a poly-disperse flow, as well as the fluidization of a column made up of solid particles. In this last case, one approached three configurations of dense fluidized beds, in order to study the influence of the grid on simulations; then, one simulates the operation of a dense fluidized bed with which one characterizes the segregation between two various species of particles. The study of the injection of the poly-disperse flows presents two configurations; a flow Co-current gas-particle in gas (Case Hishida), and in addition, a poly-phase flow in a configuration of the jet type confined with zones of recirculation and stagnation (case

  8. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O' hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

    2005-06-04

    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  9. A novel single fluorophore-labeled double-stranded oligonucleotide probe for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection based on the inherent quenching ability of deoxyguanosine bases and competitive strand-displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingwei; Tian, Jingqi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Sun, Xuping

    2012-01-01

    We develop a novel single fluorophore-labeled double-stranded oligonucleotide (OND) probe for rapid, nanostructure-free, fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection for the first time. We further demonstrate such probe is able to well discriminate single-base mutation in nucleic acid. The design takes advantage of an inherent quenching ability of guanine bases. The short strand of the probe is designed with an end-labeled fluorophore that is placed adjacent to two guanines as the quencher located on the long opposite strand, resulting in great quenching of dye fluorescence. In the presence of a target complementary to the long strand of the probe, a competitive strand-displacement reaction occurs and the long strand forms a more stable duplex with the target, resulting in the two strands of the probe being separated from each other. As a consequence of this displacement, the fluorophore and the quencher are no longer in close proximity and dye fluorescence increases, signaling the presence of target.

  10. Study of gas-solid contact in an ultra-rapid reactor for cumene catalytic cracking; Etude du contact gaz-solide dans un reacteur a co-courant descendant par la mise en oeuvre du craquage catalytique du cumene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, J

    1996-11-05

    Few studies have been carried out on the notion of gas-solid contact in ultra-rapid reactors. Both gas and solid move in the reactor and the contact can be directly estimated when using a chemical reaction such as cumene cracking. It`s a pure and light feedstock whose kinetics can be determined in a fixed bed. The study was carried out on a downflow ultra-rapid reactor (ID = 20 mm, length = 1 m) at the University of Western Ontario. It proved that the quench and the ultra-rapid separation of gas and solid must be carefully designed in the pilot plant. Cumene conversion dropped when reducing gas-solid contact, which led to push the temperature over 550 deg. C and increase the cat/oil ratio at 25 working at solid mass fluxes below 85 kg/m{sup 2}.s. Change of selectivity at very short residence time were also observed due to deactivation effects. Experiments made by Roques (1994) with phosphorescent pigments on the Residence Time Distribution of solids gave Hydrodynamic data on a cold flow copy of the pilot plant. Experiments made on packed bed gave kinetic data on the cracking of cumene. These data were combined to optimize a mono dimensional plug flow model for cumene cracking. (author)

  11. Numerical Simulation of Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flow for Four-Channels Pulverized Swirling Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mathematical model of cold gas-solid two-phase flow which is based on the cement rotary kiln in service. By altering the parameters of air supply system of four- channels pulverized burner, investigations are taken of that motion trajectory and particle distributions in the very turbulent field. The results show that motion trail of most particles in rotary kiln is a combination process of gradual diffusion and slow sedimentation; increasing internal flow velocity would aggravate coal particles to diffuse; external flow velocity should be controlled in a reasonable range.

  12. An investigation of particle behavior in gas-solid horizontal pipe flow by an extended LDA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong Lu; Donald H. Glass; William J. Easson [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Institute for Materials and Processes

    2009-12-15

    An extended Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique has been developed to measure the distributions of particle velocities and particle number rates over a whole pipe cross-section in a dilute pneumatic conveying system. The first extension concentrates on the transform matrix for predicting the laser beams' cross point in a pipe according to the shift coordinate of the 3D computer-controlled traverse system on which the probes of the LDA system were mounted. The second focuses on the proper LDA sample rate for the measurement of gas-solid pipe flow with polydisperse particles. A suitable LDA sample rate should ensure that enough data is recorded in the measurement interval to precisely calculate the particle mean velocity or other statistical values at every sample point. The present study explores the methodology as well as the fundamentals of measurements, using a laser facility, of the cross-sectional distributions of solid phase. In the horizontal gas-solid pipe flow (glass beads less than 110 {mu}m), the experimental data show that the cross-sectional flow patterns of the solid phase can be classified by annulus-like flow describing the axial particle velocity contours and stratified flow characterising particle number rate distribution over a cross-section. Thus, the cross-sectional flow pattern of the solid phase in a horizontal pipe may be annular or stratified dependent on whether the axial particle velocity or particle number rate is the phenomenon studied. 13 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  14. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  15. Modeling of Chemical Reactions in Afterburning for the Reduction of N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Glarborg, Peter; Leckner, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Full scale tests in a 12 MW fluidized bed combustor on reduction of N2O by secondary fuel injection are analyzed in terms a model that involves a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas phase chemistry as well as a description of gas-solid reactions.......Full scale tests in a 12 MW fluidized bed combustor on reduction of N2O by secondary fuel injection are analyzed in terms a model that involves a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas phase chemistry as well as a description of gas-solid reactions....

  16. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  17. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method for NKG2D and NKG2F single-nucleotide polymorphism typing using isothermal multiple displacement amplification products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmanee, M; Phoksawat, W; Romphruk, A; Romphruk, A V; Jumnainsong, A; Leelayuwat, C

    2013-06-01

    Natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) on immune effector cells recognizes multiple stress-inducible ligands. NKG2D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes were related to the levels of cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Indeed, these polymorphisms were also located in NKG2F. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) is used for whole genome amplification (WGA) that can amplify very small genomic DNA templates into microgram with whole genome coverage. This is particularly useful in the cases of limited amount of valuable DNA samples requiring multi-locus genotyping. In this study, we evaluated the quality and applicability of IMDA to genetic studies in terms of sensitivity, efficiency of IMDA re-amplification and stability of IMDA products. The smallest amount of DNA to be effectively amplified by IMDA was 200 pg yielding final DNA of approximately 16 µg within 1.5 h. IMDA could be re-amplified only once (second round of amplification), and could be kept for 5 months at 4°C and more than a year at -20°C without loosing genome coverage. The amplified products were used successfully to setup a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer for SNP typing of the NKG2D/F genes. The NKG2D/F multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contained six PCR mixtures for detecting 10 selected SNPs, including 8 NKG2D/F SNP haplotypes and 2 additional NKG2D coding SNPs. This typing procedure will be applicable in both clinical and research laboratories. Thus, our data provide useful information and limitations for utilization of genome-wide amplification using IMDA and its application for multiplex NKG2D/F typing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Displacement and exchange reactions in radioanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, P.C.A.

    1980-09-01

    The use of a non-specific reagent in liquid-liquid extraction has proved to be convenient for activation analysis as well as for isotope dilute measurements. Computer programs have been developed to calculate the extraction yields from known initial concentrations and to calculate the initial concentrations from the results of a radiometric titration in a two phase system. (Auth.)

  19. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  20. Modelling of non-catalytic reactors in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor: Dry, regenerative flue gas desulphurization using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-phase dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe the steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In this reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with as downward-flowing dilute solids phase

  1. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  2. Effects of Interfacial Reaction on the Radial Displacement of Oil by Alkaline Solutions Effets des réactions interfaciales sur le déplacement radial de l'huile par les solutions alcalines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Caustic flooding is frequently used to recover acidic oils in secondary and tertiary recovery modes. This study examines the secondary recovery of an acidic oil by alkaline solutions in a water-wet porous medium using a radial geometry. A model porous medium consisting of sintered glass beads sandwiched between two glass plates was employed to visualize the displacement process. The medium was originally saturated with the oil phase, namely paraffin oil (non-reacting system or paraffin oil doped with 1 wt% linoleic acid (reacting system. The effects of the injection flow rate and the NaOH concentration in the aqueous phase on the displacement pattern were studied experimentally. The volumetric oil recovery at the breakthrough condition was also measured. Dynamic interfacial tension (IFT measurements for the reacting system were measured in a spinning drop tensiometer. A drastic drop in the IFT occurred as a result of the chemical reaction at the interface between the linoleic acid in the oil phase and the NaOH in the aqueous phase. It was also found that the IFT behavior with respect to time was a function of NaOH concentration with a maximum interfacial activity (minimum IFT occurring at 0. 1 w% NaOH. Displacement runs showed a significant change in the displacement patterns during secondary recovery for the reacting system compared with those for the non-reacting one. A significant drop in the breakthrough recovery was obtained for the reacting systems, especially at high injection flow rates. The breakthrough recovery of the reacting system was found to be a function of NaOH concentration in the aqueous phase, with a minimum recovery at NaOH concentration of 0. 1 wt%. On a souvent recours à la submersion par des produits alcalins pour récupérer les acides gras dans les modes secondaire et tertiaire. Dans cette étude, on examine la récupération secondaire d'un acide gras par des solutions alcalines dans un milieu poreux imprégné d

  3. Volatile organic compound adsorption in a gas-solid fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y L; Yan, R; Tsen, L T S; Yong, L C; Liu, M; Liang, D T

    2004-01-01

    Fluidization finds many process applications in the areas of catalytic reactions, drying, coating, combustion, gasification and microbial culturing. This work aims to compare the dynamic adsorption characteristics and adsorption rates in a bubbling fluidized bed and a fixed bed at the same gas flow-rate, gas residence time and bed height. Adsorption with 520 ppm methanol and 489 ppm isobutane by the ZSM-5 zeolite of different particle size in the two beds enabled the differentiation of the adsorption characteristics and rates due to bed type, intraparticle mass transfer and adsorbate-adsorbent interaction. Adsorption of isobutane by the more commonly used activated carbon provided the comparison of adsorption between the two adsorbent types. With the same gas residence time of 0.79 seconds in both the bubbling bed and fixed bed of the same bed size of 40 mm diameter and 48 mm height, the experimental results showed a higher rate of adsorption in the bubbling bed as compared to the fixed bed. Intraparticle mass transfer and adsorbent-adsorbate interaction played significant roles in affecting the rate of adsorption, with intraparticle mass transfer being more dominant. The bubbling bed was observed to have a steeper decline in adsorption rate with respect to increasing outlet concentration compared to the fixed bed. The adsorption capacities of zeolite for the adsorbates studied were comparatively similar in both beds; fluidizing, and using smaller particles in the bubbling bed did not increase the adsorption capacity of the ZSM-5 zeolite. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon for isobutane was much higher than the ZSM-5 zeolite for isobutane, although at a lower adsorption rate. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool for the quantification of gas concentration. Calibration was done using a series of standards prepared by in situ dilution with nitrogen gas, based on the ideal gas law and relating partial pressure to gas

  4. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  5. Identification of defluidization region in a gas-solid fluidized bed using a method based on pressure fluctuation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Parise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications that involve fluidized bed operations must prevent the undesirable phenomenon of partial or complete bed defluidization. Defluidization can be avoided by increasing the gas velocity and/or, in some cases, changing the solid feed conditions in the system, provided that the changes in the hydrodynamics of the flow are detected early enough. The use of a technique that can perform an early detection of the defluidization condition in industrial applications is important, in order to avoid the loss of efficiency or even an undesirable shutting down of the process. The objective of this work is to show the application of a method for early detection of the condition where the bed is tending to the defluidization, in a gas-solid fluidized bed flow. The method is based on pressure fluctuation measurements. Experimental tests are carried out using two solid particles: microcrystalline cellulose and sand. Results show that the proposed method is efficient in detecting the fluidization condition in a conventional bubbling bed regime. The potential of application of the technique is also shown for the control of the defluidization phenomenon in industry.

  6. Transport of temperature-velocity covariance in gas-solid flow and its relation to the axial dispersion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Sun, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The presence of solid particles in a steady laminar flow generates velocity fluctuations with respect to the mean fluid velocity that are termed pseudo-turbulence. The level of these pseudo-turbulent velocity fluctuations has been characterized in statistically homogeneous fixed particle assemblies and freely evolving suspensions using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) by Mehrabadi et al. (JFM, 2015), and it is found to be a significant contribution to the total kinetic energy associated with the flow. The correlation of these velocity fluctuations with temperature (or a passive scalar) generates a flux term that appears in the transport equation for the average fluid temperature (or average scalar concentration). The magnitude of this transport of temperature-velocity covariance is quantified using PR-DNS of thermally fully developed flow past a statistically homogeneous fixed assembly of particles, and the budget of the average fluid temperature equation is presented. The relation of this transport term to the axial dispersion coefficient (Brenner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 1980) is established. The simulation results are then interpreted in the context of our understanding of axial dispersion in gas-solid flow. NSF CBET 1336941.

  7. Experimental investigation of attrition resistance of zeolite catalysts in two particle gas-solid-solid fluidization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Z.; Ziaoping, T.; Shu, Q.; Wei, F.; Naveed, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the study of mechanical degradation of 34 ZSM-5 and SAPO catalysts, using the gas jet attrition - ASTM standard fluidized bed test (D-5757), the effect of particle size and its quantitative analysis in co-fluidization environment was investigated on the air jet index (AJI) basis. In gas-solid-solid fluidized bed reactors (GSS-FBR), two different sized particles were fluidized under isothermal conditions. In case of ZSM-5 and SAPO-34, significant attrition resistance was observed, which was attributed to small pore size and specific structural strength of the mobile framework image (MFI) and chabasite (CHA) structures, respectively. The optimum AJI for SAPO-34 and ZSM-5 (of particle size 0.2 mm) in GSS-fluidization system was observed to be 0.0118 and 0.0062, respectively. In co-fluidization, deviations from Gwyn relationship were observed due to change in impact of collision. Therefore, zeolites are recommended as suitable catalysts or catalytic supports (for doping of expensive metals) and for commercial use in GSS-FBR. (author)

  8. Effect of the heating rate on the microstructure of in situ Al2O3 particle-reinforced Al matrix composites prepared via displacement reactions in an Al/CuO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ge; Shi, Zhiming; Ta, Na; Ji, Guojun; Zhang, Ruiying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The heating rate has a significant effect on the microstructures of composites. • The microstructure is determined by the diffusion rate of O and Cu in the heating stage. • The diffusion of Cu and O atoms is influenced by the heating rate. • With increasing heating rate, the Al 2 O 3 particle distribution becomes more uniformly. • With increasing heating rate, the form of Al 2 Cu changes from network to block-like. - Abstract: In this study, an in situ Al 2 O 3 particle-reinforced Al(Cu) matrix composite was successfully synthesized using a displacement reaction between Al and CuO powders. The powders were mixed at a weight ratio of 4:1 Al to CuO, cold-pressed and holding time at 900 °C for 1 h using varying heating rates. The effects of the heating rate on the microstructures of the composites were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (MO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that all of the composites contain Al, Al 2 O 3 particles and Al 2 Cu phases. Although the heating rate does not significantly affect the phase compositions of the composites, it has a significant effect on their microstructures, most likely because it strongly influences the diffusion rates of the Cu and O atoms. As the heating rate is increased, the Al 2 O 3 particles become more dispersed, and they have a more uniform particle size distribution. Meanwhile, the Al 2 Cu structure transforms from the network (Al + Al 2 Cu) eutectic to the block-like Al 2 Cu phase. The ∼2 μm Al 2 O 3 particles and the block-like Al 2 Cu phase are distributed uniformly in the Al matrix when the sample is placed directly into a 900 °C furnace. This sample has a relative higher Rockwell hardness B (HRB) value of 87

  9. Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-12-02

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.

  10. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on the Gas-Solid Coupling of the Aerostatic Thrust Bearing with Elastic Equalizing Pressure Groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of low stiffness of aerostatic bearing, according to the principle of gas-solid coupling, this paper designs a kind of aerostatic thrust bearing with elastic equalizing pressure groove (EEPG and investigates the effect of elastic equalizing pressure groove (EEPG on the stiffness of aerostatic bearing. According to the physical model of the bearing, one deduces the deformation control equation of the elastic equalizing pressure groove and the control equation of gas lubrication, using finite difference method to derive the control equations and coupling calculation. The bearing capacity and stiffness of aerostatic bearing with EEPG in different gas film clearance are obtained. The calculation results show that the stiffness increased by 59%. The results of numerical calculation and experimental results have good consistency, proving the gas-solid coupling method can improve the bearing stiffness.

  11. Performance Characterization of Gas-Solid Cyclone for Separation of Particle from Syngas Produced from Food Waste Gasifier Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osezua O. Ibhadode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel from any biodegradable formation process such as a food waste bio-digester plant is a mixture of several gases such as methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, ammonia (NH3 and impurities like water and dust particles. The results are reported of a parametric study of the process of separation of methane, which is the most important gas in the mixture and usable as a biofuel, from particles and H2S. A cyclone, which is a conventional, economic and simple device for gas-solid separation, is considered based on the modification of three Texas A&M cyclone designs (1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D by the inclusion of an air inlet tube. A parametric sizing is performed of the cyclone for biogas purification, accounting for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and dust particles from the biofuel. The stochiometric oxidation of H2S to form elemental sulphur is considered a useful cyclone design criterion. The proposed design includes geometric parameters and several criteria for quantifying the performance of cyclone separators such as the Lapple Model for minimum particle diameter collected, collection efficiency and pressure drop. For biogas volumetric flow rates between 0 and 1 m/s and inlet flow velocities of 12 m/s, 15 m/s and 18 m/s for the 1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D cyclones, respectively, it is observed that the 2D2D configuration is most economic in terms of sizing (total height and diameter of cyclone. The 1D2D configuration experiences the lowest pressure drop. A design algorithm coupled with a user-friendly graphics interface is developed on the MATLAB platform, providing a tool for sizing and designing suitable cyclones.

