WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas provider fleets

  1. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  2. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  3. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  4. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  6. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  7. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  8. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  9. Environmental benefits and economic rationale of expanding the Italian natural gas private car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballardin, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    There are several concerns which bring to consider natural gas as a viable alternative to liquid fuels in transport. First, natural gas allows the curbing of global pollution in this steadily growing industry. Indeed, decoupling greenhouse gas emissions from transport growth has become a major issue in tackling climate change. Second, a more extensive use of natural gas would relieve city air quality, which is presently at levels harmful of human health. Nonetheless, this is just one side of the coin. The other side entails building a refuelling station network, and this carries financial requirements. The financing fraction holds a pivotal role in deciding whether natural gas for automotive purposes is an efficient solution. The final aim of this work is, therefore, to compare the natural gas advantages, stemming from avoided global and local emission, with the economic rationale of engaging in supplementary model network investments. A system dynamics model underlies this study's economic reasoning and is taken as reference for quantitative assertions. The model, named CH 4 CleanerAir, contains data referring to two scenarios: a Business As Usual Scenario and an Expansion Scenario. Simulation runs in Expansion Scenario serve to understand how gaseous pollution diminishes and network investments rise when the natural gas-fuelled fleet, as share of the total fleet, increases. Are new infrastructures needs compatible with existing refuelling facilities? What is the extent by which the natural gas-fuelled fleet can actually reduce global and local emission? The scenarios' gap analysis lead to the work's final considerations. The sounder reductions of gaseous pollutants in the last years of the considered time lag make the overall assessment lean towards a positive evaluation of natural gas employment in this industry. The beneficial effects of increasing the natural gas-fuel-led fleet take some time to unfold, but they eventually prevail. This study shows how natural

  10. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  11. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m 3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  12. Device provides controlled gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, S. K.; King, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    Modified palladium leak device provides a controlled release /leak/ of very small quantities of gas at low or medium pressures. It has no moving parts, requires less than 5 watts to operate, and is capable of releasing the gas either continuously or in pulses at adjustable flow rates.

  13. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than

  14. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  15. Step on the gas : Calgary-based firm increases efficiency of compressor fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2005-11-01

    Many operators are reluctant to run their compressors close to optimum efficiency due to concerns that a frozen well or other problems will push units over their limit, and gas limited areas also cause the machines to be run at partial capacity. This article suggested that the key to compressor optimization lies in the correct identification of deficiencies. Petroleum companies gather thousands of compressor data points every day, ranging from temperature and pressure to control valve position and compressor volume flow, but there is no easy way of analyzing the information. A software prototype called Production Equipment Performance Reporting (PEPR) is capable of disseminating log data and model compressor performance, as well as reporting results for an entire fleet. Raw operating data is gathered for the entire fleet and compressor utilization is ranked to show which compressors are being used efficiently and which ones are lagging. Data is processed from selected points per unit and then divided into key performance indicators (KPI), such as power utilization. To experienced operators, KPIs offer concise information and a range of changes they can make to improve the efficiency of their fleets. It was noted that Devon ran PEPR at one of its major gas fields, and was so satisfied with the results that it has now applied the system to the company's entire fleet. PEPR Inc. was formed in August 2004 to commercially market the production optimization software. In addition to optimizing compressor utilization, the software also handles other important functions, such as asset management, as well as generating downtime reports. While it only takes a day to install the software and a day to train, documenting basic data for each compressor can take several months for a large fleet. It was concluded that PEPR plans to configure its software to other production-related equipment. The system is capable of using operating parameters to calculate emissions instead of

  16. Hyper-Realistic, Team-Centered Fleet Surgical Team Training Provides Sustained Improvements in Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tuan N; Kang, Jeff; Siriratsivawong, Kris; LaPorta, Anthony; Heck, Amber; Ferraro, Jessica; Robinson, Douglas; Walsh, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The high-stress, fast-paced environment of combat casualty care relies on effective teamwork and communication which translates into quality patient care. A training course was developed for U.S. Navy Fleet Surgical Teams to address these aspects of patient care by emphasizing efficiency and appropriate patient care. An effective training course provides knowledge and skills to pass the course evaluation and sustain the knowledge and skills acquired over time. The course included classroom didactic hours, and hands-on simulation sessions. A pretest was administered before the course, a posttest upon completion, and a sustainment test 5 months following course completion. The evaluation process measured changes in patient time to disposition and critical errors made during patient care. Naval Base San Diego, with resuscitation and surgical simulations carried out within the shipboard medical spaces. United States Navy medical personnel including physicians of various specialties, corpsmen, nurses, and nurse anesthetists deploying aboard ships. Time to disposition improved significantly, 11 ± 3 minutes, from pretest to posttest, and critical errors improved by 4 ± 1 errors per encounter. From posttest to sustainment test, time to disposition increased by 3 ± 1, and critical errors decreased by 1 ± 1. This course showed value in improving teamwork and communication skills of participants, immediately upon completion of the course, and after 5 months had passed. Therefore, with ongoing sustainment activities within 6 months, this course can substantially improve trauma care provided by shipboard deployed Navy medical personnel to wounded service members. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  18. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  19. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  20. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  1. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  2. Waste gas could provide power for ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-07-18

    Dual-fuel engines are not new, but a version has been produced which, when used on ships carrying liquefied natural gas (LNG) could operate almost completely on waste gas. In its gas-operating mode, an engine can use the waste gas boiled off an LNG cargo. This wastage, normally allowed to escape to atmosphere, is about 0.25% of the cargo per day. Calculations have shown that this is enough to provide almost all the propulsion needs of a tanker under full cargo. This design is important in that it is suitable for the larger vessels now being required to carry LNG from N. Africa to North America, a journey where the costs of fuel are very considerable. Tests on the engine have indicated that power output is reduced to something like 80% of power under diesel fuel. However, additional advantages, such as cleaner engines with reduced maintenance costs, will help to tip the economic balance even further in favor of the dual purpose unit. This system also is applicable to stationary generating plant, again particularly on LNG tankage units where the same degree of gas boil-off applies.