  12. Stability analysis of unsaturated soil slope during rainfall infiltration using coupled liquid-gas-solid three-phase model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, most soil slope failures are induced by rainfall infiltration, a process that involves interactions between the liquid phase, gas phase, and solid skeleton in an unsaturated soil slope. In this study, a loosely coupled liquid-gas-solid three-phase model, linking two numerical codes, TOUGH2/EOS3, which is used for water-air two-phase flow analysis, and FLAC3D, which is used for mechanical analysis, was established. The model was validated through a documented water drainage experiment over a sandy column and a comparison of the results with measured data and simulated results from other researchers. The proposed model was used to investigate the features of water-air two-phase flow and stress fields in an unsaturated soil slope during rainfall infiltration. The slope stability analysis was then performed based on the simulated water-air two-phase seepage and stress fields on a given slip surface. The results show that the safety factor for the given slip surface decreases first, then increases, and later decreases until the rainfall stops. Subsequently, a sudden rise occurs. After that, the safety factor decreases continually and reaches its lowest value, and then increases slowly to a steady value. The lowest value does not occur when the rainfall stops, indicating a delayed effect of the safety factor. The variations of the safety factor for the given slip surface are therefore caused by a combination of pore-air pressure, matric suction, normal stress, and net normal stress.

  13. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  14. Simultaneous solution algorithms for Eulerian-Eulerian gas-solid flow models: Stability analysis and convergence behaviour of a point and a plane solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, Juray de; Vierendeels, Jan; Heynderickx, Geraldine J.; Marin, Guy B.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous solution algorithms for Eulerian-Eulerian gas-solid flow models are presented and their stability analyzed. The integration algorithms are based on dual-time stepping with fourth-order Runge-Kutta in pseudo-time. The domain is solved point or plane wise. The discretization of the inviscid terms is based on a low-Mach limit of the multi-phase preconditioned advection upstream splitting method (MP-AUSMP). The numerical stability of the simultaneous solution algorithms is analyzed in 2D with the Fourier method. Stability results are compared with the convergence behaviour of 3D riser simulations. The impact of the grid aspect ratio, preconditioning, artificial dissipation, and the treatment of the source terms is investigated. A particular advantage of the simultaneous solution algorithms is that they allow a fully implicit treatment of the source terms which are of crucial importance for the Eulerian-Eulerian gas-solid flow models and their solution. The numerical stability of the optimal simultaneous solution algorithm is analyzed for different solids volume fractions and gas-solid slip velocities. Furthermore, the effect of the grid resolution on the convergence behaviour and the simulation results is investigated. Finally, simulations of the bottom zone of a pilot-scale riser with a side solids inlet are experimentally validated

  15. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  16. Formation of fine aggregate structure by solid-state displacement reaction of Ti with CoO or NiO. CoO oyobi NiO to Ti kan no koso chikan hanno ni yoru bisai fukugo soshiki no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taimatsu, H; Kaneko, H [Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Mining College; Wada, K [Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Graduate School

    1992-09-20

    As a result of search for systems which have aggregate structures, the displacement reaction products of Ti with CoO or NiO are found to have aggregate structures in which the produced oxides and metals are entangled with each other. The displacement reaction of Ti with CoO or NiO is investigated at the temperature of 1273K. In the reaction of either couple, aggregate products are produced, and reacted layer is observed in the TiO2 matrix wherein Co or Ni phases are three dimensionally entangled in finely dispersed state of micron order. 2 layers of cavitated and dense TiO2 layers are found in the reacted layer. The thicknesses of the reacted layer are not constant according to locations, but thick portions are grown obeying the parabolic rate law. As a result of the study on the possibility of fabricating cermet by the reaction between powders, finely mixed characteristic structures are found to be easily obtained using systems which can produce aggregate structures. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  18. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  19. Development of Millimeter-Wave Velocimetry and Acoustic Time-of-Flight Tomography for Measurements in Densely Loaded Gas-Solid Riser Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, James A.; Pfund, David M.; Sheen, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-04-01

    The MFDRC was formed in 1998 to advance the state-of-the-art in simulating multiphase turbulent flows by developing advanced computational models for gas-solid flows that are experimentally validated over a wide range of industrially relevant conditions. The goal was to transfer the resulting validated models to interested US commercial CFD software vendors, who would then propagate the models as part of new code versions to their customers in the US chemical industry. Since the lack of detailed data sets at industrially relevant conditions is the major roadblock to developing and validating multiphase turbulence models, a significant component of the work involved flow measurements on an industrial-scale riser contributed by Westinghouse, which was subsequently installed at SNL. Model comparisons were performed against these datasets by LANL. A parallel Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) project within the consortium made similar comparisons between riser measurements and models at NETL. Measured flow quantities of interest included volume fraction, velocity, and velocity-fluctuation profiles for both gas and solid phases at various locations in the riser. Some additional techniques were required for these measurements beyond what was currently available. PNNL’s role on the project was to work with the SNL experimental team to develop and test two new measurement techniques, acoustic tomography and millimeter-wave velocimetry. Acoustic tomography is a promising technique for gas-solid flow measurements in risers and PNNL has substantial related experience in this area. PNNL is also active in developing millimeter wave imaging techniques, and this technology presents an additional approach to make desired measurements. PNNL supported the advanced diagnostics development part of this project by evaluating these techniques and then by adapting and developing the selected technology to bulk gas-solids flows and by implementing them for testing in the SNL riser

  20. SF{sub 6} decomposition and layer formation due to excimer laser photoablation of SiO{sub 2} surface at gas-solid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajad, Batool [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, Parviz [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bassam, Mohamad Amin [Excimer Laser Lab, Emam Hussain University, PO Box 16575-4347, Tehrann (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-12-21

    In this work, the effect of an excimer laser has been studied for presenting a method for SF{sub 6} decomposition and simultaneous formation of a SiF{sub 2} layer on amorphous SiO{sub 2}. Though the excimer laser did not establish a gas phase photodissociation, we have shown that UV photoablation leads strongly to molecular decomposition in the SF{sub 6}-SiO{sub 2} system. Moreover, the dependence of the decomposition process on the exposure parameters such as the wavelength and intensity as well as the gas pressure and the focal point distance from the gas-solid interface has been investigated.

  1. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  2. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  3. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter (market orientation......), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to Annemarie Mol’s dichotomy of care......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...

  4. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  5. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  6. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  7. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  8. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  10. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of gas-solid chromatography and MM2 force field molecular binding energies for greenhouse gases on a carbonaceous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R; Bivona, Kevin T; Thomas, Howard E; O'Dell, Casey M

    2009-10-01

    Gas-solid chromatography was used to determine B(2s) (gas-solid virial coefficient) values for eight molecular adsorbates interacting with a carbon powder (Carbopack B, Supelco). B(2s) values were determined by multiple size variant injections within the temperature range of 313-553 K. The molecular adsorbates included: carbon dioxide (CO(2)); tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)); hexafluoroethane (C(2)F(6)); 1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(4)F(2)); 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(3)ClF(2)); dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)); trichlorofluoromethane (CCl(3)F); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)). Two of these molecules are of special interest because they are "super greenhouse gases". The global warming potential, GWP, for CF(4) is 6500 and for C(2)F(6) is 9200 relative to the reference value of 1 for CO(2). The GWP index considers both radiative blocking and molecular lifetime. For these and other industrial greenhouse gases, adsorptive trapping on a carbonaceous solid, which depends on molecule-surface binding energy, could avoid atmospheric release. The temperature variations of the gas-solid virial coefficients in conjunction with van't Hoff plots were used to find the experimental adsorption energy or binding energy values (E(*)) for each adsorbate. A molecular mechanics based, rough-surface model was used to calculate the molecule-surface binding energy (Ecal(*)) using augmented MM2 parameters. The surface model consisted of parallel graphene layers with two separated nanostructures each containing 17 benzene rings arranged in linear strips. The separation of the parallel nanostructures had been optimized in a prior study to appropriately represent molecule-surface interactions for Carbopack B. Linear regressions of E(*) versus Ecal(*) for the current data set of eight molecules and the same surface model gave E(*)=0.926 Ecal(*) and r(2)=0.956. A combined set of the current and prior Carbopack B adsorbates studied (linear alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclic alkanes

  12. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, Nick; Muller, Jocelyn; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-12-01

    to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Displaced women's SOC scores were significantly less than those of the non-displaced: Mean = 54.84; SD = 6.48 in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared to non-displaced urban and rural/pastoralist: Mean = 48. 94, SD = 11.99; t = 3.831, p urban (non-displaced). Rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced--i.e., significantly higher than those in IDP camps (p urban and pastoralist/transhumant groups were similar, while women in IDP camps were lower scoring--RR = .268, p < .001. The implications of these findings for health policy are critical. It is incumbent on the international health institutions including the World Health Organization and regional as well as local players to address the plight of internally displaced women, their families and communities in Eritrea and other places of dire conditions such as, for example Darfur in the Sudan.

  13. Experimental study of the vaporization of a droplets injection in a fluidized gas-solid media; Etude experimentale de la vaporisation d'un jet de goutelettes au contact d'un milieu gaz-solide fluidise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, K.

    2002-09-01

    The quality of feedstock injection in the Fluid Catalytic Process (FCC) is essential to ensure a good vaporization. The vaporization should be fast so that the cracking reaction in the gaseous phase can happen within the short residence time in the riser (a few seconds). Vaporization is helped by a uniform injection of droplets as small as possible as well as a good mixing with the catalyst particles that represent the main heat source. Several models were developed to predict the droplet vaporization in a gas-solid media. However, no experimental validation exists for these models, whose predictions vary (from 1 to several hundreds of milliseconds). The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place during droplet vaporization. This was done in two steps. First, operating limits had to be defined to ensure an optimal vaporization and to avoid local saturation and agglomerate formation. These limits were precisely determined under laboratory conditions to validate a model that showed that agglomeration does not occur under industrial conditions. Then, a kinematic study of vaporization under operating conditions without agglomerate formation was performed. An original measurement technique was developed to get samples at very short times (tens of milliseconds). Experiments showed that heat transfer was not limiting and that mass transfer was the limiting process during vaporization. The developed model was thus based on mass transfer through a boundary layer. The validation of this model in a dense fluidized bed justified its application to operating conditions were the bed voidance is higher. A detailed study of operating parameters will help determine how to improve vaporization. (author)

  14. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  15. Attainment of chemical equilibrium in effusive beam sources of the heterogeneous reaction type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Effusive beam sources derived from gas-solid reactions provide a very important pathway for widening the scope of high temperature thermodynamic studies, but the attainment of chemical equilibrium within these sources is problematical. Some of the underlying kinetic factors associated with the use of these sources are discussed. As one might expect, it is important to maximize the ratio of reactive surface area to exit orifice area. Equilibrium seems to be achieved more readily among the products of gas-solid reactions than among reactant and products, as suggested by the quasi-equilibrium model. Some experiences with the use of heterogeneous reaction sources are described, and two definitive tests for the establishment of equilibrium are outlined

  16. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  17. Solid-solid and gas-solid interactions induced during high-energy milling to produce PbTe nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: rojas_hugo@ittlahuac2.edu.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Tlahuac - II (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica de Ultra Alta Resolucion (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    Transformations from precursors to nanoparticles by high-energy milling are promoted by two major driving forces, namely physical and/or chemical. While the former has been difficult to trace since stress, strain and recovery may occur almost simultaneously during milling, the latter has been sequentially followed as an evolution from precursors to intermediate phases and thereof to high purity nanocrystals. The specific objective of this work is to discern how solid-solid and partially solid-gas reactions manifest themselves correspondingly as a short-range diffusion through an interface or how vapor species, as a subliming phenomenon, grows as a different phase on an active local surface. These series of changes were traced by sub-cooling the as-milled powders extracted during a milling cycle. Through this experimental technique, samples were electron microscopically analyzed and where it was required, selected area electron diffraction images were obtained. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy results, unambiguously, confirm that nanocrystals in the last stage show a cubic morphology which average size distributions are around 17 nm.

  18. Displacement functions for diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

  19. Photochemical Acceleration of DNA Strand Displacement by Using Ultrafast DNA Photo-crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2017-10-18

    DNA strand displacement is an essential reaction in genetic recombination, biological processes, and DNA nanotechnology. In particular, various DNA nanodevices enable complicated calculations. However, it takes time before the output is obtained, so acceleration of DNA strand displacement is required for a rapid-response DNA nanodevice. Herein, DNA strand displacement by using DNA photo-crosslinking to accelerate this displacement is evaluated. The DNA photo-crosslinking of 3-cyanovinylcarbazole ( CNV K) was accelerated at least 20 times, showing a faster DNA strand displacement. The rate of photo-crosslinking is a key factor and the rate of DNA strand displacement is accelerated through ultrafast photo-crosslinking. The rate of DNA strand displacement was regulated by photoirradiation energy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle

  1. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  2. Kinetics of spontaneous displacement of RNA from heteroduplexes by DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, R; Ramamurthi, K S; Sigman, D S

    1996-01-01

    We have used R-loop formation and direct hybridization techniques to analyze the kinetics by which RNA is displaced from a heteroduplex by DNA of identical sequence. Using random walk simulations we were able to calculate the step times for a single displacement reaction. For RNA with a GC content of 57-60% the data indicate an RNA exchange probability of 50.06%, which is indicative of a modest destabilization of the heteroduplex compared with a DNA duplex in the presence of magnesium. The av...

  3. Delignification of softwood kraft pulp by chlorine dioxide in a laboratory bleaching liquor displacement reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Y.; Izadyar, S.

    2008-01-01

    The chlorine dioxide delignification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp in the laboratory liquor displacement reactor (fixed bed reactor) was investigated and compared with conventional batch reactor. The comparison of two reactors was made based on the effective efficiency and overall efficiency of chlorine dioxide. Effective efficiency corresponds to the oxidizing capacity of chlorine dioxide which consumed by organic materials. Comparison of two reactors based on the effective efficiency showed that the selectivity of delignification significantly enhanced in the displacement reactor in which the primary reaction products are eliminated from reaction zone by displacing flow. On the other hand, the formation of high amounts of chlorate in the reaction zone of displacement reactor reduces the overall efficiency of chlorine dioxide delignification stage. Thus, in spite of significant decrease in useless secondary reactions, this type of reactor would not be cost effective in the industrial scale

  4. Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1975-09-01

    Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation

  5. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  6. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  7. Rapid and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-acid Sequence by Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wang; Yan Wang; Ai-Jing Ma; Dong-Xun Li; Li-Juan Luo; Dong-Xin Liu; Dong Jin; Kai Liu; Chang-Yun Ye

    2015-01-01

    We have devised a novel amplification strategy based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which was termed multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA). The approach employed a set of ten specially designed primers spanning ten distinct regions of target sequence and was preceded at a constant temperature (61?65??C). At the assay temperature, the double-stranded DNAs were at dynamic reaction environment of primer-template hybrid, thus the high concentration of primer...

  8. Capillary gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Modern state of gas adsorption chromatography in open capillary columns has been analyzed. The history of the method development and its role in gas chromatography, ways to construct open adsorptional capillary columns, foundations of the theory of retention and washing of chromatographic regions in gas adsorption capillary columns have been considered. The fields is extensively and for analyzing volatile compounds of different isotopic composition, inorganic and organic gases, volatile organic polar compounds, aqueous solutions of organic compounds. Separation of nuclear-spin isomers and isotopes of hydrogen is the first illustrative example of practical application of the adsorption capillary chromatography. It is shown that duration of protium and deuterium nuclear isomers may be reduced if the column temperature is brought to 47 K

  9. Eulerian numerical simulation of gas-solid flows with several particles species; Modelisation numerique eulerienne des ecoulements gaz-solide avec plusieurs especes de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino-Palacios, G

    2007-11-15

    The simulation of the multiphase flows is currently an important scientific, industrial and economic challenge. The objective of this work is to improve comprehension via simulations of poly-dispersed flows and contribute the modeling and characterizing of its hydrodynamics. The study of gas-solid systems involves the models that takes account the influence of the particles and the effects of the collisions in the context of the momentum transfer. This kind of study is covered on the framework of this thesis. Simulations achieved with the Saturne-polyphasique-Tlse code, developed by Electricite de France and co-worked with the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, allowed to confirm the feasibility of approach CFD for the hydrodynamic study of the injectors and dense fluidized beds. The stages of validation concern, on the one hand, the placement of the tool for simulation in its current state to make studies of validation and sensitivity of the models and to compare the numerical results with the experimental data. In addition, the development of new physical models and their establishments in the code Saturne will allow the optimization of the industrial process. To carry out this validation in a satisfactory way, a key simulation is made, in particular a monodisperse injection and the radial force of injection in the case of a poly-disperse flow, as well as the fluidization of a column made up of solid particles. In this last case, one approached three configurations of dense fluidized beds, in order to study the influence of the grid on simulations; then, one simulates the operation of a dense fluidized bed with which one characterizes the segregation between two various species of particles. The study of the injection of the poly-disperse flows presents two configurations; a flow Co-current gas-particle in gas (Case Hishida), and in addition, a poly-phase flow in a configuration of the jet type confined with zones of recirculation and stagnation (case

  10. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  11. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, F.; Le Saulnier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced [fr

  12. Effect of the number of phenyl groups per molecule on the reactivity of hydroxyl or carboxyl group in hydrogen-isotope exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Oguma, Shuichi

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen-exchange reactions in solid alcohols (or solid carboxylic acids) which contain phenyl group(s) in each molecule have been observed in a gas-solid system or liquid-solid system at 40 ≅ 80deg C. The data thus obtained have been analyzed by using the A''-McKay plot method, and 'the acidities based on kinetic logic' have been obtained for those compounds. From the acidities the following four characteristics have been determined. (1) The acidity increases with increases of temperature. (2) The reactivities of carboxylic acids are larger than those of alcohols at any temperature. (3) The effect of the number of phenyl groups on the reactivity of the functional group in the molecule in question is fairly large. (4) Acidity based on kinetic logic can be applied not only to gas-solid reactions, but also to liquid-solid reactions. (orig.)