  3. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  4. Preparation for Future Defuelling and Decommissioning Works on EDF Energy's UK Fleet of Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryers, John; Ashmead, Simon

    2016-01-01

    EDF Energy/Nuclear Generation is the owner and operator of 14 Advanced Gas cooled Reactors (AGR) and one Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), on 8 nuclear stations in the UK. EDF Energy/Nuclear Generation is responsible for all the activities associated with the end of life of its nuclear installations: de-fuelling, decommissioning and waste management. As the first AGR is forecast to cease generation within 10 years, EDF Energy has started planning for the decommissioning. This paper covers: - broad outline of the technical strategy and arrangements for future de-fuelling and decommissioning works on the UK AGR fleet, - high level strategic drivers and alignment with wider UK nuclear policy, - overall programme of preparation and initial works, - technical approaches to be adopted during decommissioning. (authors)

  5. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  6. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  8. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  9. Evolution of the household vehicle fleet : anticipating fleet composition, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Automobile ownership plays an important role in determining vehicle use, emissions, fuel : consumption, congestion and traffic safety. This work provides new data on ownership decisions : and owner preferences under various scenarios, coupled with ca...

  10. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  11. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  12. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  13. Improving fleet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2015-01-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  14. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  15. Improving fleet performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  16. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  17. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions and energy use analysis of hypothetical fleet of electrified vehicles in Canada and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduro, Miguelangel

    The shift to strong hybrid and electrified vehicle architectures engenders controversy and brings about many unanswered questions. It is unclear whether developed markets will have the infrastructure in place to support and successfully implement them. To date, limited effort has been made to comprehend if the energy and transportation solutions that work well for one city or geographic region may extend broadly. A region's capacity to supply a fleet of EVs, or plug-in hybrid vehicles with the required charging infrastructure, does not necessarily make such vehicle architectures an optimal solution. In this study, a mix of technologies ranging from HEV to PHEV and EREV through to Battery Electric Vehicles were analyzed and set in three Canadian Provinces and 3 U.S. Regions for the year 2020. Government agency developed environmental software tools were used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. Projected vehicle technology shares were employed to estimate regional environmental implications. Alternative vehicle technologies and fuels are recommended for each region based on local power generation schemes.

  18. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  19. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  20. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  1. Cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system

  2. Maximizing your fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J. [GE Capital Rail Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A series of viewgraphs were presented to illustrate this discussion which focused on the economics of the railroad environment in 2001 and beyond. Fleet productivity and customer relations were described. The viewgraphs were entitled: new car builds; fleet demographics for North American LPG/AA fleet; and, issues and trends of North American LPG/AA fleet. It was noted that there is a continued demand for North American LPG/AA fleet as cars are phased out. GE Capital Rail Services is addressing the future by focusing on the following four initiatives: service, globalization, building a six sigma company, and transforming into an e-business. The company's six sigma approach is based on customer orientation, safety and compliance, quality and reliability, productivity and planning, cost, and people and culture. The actions taken thus far have been a planned maintenance program, the relocation of safety valves, and the elimination of early failures. figs.

  3. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  4. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  5. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  6. How can the Brazilian emissions legislation influence the size of NG (Natural Gas) light duty vehicles fleet; Como o programa de controle de emissoes veiculares no Brasil pode influenciar a frota de veiculos leves a GNV (Gas Natural Veicular)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Tadeu C.C.; Machado, Guilherme B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Siqueira, Amanda Albani [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2004-07-01

    In the last years, a high growth of Brazilian converted Natural Gas (NG) light duty vehicles fleet was observed. It can be related mainly to tax license reduction of NG vehicles; the increase of the NG distribution around the country; attractive price difference between NG and other fuels, mainly gasoline, and an increase on the infrastructure for NG conversion in many places of Brazil. The IBAMA, worried about this uncontrolled increase, published, in 2002, the CONAMA resolution, number 291, that defines ways for the environmental certification of the NG conversion kits and establishes that gas emission from the converted vehicle must be equal or lower than those of the original vehicles, before the conversion. The new PROCONVE phases, which will start in 2007 and 2009, including the requirement for OBD technology (On Board Diagnosis) use and the emission limits reduction, will make the attendance of the legislature difficult to be achieved by the NG conversion companies. This new context can impact on a reduction in the number of converted vehicles and, on the other hand, can stimulate the increase of the OEM participation in this market. (author)

  7. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  8. Fleet management performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and ex...

  9. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  10. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  11. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  12. Fleet management tools for the utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caywood, J. [Terex Telelect, Watertown, SD (United States)

    2002-08-01

    In order to enable fleet managers to make the appropriate decisions concerning buying, selling, renting, leasing or repairing vehicles, information about ownership and operating cost and utilization are important. Fleet management tools are now available in the heavy construction industry. The author describes one such fleet management services customized for the utility industry: FleetEdge. This system utilizes current and future technologies to enable the managers to take proactive or predictive approaches to fleet management. An example of a company that has opted for this system was reviewed: Reliant Energy-Houston Metro. The data collection process was explained. A mini-computer processor is fitted on the equipment, and the requested monitoring parameters in turn determine the variety of sensors and alarms to be selected. Location can also be monitored through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The parameters normally include low engine oil pressure, high engine operating temperature, high transmission operating temperature, high hydraulic oil temperature, engine hours. Wireless data transfer is effected via cellular or satellite networks. The data is then collected and checked for errors and format at a hub before going to the computer server through the Internet. Information is transmitted from the accounting system to fleet management service through a secure interface. The data is then configured to meet the client's needs. It results in up to date, understandable information to the client. Equipment utilization, downtime and cost by machine or category is easily accessible and printed if required. Fleet equipment status is provided, as well as hourly cost analysis. Other reports are also available. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  14. Business fleet refueling assessment. Final report, March 1992-November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudier, A.

    1993-01-01

    The report investigates refueling characteristics and capabilities for the light-duty market sector, particularly business automobile fleets. It develops a profile of the characteristics of light-duty and automobile business fleets in 22 designated non-attainment areas, as well as Pittsburgh and Salt Lake City. Reliable data on these subjects will enable better analysis of the market potential for natural gas in the surveyed areas

  15. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast... during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010. The security zone... is a need to provide a security zone for the 2010 Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is...

  16. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  17. Strategic fleet planning for city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschetti, Anna; Honhon, Dorothee; Laporte, G.; van Woensel, T.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    We study the strategic problem of a logistics service provider managing a (possibly heterogeneous) fleet of vehicles to serve a city in the presence of access restrictions. We model the problem as an area partitioning problem in which a rectangular service area has to be divided into sectors, each

  18. Fleet operator risks for using fleets for V2G regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Davion M.; Agarwal, Arun S.; Ayello, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Future fleets of vehicles may include electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of potential fuel savings. Recent demonstration of diesel parallel hybrids in a delivery fleet led to fuel economy improvements, and hybrid bus demonstrations exhibited twice the fuel economy of the conventional bus. Fleet ownership may include management of a fleet of vehicles as small as 10 units and as large as hundreds or thousands. In addition to fuel savings, the newer extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) and pure EVs permit vehicle to grid (V2G) opportunities. These V2G opportunities may present additional revenue for fleets by providing ancillary services to local grid independent system operators (ISOs), provided that the burden of driving and V2G services do not accelerate the degradation of the battery systems in these vehicles. The subject of this study is to determine the financial risks associated with accelerated battery degradation in a V2G-enabled EREV fleet expected to perform ancillary service duty while charging in addition to the normal loads of drive cycle duty. We determine that battery cycle life during V2G duty is a critical parameter, which can determine whether or not the business model is viable. - Highlights: ► V2G regulation cycle life of EREV batteries must be >50,000 cycles to be profitable. ► Present knowledge and test data about the impact of V2G cycles on battery life are limited. ► Replacement of batteries and energy throughput are major factors in the cost–benefit analysis. ► V2G fleet is not viable with present data but can be viable with some technical advancement.

  19. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R De La Rosa, NREL 34672 The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial vehicle operations data features Odyne-have tapped into Fleet DNA." The data-driven insight and decision-making capabilities

  20. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  1. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  3. Wireless GPS fleet tracking system at the University of Albany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the project undertaken at the University at Albany to make alternative transportation a more : viable option by implementing a GPS Tracking System on the University bus fleet and broadcasting the bus locations to c...

  4. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  5. Fleet retrofit report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  6. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO 2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  7. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  8. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Science and Technology Highlights Highlights in Research & Development Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Key Research Results Achievement Built on over 11.5 million miles of vehicle operations data, Fleet DNA helps users

  9. Volatile organic compounds in a residential and commercial urban area with a diesel, compressed natural gas and oxygenated gasoline vehicular fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Arbilla, Graciela; Gatti, Luciana Vanni

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in a typical residential and commercial area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where buses and trucks use diesel and light duty vehicles use compressed natural gas, ethanol, and gasohol (gasoline blended with ethanol) as fuel. A total of 66 C3-C12 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified. The most abundant compounds, on a mass concentration basis, included propane, isobutane, i-pentane, m,p-xylene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, o-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. Two VOCs photochemical reactivity rankings are presented: one involves reaction with OH and the other involves production of ozone.

  10. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  11. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  12. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  13. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  14. Telematics Framework for Federal Agencies: Lessons from the Marine Corps Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Executive Order 13693 requires federal agencies to acquire telematics for their light- and medium-duty vehicles as appropriate. This report is intended to help agencies that are deploying telematics systems and seeking to integrate them into their fleet management process. It provides an overview of telematics capabilities, lessons learned from the deployment of telematics in the Marine Corps fleet, and recommendations for federal fleet managers to maximize value from telematics.