  13. Inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Fortunato; Iovane, Angelo; Nicosia, Antonio; Candela, Fabrizio; Midiri, Massimo; De Maria, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To define the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of inferomedial displacement of the meniscal fragments. Materials and methods. The MR examinations of the knee performed between December 2002 and April 2004 on 676 patients (mean age 32 years) with knee trauma and subsequently subjected to arthroscopy were retrospectively reviewed to assess the presence of bucket-handle meniscal tear and inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment. The MR examinations were performed using a superconductive 0.5 T MR unit with a transmitting/receiving coil dedicated for the extremities. The MR images were acquired with SE T1 and GE T2 sequences in the sagittal, coronal and axial planes with 3 mm thickness and 1 mm gap. The images were independently reviewed by two authors blinded to the arthroscopy findings. In case of disagreement, a third author, unaware of the arthroscopic findings, gave his judgment. Results. On MR images a bucket-handle meniscal tear was identified in 54/676 patients. In 6 out of 54 patients, an inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement of the medical meniscus with associated inflammatory synovial reaction around the distal insertion of the medial homolateral collateral ligament was detected. All cases were confirmed by arthroscopy and no statistical differences between the two authors were observed. Conclusions. MR allows the detection of the inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement and a more correct planning of arthroscopy with a strong reduction of repeat interventions [it

  14. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  15. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  16. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  17. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  18. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  19. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  20. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  1. Characterization of the energy-dependent uncertainty and correlation in silicon neutron displacement damage metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous treatment of the uncertainty in the underlying nuclear data on silicon displacement damage metrics is presented. The uncertainty in the cross sections and recoil atom spectra are propagated into the energy-dependent uncertainty contribution in the silicon displacement kerma and damage energy using a Total Monte Carlo treatment. An energy-dependent covariance matrix is used to characterize the resulting uncertainty. A strong correlation between different reaction channels is observed in the high energy neutron contributions to the displacement damage metrics which supports the necessity of using a Monte Carlo based method to address the nonlinear nature of the uncertainty propagation.

  2. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  3. Displaced epithelium after liposuction for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cristina S; Petrey, Chris; Grant, Shawn; Ransdell, Jill S; Reynolds, Carol

    2011-08-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.

  4. Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Xu Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)

  5. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  6. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  7. The Displaced ‘Dispositif’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edmonds

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dispositif” is a term used in film studies since the 1970s to describe the entire system of mechanical and human factors which together bring about the cinema experience. It therefore refers to (amongst other things the space of the auditorium, the screen, the projection technology and the physiology of the spectator. Many of its qualifying components are masked from the view of participants in the system. The dispositif’s purpose is to set up the conditions for a specific type of cognitive experience, one which mirrors and extends (and in some readings, controls the experience of its participants. The Displaced Dispositif is a performance designed for the space of a cinema theatre, but featuring the projection of fragments of early silent cinema on a coeval (1910s film projector from the auditorium. The film fragments are live-scored by the sound artist, Shaun Lewin, using a combination of closely mic’d sources on the projector itself, luminance data from the projected image and EEG brainwave data recorded from participants during previous projections of the film. Displacing elements in the dispositif in this way, by shifting modalities, situating in parallel, feeding back and layering, draws attention to its hidden existence and creates the potential for a more knowing and informed participation in the cinema experience. It also serves to demonstrate the degree to which dispositifs of modern cinema spectatorship, which have morphed and proliferated since the widespread digitization of film heritage, have radically altered both the technological and experiential qualities of the medium. By integrating EEG data, the performance adds the dimension of electrophysiological experience to the long tradition within experimental cinema of artists calling attention to Cinema’s hidden structures. As well as challenging the dominance of the worldview propagated by the film industry, the performance also signals a means of re-engaging with the

  8. Approaching population thresholds in presence of uncertainty: Assessing displacement of seabirds from offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Malte; Garthe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is impeded by a lack of evidence regarding species-specific reactions to developed sites and the potential ecological consequences faced by displaced individuals. In this study, we present a method that makes best use of the currently limited understanding of displacement impacts. The combination of a matrix table displaying the full range of potential displacement and mortality levels together with seasonal potential biological removal (PBR) assessments provides a tool that increases confidence in the conclusions of impact assessments. If unrealistic displacement levels and/or mortality rates are required to equal or approach seasonal PBRs, this gives an indication of the likeliness of adverse impacts on the assessed population. This approach is demonstrated by assessing the displacement impacts of an offshore wind farm cluster in the German North Sea on the local common guillemot (Uria aalge) population. - Highlights: • A novel approach for assessing displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is presented making best use of limited data • A displacement matrix approach is linked with PBR analysis to increased confidence in assessment conclusions drawn • A case example demonstrates the applicability of the methods described in practice

  9. Approaching population thresholds in presence of uncertainty: Assessing displacement of seabirds from offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Malte, E-mail: der.malte.busch@gmail.com; Garthe, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of the displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is impeded by a lack of evidence regarding species-specific reactions to developed sites and the potential ecological consequences faced by displaced individuals. In this study, we present a method that makes best use of the currently limited understanding of displacement impacts. The combination of a matrix table displaying the full range of potential displacement and mortality levels together with seasonal potential biological removal (PBR) assessments provides a tool that increases confidence in the conclusions of impact assessments. If unrealistic displacement levels and/or mortality rates are required to equal or approach seasonal PBRs, this gives an indication of the likeliness of adverse impacts on the assessed population. This approach is demonstrated by assessing the displacement impacts of an offshore wind farm cluster in the German North Sea on the local common guillemot (Uria aalge) population. - Highlights: • A novel approach for assessing displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is presented making best use of limited data • A displacement matrix approach is linked with PBR analysis to increased confidence in assessment conclusions drawn • A case example demonstrates the applicability of the methods described in practice.

  10. On the Coulomb displacement energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)

  11. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  12. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  13. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  14. Real-time monitoring of enzyme-free strand displacement cascades by colorimetric assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruixue; Wang, Boya; Hong, Fan; Zhang, Tianchi; Jia, Yongmei; Huang, Jiayu; Hakeem, Abdul; Liu, Nannan; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2015-03-01

    The enzyme-free toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction has shown potential for building programmable DNA circuits, biosensors, molecular machines and chemical reaction networks. Here we report a simple colorimetric method using gold nanoparticles as signal generators for the real-time detection of the product of the strand displacement cascade. During the process the assembled gold nanoparticles can be separated, resulting in a color change of the solution. This assay can also be applied in complex mixtures, fetal bovine serum, and to detect single-base mismatches. These results suggest that this method could be of general utility to monitor more complex enzyme-free strand displacement reaction-based programmable systems or for further low-cost diagnostic applications.The enzyme-free toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction has shown potential for building programmable DNA circuits, biosensors, molecular machines and chemical reaction networks. Here we report a simple colorimetric method using gold nanoparticles as signal generators for the real-time detection of the product of the strand displacement cascade. During the process the assembled gold nanoparticles can be separated, resulting in a color change of the solution. This assay can also be applied in complex mixtures, fetal bovine serum, and to detect single-base mismatches. These results suggest that this method could be of general utility to monitor more complex enzyme-free strand displacement reaction-based programmable systems or for further low-cost diagnostic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and analytical data are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00697j

  15. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  16. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  17. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  18. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  19. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E 29-67. (b) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine...

  20. Sub-ensemble monitoring of DNA strand displacement using multiparameter single-molecule FRET

    OpenAIRE

    Baltierra Jasso, Laura; Morten, Michael; Magennis, Steven William

    2018-01-01

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constan...

  1. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  2. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  3. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Graves, N.J.

    1976-12-01

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included

  4. Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyung Suk; Atkins, Lee T; Jensen, Daniel B; James, C Roger

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of constraining arm swing on the vertical displacement of the body's center of mass (COM) during treadmill walking and examine several common gait variables that may account for or mask differences in the body's COM motion with and without arm swing. Participants included 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 female; age: 27.8 ± 6.8 years). The body's COM displacement, first and second peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs), and lowest VGRF during mid-stance, peak summed bilateral VGRF, lower extremity sagittal joint angles, stride length, and foot contact time were measured with and without arm swing during walking at 1.34 m/s. The body's COM displacement was greater with the arms constrained (arm swing: 4.1 ± 1.2 cm, arm constrained: 4.9 ± 1.2 cm, p reaction force data indicated that the COM displacement increased in both double limb and single limb stance. However, kinematic patterns visually appeared similar between conditions. Shortened stride length and foot contact time also were observed, although these do not seem to account for the increased COM displacement. However, a change in arm COM acceleration might have contributed to the difference. These findings indicate that a change in arm swing causes differences in vertical COM displacement, which could increase energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  6. Strand Displacement by DNA Polymerase III Occurs through a τ-ψ-χ Link to Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Coating the Lagging Strand Template*

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of γ-complex to support the reaction in the absence of τ. However, if γ-complex is p...

  7. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  8. Displacement of group III, IV, V, and VI impurities in Si by the analyzing beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggers, L.W.; Saris, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    By means of 2MeV He + backscattering and 1.5 MeV H + backscattering and nuclear reaction analysis in combination with the channeling technique displacement of impurity atoms in Si from substitutional into non-substitutional positions under bombardment is studied. In this paper the authors report on the displacement of Ga, Ge, P, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te in Si single crystals. It appears that displacement of impurity atoms is not an exception but almost a rule. The only element for which an effect was not found was Ge. Values for the displacement rate were derived and appeared to be, with the exception for Ge, all of the same order of magnitude. (Auth.)

  9. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VI. Displacement of aryl fluorine in diazonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.C.; Oesterling, R.E.

    1956-01-01

    Several chlorofluorobenzenes have been isolated from the Schiemann synthesis of fluorobenzenes. These have been shown to be the products of two side reactions occurring during thermal decomposition of the dry benzenediazonium fluoborate salt containing coprecipitated sodium chloride, an unavoidable contaminant in large preparations involving the use of hydrochloric acid and sodium fluoborate. The major side reaction and its chloro product were unexpected; a unique displacement of fluorine ortho to the diazonium group was observed. Replacement of the diazo group with chlorine was the predicted side reaction which proved to be minor. Conditions causing the side reactions and the isolation and identification of the products are described.

  10. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  11. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The “geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is ... an attitude is also close to the chemical thinking ..... These vectors explicitly define the corresponding ..... chain-rule for implicit functionals: p p. N p.

  12. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  13. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  14. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  15. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  16. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  17. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  18. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  19. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  20. The Psychological Impact from Hurricane Katrina: Effects of Displacement and Trauma Exposure on University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the…

  1. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  2. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  3. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  4. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  5. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: uu_gg_oo@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, C.U. Del. Coyoacan (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. {yields} During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. {yields} Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  6. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, H.; Reyes-Carmona, F.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. → During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. → Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  7. Observation of an Aligned Gas - Solid "Eutectic" during Controlled Directional Solidification Aboard the International Space Station - Comparison with Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Direct observation of the controlled melting and solidification of succinonitrile was conducted in the glovebox facility of the International Space Station (ISS). The experimental samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with pure succinonitrile (SCN) in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 450 millibar pressure for eventual processing in the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus in the glovebox facility (GBX) on board the ISS. Real time visualization during controlled directional melt back of the sample showed nitrogen bubbles emerging from the interface and moving through the liquid up the imposed temperature gradient. Over a period of time these bubbles disappear by dissolving into the melt. Translation is stopped after melting back of about 9 cm of the sample, with an equilibrium solid-liquid interface established. During controlled re-solidification, aligned tubes of gas were seen growing perpendicular to the planar solid/liquid interface, inferring that the nitrogen previously dissolved into the liquid SCN was now coming out at the solid/liquid interface and forming the little studied liquid = solid + gas eutectic-type reaction. The observed structure is evaluated in terms of spacing dimensions, interface undercooling, and mechanisms for spacing adjustments. Finally, the significance of processing in a microgravity environment is ascertained in view of ground-based results.

  8. Sequential strand displacement beacon for detection of DNA coverage on functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwoda, Rebecca E; Li, Feng; Reid, Michael S; Lin, Yanwen; Le, X Chris

    2014-06-17

    Functionalizing nanomaterials for diverse analytical, biomedical, and therapeutic applications requires determination of surface coverage (or density) of DNA on nanomaterials. We describe a sequential strand displacement beacon assay that is able to quantify specific DNA sequences conjugated or coconjugated onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Unlike the conventional fluorescence assay that requires the target DNA to be fluorescently labeled, the sequential strand displacement beacon method is able to quantify multiple unlabeled DNA oligonucleotides using a single (universal) strand displacement beacon. This unique feature is achieved by introducing two short unlabeled DNA probes for each specific DNA sequence and by performing sequential DNA strand displacement reactions. Varying the relative amounts of the specific DNA sequences and spacing DNA sequences during their coconjugation onto AuNPs results in different densities of the specific DNA on AuNP, ranging from 90 to 230 DNA molecules per AuNP. Results obtained from our sequential strand displacement beacon assay are consistent with those obtained from the conventional fluorescence assays. However, labeling of DNA with some fluorescent dyes, e.g., tetramethylrhodamine, alters DNA density on AuNP. The strand displacement strategy overcomes this problem by obviating direct labeling of the target DNA. This method has broad potential to facilitate more efficient design and characterization of novel multifunctional materials for diverse applications.

  9. On the biophysics and kinetics of toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Sulc, Petr; Schaeffer, Joseph M; Yurke, Bernard; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K; Winfree, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic DNA nanotechnology often uses toehold-mediated strand displacement for controlling reaction kinetics. Although the dependence of strand displacement kinetics on toehold length has been experimentally characterized and phenomenologically modeled, detailed biophysical understanding has remained elusive. Here, we study strand displacement at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1D energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates 3D geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Two factors explain the dependence of strand displacement kinetics on toehold length: (i) the physical process by which a single step of branch migration occurs is significantly slower than the fraying of a single base pair and (ii) initiating branch migration incurs a thermodynamic penalty, not captured by state-of-the-art nearest neighbor models of DNA, due to the additional overhang it engenders at the junction. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for hybridization, fraying and branch migration, and they provide a biophysical explanation of strand displacement kinetics. Our work paves the way for accurate modeling of strand displacement cascades, which would facilitate the simulation and construction of more complex molecular systems.

  10. A coupled mechanical-chemical model for reflecting the influence of stress on oxidation reactions in thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yueming, Li

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a coupled mechanical-chemical model is established based on the thermodynamic framework, in which the contribution of chemical expansion to free energy is introduced. The stress-dependent chemical potential equilibrium at the gas-solid interface and the stress gradient-dependent diffusion equation as well as a so-called generalized force which is conjugate to the oxidation rate are derived from the proposed model, which could reflect the influence of stresses on the oxidation reaction. Based on the proposed coupled mechanical-chemical model, a user element subroutine is developed in ABAQUS. The numerical simulation of the high temperature oxidation in the thermal barrier coating is carried out to verify the accuracy of the proposed model, and then the influence of stresses on the oxidation reaction is investigated. In thermally grown oxide, the considerable stresses would be induced by permanent volumetric swelling during the oxidation. The stresses play an important role in the chemical potential equilibrium at the gas-solid interface and strongly affect the oxidation reaction. The gradient of the stresses, however, only occurs in the extremely thin oxidation front layer, which plays a very limited role in the oxidation reaction. The generalized force could be divided into the stress-dependent and the stress-independent parts. Comparing with the stress-independent part, the stress-dependent part is smaller, which has little influence on oxidation reaction.

  11. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  12. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  13. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  14. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  15. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

    1981-11-27

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

  16. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  17. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  18. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  19. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  20. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  1. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  2. Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.

    1994-06-01

    Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO 3 and KTaO 3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

  3. Page | 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    development remain one of the greatest concerns of human beings globally.4. This urbanization which most often result in conflicts, ethnic violence, communal rife and clashes, and incessant tussle for natural and artificial resources, has also contributed to the displacement of persons. * By Obinna MBANUGO, LLM, BL, ...

  4. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  5. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  6. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  7. Microbial adhesion in flow displacement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    Flow displacement systems are superior to many other (static) systems for studying microbial adhesion to surfaces because mass transport and prevailing shear conditions can be adequately controlled and notoriously ill-defined slight rinsing steps to remove so-called "loosely adhering organisms" can

  8. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  9. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  10. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  11. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  12. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  13. Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Bo

    2010-01-01

    An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

  14. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  15. Toehold-Mediated Displacement of an Adenosine-Binding Aptamer from a DNA Duplex by its Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserud, Jon H; Macri, Katherine M; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2016-10-24

    DNA is increasingly used to engineer dynamic nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors, many of which rely on DNA strand-displacement reactions. The use of functional DNA sequences (e.g., aptamers, which bind to a wide range of ligands) in these reactions would potentially confer responsiveness on such devices, and integrate DNA computation with highly varied molecular stimuli. By using high-throughput single-molecule FRET methods, we compared the kinetics of a putative aptamer-ligand and aptamer-complement strand-displacement reaction. We found that the ligands actively disrupted the DNA duplex in the presence of a DNA toehold in a similar manner to complementary DNA, with kinetic details specific to the aptamer structure, thus suggesting that the DNA strand-displacement concept can be extended to functional DNA-ligand systems. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Zha Meisheng; Zhao Lei; Sun Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  17. Impact of balancing-side tooth contact on clenching induced mandibular displacements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Yugami, K; Yaka, T; Ai, M

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated mandibular displacements during clenching in the lateral mandibular position in relation to lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve healthy human subjects (mean=26.7 years) volunteered for this study. Acrylic occlusal devices were fabricated for the lower working-side canine, working-side second molar and balancing-side second molar in order to simulate a dominant canine guidance, working-side interference (WI), balancing-side interference (BI) and bilateral balanced occlusion (BO). Vertical displacements of the mandible were recorded by linear variable differential transformers during submaximal clenching in the right lateral position. The four experimental occlusal conditions were revealed to have a significant effect on mandibular displacement patterns (ANOVA, P experimental conditions. These results suggest that the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular (TM) joints caused by the elevation of the mandible varies in a predictable manner depending upon lateral occlusal relationships.