  15. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  16. Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2002-05-31

    Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50 cents/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

  17. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  18. Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.K.; Sinyaev, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described

  19. Proceedings of a Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop in support of the transition to the hydrogen age : Greening the fleet : the status of hydrogen-powered vehicles for fleet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Association (CHA) endorses hydrogen as an energy carrier and promotes the development of a supporting hydrogen infrastructure. It promotes the research, development and commercialization of innovative ways to accelerate the application of hydrogen technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The presentations at this conference described new technologies and the companies that are developing hydrogen-powered vehicles, including hybrid-electric powered vehicles for fleet application. Some international activities were also covered, including lessons learned from the California experience and European fuel cell fleets. The benefits of fuel cell hybrids were highlighted along with methods to overcome the barriers to the introduction of new vehicle fuels. A review of current and future hydrogen supply infrastructure systems was also provided. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Providing low-budget estimations of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Colin R; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Max Finlayson, C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland. This letter reviews current research methodologies in estimating greenhouse gas production and provides guidance on the provision of robust estimates of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands through the use of low cost reliable and sustainable measurement, modelling and remote sensing applications. The guidance is highly applicable to, and aimed at, wetlands such as those in the tropics and sub-tropics, where complex research infrastructure may not exist, or agricultural wetlands located in remote regions, where frequent visits by monitoring scientists prove difficult. In conclusion, the proposed measurement-modelling approach provides guidance on an affordable solution for mitigation and for investigating the consequences of wetland agricultural practice on GHG production, ecological resilience and possible changes to agricultural yields, variety choice and farming practice. (letter)

  1. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gas and electricity providers. Offensive of alternate providers, launching of green offers, price-based conquest: which perspectives for the market and the competitive game by 2019?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    As the end of regulated tariffs for industries and local communities resulted in a total new deal on the electric power and gas providing market, notably with newcomers who decided to cut prices, this study aims at identifying actual perspectives for the power and gas markets by 2019, and actual levers of action for providers to gain market shares. After a synthesis and a proposal of some strategic conclusions, the report proposes an analysis of the activity and of its perspectives: determining factors, overview of the activity until 2016 (power and gas provisions in France, production and consumption prices for gas and for electric power, regulated tariffs), and provisional scenario by 2019 regarding electricity and gas provisions in France. A second part analyses the external environment through a discussion of external drivers and brakes, and an analysis of demand. The third part reports an analysis of the competitive landscape (market shares per strategic groups, in power providing and in gas providing, and switch rate between residential and non-residential customers). The last part addresses development axes and proposes a discussion of offensive conquest strategies, a discussion of actor positioning on green energies, a discussion of supply adaptation and targeting depending on customers with an analysis of three specific segments (mobility, data centres, and self-consumption), and a discussion of the diversification of services

  3. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  4. A cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs

  5. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  6. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance process is described as a 3-layer multi-agent system (MAS model. A communication and reasoning strategy among the agents is put forward. A fleet maintenance personnel configuration algorithm is proposed based on contract net protocol (CNP. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircraft is studied for verification purposes. A mission type with 3 waves of continuous dispatch is imaged. Compared with the traditional methods that can just provide configuration results, the proposed method can provide optimal maintenance strategies as well.

  7. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  8. Economics of symbiotic nuclear fleets at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidaud, Adrien; Guillemin, P.; Lecarpentier, David

    2008-01-01

    Many decades of industrial experience have proven that thermal reactors are able to provide a safe, reliable and competitive source of electricity. The higher construction costs of fast reactors compared to thermal reactors could be compensated by their better use of fissile material during the probable fast development of nuclear energy in the first half of the century. Thus, despite the over-cost of their cores, on the longer term, fast reactors are expected to take the lead in the nuclear reactor race. In the mean term, multi-strata symbiotic parks, using high conversion-rate thermal reactors, may delay fast reactor start up. We compare projected fuel cycle costs and cost of electricity of various symbiotic nuclear fleets, on the basis of a simple economic model and elementary costs estimated on publicly available data. These parameters and their evolution over reactor-life time scale can hardly be estimated. That is why we look at the sensitivities of our results to large modifications of the input parameters. The aim of our simple economic model is to understand which reactor characteristics should be optimized to enhance their economic performance when working as a single symbiotic fleet. (authors)

  9. A hybrid life cycle assessment of the vehicle-to-grid application in light duty commercial fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The vehicle-to-grid system is an approach utilizing the idle battery capacity of electric vehicles while they are parked to provide supplementary energy to the power grid. As electrification continues in light duty vehicle fleets, the application of vehicle-to-grid systems for commercial delivery truck fleets can provide extra revenue for fleet owners, and also has significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity generation sector. In this study, an economic input–output based hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to analyze the potential greenhouse gas emissions emission savings from the use of the vehicle-to-grid system, as well as the possible emission impacts caused by battery degradation. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to address the uncertainties that lie in the electricity exchange amount of the vehicle-to-grid service as well as the battery life of the electric vehicles. The results of this study showed that extended range electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles are both viable regulation service providers for saving greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation if the battery wear-out from regulation services is assumed to be minimal, but the vehicle-to-grid system becomes less attractive at higher battery degradation levels. - Highlights: • The commercial delivery trucks are studied as vehicle-to-grid service providers. • Hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to evaluate emission mitigation. • Battery degradation level and corresponding emissions and cost are evaluated. • Vehicle-to-grid service is shown to have significant emission saving effect.