  18. Rapid and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-acid Sequence by Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Ma, Ai-Jing; Li, Dong-Xun; Luo, Li-Juan; Liu, Dong-Xin; Jin, Dong; Liu, Kai; Ye, Chang-Yun

    2015-07-08

    We have devised a novel amplification strategy based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which was termed multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA). The approach employed a set of ten specially designed primers spanning ten distinct regions of target sequence and was preceded at a constant temperature (61-65 °C). At the assay temperature, the double-stranded DNAs were at dynamic reaction environment of primer-template hybrid, thus the high concentration of primers annealed to the template strands without a denaturing step to initiate the synthesis. For the subsequent isothermal amplification step, a series of primer binding and extension events yielded several single-stranded DNAs and single-stranded single stem-loop DNA structures. Then, these DNA products enabled the strand-displacement reaction to enter into the exponential amplification. Three mainstream methods, including colorimetric indicators, agarose gel electrophoresis and real-time turbidity, were selected for monitoring the MCDA reaction. Moreover, the practical application of the MCDA assay was successfully evaluated by detecting the target pathogen nucleic acid in pork samples, which offered advantages on quick results, modest equipment requirements, easiness in operation, and high specificity and sensitivity. Here we expounded the basic MCDA mechanism and also provided details on an alternative (Single-MCDA assay, S-MCDA) to MCDA technique.

  19. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  20. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  1. Finding the displacement of wood structure in heritage building by 3D laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Wang, R. Z.; Lin, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Heritage buildings are highly prone to long term damage from the microclimate, scourge and vandalism, which can result in damaged materials, structures, painting and cultural heritage items. This study will focus on finding the displacement of wood structural members through the use of a 3D laser scanner and the 4D concept of time. The results will compare the scans from different periods to find the difference (if any) in the structural member position. Wood structures usually consist of numerous wood members connected to form the structure. However, these members can be damaged in various ways such as physical mechanisms, chemical reactions, and biological corrosion. When damage to the wood structure occurs, the structural displacement can be affected, and if affected severely, can lead to a building collapse. Monitoring of the structural displacement is the best way to discover damage immediately and to preserve the heritage building. However, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law in Taiwan prohibits the installation of monitoring instruments (e.g strain gauge, accelerometer) in historic structures (heritage buildings). Scanning the wood structure with 3D lasers is the most non-intrusive method and quickly achieves displacement through visualization. The displacement scan results can be compared with different periods and different members to analyze the severity of damage. Once the 3D scanner is installed, the whole building is scanned, and point clouds created to build the visual building model. The structural displacement can be checked via the building model and the differences are measured between each member to find the high risk damaged areas or members with large displacement. Early detection of structural damage is the most effective way means of preservation.

  2. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  3. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  4. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  5. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...

  6. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  7. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  8. Sub-Ensemble Monitoring of DNA Strand Displacement Using Multiparameter Single-Molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltierra-Jasso, Laura E; Morten, Michael J; Magennis, Steven W

    2018-03-05

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here, we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constant of 10 m -1  s -1 . We also followed the displacement from a DNA three-way junction (3WJ) by ssDNA. The presence of three internal mismatched bases in the middle of the invading strand did not prevent displacement from the 3WJ, but reduced the second-order rate constant by about 50 %. We attribute strand exchange in the dsDNA and 3WJ to a zero-toehold pathway from the blunt-ended duplex arms. The single-molecule approach demonstrated here will be useful for studying complex DNA networks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Strand displacement activated peroxidase activity of hemin for fluorescent DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanbo; Xu, Nan; Gui, Zhen; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Yan, Feng

    2015-10-07

    To efficiently regulate the catalytic activity of the peroxidase mimic hemin, this work designs a double-stranded DNA probe containing an intermolecular dimer of hemin, whose peroxidase activity can be activated by a DNA strand displacement reaction. The double-stranded probe is prepared by annealing two strands of hemin labelled DNA oligonucleotides. Using the fluorescent oxidation product of tyramine by H2O2 as a tracing molecule, the low peroxidase activity of the hemin dimer ensures a low fluorescence background. The strand displacement reaction of the target DNA dissociates the hemin dimer and thus significantly increases the catalytic activity of hemin to produce a large amount of dityramine for fluorescence signal readout. Based on the strand displacement regulated peroxidase activity, a simple and sensitive homogeneous fluorescent DNA sensing method is proposed. The detection can conveniently be carried out in a 96-well plate within 20 min with a detection limit of 0.18 nM. This method shows high specificity, which can effectively distinguish single-base mismatched DNA from perfectly matched target DNA. The DNA strand displacement regulated catalytic activity of hemin has promising application in the determination of various DNA analytes.

  10. Nuclear sizes and the Coulomb Displacement Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Data on Coulomb Displacement Energies in the mass range A = 40 - 240 are analyzed in the deformed Liquid Drop model and in the independent particle model. Reduced half-widths of Woods-Saxon mean-field potential of the resulting neutron-excess distributions are deduced. It is argued that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly may be lifted by allowing for a slight binding-energy dependence of the mean-field potential geometry. (author)

  11. Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

  12. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Stengärde, Lena

    2010-01-01

    High producing dairy cows struggle to meet energy demands and handle various transitional changes in late gestation and early lactation. Negative energy balance in early lactation is inevitable and metabolic disorders may follow as a consequence of a deep negative energy balance. This thesis studies associations between blood profiles and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows, and displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis, and investigates risk factors for the two diseases at the herd le...

  13. Environmentally-induced displacement and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Terminski, Bogumil

    2012-01-01

    We can distinguish two general causes of internal displacement worldwide: 1. the impact of threats to and ensuing decline in the level of human security below that needed for normal existence in the homeland territory, 2. administrative compulsion to leave the current place of residence. Every year, at least tens of millions of people on all continents are forced to leave their places of residence. The predominant cause is the occurrence of natural disasters, creating the most dynamic categor...

  14. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  15. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  16. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  17. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  18. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A; Khodakova, Anastasia S; Huang, David M; Linacre, Adrian; Ellis, Amanda V

    2015-03-04

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within double-stranded DNA generated from real-life human mitochondrial DNA samples. Aside from the potential diagnostic value, the current study represents an additional way to control the strand displacement reaction rate without altering other reaction parameters and provides new insights into the influence of single nucleotide substitutions on 3- and 4-way branch migration efficiency and kinetics.

  19. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    their melting points. The EOS is basically a pressure–volume–temperature relationship. The studies based on EOS are widely important not only in physics but ..... Earth Planet. Inter. 109, 1 (1998). [11] J Hama and K Suito, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 116, 133 (1999). [12] A Prasad, M Singh and B R K Gupta, Indian J. Phys.

  20. Method for improved gas-solids separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, C.L.; He, B.X.

    1990-11-13

    Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from where it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs.

  1. Lattice distortion in hcp rare gas solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.; Freiman, Yu. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lattice distortion parameter δ ≡c/a-√8/3 has been calculated as a function of molar volume for the hcp phases of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Results from both semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory are presented. Our study shows that δ is negative for helium in the entire pressure range. For Ar, Kr, and Xe δ changes sign from negative to positive as the pressure increases, growing rapidly in magnitude at higher pressures.

  2. In-gel multiple displacement amplification of long DNA fragments diluted to the single molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Yuichi; Sugahara, Keisuke; Suga, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Yoshimi; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Shiomi, Naoko; Shiomi, Tadahiro; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2008-12-15

    The isolation and multiple genotyping of long individual DNA fragments are needed to obtain haplotype information for diploid organisms. Limiting dilution of sample DNA followed by multiple displacement amplification is a useful technique but is restricted to short (reaction (PCR)-ready form. The haplotypes of seven SNPs spanning 240 kb of the DNA surrounding the human ATM gene region on chromosome 11 were determined for 10 individuals, demonstrating the feasibility of this new method.

  3. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  4. Displacement laser interferometry with sub-nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Development in industry is asking for improved resolution and higher accuracy in mechanical measurement. Together with miniaturization the demand for sub nanometer uncertainty on dimensional metrology is increasing rapidly. Displacement laser interferometers are used widely as precision displacement

  5. Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced graphene/silver nanocomposite ... dissolved oxygen (DO) detection based on a galvanic displacement synthesized reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticles ... Current Issue

  6. "Here nobody holds your heart": metaphoric and embodied emotions of birth and displacement among Karen women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise; Cho, Violet

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to explore the ways in which displaced Karen mothers expressed emotions in narrative accounts of motherhood and displacement. We contextualized and analyzed interview data from an ethnographic study of birth and emotions among 15 displaced Karen mothers in Australia. We found that women shared a common symbolic language to describe emotions centered on the heart, which was also associated with heart "problems." This, along with hypertension, collapsing, or a feeling of surrender were associated responses to extremely adverse events experienced as displaced peoples. A metaphoric schema of emotional terms centered on the heart was connected to embodied expressions of emotion related to illness of the heart. This and other embodied responses were reactions to overwhelming difficulties and fear women endured due to their exposure to political conflict and global inequity. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  7. Effect of the kind of fuel in the synthesis of the catalyzer NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to displacement reaction of water gas (WGRS); Efeito do tipo de combustivel na sintese do catalisador NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} para reacao de deslocamento do gas agua (WGRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Barros, B.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: anacristina@dema.ufcg.edu.br; Jesus, A.A.; Andrade, H.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    This work has as objective synthesizes and to characterize the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst by combustion reaction using different fuels: urea and glycine seeking your application in the water gas shift reaction (WGSR), promoting the purification of the methane for the elimination of the carbon monoxide. The powders were prepared in agreement with the chemistry of the propellants using as recipient a vitreous silica crucible; the maximum temperature and the medium time of flame were verified. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX), Scanning electronic microscopy and catalytic tests. The results show that the catalysts presented inverse spinel structure as majority phase for the two types of fuels. However, it was observed that using the urea, there was the presence of a second phase of NiO and when the glycine was used, there was the presence of lines of Ni. The catalyst NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} using urea as fuel, presented better catalytic acting. (author)

  8. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1979-01-01

    Quasielastic reaction studies, because of their capability to microscopically probe nuclear structure, are still of considerable interest in heavy-ion reactions. The recent progress in understanding various aspects of the reaction mechanism make this aim appear closer. The relation between microscopic and macroscopic behavior, as suggested, for example, by the single proton transfer data to individual final states or averaged excitation energy intervals, needs to be explored. It seems particularly useful to extend measurements to higher incident energies, to explore and understand nuclear structure aspects up to the limit of the energy range where they are important

  9. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  10. Design and Characterization of DNA Strand-Displacement Circuits in Serum-Supplemented Cell Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Joshua; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-09-15

    The functional stability and lifetimes of synthetic molecular circuits in biological environments are important for long-term, stable sensors or controllers of cell or tissue behavior. DNA-based molecular circuits, in particular DNA strand-displacement circuits, provide simple and effective biocompatible control mechanisms and sensors, but are vulnerable to digestion by nucleases present in living tissues and serum-supplemented cell culture. The stability of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA circuit components in serum-supplemented cell medium and the corresponding effect of nuclease-mediated degradation on circuit performance were characterized to determine the major routes of degradation and DNA strand-displacement circuit failure. Simple circuit design choices, such as the use of 5' toeholds within the DNA complexes used as reactants in the strand-displacement reactions and the termination of single-stranded components with DNA hairpin domains at the 3' termini, significantly increase the functional lifetime of the circuit components in the presence of nucleases. Simulations of multireaction circuits, guided by the experimentally measured operation of single-reaction circuits, enable predictive realization of multilayer and competitive-reaction circuit behavior. Together, these results provide a basic route to increased DNA circuit stability in cell culture environments.

  11. The three transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans (strain 251) proceed via different kinetic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Bart A. van der; Alebeek, Gert-Jan W.M. van; Uitdehaag, Joost C.M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) catalyzes three transglycosylation reactions via a double displacement mechanism involving a covalent enzyme-intermediate complex (substituted-enzyme intermediate). Characterization of the three transglycosylation reactions, however, revealed that they

  12. Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-09-11

    This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.

  13. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  14. 5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of displaced employees. 330... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of...

  15. cycloaddition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Molecular Modeling Group, Organic Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology,. Hyderabad ... thus obtained are helpful to model the regioselectivity ... compromise to model Diels–Alder reactions involving ...... acceptance.

  16. Improved multiple displacement amplification (iMDA) and ultraclean reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, S Timothy; Picuri, John M; Crowder, Chris D; Minich, Jeremiah J; Hofstadler, Steven A; Eshoo, Mark W

    2014-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing sample preparation requires nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA; however, many relevant samples are comprised of only a few cells. Genomic analysis of these samples requires a whole genome amplification method that is unbiased and free of exogenous DNA contamination. To address these challenges we have developed protocols for the production of DNA-free consumables including reagents and have improved upon multiple displacement amplification (iMDA). A specialized ethylene oxide treatment was developed that renders free DNA and DNA present within Gram positive bacterial cells undetectable by qPCR. To reduce DNA contamination in amplification reagents, a combination of ion exchange chromatography, filtration, and lot testing protocols were developed. Our multiple displacement amplification protocol employs a second strand-displacing DNA polymerase, improved buffers, improved reaction conditions and DNA free reagents. The iMDA protocol, when used in combination with DNA-free laboratory consumables and reagents, significantly improved efficiency and accuracy of amplification and sequencing of specimens with moderate to low levels of DNA. The sensitivity and specificity of sequencing of amplified DNA prepared using iMDA was compared to that of DNA obtained with two commercial whole genome amplification kits using 10 fg (~1-2 bacterial cells worth) of bacterial genomic DNA as a template. Analysis showed >99% of the iMDA reads mapped to the template organism whereas only 0.02% of the reads from the commercial kits mapped to the template. To assess the ability of iMDA to achieve balanced genomic coverage, a non-stochastic amount of bacterial genomic DNA (1 pg) was amplified and sequenced, and data obtained were compared to sequencing data obtained directly from genomic DNA. The iMDA DNA and genomic DNA sequencing had comparable coverage 99.98% of the reference genome at ≥1X coverage and 99.9% at ≥5X coverage while maintaining both balance

  17. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  18. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  19. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  20. Traumatic displacement of stomach - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Joshima; Tarvadi, Pratik Vijay; Manipady, Shahnavaz; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Somashekar, C

    2014-01-01

    These days we have fast paced traffic on our roads to help us keep up with our fast paced life. But every boon has a down side and our high velocity traffic is no exception. Here is a case report of a blunt abdominal injury following a road traffic accident. Externally the deceased had only a few grazed abrasions on the forehead and right forearm. But on internal examination of abdomen, it was noticed that the left hemi-diaphragm was torn and the stomach and intestines were found displaced into the left thoracic cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  2. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  3. Direct Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, N. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    In order to give a unified presentation of one point of view, these lectures are devoted only to a detailed development of the standard theories of direct reactions, starting from basic principles. Discussion is given of the present status of the theories, of the techniques used for practical calculation, and of possible future developments. The direct interaction (DI) aspects of a reaction are those which involve only a few of the many degrees of freedom of a nucleus. In fact the minimum number of degrees of freedom which must be involved in a reaction are those required to describe the initial and final channels, and DI studies typically consider these degrees of freedom and no others. Because of this simplicity DI theories may be worked out in painstaking detail. DI processes concern only part of the wave function for a problem. The other part involves complicated excitations of many degrees of freedom, and gives the compound nucleus (CN) effects. While it is extremely interesting to learn how to separate DI and CN effects in an orderly manner, if they are both present in a reaction, no suitable method has yet been found. Instead, current work stresses the kinds of reactions and the kinds of final states in which DI effects dominate and in which CN effects may almost be forgotten. The DI cross-sections which are studied are often extremely large, comparable to elastic scattering cross-sections. (author)

  4. Reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Anh

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported [fr

  5. Reaction of cerium dioxide with alkali metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Fujino, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    The gas-solid reaction process using volatile alkali metal alkoxides has many advantages in producing the uranates (plutonates) which are expected to improve the dissolution behavior of the fuel into nitric acid. In this work, the reactions of CeO 2 , which was used as a non-radioactive stand-in of PuO 2 , with MOBu t (M = Li, K) under several conditions were examined. In the case of the M y Ce 1-y O 2-x synthesized by an aqueous method, the lattice parameter was slightly increased with increasing M concentration, y, up to 0.20. When the LiOBu t vapor reacted with CeO 2 , a new fluorite phase having a = 5.4935 A, y = 0.044, x = 0.30 was formed over 973 K. A similar compound (a = 5.4797 A, y = 0.035, x = 0.22) was observed by the reaction of CeO 2 with KOBu t . (author)

  6. Effects of threshold displacement energy on defect production by displacement cascades in α, β and γ-LiAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihira, H.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold displacement energy evaluation and a series of displacement cascade simulations in α, β, and γ-LiAlO 2 were performed using molecular dynamics. Threshold displacement energy evaluations indicated that higher absolute ionic charge values and larger densities both increase threshold displacement energy. The displacement cascade simulations suggest that the influence of different crystal structures on the number of interstitial atoms generated in a displacement cascade is explainable almost entirely by the difference of the threshold displacement energy

  7. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  8. War, forced displacement and growth in Laotian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from several populations suggests that war negatively impacts civilian nutrition, physical growth and overall health. This effect is often enduring or permanent, particularly if experienced early in life. To assess whether the number of lifetime displacement experiences and being displaced in infancy were associated with adult height, sitting height, leg length and the sitting height ratio. Retrospective questionnaires on displacement and resettlement experiences and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of Laotian adult refugees (ethnic Hmong and Lao; n = 365). All were born in Laos or Thailand and had resettled in French Guiana or the US. Many had been displaced several times by military conflict in Laos. In bivariate analyses, being displaced in infancy and the number of lifetime displacement experiences one had were negatively associated with final adult height and leg length in both sexes. The association was stronger in females, particularly Hmong females. There was no significant association between total displacement experiences and the sitting height ratio. In multiple regression analyses, linear growth in males was negatively associated with being displaced in infancy; in females, the number of lifetime displacement experiences was a significant predictor. Forced displacement from war appears to have a lasting effect on final adult height, sitting height and leg length, although not necessarily on the sitting height ratio in this sample.