  10. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  11. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 3 : ITS fleet management technology resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In todays increasingly competitive economic environment, effective management of commercial vehicle fleets is important for all types of carriers and for the trucking industry as a whole. To meet fleet management needs, carriers increasingly are t...

  12. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garafonova Olga I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies with the available fleet of various sizes were researched. The main features, current tendencies of the fleet-management development have been indicated, ways of attraction of automobile enterprises to the use of leasing have been suggested. Prospects for further researches in this direction will be consideration of possibility of attraction of more enterprises to the use of principles of fleet-management in their management routine. Further development of fleet management will provide enterprises with significant opportunities and the reserve funds that can be used for development.

  13. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  14. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  15. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  16. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  17. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter provides atmospheric data during Aerobraking into its final orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; Bruinsma, Sean; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; ExoMars 2016 Team

    2017-10-01

    After the arrival of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) at Mars on 19 October 2016 a number of initial orbit change manoeuvres were executed and the spacecraft was put in an orbit with a 24 hour period and 74 degrees inclination. The spacecraft and its four instruments were thoroughly checked out after arrival and a few measurements and images were taken in November 2016 and in Feb-March 2017. The solar occultation observations have however not yet been possible due to lack of the proper geometry.On 15 March a long period of aerobraking to reach the final 400km semi-circular frozen orbit (370x430km, with a fixed pericentre latitude). This orbit is optimised for the payload observations and for the communication relay with the ExoMars Rover, due to arrive in 2021.The aerobraking is proceeding well and the final orbit is expected to be reached in April 2018. A large data set is being acquired for the upper atmosphere of Mars, from the limit of the sensitivity of the accelerometer, down to lowest altitude of the aerobraking at about 105km. Initial analysis has shown a highly variable atmosphere with a slightly lower density then predicted by existing models. Until the time of the abstract writing no dust storms have been observed.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the Proton launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission, consisting of a Rover and a Surface platform also launched by a Proton rocket, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and Surface Platform through its (NASA provided) UHF communication system.

  18. NATIONAL FLEET DEVELOPMENT IN THE INNOVATIVE ECONOMY. CASE STUDY OF THE GREEK FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Grzybowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the development of the Greek fleet in the period of last ten years was discussed. The Greek fleet is an example of accommodating itself to the requirements of the global and innovative economy. Greek shipowners are developing their fleets through the consolidation and replacing older ships with new generation vessels. They are invest-ing into ships adapted for new markets, including LNG maritime transport market. As a result of it Greece became a market leader in maritime transport sector and their fleet a biggest and youngest fleet of world in 2016.

  19. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-05-15

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available--in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as $0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  20. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-01-01

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments-made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001-have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available-in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as$0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy

  1. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  4. BioFleet case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    These six case studies examined the use of different biodiesel blends as fuel supply sources for businesses in British Columbia (BC). In the first case study, 6 municipalities participated in a pilot program designed to compare the performance of biodiesel and diesel fuels. Each municipality operated 2 base vehicles running on conventional diesel along with 2 similar vehicles which used biodiesel. Real time emissions tests and analyses of the vehicles using biodiesel were also conducted by 2 of the participating municipalities. All municipalities participating in the study agreed to purchase significant volumes of biodiesel. The second case study described a pilot study conducted by the City of Vancouver's equipment services branch in 2004. As a result of the study, the city now has over 530 types of equipment that use biodiesel. The third case study described a program designed by TSI Terminals in Vancouver to assess the emission reduction impact of using biodiesel at its port facility. Six different pieces of equipment were used to confirm that biodiesel could be used throughout the terminal. Test results confirmed that biodiesel blends could be used to reduce emissions. Overall emissions were reduced by 30 per cent. The fourth case study described a waste renderer that used a fleet of 36 trucks to deliver raw products to its plants. The company made the decision to use only biodiesel for its entire fleet of trucks. Since July 2005, the company has logged over 1.7 million km using biodiesel blends. The fifth case study described a salmon hatchery that switched from diesel to biodiesel in order to reduce emissions. The biodiesel blends are used to fuel the hatchery's 2 diesel generators. The hatchery has reduced emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by an estimated 1800 tonnes annually. The sixth case study described how the Township of Langley has started using biodiesel for its entire fleet of of approximately 250 pieces of equipment. The township has not

  5. Maritime Security Fleet: Factors to Consider before Deciding to Select Participants Competitively

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Maritime Security Act established the Maritime Security Fleet (MSF) program, authorizing MARAD to enter into agreements with maritime shipping companies to provide DOD access to commercial vessels operating under U.S...

  6. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Nielsen, Jakob Koefoed

    In this porcine lung injury model, apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous CO2 removal provided sufficient gas exchange and stable hemodynamics, indicating that the method might have a potential in the treatment of severe ARDS.   Acknowledgements The membrane lungs were kindly provided by Novalung GmbH, Germany.......Background and aim of study We hypothesized that continuous high airway pressure without ventilatory movements (apneic oxygenation), using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal, pumpless, arterio-venous, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  8. 75 FR 26747 - U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New England, Inc; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Docket Nos. ER10-1129-000; ER10-1130-000; ER10-1131-000] U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New England, Inc... & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., and ESPI New England, Inc.'s application for market-based...