  9. Mirror displacement energies and neutron skins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, J.; Zuker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    A gross estimate of the neutron skin [0.80(5)(N-Z)/A fm] is extracted from experimental proton radii, represented by a four parameter fit, and observed mirror displacement energies (CDE). The calculation of the latter relies on an accurately derived Coulomb energy and smooth averages of the charge symmetry breaking potentials constrained to state of the art values. The only free parameter is the neutron skin itself. The Nolen Schiffer anomaly is reduced to small deviations (rms=127 keV) that exhibit a secular trend. It is argued that with state of the art shell model calculations the anomaly should disappear. Highly accurate fits to proton radii emerge as a fringe benefit

  10. Core polarization and Coulomb displacement energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Love, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions of core polarization terms (other than the Auerbach-Kahana-Weneser (AKW) effect) to Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei near A = 16 and A = 40 are examined within the particle-vibration coupling model. The parameters of the model are determined using updated data on the locations and strengths of multipole core excitations. In the absence of relevant data an energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is exploited. Taking into account multipole excitations up to L = 5 and subtracting the contributions which are due to short-range correlations, significant contributions (1-3%) to ΔEsub(c) are found. These corrections arise from particle coupling to low-lying collective states (long-range correlations). The implications of these results on the Coulomb energy problem are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Searching for displaced Higgs boson decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-10-01

    We study a simplified model of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs boson decays below 10 cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at √{s }=13 TeV . With 20 fb-1 of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to 2 ×1 0-4 can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  12. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M

    2016-10-01

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  13. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James; Harish, Srinivasan; Saifuddin, Asif

    2005-01-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  14. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  15. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  16. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  17. Lateral vibration analysis of continuous bridges utilizing equal displacement rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wei

    Full Text Available The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  18. Strand displacement by DNA polymerase III occurs through a tau-psi-chi link to single-stranded DNA-binding protein coating the lagging strand template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S

    2009-11-13

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of gamma-complex to support the reaction in the absence of tau. However, if gamma-complex is present to load beta(2), a truncated tau protein containing only domains III-V will suffice. This truncated protein is sufficient to bind both the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase (Pol) III and chipsi. This is reminiscent of the minimal requirements for Pol III to replicate short single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)-coated templates where tau is only required to serve as a scaffold to hold Pol III and chi in the same complex (Glover, B., and McHenry, C. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23476-23484). We propose a model in which strand displacement by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme depends upon a Pol III-tau-psi-chi-SSB binding network, where SSB is bound to the displaced strand, stabilizing the Pol III-template interaction. The same interaction network is probably important for stabilizing the leading strand polymerase interactions with authentic replication forks. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) for the strand displacement reaction is approximately 300-fold less favorable than reactions on single-stranded templates and proceeds with a slower rate (150 nucleotides/s) and only moderate processivity (approximately 300 nucleotides). PriA, the initiator of replication restart on collapsed or misassembled replication forks, blocks the strand displacement reaction, even if added to an ongoing reaction.

  19. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  20. Distal displacement of the maxilla and the upper first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Molthen, R; West, E E; Miller, D M

    1979-06-01

    Data from a sample of 198 Class II cases treated with various appliances which deliver distally directed forces to the maxilla were examined to determine the frequency of absolute distal displacement of the upper first molar and of the maxilla. Analysis revealed that such distal displacement is possible and that it is, in fact, a frequent finding following treatment. Long-range stability of distal displacement was not assessed.

  1. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c...... and the consequences for wages are similar in the two countries. The consequences for employment are very different with Danish workers experiencing much less unemployment after a displacement...

  2. Displacement of aqua ligands from the hydroxopentaaquarhodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The kinetics of the reaction of HOBt with [Rh(H2O)5(OH)]2+ has been studied spectrophotomet- ... antitumor properties, were found to be effective as anti- ... Experimental ..... in rate may be explained based on the acid dissociation.

  3. Exonuclease of human DNA polymerase gamma disengages its strand displacement function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quan; Shumate, Christie K; White, Mark A; Molineux, Ian J; Yin, Y Whitney

    2013-11-01

    Pol γ, the only DNA polymerase found in human mitochondria, functions in both mtDNA repair and replication. During mtDNA base-excision repair, gaps are created after damaged base excision. Here we show that Pol γ efficiently gap-fills except when the gap is only a single nucleotide. Although wild-type Pol γ has very limited ability for strand displacement DNA synthesis, exo(-) (3'-5' exonuclease-deficient) Pol γ has significantly high activity and rapidly unwinds downstream DNA, synthesizing DNA at a rate comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme on a primer-template. The catalytic subunit Pol γA alone, even when exo(-), is unable to synthesize by strand displacement, making this the only known reaction of Pol γ holoenzyme that has an absolute requirement for the accessory subunit Pol γB. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Mental health of internally displaced persons in Jalozai camp, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Arooj

    2015-11-01

    Internal displacement has been a distressing issue of Pakistan for last one decade. Few research works have been conducted on the psychological issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan. The current research was aimed at determining the psychological effects of internal displacement, that is, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress (internalizing problems) of the individuals who were displaced as a result of an armed conflict in Swat. A sample of 126 internally displaced persons was taken from Jalozai camp which included females (n = 65) and males (n = 61). Age of the sample ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean of 47.5 years. Translated and adapted versions of Well-Being Affectometer-2 Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used in the current research. Results of the study indicated differences between males and females, females being higher on internalizing problems and lower on psychological well-being, whereas family loss during displacement affected the results in the same way. Well-being, gender and family loss emerged as significant predictors of internalizing problems, and gender moderated the relationship between well-being and internalizing problems. Internal displacement may bring psychological issues for internally displaced persons, that is, their well-being may decrease and depression, anxiety and stress may increase during displacement. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed further. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  6. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  7. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  8. Displacement of organelles in plant gravireceptor cells by vibrational forces and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Nechitailo, G.; Kuznetsov, A.

    Plant gravity perception can be studied by displacing statoliths inside receptor cells by forces other than gravity. Due to mechanical heterogeneity of statocytes various ponderomotive forces can be used for this purpose. In a plant subjected to non- symmetric vibrations statoliths experience inertial force proportional to the difference between their density and that of cytoplasm and to the instantaneous acceleration of the cell. This force causes cyclic motion of statoliths relative to cytoplasm and, depending on the profile of oscillations, can result in a net displacement of them (due to complex rheology of the cell interior), similar to sedimentation. This can be described as "vibrational" ponderomotive force acting on the statoliths. Vertically growing Arabidopsis seedlings, subjected to horizontal, sawtooth shaped oscillations (250 Hz, 1.5 mm amplitude), showed 17+/-2o root curvature toward and shoot curvature of 11+/-3o against the stronger acceleration. When the polarity of the oscillations was reversed, the direction of curvature of shoots and roots was also reversed. Control experiments with starchless mutants (TC7) produced no net curvature, which indicates that dense starch-filled amyloplasts are needed for the effect. These control experiments also eliminate touch-induced reactions or other side-effects as the cause of the curvature. Linum roots curved 25+/-7o . Ceratodon protonemata subjected to the same oscillations have shown displacement of plastids and curvature consistent with the pattern observed during graviresponse: positively gravitropic wwr mutant curved in the direction of the plastid displacement, WT curved in the opposite direction. Acoustic ponderomotive forces, originating from transfer of a sonic beam momentum to the medium due to sound scattering and attenuation in a mechanically heterogeneous system, also can displace statoliths. Vertical flax seedlings curved away from the ultrasonic source (800 kHz, 0.1 W/cm2 ) presumably as a

  9. Coulomb displacement energies and neutron density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.

    1979-01-01

    We present a short review of the present status of the theory of Coulomb displacement energies, ΔEsub(c), discussing the Okamoto-Nolem-Schiffer anomaly and its solution. We emphasize, in particular, that contrary to previous hopes, ΔEsub(c) does not determine rsub(ex), the root-mean square (rms) radius of the excess (valence) neutron density distribution. Instead, ΔEsub(c) is very sensitive to the value of Δr = rsub(n) - rsub(p), the difference between the rms radii of the density distributions of all neutrons and all protons. For neutron rich nuclei, such as 48 Ca and 208 Pb, a value of Δr = 0.1 fm is found to be consistent with ΔEsub(c). This value of Δr, which is considerably smaller than that (of 0.2 - 0.3 fm) predicted by some common Hartree-Fock calculations, seems to be confirmed by very recent experimental results. (orig.)

  10. Realization of fiber optic displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Lakomski, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors are very promising because of their inherent advantages such as very small size, hard environment tolerance and impact of electromagnetic fields. In this paper three different types of Intensity Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors (I-FODS) are presented. Three configurations of I-FODS were realized in two varieties. In the first one, the cleaved multimode optical fibers (MMF) were used to collect reflected light, while in the second variety the MMF ended with ball lenses were chosen. To ensure an accurate alignment of optical fibers in the sensor head the MTP C9730 optical fiber ferrules were used. In this paper the influence of distribution of transmitting and detecting optical fibers on sensitivity and linear range of operation of developed I-FODS were investigated. We have shown, that I-FODS with ball lenses receive average 10.5% more reflected power in comparison to the cleaved optical fibers and they increase linearity range of I-FODS by 33%. In this paper, an analysis of each type of the realized sensor and detailed discussion are given.

  11. Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)

  12. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The vertical displacement of tokamak plasmas is modelled during the non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires and a cylindrical conducting shell. The models capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the vacuum vessel. The plasma is assumed not to vary during the VDE such that it behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented from coming in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers by the eddy currents, and will hence oscillate at Alfvénic frequencies about a given force-free position. In addition to damping oscillations, resistivity allows for the column to drift towards the vessel on slow flux penetration timescales. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, i.e. the resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear sinking behaviour, that is shown analytically to be algebraic and decelerative. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus conjectured to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current

  13. Molecular dynamics studies of displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1990-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of cascades in Cu and Ni with primary-knock-on energies up to 5 keV and lattice temperatures in the range 0 K--700 K are described. Interatomic forces were represented by either the Gibson II (Cu) or Johnson-Erginsoy (Ni) potentials in most of this work, although some simulations using ''Embedded Atom Method'' potentials, e.g., for threshold events in Ni 3 Al, are also presented. The results indicate that the primary state of damage produced by displacement cascades is controlled by two phenomena, replacement collision sequences during the collisional phase of the cascade and local melting during the thermal spike. As expected, the collisional phase is rather similar in Cu and Ni, however, the thermal spike is of longer duration and has a more pronounced influence in Cu than Ni. When the ambient temperature of the lattice is increased, the melt zones are observed to both increase in size and cool more slowly. This has the effect of reducing defect production and enhancing atomic mixing and disordering. The implications of these results for defect production, cascade collapse, atomic disordering will be discussed. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. TREATMENT OF DISPLACED MALLEOLAR FRACTURES AT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  15. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the experimental and theoretical situation regarding transfer reactions and inelastic scattering. In the first category there is little (very little) precision data for heavy projectiles and consequently almost no experience with quantitative theoretical analysis. For the inelastic scattering the rather extensive data strongly supports the coupled channels models with collective formfactors. At the most back angles, at intensities about 10 -5 of Rutherford scattering, a second, compound-like mechanism becomes dominant. The description of the interplay of these two opposite mechanisms provides a new challenge for our understanding

  16. Surface-Activated Coupling Reactions Confined on a Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Liu, Pei Nian; Lin, Nian

    2015-10-20

    Chemical reactions may take place in a pure phase of gas or liquid or at the interface of two phases (gas-solid or liquid-solid). Recently, the emerging field of "surface-confined coupling reactions" has attracted intensive attention. In this process, reactants, intermediates, and products of a coupling reaction are adsorbed on a solid-vacuum or a solid-liquid interface. The solid surface restricts all reaction steps on the interface, in other words, the reaction takes place within a lower-dimensional, for example, two-dimensional, space. Surface atoms that are fixed in the surface and adatoms that move on the surface often activate the surface-confined coupling reactions. The synergy of surface morphology and activity allow some reactions that are inefficient or prohibited in the gas or liquid phase to proceed efficiently when the reactions are confined on a surface. Over the past decade, dozens of well-known "textbook" coupling reactions have been shown to proceed as surface-confined coupling reactions. In most cases, the surface-confined coupling reactions were discovered by trial and error, and the reaction pathways are largely unknown. It is thus highly desirable to unravel the mechanisms, mechanisms of surface activation in particular, of the surface-confined coupling reactions. Because the reactions take place on surfaces, advanced surface science techniques can be applied to study the surface-confined coupling reactions. Among them, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are the two most extensively used experimental tools. The former resolves submolecular structures of individual reactants, intermediates, and products in real space, while the latter monitors the chemical states during the reactions in real time. Combination of the two methods provides unprecedented spatial and temporal information on the reaction pathways. The experimental findings are complemented by theoretical modeling. In particular, density

  17. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  18. Expansion of a function about a displaced centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    We review the progress recently made in obtaining closed form expressions for the expansion of general orbitals about a displaced centre and establish the equivalence between different expansions. We also examine how these expressions do have the desired limit as the displacement approaches zero. (author)

  19. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  20. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  1. Sieve-based lateral displacement technology for suspension separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.P.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse lateral displacement arrays are easier to scale up than full deterministic lateral displacement arrays or deterministic ratchets, because they require lower pressure drop and simplify the construction of the device. However, the asymmetry of sparse arrays leads to a non-homogeneous pressure

  2. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms...

  3. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  4. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV

  5. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced. To account for the differences in the composition of the women who were displaced in a downturn and the women who were displaced in an upswing, we use a double weighting estimator. Results show that the extent to which job displacement has adverse effects on fertility depends on the business cycle. The first-birth rates were much lower for women who were displaced in an economic downturn than for those who lost a job in an economic upturn. This result cannot be explained by changes in the observed characteristics of the displaced women over the business cycle.

  6. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller

    2017-01-01

    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed and m...

  7. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  8. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  9. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  10. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497–514. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo ... used to calculate dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces up to second nearest ... origin, the lattice is strained, and the host atoms get displaced to new ...

  11. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  13. Miscible fluid displacement: an answer to increasing oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, N R; Rivera, R J

    1976-01-01

    This study presents the state of the art on miscible and miscible-type processes. It is well known that when these processes are applied under ideal laboratory conditions, the oil recovery obtained from linear cores approaches 100% of the total oil contained in the porous structure which is contacted by the displacing fluids. In the past few years, a worldwide shortage of crude oil supplies produced an increased interest in new oil recovery methods. Because of this situation, the oil industry turned its eyes back toward the miscible processes. This study discusses the following miscible fluid displacement processes: (1) high-pressure dry gas displacement; (2) enriched gas displacement; (3) GLP slug flooding; and (4) carbon dioxide displacement. In addition to the processes aforementioned, this work presents the main features of the micellar solution flooding process. (17 refs.)

  14. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  15. Financing of internal displacement: excerpts from the Sri Lankan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Kopalapillai; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates how internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, financed their first year of displacement. We conducted extensive fieldwork in August 2007 in numerous welfare centres in Batticaloa that have received persons displaced from the Mutur divisional secretariat (DS) in the Trincomalee district. The sample was selected from the village of Sampur in Mutur DS. The displaced from Sampur are of Tamil origin and our findings reveal certain coping strategies that may be particular to this community, including the selling or mortgaging of gold jewellery to address the effects of displacement. We found that the IDPs in this region rely heavily on jewellery and other forms of savings to ensure their survival. There is also strong evidence to support the critically important coping role played by livelihoods. These coping strategies have enabled the IDP households in the present sample to live marginally above the poverty line.

  16. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  17. Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

  18. Surface displacement imaging by interferometry with a light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Jorez, Sebastien; Lopez, Luis David Patino; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Claeys, Wilfrid

    2002-01-01

    We present an imaging technique to measure static surface displacements of electronic components. A device is supplied by a transient current that creates a variation of temperature, thus a surface displacement. To measure the latter, a setup that is based on a Michelson interferometer is used. To avoid the phenomenon of speckle and the drawbacks inherent to it, we use a light emitting diode as the light source for the interferometer. The detector is a visible CCD camera that analyzes the optical signal containing the information of surface displacement of the device. Combining images, we extract the amplitude of the surface displacement. Out-of-plane surface-displacement images of a thermoelectric device are presented

  19. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2012-01-01

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  20. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  1. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  2. Spallation reactions; Reactions de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugon, J.