  9. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation, using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal, would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung injury. We tested this hypothesis in nine anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs (85-95 kg), in which surfactant was depleted fr....../min. Thus, the method provided adequate gas exchange in this experimental model, suggesting that it might have potential as an alternative treatment modality in acute lung injury.......We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation, using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal, would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung injury. We tested this hypothesis in nine anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs (85-95 kg), in which surfactant was depleted from...

  10. Price war or instrumentalization of price uncertainty: which strategy for a dominant provider on the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, Sadek; Locatelli, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this article is to try to assess which strategy could be implemented by a European dominant provider (or a group of big providers) during the current phase of transition of the European gas market in order to keep (or increase) his market shares and maximise his revenues. The authors aim at exploring possibilities of strategic actions on the long term other than those of defence of volumes through a price war, or the possibility of a strategy similar to that of Saudi Arabia which instrumentalises uncertainty on future prices. This last type of strategy is defined for the case of natural gas. The authors show that it could be implemented on the EU gas market, provided some specific conditions. They show that Gazprom has not enough power to become a price maker, and explore which kind of strategy of uncertainty could be implemented by this actor

  11. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-01-01

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  12. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated...

  13. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    available to maintain the readiness of the fleet. The reduction in readiness spending coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded... coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded the number of ships in ready‑to‑deploy status. CBO’s estimate of $20.2 billion per...less-expensive aircraft carriers, and additional SSNs. Our intent in designing this fleet is to use the money saved in buying less-expensive

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. Gas Sensors Built with Nanomaterials and Provided with a Heating Double Purpose Hot-plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian L. ARRIETA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure or doped SnO2, has been used to build resistive type gas sensors from several decades. This subject has been retaken using pure or doped nanocrystalline SnO2 to build the sensors, finding considerable advantages in devices performance. The sensors working temperature (Tw decreases from (350-450 0C to (180-200 0C in comparison with that of devices built with microcrystalline conventional material. Sensitivity of sensors built with nanocrystalline material in comparison with that of devices built with conventional microcrystalline material, increases from 30 % to 37 %. In this work, SnO2 is synthesized using two different modified techniques based on gel-combustion and reactive oxidation and results of both syntheses are compared. Nanomaterials are characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM and Field Emission Electron Scanning Microscopy (FESEM and absorption techniques (BET. An electronic system, already patented by the authors, enables to alternatively measure the sensor resistivity (which is proportional to the adsorbed gas concentration and set a constant working temperature, thus contributing to considerably save energy.

  16. What is behind fleet evolution: a framework for flow analysis and application to the French Atlantic fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Guyader, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The study of fishery dynamics considers national-level fleet evolution. It has, however, failed to consider the flows behind fleet evolution as well as the impact of the dynamics of owners of invested capital on fleet evolution. This paper establishes a general conceptual framework which identifies different vessel and owner flows behind fleet evolution and some relationships between these flows. This descriptive conceptual framework aims to change the current focus on drivers of fleet evolut...

  17. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  18. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  19. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Detecting and Categorizing Fleeting Emotions in Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d′ analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PMID:22866885

  1. The evolution of gas price: gas assessment and perspectives; The evolution of gas price on the American, Asian and European markets; Assessment of the organised gas market; Assessment of gas market opening; Gas price: the point of view of consumers and providers; Tariff, the formula which cannot be found: a new stage in an endless history; The diversity of the world gas industry: the Mediterranean situation on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, Herve; Corbeau, Anne-Sophie; Lu, Long; Maire, Jacques; Verdier, Catherine; Bros, Thierry; Nyouki, Evariste; Astruc, Pierre; Katz, Richard; Jamme, Dominique; Rosier, Philippe; Salanson, Damien; Saniez, Thierry; Moraleda, Pedro; Le Gourrierec, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this document contains the various contributions and interventions during round tables dealing with the evolution of gas price on American, Asian and European markets, an assessment of the organised gas market (model, references, members, and so on), an assessment of market gas opening, the point of view of consumers and providers on gas price. Then three articles address the issue of gas pricing in France, the developments of gas industry in the world (consumptions, production, perspectives for LNG) and the Mediterranean situation with respect to gas prices (trends and challenges)

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hydrodeoxygenation by deuterium gas--a powerful way to provide insight into the reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Haoxi; Ferguson, Glen A; Mu, Wei; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Jarvis, Mark; Biddy, Mary; Deng, Yulin; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-28

    This study demonstrates the use of isotopic labelling and NMR to study the HDO process. As far as we know, this is the first reported effort to trace the incorporation of hydrogen in the HDO process of lignin pyrolysis oil thereby providing key fundamental insight into its reaction mechanism.