    1996-12-31

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from {approx} 0.1 to {approx} 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author). 84 refs.

  3. Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Ghoniem, N.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled integro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ∝10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2 ; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ∝15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2 . For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ∝74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ∝39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type. (orig.)

  4. Distally displaced premolars: A dental anomaly associated with palatally displaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Leonardi, Maria; Giuntini, Veronica

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of association between distally displaced premolars (DDP) and palatally displaced canines (PDC) in the pattern of associated phenotypes of dental developmental disturbance. A sample of 2811 subjects (mean age, 9 years 7 months +/- 1 year 3 months) was divided randomly into 2 groups. The first group of 500 subjects was the control group. The reference prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated for this group: DDP (measured with the distal angle theta and the premolar-molar angle gamma); PDC; and other dental anomalies, specifically, aplasia of the third molars, aplasia of the contralateral mandibular second premolar, aplasia of the maxillary lateral incisors, and small maxillary lateral incisors. Of the remaining 2311 subjects, the first 100 with a diagnosis of DDP of at least 1 mandibular second premolar comprised experimental group 1 (DDP group). In addition to sex distribution, the same variables that were examined in the control group were analyzed. In the subgroup with the concurrent DDP and PDC (experimental group 2, or DDP-PDC group), the presence of other dental anomalies was investigated. The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 was compared with that in the control group. The same was done for the prevalence rates for the 4 other dental anomalies in the PDC-DDP group (experimental group 2) vs the prevalence rates for these anomalies in the control group. All comparisons were performed with chi-square tests with the Yates correction (P <0.05), as were the comparisons between the sexes in experimental groups 1 and 2. The values for theta and gamma angles in experimental group 1 were compared with the values for these angles in experimental group 2, as well as with those in the control group. These statistical comparisons were made with analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test (P <0.05). The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 (28%) was

  5. Gas driven displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell with chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Ward, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Injecting a less viscous fluid into a more viscous fluid produces instabilities in the form of fingering which grow radially from the less viscous injection point (Saffman & Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. Lon. A, 1958). For two non-reacting fluids in a radial Hele-Shaw cell the ability of the gas phase to penetrate the liquid phase is largely dependent on the gap height, liquid viscosity and gas pressure. In contrast combining two reactive fluids such as aqueous calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, which form a precipitate, presents a more complex but technically relevant system. As the two species react calcium carbonate precipitates and increases the aqueous phase visocosity. This change in viscosity may have a significant impact on how the gas phase penetrates the liquid phase. Experimental are performed in a radial Hele-Shaw cell with gap heights O(10-100) microns by loading a single drop of aqueous calcium hydroxide and injecting carbon dioxide into the drop. The calcium hydroxide concentration, carbon dioxide pressure and gap height are varied and images of the gas penetration are analyzed to determine residual film thickness and bursting times.

  6. [Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Masahiro, Ida

    2006-12-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53 +/- 0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94 +/- 0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11 +/- 0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r = 0.87, p = 0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle

  7. Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Ida, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean±standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53±0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94±0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11±0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle cone

  8. MRI of radial displacement of the meniscus in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Lv Houshan; Lao Shan; Guan Zhenpeng; Hong Nan; Liang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus of the knees in the study population with MR imaging, and to establish MRI diagnostic criteria for radial displacement of the meniscus and displacement index. Methods: MR signs of radial displacement of the meniscus were evaluated retrospectively in 398 patients with knee symptoms who were examined with non- weight bearing MR images from Jan. 2000 to Feb. 2004. The patients younger than 18 years old, with joint effusion or serious arthropathy were excluded and 312 patients were eligible to be enrolled in this study. The criterion for radial displacement of the meniscus was defined as the location of the edge of meniscal body beyond the femoral and tibial outer border line. A displacement index, defined as the ratio of meniscal overhang to meniscal width, was used to quantify meniscal displacement. Results: The prevalence of radial displacement of the meniscus was 16.7% (52/312) and 13.9% (21/151) in right knee and 19.3% (31/161 )in left knee, respectively. There was no significant difference between left and right knee (χ 2 =1.60, P>0.05) and the ratio between medial and lateral meniscus was 7.8:1. The average displacement index was 0.54±0.24. The displacement indices were significant higher in older group (F=3.63, P<0.05). The incidence and indices of radial displacement of the meniscus for patients under or above 50 year older were 12.0%(17/142), 0.46±0.22 and 20.6% (35/170), 0.64±0.20, respectively. Difference was highly significant (t=0.84, P<0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that radial displacement of the meniscus in knees was not a rare finding with MR imaging in patients with knee symptoms. The incidence increased in older age group. Further investigations were recommended to understand the etiology and clinical significance of the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus. (authors)

  9. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  10. Neutron induced displacement damage in beryllium in the blanket of a (d,t)-fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanutz, D.

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is a favoured candidate for a neutron multiplier in solid breeder blankets of fusion reactors. This is mainly due to its low (n, 2n)-reaction threshold and because of its good thermal and mechanical properties. Its behaviour under intense neutron irradiation, however, is a crucial issue for its use in future fusion reactors. Displacement damage in beryllium so far has been calculated both with data related and methodological deficiencies. First of all, there is a need to have accurate cross-section data in order to obtain reliable spectra of primary knock-on atoms (PKA's). Furthermore, there are principal restrictions of the NRT-model in general used to calculate secondary displacements initiated by PKA's. The underlying theory of damage-energy (part of kinetic energy of PKA transferred elastically to matrix atoms) according to Lindhard is strictly valid only for medium and heavy mass ions with moderate energies in targets of the same element. In this work improved damage cross-sections and displacement rates (dpa/s) in beryllium have been calculated based on cross-section data from ENDF/B-VI (with a significantly improved (n, 2n)-evaluation) and on an appropriate treatment of damage-energy that is suitable for fusion relevant damage of light mass materials. ''This work has been performed in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and is supported by the European Communities within the European Fusion Technology Program''. (orig.)

  11. Modeling of uncertainties in biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Ljubiša; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-02-01

    Mathematical modeling is an indispensable tool for research and development in biotechnology and bioengineering. The formulation of kinetic models of biochemical networks depends on knowledge of the kinetic properties of the enzymes of the individual reactions. However, kinetic data acquired from experimental observations bring along uncertainties due to various experimental conditions and measurement methods. In this contribution, we propose a novel way to model the uncertainty in the enzyme kinetics and to predict quantitatively the responses of metabolic reactions to the changes in enzyme activities under uncertainty. The proposed methodology accounts explicitly for mechanistic properties of enzymes and physico-chemical and thermodynamic constraints, and is based on formalism from systems theory and metabolic control analysis. We achieve this by observing that kinetic responses of metabolic reactions depend: (i) on the distribution of the enzymes among their free form and all reactive states; (ii) on the equilibrium displacements of the overall reaction and that of the individual enzymatic steps; and (iii) on the net fluxes through the enzyme. Relying on this observation, we develop a novel, efficient Monte Carlo sampling procedure to generate all states within a metabolic reaction that satisfy imposed constrains. Thus, we derive the statistics of the expected responses of the metabolic reactions to changes in enzyme levels and activities, in the levels of metabolites, and in the values of the kinetic parameters. We present aspects of the proposed framework through an example of the fundamental three-step reversible enzymatic reaction mechanism. We demonstrate that the equilibrium displacements of the individual enzymatic steps have an important influence on kinetic responses of the enzyme. Furthermore, we derive the conditions that must be satisfied by a reversible three-step enzymatic reaction operating far away from the equilibrium in order to respond to

  12. Radiation displacement damage estimates for a radionuclide waste stabilization material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the number of atomic displacements produced in pollucite by the radioactive decay of Cs-134 are made. Pollucite is a candidate material for radionuclide waste stabilization, while Cs-134 is one of the radionuclide products which would be chemically bound in the pollucite lattice. At the maximum concentration of Cs-134 in pollucite, assuming a threshold displacement energy of 15.0 eV, the displacement rate is estimated to be 4.3 x 10 12 atoms/cm 3 /second which includes all atomic species in the pollucite lattice. It was found that most of the displacements, 85 percent, were caused by elastic scattering of photoelectrons and Compton electrons which are products of γ-ray interactions in the material. Most of the remaining displacements are caused by elastic scattering of β-particles. Recoil energies of the Ba daughter product are insufficient to cause displacement. Atomic displacements of nearest neighbors, atoms within one lattice spacing of the decay site, are estimated to be 2.7 x 10 6 atoms/cm 3 /second. These estimates provide a starting point for assessing the long term stability of pollucite to radiation damage

  13. On virtual displacement and virtual work in Lagrangian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Subhankar; Shamanna, J

    2006-01-01

    The confusion and ambiguity encountered by students in understanding virtual displacement and virtual work is discussed in this paper. A definition of virtual displacement is presented that allows one to express them explicitly for holonomic (velocity independent), non-holonomic (velocity dependent), scleronomous (time independent) and rheonomous (time dependent) constraints. It is observed that for holonomic, scleronomous constraints, the virtual displacements are the displacements allowed by the constraints. However, this is not so for a general class of constraints. For simple physical systems, it is shown that the work done by the constraint forces on virtual displacements is zero. This motivates Lagrange's extension of d'Alembert's principle to a system of particles in constrained motion. However, a similar zero work principle does not hold for the allowed displacements. It is also demonstrated that d'Alembert's principle of zero virtual work is necessary for the solvability of a constrained mechanical problem. We identify this special class of constraints, physically realized and solvable, as the ideal constraints. The concept of virtual displacement and the principle of zero virtual work by constraint forces are central to both Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers and Lagrange's equations in generalized coordinates

  14. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development.

  15. A study of the displacement of a Wankel rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, J. E.; Pennock, G. R.

    1993-03-01

    The volumetric displacement of a Wankel rotary engine is a function of the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio, assuming the engine has a unit depth and the number of lobes is specified. The mathematical expression which defines the displacement contains a function which can be evaluated directly and a normal elliptic integral of the second type which does not have an explicit solution. This paper focuses on the contribution of the elliptic integral to the total displacement of the engine. The influence of the elliptic integral is shown to account for as much as 20 percent of the total displacement, depending on the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio. Two numerical integration techniques are compared in the paper, namely, the trapezoidal rule and Simpson's 1/3 rule. The bounds on the error, associated with each numerical method, are analyzed. The results indicate that the numerical method has a minimal effect on the accuracy of the calculated displacement for a practical number of integration steps. The paper also evaluates the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the calculated displacement and the actual displacement. Finally. a numerical example of the common three-lobed Wankel rotary engine is included for illustrative purposes.

  16. Project-induced displacement, secondary stressors, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

    2012-04-01

    It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea's impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees' depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  18. Axial displacements in external and internal implant-abutment connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the axial displacement of the abutments during clinical procedures by the tightening torque and cyclic loading. Two different implant-abutment connection systems were used (external butt joint connection [EXT]; internal tapered conical connection [INT]). The master casts with two implant replicas, angulated 10° from each other, were fabricated for each implant connection system. Four types of impression copings were assembled and tightened with the corresponding implants (hex transfer impression coping, non-hex transfer impression coping, hex pick-up impression coping, non-hex pick-up impression coping). Resin splinted abutments and final prosthesis were assembled. The axial displacement was measured from the length of each assembly, which was evaluated repeatedly, after 30 Ncm torque tightening. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis for 1,000,000 cycles, additional axial displacement was recorded. The mean axial displacement was statistically analyzed (repeated measured ANOVA). There was more axial displacement in the INT group than that of the EXT group in impression copings, resin splinted abutments, and final prosthesis. Less axial displacement was found at 1-piece non-hex transfer type impression coping than other type of impression copings in the INT group. There was more axial displacement at the final prosthesis than resin splinted abutments in the INT and the EXT groups. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis, the INT group showed more axial displacement than that of the EXT group. Internal tapered conical connection demonstrated a varying amount of axial displacement with tightening torque and cyclic loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  20. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  1. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  2. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  3. Nanomechanical displacement sensing using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.; Aldridge, J.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a radio frequency mechanical resonator that includes a quantum point contact, defined using electrostatic top gates. We can mechanically actuate the resonator using either electrostatic or magnetomotive forces. We demonstrate the use of the quantum point contact as a displacement sensor, operating as a radio frequency mixer at the mechanical resonance frequency of 1.5 MHz. We calculate a displacement sensitivity of about 3x10 -12 m/Hz 1/2 . This device will potentially permit quantum-limited displacement sensing of nanometer-scale resonators, allowing the quantum entanglement of the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom of a nanoscale system

  4. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  5. Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium is described. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement. 3 claims, 3 figures

  6. Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation

  7. Contribution of gold nanoparticles to the catalytic DNA strand displacement in leakage reduction and signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Dongbao; Sun, Xianbao; He, Miao; Wang, Xiaojing; Yin, Xue; Liang, Haojun

    2017-10-03

    A new model using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-DNA system to constrain leakage and improve efficiency of catalytic toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions was outlined. A 10-bp spacer on AuNPs and fourfold amount of fuels were determined for good performance of this model with an optimized toehold strategy. After the reaction at 25 °C for 10 h, a 258 pM target could be identified, which is a remarkable improvement compared with the traditional AuNP-DNA system without fuel. Moreover, this model was also studied to differentiate specific single nucleotide polymorphism on target with superior selection factors. This model may help by introducing a proposition of target detection to guide further investigation.

  8. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  9. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2008-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  10. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Geneva based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), there are ..... adequate machinery in place to address IDPs issues and the organizations ... could be deduced that the mandates and organizational structures of the National.

  11. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  12. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Atomic displacements; density functional theory; Kanzaki method. ... pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. ... Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and ...

  13. Effect of excavation method on rock mass displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Rock mass displacement measurements have been performed to understand rock mass behavior and its dependence on excavation method during drift excavation at the Tono mine. Rock mass displacements of 1.46 mm and 0.67 mm have been measured at one meter (0.33D: blasting, 0.42D: machine, D: width of drift) from the walls of drifts excavated by the drill and blasting method and machine, respectively. Numerical analysis of rock mass displacements with Finite Element Method has been performed assuming an excavation disturbed zone. Measured and analysed rock mass displacements are consistent with each other for the drift excavation by the drill and blasting method. The excavation disturbed zone was narrower for the drift excavated by machine than for the drift excavated by the drill and blasting method. (author)

  14. Displacement energies for Zr measured in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes direct measurements of threshold displacement energies for Zr obtained by electron irradiation in a high voltage microscope (HVEM) and compares the measurements with the earlier data.

  15. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  16. FOREIGN AFFAIRS: Internally Displaced Persons Lack Effective Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Internally displaced persons--those forced to flee their homes because of armed conflict and persecution but who remain within their own country are among the most at-risk, vulnerable populations in the world...

  17. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang

    2018-02-01

    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  18. Searches for light sterile neutrinos with multitrack displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hirsch, Martin

    2018-03-01

    We study discovery prospects for long-lived sterile neutrinos at the LHC with multitrack displaced vertices, with masses below the electroweak scale. We reinterpret current displaced vertex searches making use of publicly available, parametrized selection efficiencies for modeling the detector response to displaced vertices. We focus on the production of right-handed WR bosons and neutrinos N in a left-right symmetric model, and find poor sensitivity. After proposing a different trigger strategy (considering the prompt lepton accompanying the neutrino displaced vertex) and optimized cuts in the invariant mass and track multiplicity of the vertex, we find that the LHC with √{s }=13 TeV and 300 fb-1 is able to probe sterile neutrino masses between 10 GeV right-handed gauge boson mass of 2 TeV work joins other efforts in motivating dedicated experimental searches to target this low sterile neutrino mass region.

  19. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...... population of Denmark for the years 1981-1999 with full records on demographics, health and work status for each person, and with a link from every working person to a plant. We use the method of matching on observables to estimate the counter-factual of what would have happened to the health of a particular...

  20. Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial homecoming. From Throne (Cathedra) to Home ( Oikos ) in a grassroots ecclesiology of place and space: Fides Quaerens Domum et Locum [Faith Seeking Home and Space

  1. Caught in the middle with multiple displacement amplification: the myth of pooling for avoiding multiple displacement amplification bias in a metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Rachel; McCarren, Coleen; Vorrasane, Vansay; Nasko, Dan; Crowgey, Erin; Polson, Shawn W; Wommack, K Eric

    2014-01-30

    Shotgun metagenomics has become an important tool for investigating the ecology of microorganisms. Underlying these investigations is the assumption that metagenome sequence data accurately estimates the census of microbial populations. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of microbial community DNA is often used in cases where it is difficult to obtain enough DNA for sequencing; however, MDA can result in amplification biases that may impact subsequent estimates of population census from metagenome data. Some have posited that pooling replicate MDA reactions negates these biases and restores the accuracy of population analyses. This assumption has not been empirically tested. Using mock viral communities, we examined the influence of pooling on population-scale analyses. In pooled and single reaction MDA treatments, sequence coverage of viral populations was highly variable and coverage patterns across viral genomes were nearly identical, indicating that initial priming biases were reproducible and that pooling did not alleviate biases. In contrast, control unamplified sequence libraries showed relatively even coverage across phage genomes. MDA should be avoided for metagenomic investigations that require quantitative estimates of microbial taxa and gene functional groups. While MDA is an indispensable technique in applications such as single-cell genomics, amplification biases cannot be overcome by combining replicate MDA reactions. Alternative library preparation techniques should be utilized for quantitative microbial ecology studies utilizing metagenomic sequencing approaches.