  4. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  5. Fleet wide motor asset management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Moxie, J.J.; Mendez, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performed several studies concerning the effects of motor failures on US power production. Problems with aging and the lack of preventative maintenance were noted as major contributors to this production loss. Westinghouse has developed, and successfully utilized, a computer program to assist plants in the decision making process for maximizing the operational availability of their motor fleet. The program considers motors of a fleet as a single, critical to production asset, and aids the operator in decisions regarding the following: 1.) Purchase of spares. 2.) Rewind and refurbishment prioritization. 3.) Long-term budget forecasting. (author)

  6. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  7. Addressing the minimum fleet problem in on-demand urban mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifeh, M M; Santi, P; Resta, G; Strogatz, S H; Ratti, C

    2018-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have opened the way to new solutions for urban mobility that provide better ways to match individuals with on-demand vehicles. However, a fundamental unsolved problem is how best to size and operate a fleet of vehicles, given a certain demand for personal mobility. Previous studies 1-5 either do not provide a scalable solution or require changes in human attitudes towards mobility. Here we provide a network-based solution to the following 'minimum fleet problem', given a collection of trips (specified by origin, destination and start time), of how to determine the minimum number of vehicles needed to serve all the trips without incurring any delay to the passengers. By introducing the notion of a 'vehicle-sharing network', we present an optimal computationally efficient solution to the problem, as well as a nearly optimal solution amenable to real-time implementation. We test both solutions on a dataset of 150 million taxi trips taken in the city of New York over one year 6 . The real-time implementation of the method with near-optimal service levels allows a 30 per cent reduction in fleet size compared to current taxi operation. Although constraints on driver availability and the existence of abnormal trip demands may lead to a relatively larger optimal value for the fleet size than that predicted here, the fleet size remains robust for a wide range of variations in historical trip demand. These predicted reductions in fleet size follow directly from a reorganization of taxi dispatching that could be implemented with a simple urban app; they do not assume ride sharing 7-9 , nor require changes to regulations, business models, or human attitudes towards mobility to become effective. Our results could become even more relevant in the years ahead as fleets of networked, self-driving cars become commonplace 10-14 .

  8. Porous TiO₂-Based Gas Sensors for Cyber Chemical Systems to Provide Security and Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstyan, Vardan

    2017-12-19

    Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO₂, with its excellent physical and chemical properties, is a very attractive material for the fabrication of chemical sensors. Meanwhile, the emerging technologies are focused on the fabrication of more flexible and smart systems for precise monitoring and diagnosis in real-time. The proposed cyber chemical systems in this paper are based on the integration of cyber elements with the chemical sensor devices. These systems may have a crucial effect on the environmental and industrial safety, control of carriage of dangerous goods and medicine. This review highlights the recent developments on fabrication of porous TiO₂-based chemical gas sensors for their application in cyber chemical system showing the convenience and feasibility of such a model to provide the security and to perform the diagnostics. The most of reports have demonstrated that the fabrication of doped, mixed and composite structures based on porous TiO₂ may drastically improve its sensing performance. In addition, each component has its unique effect on the sensing properties of material.

  9. Porous TiO2-Based Gas Sensors for Cyber Chemical Systems to Provide Security and Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO2, with its excellent physical and chemical properties, is a very attractive material for the fabrication of chemical sensors. Meanwhile, the emerging technologies are focused on the fabrication of more flexible and smart systems for precise monitoring and diagnosis in real-time. The proposed cyber chemical systems in this paper are based on the integration of cyber elements with the chemical sensor devices. These systems may have a crucial effect on the environmental and industrial safety, control of carriage of dangerous goods and medicine. This review highlights the recent developments on fabrication of porous TiO2-based chemical gas sensors for their application in cyber chemical system showing the convenience and feasibility of such a model to provide the security and to perform the diagnostics. The most of reports have demonstrated that the fabrication of doped, mixed and composite structures based on porous TiO2 may drastically improve its sensing performance. In addition, each component has its unique effect on the sensing properties of material. PMID:29257076

  10. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...... location problem which are known for their tightness. The demand is considered to be elastic in the sense that the service provider can accept any fraction of the origin-destination demand. We then propose a primal decomposition method to solve instances of the problem to optimality. Numerical results...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  11. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  12. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  13. Formation of optimal construction fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuskaeva, Zalina

    2017-10-01

    Machinery supply and its rational use in construction processes considerably determine the final product of construction organizations. Therefore, the problem of defining the type size composition of the construction fleet as one of the lowest material-intensive productions, is of a particular importance.

  14. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  15. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...

  16. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 which are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  17. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; McCreery, P.N.; Shappert, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  18. Cost, Energy, and Environmental Impact of Automated Electric Taxi Fleets in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon S; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; Gerke, Brian F

    2018-04-17

    Shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) hold great promise for improving transportation access in urban centers while drastically reducing transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution. Using taxi-trip data from New York City, we develop an agent-based model to predict the battery range and charging infrastructure requirements of a fleet of SAEVs operating on Manhattan Island. We also develop a model to estimate the cost and environmental impact of providing service and perform extensive sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our predictions. We estimate that costs will be lowest with a battery range of 50-90 mi, with either 66 chargers per square mile, rated at 11 kW or 44 chargers per square mile, rated at 22 kW. We estimate that the cost of service provided by such an SAEV fleet will be $0.29-$0.61 per revenue mile, an order of magnitude lower than the cost of service of present-day Manhattan taxis and $0.05-$0.08/mi lower than that of an automated fleet composed of any currently available hybrid or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). We estimate that such an SAEV fleet drawing power from the current NYC power grid would reduce GHG emissions by 73% and energy consumption by 58% compared to an automated fleet of ICEVs.