  2. The Ligand Substitution Reactions of Hydrophobic Vitamin B12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry ... The equilibrium constants, K, for the reaction of five-membered heterocyclic nitrogenous bases (the azoles imidazole, pyrazole and 1,2,4-triazole) with displacement of ... Keywords: Hydrophobic vitamin B12, cobalt corrinoids, equilibrium constants, solvent polarity, trans influence.

  3. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  4. Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.

    1986-01-01

    The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method

  5. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  6. Noise cancellation properties of displacement noise free interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the practical feasibility of a displacement- and frequency-noise-free laser interferometer (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The noise cancellation efficiency was evaluated by comparing the displacement noise spectrum of the MZIs and the DFI, demonstrating up to 50 dB of noise cancellation. In addition, the possible extension of DFI as QND device is explored.

  7. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid; Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat

    2014-01-01

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  8. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  9. Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Gallup

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some of the implications of the possibility that the human penis may have evolved to compete with sperm from other males by displacing rival semen from the cervical end of the vagina prior to ejaculation. The semen displacement hypothesis integrates considerable information about genital morphology and human reproductive behavior, and can be used to generate a number of interesting predictions.

  10. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  11. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  12. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  13. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  14. Urban revitalization and displacement: types, causes, and public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagin, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The policy research report reviews the scholarly and print media literatures on urban revitalization. The extent of revitalization; the incumbent or occupant upgrading; gentrification (displacement of low- and moderate-income households by better-off households); gentrification and displacement from all causes; and the role of powerful actors in revitalization are discussed. Public policy dealing with land use and development in urban areas is discussed. Future research needs are indicated.

  15. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  16. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  17. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  18. Prostate HDR brachytherapy catheter displacement between planning and treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, May; Hruby, George; Lovett, Aimee; Patanjali, Nitya

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: HDR brachytherapy is used as a conformal boost for treating prostate cancer. Given the large doses delivered, it is critical that the volume treated matches that planned. Our outpatient protocol comprises two 9 Gy fractions, two weeks apart. We prospectively assessed catheter displacement between CT planning and treatment delivery. Materials and methods: Three fiducial markers and the catheters were implanted under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Metal marker wires were inserted into 4 reference catheters before CT; marker positions relative to each other and to the marker wires were measured from the CT scout. Measurements were repeated immediately prior to treatment delivery using pelvic X-ray with marker wires in the same reference catheters. Measurements from CT scout and film were compared. For displacements of 5 mm or more, indexer positions were adjusted prior to treatment delivery. Results: Results are based on 48 implants, in 25 patients. Median time from planning CT to treatment delivery was 254 min (range 81–367 min). Median catheter displacement was 7.5 mm (range −2.9–23.9 mm), 67% of implants had displacement of 5 mm or greater. Displacements were predominantly caudal. Conclusions: Catheter displacement can occur in the 1–3 h between the planning CT scan and treatment. It is recommended that departments performing HDR prostate brachytherapy verify catheter positions immediately prior to treatment delivery.

  19. Displacement in new economy labor markets: Post-displacement wage loss in high tech versus low tech cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Rubin, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    While scholars and politicians tout education as the salve to employment disruptions, we argue that the geography of the new economy, and the social closure mechanisms that geography creates, may be just as important as individuals' characteristics for predicting post-displacement wage loss (or gain). We use data from the 2012 Displaced Workers ement of the Current Population Survey and from the 2010 United States Census to test hypotheses linking local labor markets in different industrial contexts to post-displacement wage loss. Our results point to age as a closure mechanism, and to the partially protective effect of education in high-tech versus low-tech economic sectors. This study is the first to use national level data to examine how employment in high-tech cities influences post-displacement wages. These findings are relevant both for theorizing about the new economy and for public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplexed detection of DNA sequences using a competitive displacement assay in a microfluidic SERRS-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Soroush H; Giles, Kristen L; White, Ian M

    2013-11-05

    We demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of DNA sequences through a surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS)-based competitive displacement assay in an integrated microsystem. The use of the competitive displacement scheme, in which the target DNA sequence displaces a Raman-labeled reporter sequence that has lower affinity for the immobilized probe, enables detection of unlabeled target DNA sequences with a simple single-step procedure. In our implementation, the displacement reaction occurs in a microporous packed column of silica beads prefunctionalized with probe-reporter pairs. The use of a functionalized packed-bead column in a microfluidic channel provides two major advantages: (i) immobilization surface chemistry can be performed as a batch process instead of on a chip-by-chip basis, and (ii) the microporous network eliminates the diffusion limitations of a typical biological assay, which increases the sensitivity. Packed silica beads are also leveraged to improve the SERRS detection of the Raman-labeled reporter. Following displacement, the reporter adsorbs onto aggregated silver nanoparticles in a microfluidic mixer; the nanoparticle-reporter conjugates are then trapped and concentrated in the silica bead matrix, which leads to a significant increase in plasmonic nanoparticles and adsorbed Raman reporters within the detection volume as compared to an open microfluidic channel. The experimental results reported here demonstrate detection down to 100 pM of the target DNA sequence, and the experiments are shown to be specific, repeatable, and quantitative. Furthermore, we illustrate the advantage of using SERRS by demonstrating multiplexed detection. The sensitivity of the assay, combined with the advantages of multiplexed detection and single-step operation with unlabeled target sequences makes this method attractive for practical applications. Importantly, while we illustrate DNA sequence detection, the SERRS-based competitive

  1. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac; Taberner, Andrew; Nielsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin's mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  2. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-06-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin\\'s mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  3. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol

    1996-12-01

    This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.

  4. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, B.; Saiki, M.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of small quantities of nickel by using radioactive tracers is presented. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between and zinc-ethylenediaminetetraacetate, (Zn-EDTA), labelled with 65 Zn is investigated. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc, displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate, into a dithizone-carbon tetrachloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. It is shown that the method is very sentitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0,1μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and accuracy of the method are determined. An attempt to eliminate the problem of interference by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation of nickel and other interfereing metals, is also made. (Author) [pt

  5. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, B.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of small quantities of nickel using radioactive tracers is presented. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between nickel and zinc ethylenediaminetetraacetate labeled with zinc-65 is pursued. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate into a dithizone-carbon tetracloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. The method is very sensitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0.1μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and the accuracy of the method are determined. The problem of interferences, trying to eliminate them by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation between nickel and other interfering metals, is also investigated [pt

  6. Zika virus displacement by a chikungunya outbreak in Recife, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Magalhaes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV, Zika virus (ZIKV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, circulate in northeast Brazil. Diseases caused by these viruses are of great public health relevance, however, their epidemiological features in areas where the three viruses co-circulate are scarce. Here, we present analyses of molecular and serological diagnostics in a prospective study of acute febrile patients recruited from May 2015 to May 2016 in Recife, Brazil.Two hundred sixty-three acute febrile patients with symptoms suggestive of an arboviral disease who attended an urgent heath care clinic in the Recife Metropolitan Region in northeast Brazil were enrolled. Acute and convalescent blood samples were collected and tested using molecular and serological assays for infection with DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV.Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRTPCR performed on acute phase sera detected no patients positive for DENV, but 26 (9.9% positive for ZIKV and 132 (50.2% positive for CHIKV. There were a few suspected and only one confirmed dengue case. Specific serological assays for ZIKV and CHIKV confirmed the qRTPCR data. Analyses of DENV IgM and IgG ELISAs in the context of qRTPCR results suggested high levels of cross reactive antibodies in ZIKV-positive samples. Results from neutralization assays highly corroborated those from qRTPCR and ZIKV ELISA, indicating very few positive DENV cases. ZIKV infections were temporally clustered in the first months of the study and started to decrease concomitantly with an increase in CHIKV infections in August 2015. The proportion of CHIKV infections increased significantly in September 2015 and remained high until the end of the study period, with an average of 84.7% of recruited patients being diagnosed from August 2015 to May 2016. ZIKV infections exhibited a female bias and the cases were spread over the study site, while CHIKV cases had a

  7. Zika virus displacement by a chikungunya outbreak in Recife, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Tereza; Braga, Cynthia; Cordeiro, Marli T; Oliveira, Andre L S; Castanha, Priscila M S; Maciel, Ana Paula R; Amancio, Nathalia M L; Gouveia, Pollyanne N; Peixoto-da-Silva, Valter J; Peixoto, Thaciana F L; Britto, Helena; Lima, Priscilla V; Lima, Andreza R S; Rosenberger, Kerstin D; Jaenisch, Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2017-11-01

    Several arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, circulate in northeast Brazil. Diseases caused by these viruses are of great public health relevance, however, their epidemiological features in areas where the three viruses co-circulate are scarce. Here, we present analyses of molecular and serological diagnostics in a prospective study of acute febrile patients recruited from May 2015 to May 2016 in Recife, Brazil. Two hundred sixty-three acute febrile patients with symptoms suggestive of an arboviral disease who attended an urgent heath care clinic in the Recife Metropolitan Region in northeast Brazil were enrolled. Acute and convalescent blood samples were collected and tested using molecular and serological assays for infection with DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRTPCR) performed on acute phase sera detected no patients positive for DENV, but 26 (9.9%) positive for ZIKV and 132 (50.2%) positive for CHIKV. There were a few suspected and only one confirmed dengue case. Specific serological assays for ZIKV and CHIKV confirmed the qRTPCR data. Analyses of DENV IgM and IgG ELISAs in the context of qRTPCR results suggested high levels of cross reactive antibodies in ZIKV-positive samples. Results from neutralization assays highly corroborated those from qRTPCR and ZIKV ELISA, indicating very few positive DENV cases. ZIKV infections were temporally clustered in the first months of the study and started to decrease concomitantly with an increase in CHIKV infections in August 2015. The proportion of CHIKV infections increased significantly in September 2015 and remained high until the end of the study period, with an average of 84.7% of recruited patients being diagnosed from August 2015 to May 2016. ZIKV infections exhibited a female bias and the cases were spread over the study site, while CHIKV cases had a male bias and

  8. The effect of multi-component adsorption on selectivity in ion exchange displacement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, N; Cramer, S M

    2005-01-21

    This paper examines chemically selective displacement chromatography using affinity ranking plots, batch displacer screening experiments, column displacements, multi-component adsorption isotherms and spectroscopy. The affinity ranking plot indicated that the displacers, sucrose octasulfate (SOS) and tatrazine, should possess sufficient affinity to displace the proteins amyloglucosidase and apoferritin over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, the plots indicated that the separation of these proteins by displacement chromatography would be extremely difficult. Further, the two proteins were shown to have very similar retention times under shallow linear gradient conditions. When batch displacement experiments were carried out, both tartrazine and SOS exhibited significant selectivity differences with respect to their ability to displace these two proteins, in contrast to the affinity ranking plot results. Column displacement experiments carried out with sucrose octasulfate agreed with the predictions of the affinity ranking plots, with both proteins being displaced but poorly resolved under several column displacement conditions. On the other hand, column displacement with tartrazine as the displacer resulted in the selective displacement and partial purification of apoferritin. Single- and multi-component isotherms of the proteins with or without the presence of displacers were determined and were used to help explain the selectivity reversals observed in the column and batch displacement experiments. In addition, fluorescence and CD spectra suggested that the displacers did not induce any structural changes to either of the proteins. The results in this paper indicate that multi-component adsorption behavior can be exploited for creating chemically selective displacement separations.

  9. Kinetic Modeling of the Reaction Rate for Quartz and Carbon Pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete

    2018-04-01

    Kinetic modeling of quartz and carbon pellet at temperatures of 1898 K, 1923 K, and 1948 K (1625 °C, 1650 °C, and 1675 °C) was investigated in this study. The carbon materials used were charcoal, coke, coal, and preheated coal. The overall SiC producing reaction can be described by the reaction SiO2 + 3C = SiC + 2CO. In the SiC-producing step, the reaction rate of quartz and carbon pellet can be expressed as {d{ pct}}/dt = ( {1 - 0.40 × X_{fix - C}^{ - 0.86} × FC × {pct}} ) × A × \\exp ( { - E/{{RT}}} ) The carbon factor F C was used to describe the influence of different carbon materials that effect the gas-solid interface reaction. For charcoal, coke, coal, and preheated coal, the F C values were 0.83, 0.80, 0.94, and 0.83, respectively. The pre-exponential factor A values for the preceding four carbon materials were 1.06 × 1016 min-1, 4.21 × 1015 min-1, 3.85 × 109 min-1, and 1.00 × 1025 min-1, respectively. The activation energies E for the SiC-producing step were 570, 563, 336, and 913 kJ/mole for charcoal, coke, coal, and preheated coal pellets, respectively.

  10. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  11. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Peng, Kai-Ling; Lin, Chien-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK. A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of -0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later. We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014. Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could mostly be restored with immediate and proper management.

  12. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  13. The effect of moderators on the reactions of hot hydrogen atoms with methane

    CERN Document Server

    Estrup, Peder J.

    1960-01-01

    The reaction of recoil tritium with methane has been examined in further detail. The previous hypothesis that this system involves a hot displacement reaction of high kinetic energy hydrogen to give CH$_{3}$T, CH$_{2}$T and HT is confirmed. The effect of moderator on this process is studied by the addition of noble gases. As predicted these gases inhibit the hot reaction action, their efficiency in this respect being He > Ne > A > Se. The data are quantitatively in accord with a theory of hot atom kinetics. The mechanism of the hot displacement process is briefly discussed.

  14. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-02-01

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  15. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  16. Treatment of displaced mandibular condylar fracture with botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbay, Ercan; Cevik, Cengiz; Damlar, Ibrahim; Altan, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the effect on condylar reduction of botulinum toxin A treatment used in a child with displaced fracture at condylar neck of mandible. A 3-years old boy was admitted to our clinic for incomplete fracture of mandibular symphysis and displaced condylar fracture at the left side. An asymmetrical occlusal splint with intermaxillary fixation was used instead of open reduction and internal fixation because of incomplete fracture of symphysis and possible complications of condyle surgery. However, it was observed that condylar angulation persisted despite this procedure. Thus, botulinum toxin A was administered to masseter, temporalis and pterygoideus medialis muscles. At the end of first month, it was seen that mandibular condyle was almost completely recovered and that fusion was achieved. In conclusion, Botulinum A toxin injection aiming the suppression of masticatory muscle strength facilitates the reduction in the conservative management of displaced condyle in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling magnetic forces during asymmetric vertical displacement events at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V.; Walker, S.; Noll, P.

    2000-01-01

    Asymmetric vertical disruption events (AVDEs) are fortunately rare, but can induce large lateral forces which can cause significant mechanical damage to tokamaks. In this paper we present a simple model which allows the lateral forces generated during such a disruption to be estimated as a function of relatively easily obtained electromagnetic parameters: the asymmetries in the vertical current moment. This model is validated by using it to predict the displacement history of the JET tokamak caused by a number of major AVDEs. It is shown that the predicted forces and displacements agree well with quantities measured during these disruptions. One conclusion from the model is that the maximum sideways displacement scales with the product of the plasma current and the toroidal field, and this recipe is now used at JET to assess a priori the hazards of performing high current and high field pulses when they are known to be likely to disrupt. (author)

  18. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC’s Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as 10{sup −11}.

  19. Reconstructing particle masses in events with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna

    2018-03-01

    We propose a simple way to extract particle masses given a displaced vertex signature in event topologies where two long-lived mother particles decay to visible particles and an invisible daughter. The mother could be either charged or neutral and the neutral daughter could correspond to a dark matter particle in different models. The method allows to extract the parent and daughter masses by using on-shell conditions and energy-momentum conservation, in addition to the displaced decay positions of the parents, which allows to solve the kinematic equations fully on an event-by-event basis. We show the validity of the method by means of simulations including detector effects. If displaced events are seen in discovery searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), this technique can be applied.

  20. Time varying behavior of the loudspeaker suspension: Displacement level dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e. the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the speaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal excitation...... the change in compliance is shown to depend primarily on maximum displacement. But for square pulse excitation the duration of the excitation also plays an important role...

  1. Summary of ionizing and displacive irradiation fields in various facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to estimate the ionizing and displacive irradiation fields that will occur in ceramics during irradiation in accelerators and fission and fusion reactors. A useful measure of the relative strength of ionizing vs. displasive radiation is the ratio of the absorbed ionizing dose to the displacement damage dose, which in the case of ion irradiation is equal to the ratio of the electronic stopping power to the nuclear stopping power. In ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , this ratio is about 20 at a fusion reactor first wall, and has a typical value of about 100 in a fusion reactor blanket region and in mixed spectrum reactors such as HFIR. Particle accelerator sources typically have much higher ionizing to displacive radiation ratios, ranging from about 2000 for 1 MeV protons to >10,000 for 1 MeV electrons

  2. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2010-07-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μ m of static displacement, with 80-90 μ m displacements being typical, using four 920 μ m long by 70 μ m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy.

  3. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, R.

    1973-01-01

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14 C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14 C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK) [de

  4. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-02-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses.

  5. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses. (orig.)

  6. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Schmidsfeld

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry–Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber–cantilever configurations. In the Fabry–Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz0.5 under optimum conditions.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.

    The effects of atomic displacements on the energetics of alloys plays important role in the determining the properties of alloys. We studied the atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys using molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo methods. The diffuse scattering of pure materials, copper, gold, nickel, and palladium was calculated. The experimental data for pure Cu was obtained from diffuse scattering intensity of synchrotron x-ray radiation. The comparison showed the advantages of molecular dynamics method for calculating the atomic displacements in solid alloys. The individual nearest neighbor separations were calculated for Cu 50Au50 alloy and compared to the result of XAFS experiment. The molecular dynamics method provided theoretical predictions of nearest neighbor pair separations in other binary alloys, Cu-Pd and Cu-Al for wide range of the concentrations. We also experimentally recovered the diffuse scattering maps for the Cu47.3Au52.7 and Cu85.2Al14.8 alloy.

  8. Displacement disorder and reconstruction of the (001) face of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorushkin, V.E.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.; Savushkin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of the (001) border of tungsten is examined taking into consideration random static displacements of surface atoms in the high-temperature (1 x 1) phase. A microscopic model is proposed, in which the creation of c(2 x 2) phase is described as a transition of the Jahn-Teller type and an ordering of static displacements. It is shown that displacement disorder induces instability of (001) tungsten with respect to reconstruction. The effect of a uniform electric field on a disordered reconstructing surface is examined. A possible reason is given for pronounced differences in the results of investigations of the structural conversion of the (001) face in tungsten when different experimental methods are used

  9. The Displaced Female Voice: Poetry of Natalya Gorbanevskaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneerah Badr Almahasheer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natalya Gorbanevskaya’s poetry uses unanchored imagery, direct address, and other specific means of creating a mood of rootlessness that is ambiguous and echoes her own experience as a Russian exile. Her work focuses on themes of displacement and trauma that are common to those who are forcibly made to leave their homes. This article is one of the first close readings of selected poems by Gorbanevskaya that is to merit attention to her displacement, marginalized feminine identity and resistance to the hegemony of political repression. The loss of her home in a literal and a geographical sense, and her status as an expatriate in Paris, can be understood as a complete displacement for Gorbanevskaya, forging her identity as a political refugee poet. Her work further reveals the power of poetry in reclaiming identity, asserting memory, and resisting the patriarchal system.

  10. Mental health problems among internally displaced persons in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2010-08-01

    War victims are regarded as one of the highest risk groups for mental disturbances. This study investigated the effects of the Darfur conflict on mental health of 430 internally displaced persons (IDPs) from three camps located around Fasher and Nyala towns. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select participants. Male participants represented 50.6% of the sample while female participants represented 49.4%. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used in addition to a questionnaire measuring demographic variables and living conditions. It was hypothesized that high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and of nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms will be evident. Results showed a high dissatisfaction rate (72%) with living conditions among IDPs. There was also high prevalence of PTSD (54%) and general distress (70%) among IDPs. Female participants showed more somatic symptoms than their male counterparts. Married participants were more distressed, anxious, and showed more social dysfunction, while single ones reported more avoidance symptoms. Significant differences related to date of displacement were found in PTSD and hyperarousal. The group of IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales than those displaced in 2004 and 2005. There was also significant difference related to date of displacement in distress, somatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales. Results are discussed in light of the study hypotheses and previous findings. It is concluded that three factors might affect the dissatisfaction of IDPs with living conditions inside camps. These are: lack of employment, unsuitability of food items, and lack of security around camps. It was recommended that psychological support services should be among the prime relief services provided by aid agencies.

  11. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  13. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-Han Tsai,1 Kai-Ling Peng,1 Chien-Jen Lin2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK.Case presentation: A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of −0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later.Literature review: We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014.Conclusion: Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could

  14. Nanoscale displacement sensing using microfabricated variable-inductance planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, M. Bulut; Thotahewa, Kasun; Ying, York-Sing; Yuce, Mehmet; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    2013-09-01

    Microfabricated spiral inductors were employed for nanoscale displacement detection, suitable for use in implantable pressure sensor applications. We developed a variable inductor sensor consisting of two coaxially positioned planar coils connected in series to a measurement circuit. The devices were characterized by varying the air gap between the coils hence changing the inductance, while a Colpitts oscillator readout was used to obtain corresponding frequencies. Our approach shows significant advantages over existing methodologies combining a displacement resolution of 17 nm and low hysteresis (0.15%) in a 1 × 1 mm2 device. We show that resolution could be further improved by shrinking the device's lateral dimensions.

  15. Monitoring of pipe displacements in French LMFBR SUPERPHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Debaene, J.P.; Renault, Y.; Blin, B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to check that pipe supports work properly and that the locking of snubbers or the loss of supports do not put a pipe in unacceptable loading conditions, a monitoring of the behaviour of the main pipes of SUPERPHENIX is planned. This monitoring system consists in measuring the displacements at selected points of the pipe by means of measuring rods and checking that these displacements remain inside allowable domains. These allowable domains are defined so that, if the displacements of the pipe are inside all these domains, the plant operator is sure that the stresses verify the allowable limits and then no additional inspection is carried out. In the opposite case, the operator will inspect the pipe in detail in order to determine the consequences and repair if necessary before restarting. Selection of points for monitoring was done with the to minimize the number of measures to be carried out and to use as far as possible the measuring rods that were installed to check that pipe displacements were consistent with what has been obtained in design calculations. However, it appears necessary to ensure that any incident occurring at any point of the pipe can be detected and, if necessary, additional measuring rods may be installed. An incident is said detectable if it induces on at least one measuring rod a deviation with respect to expected displacement not lower than 5 mm. It has been chosen so that small normal changes in measured displacements are not mistaken as incidents. The incidents that are supposed likely to occur are: 1) loss of a support which induces mainly primary stresses, 2) locking of a snubber which induces mainly secondary stresses. Monitoring of pipe displacements is a simple and effective way of checking that no damaging perturbation has occurred on the pipe. Calculations carried out on the DHR loops of SUPERPHENIX show that allowable domains of acceptable size may be obtained using a relatively small number of measuring rods. The method

  16. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women?s first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control ...

  17. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei

    2004-01-01

    We present a new idea that allows us to detect gravitational waves without being disturbed by any kind of displacement noise, based on the fact that gravitational waves and test-mass motions affect the propagations of light differently. We demonstrate this idea by analyzing a simple toy model consisting of three equally-separated objects on a line. By taking a certain combination of light travel times between these objects, we construct an observable free from the displacement of each object, which has a reasonable sensitivity to gravitational waves

  18. SPS data on tunnel displacements and the ATL law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1993-09-01

    In this article we analyze data from long-term measurements of quadrupole displacements in the Super Proton Synchrotron ring at CERN. The variance of displacement can be approximated by ATL law with coefficient A = (0.1--0.4) * 10 -4 μm 2 /s/m, with T the time interval between measurements and L the distance between two points of the tunnel. The shape of the distribution function is found to be close to Gaussian. The results of the analysis are compared with other data on slow ground motion

  19. Airflow and Temperature Distribution in Rooms with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, T. V.

    This thesis deals with air flow and temperature distribution in a room ventilated by the displacement principle. The characteristic features of the ventilation system are treated in the whole room but main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the stratified flow region in front of the inlet device....... After a prefatory description of the background and the fundamentals of displacement ventilation the objectives of the current study are specified. The subsequent sections describe the measurements of velocity and temperature profiles carried out in a full scale test room. Based on experimental data...... of measured data is of crucial importance. Qualitatively satisfactory results do not ensure quantitative agreement....

  20. A Computer Based Moire Technique To Measure Very Small Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Amadshahi, Mansour A.; Subbaraman, B.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy that can be achieved in the measurement of very small displacements in techniques such as moire, holography and speckle is limited by the noise inherent to the utilized optical devices. To reduce the noise to signal ratio, the moire method can be utilized. Two system of carrier fringes are introduced, an initial system before the load is applied and a final system when the load is applied. The moire pattern of these two systems contains the sought displacement information and the noise common to the two patterns is eliminated. The whole process is performed by a computer on digitized versions of the patterns. Examples of application are given.

  1. Coulomb displacement energies in nuclei: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Bernard, V.; Nguyen, V.G.

    1978-04-01

    The neutron core polarization gives rise to an important correction to the direct Coulomb contribution when one calculates the Coulomb displacement energies. In the Hartree-Fock model it is shown that this correction is about 2% to 4.5% in medium and heavy nuclei. The core polarization as well as other higher order effects can be included by using a selfconsistent description of the analog state in a complete proton particle-neutron hole space. The Coulomb displacement energies in 48 Ca, 88 Sr and 208 Pb have been calculated using Skyrme interactions SIII and SIV. A good agreement with experiment is obtained

  2. The Displacement of Regimes of Action in the Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsting, Vilhelm Stefan

    The aim of this paper is to explore how one might approach the profession of military command using the concepts of regimes of justification by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot in an analysis of the contemporary disputes and tensions between political and professional actors and in a time where...... of their contemporary role, responsibility and challenges) and an analysis of the displacement of military regimes in the light of economic and security changes at the societal level. I am arguing that the entrance of new regimes of justification are challenging and displacing the traditional professional justificatory...

  3. Dependence of displacement fields on the damage cluster nucleus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.N.; Zabela, A.G.; Nikolajchuk, L.I.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Displacement fields in doped crystals of cubic and hexagonal structures containing extended defects are studied. The numerical results are presented depending on the damage cluster nucleus geometry. All calculations are based on analytical representations of displacement fields in an integral form using elasticity theory equations. The investigation results are vital for radiation physics as they permit to predict and calculate both the character and geometry of distortions near damaged region cluster and determine cluster parameters on the basis of the known structure of distortions. Dependences are obtained for the following monocrystals: Mg, ZnO, CdS, W, Au. 6 refs.; 3 figs

  4. A comparison of cord gingival displacement with the gingitage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupac, R G; Neacy, K

    1981-11-01

    Fifteen young adult dogs were divided into three groups representing 0, 7- and 21-day healing periods. Randomly selected cuspid teeth were used to compare cord gingival displacement and gingitage techniques for subgingival tooth preparation and impression making. Clinical and histologic measurements were used as a basis for comparison. Results indicate that (1) the experimental teeth were clinically healthy at the beginning of the experiment, (2) clinical health of the gingival tissues was controlled throughout the course of the experiment, and (3) within this experimental setting, there was no significant difference between the cord gingival displacement technique and the gingitage technique.

  5. An amplified graphene oxide-based fluorescence aptasensor based on target-triggered aptamer hairpin switch and strand-displacement polymerization recycling for bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Liu, Jinwen; Chen, Jia; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Tian, Jianniao; Zhang, Guohai

    2013-04-15

    An amplified graphene oxide (GO) based fluorescence aptasensor based on target-triggered aptamer hairpin switch and strand-displacement polymerization recycling is developed for bioassays. The dye-labeled single-strand DNA (aptamer hairpin) was adsorbed on the surface of GO, which result in the fluorescence quenching of dye, and exhibiting minimal background fluorescence. Upon the target, primer and polymerase, the stem of the aptamer hairpin was opened, and binds with the primer to triggers the circular target strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which produces huge amounts of duplex helixes DNA and lead to strong fluorescence emission due to shielding of nucelobases within its double-helix structure. During the polymerization reaction, the primer was extended, and target was displaced. And the displaced target recognizes and hybridizes with another hairpin probe, triggering the next round of polymerization reaction, and the circle process induces fluorescence signal amplification for the detection of analyte. To test the feasibility of the aptasensor systems, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was employed as a model analyte. A detection limit as low as 1.5 fM is obtained based on the GO aptasensor with a linear range of three orders of magnitude. The present method was successfully applied for the detection of IFN-γ in human plasma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reactive Balance Control in Response to Perturbation in Unilateral Stance: Interaction Effects of Direction, Displacement and Velocity on Compensatory Neuromuscular and Kinematic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyler, Kathrin; Gollhofer, Albert; Colin, Ralf; Brüderlin, Uli; Ritzmann, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG) activity, centre of pressure (COP) displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental) and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR), medium (MLR) and long latency response (LLR) of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane), medial-lateral (frontal plane)), displacement (2 vs. 3cm) and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18m/s) of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (Pjoints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (Pjoint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (Pjoint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05). COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05). Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb serve as delayed stabilisers after a balance disturbance. Further, a kinematic distinction regarding the compensation for balance disturbance indicated different plane- and segment-specific sensitivities with respect to the determinants displacement and velocity. PMID:26678061

  7. The prevalence and significance of displacement for wilderness recreation management and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...

  8. Fluorescent sensors for selective detection of thiols: expanding the intramolecular displacement based mechanism to new chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Ya; Zheng, Hai-Rong; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2014-03-21

    Biological thiols, including cysteine (Cys), homocystein (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH), play crucial roles in maintaining the appropriate redox status of biological systems. An abnormal level of biothiols is associated with different diseases, therefore, the discrimination between them is of great importance. Herein, we present two fluorescent sensors for selective detection of biothiols based on our recently reported intramolecular displacement mechanism. We expanded this mechanism to commercially available chromophores, 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) and heptamethine cyanine dye IR-780. The sensors operate by undergoing displacement of chloride by thiolate. The amino groups of Cys/Hcy further replace the thiolate to form amino-substituted products, which exhibit dramatically different photophysical properties compared to sulfur-substituted products from the reaction with GSH. NBD-Cl is highly selective towards Cys/Hcy and exhibits significant fluorescence enhancement. IR-780 showed a variation in its fluorescence ratio towards Cys over other thiols. Both of the sensors can be used for live-cell imaging of Cys. The wide applicability of the mechanism may provide a powerful tool for developing novel fluorescent sensors for selective detection of biothiols.

  9. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Edwin; Mesere, Kelly; Pavlin, Boris I; Yakam, Logan; Ford, Rebecca; Yoannes, Mition; Kisa, Debbie; Abdad, Mohammad Y; Menda, Lincoln; Greenhill, Andrew R; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  10. DNA-mediated strand displacement facilitates sensitive electronic detection of antibodies in human serums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Shi, Kai; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2016-09-15

    We describe here the development of a sensitive and convenient electronic sensor for the detection of antibodies in human serums. The sensor is constructed by self-assembly formation of a mixed monolayer containing the small molecule epitope conjugated double stranded DNA probes on gold electrode. The target antibody binds the epitope on the dsDNA probe and lowers the melting temperature of the duplex, which facilitates the displacement of the antibody-linked strand of the duplex probe by an invading methylene blue-tagged single stranded DNA (MB-ssDNA) through the strand displacement reaction and leads to the capture of many MB-ssDNA on the sensor surface. Subsequent electrochemical oxidation of the methylene blue labels results in amplified current response for sensitive monitoring of the antibodies. The antibody assay conditions are optimized and the sensor exhibits a linear range between 1.0 and 25.0nM with a detection limit of 0.67nM for the target antibody. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to detect the target antibodies in human serum samples. With the advantages of using small molecule epitope as the antibody recognition element over traditional antigen, the versatile manipulability of the DNA probes and the unique properties of the electrochemical transduction technique, the developed sensor thus hold great potential for simple and sensitive detection of different antibodies and other proteins in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Benny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Methods: Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Results: Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. Discussion: This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  12. Design of a facility for the in situ measurement of catalytic reaction by neutron scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke L.; Lutterman, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Catalysis is a critical enabling science for future energy needs. The next frontier of catalysis is to evolve from catalyst discovery to catalyst design, and for this next step to be realized, we must develop new techniques to better understand reaction mechanisms. To do this, we must connect catalytic reaction rates and selectivities to the kinetics, energetics, and dynamics of individual elementary steps and relate these to the structure and dynamics of the catalytic sites involved. Neutron scattering spectroscopies offer unique capabilities that are difficult or impossible to match by other techniques. The current study presents the development of a compact and portable instrumental design that enables the in situ investigation of catalytic samples by neutron scattering techniques. The developed apparatus was tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and includes a gas handling panel that allows for computer hookups to control the panel externally and online measurement equipment such as coupled GC-FID/TCD (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector/Thermal Conductivity Detector) and MS (Mass Spectrometry) to characterize offgassing while the sample is in the neutron scattering spectrometer. This system is flexible, modular, compact, and portable enabling its use for many types of gas-solid and liquid-solid reactions at the various beamlines housed at the SNS.

  13. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  14. Relation between anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint disc and size of the condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Kubota, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Shibata, Takanori

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the cause of anterior displacement of the disc, we evaluated the relation between anterior displacement and the size of the condyle from MR images in 301 patients (602 TMJs) with clinical diagnosis of internal derangement. We found that the size of condyles with anterior displacement of the disc was significantly smaller than that of condyles without anterior displacement. This result suggests that small condyles may give rise to anterior displacement of the disc. (author)

  15. Forced population displacement | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2015 ... Increase land and housing tenure for the poor and help displaced communities rebuild the social fabric in their new neighbourhoods. ... The urban poor in Zimbabwe live in extreme stress and anxiety because they are unable to buy or rent property, or meet government requirements to develop their land.

  16. Current techniques for management of transverse displaced olecranon fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.; Heusinkveld, M.H.G.; Traa, W.; Oomen, P.; Oliva, F.; Del Buono, A.; Maffulli, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: displaced transverse fractures of the olecranon are the most common fractures occurring in the elbow in adults that requires operative intervention. METHODS: a literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct/Scopus, Google Scholar and Google using the keywords

  17. The internally displaced persons in Ukraine: Lviv’s example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bubniak

    2016-11-01

    As a result, the conclusions indicate that the internally displaced persons are gradually adopting in Lviv, as they got new social relations, gained new knowledge and skills, understood local social norms, realized that they are masters of their life and they are the only ones, who determine their future.

  18. Libyan armed conflict 2011: Mortality, injury and population displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Daw

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The Libyan armed conflict resulted in great human loss and social damage mirrored by high rates of mortality, injury and human displacement. Such parameters peaked as the conflict escalated and differed according to the Libyan regions and provinces involved. National and international efforts should be combined to overcome the consequences of these conflicts.

  19. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  20. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."