  19. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  20. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  1. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  2. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  3. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  4. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  5. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nienhueser, Ian [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  6. New logistical issues in using electric vehicle fleets with battery exchange infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Adler, Jonathan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels that are more sustainable. The electric vehicle (EV) is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which "refuels" by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses some new logistical issues that must be addressed by such EV fleets, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each EV's set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges. In particular, the paper addresses (1......) the routing and scheduling of the fleet, (2) the locations of battery-exchange stations, and (3) the sizing of each facility. An overview of the literature on the topic is provided and some initial results are presented. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  7. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  10. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  11. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A [Scientific Production Association ` ` Typhoon` ` , Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  12. IMPROVING LOGISTICS SERVICES THROUGH THE TECHNOLOGY USED IN FLEET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics has established itself in the area of the LSP (Logistics Service Provider, which offers a range of services to its customers. In this line, transportation is characterized as one of the most important services, and therefore efficient fleet management is essential for establishing a high level of customer service. With advances in technology and vehicle tracking systems, this approach of management has gained new possibilities for the improvement of logistics services. By studying the specific case of an LSP, this paper investigates the use of these technologies in the management of their business and services. The results indicate that the LSP seeks to increase its services and to streamline information in order to respond to customer needs in real time. It is also evident in this case under study that the combination of the technology available together with the fleet management system has become a distinguishing feature for this LSP, one which increases their skills and important information for both customers and business.

  13. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, T.; Kudrik, I.; Nikitin, A.

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs

  14. Process Approach for Modeling of Machine and Tractor Fleet Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokin, B. D.; Aletdinova, A. A.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Tsybina, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The existing software complexes on modelling of the machine and tractor fleet structure are mostly aimed at solving the task of optimization. However, the creators, choosing only one optimization criterion and incorporating it in their software, provide grounds on why it is the best without giving a decision maker the opportunity to choose it for their enterprise. To analyze “bottlenecks” of machine and tractor fleet modelling, the authors of this article created a process model, in which they included adjustment to the plan of using machinery based on searching through alternative technologies. As a result, the following recommendations for software complex development have been worked out: the introduction of a database of alternative technologies; the possibility for a user to change the timing of the operations even beyond the allowable limits and in that case the calculation of the incurred loss; the possibility to rule out the solution of an optimization task, and if there is a necessity in it - the possibility to choose an optimization criterion; introducing graphical display of an annual complex of works, which could be enough for the development and adjustment of a business strategy.

  15. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  16. Application of GPS data for benefits of air quality assessment and fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Fat Lam, Yun; Cheong Ying, Chi; Chan, Ka Lok

    2017-04-01

    In the modern digitizedsociety, traffic data can be easily collected for use in roadway development, urban planning and vehicle emission. These data are then further parameterized to support traffic simulation and roadside emission calculations. With the commercialization of AGPS/GPS technology, GPS data are widely utilized to study habit and travelling behaviors. GPS on franchised buses can provide not only positioning information for fleet management but also raw data to analyze traffic situations. In HK, franchised buses account for 6% of RSP and 20% of NOx emissions among the whole vehicle fleet. Being the most heavily means of public transport, the setting up of bus travelling trajectories and service frequency always raise concern from citizens. On this basis, there is an increasing interest and as well as to design and realize an effective cost benefit fleet management strategy. In this study, data collection analysis is carried out on all bus routes (i.e. 112) in Shatin district, one of the 18 districts in Hong Kong. The GPS/AGPS data through Esri ArcGIS investigate the potential benefit of GPS data in different emission scenarios (such as engine type over whole bus fleet). Building on the emission factors from EMFC-HK model, we accounted for factors like travelling distance, idling time, occupancy rate, service frequency, tire and break emissions. Through the simple emission developed model we demonstrate how GPS are data are utilized to assess bus fleet emissions. Further amelioration on the results involve tuning the model with field measurement so as to assess district level emission change after fleet optimization.

  17. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  18. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  19. Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade; Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 -- Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) are issuing comprehensive guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order (E.O.) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade (E.O. 13693), to help federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions, and ensure the approach helps these agencies meet their requirements. Three key GHG emissions reduction strategies - right-sizing fleets to mission, increasing fleet fuel efficiency, and displacing petroleum with alternative fuel use - are essential to meeting the requirements and are discussed further in this document. This guidance document is intended to help agency Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs) and headquarters fleet managers craft tailored executable plans that achieve the purpose of E.O. 13693. The guidance will assist agencies in completing the first phase of a comprehensive fleet management framework by identifying the strategies each agency will then implement to meet or exceed its requirements.

  20. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  1. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR..., in evaluating the effectiveness of the operation and management of individual fleets to determine...

  3. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  4. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  5. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  6. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  7. Declining price difference from gas to coal provides for a new situation in the electricity market; Sinkende Preisdifferenz von Gas zu Kohle sorgt fuer neue Lage am Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-01-15

    The price difference (spread) between power coal and natural gas has increased sharply since 1999. This gap reached its peak in 2013 with 171 Euro/t SKE. In many cases, higher CO{sub 2} prices were required to promote gas use in the electricity sector. However, it has now become clear that falling gas prices lead to a growing competitiveness of natural gas. Interventions in the EU-ETS or at the national level with the aim to promote gas use in the electricity sector do not make sense and would merely reduce the competitive pressure on the gas producers and lead them to become a monopoly rents. [German] Der Preisabstand (Spread) zwischen Kraftwerkskohle und Erdgas stieg seit 1999 stark an. Dieser Gap erreichte in 2013 mit 171 Euro/t SKE seinen Hoechststand. Vielfach wurden hoehere CO{sub 2}-Preise gefordert, um den Gaseinsatz im Stromsektor zu foerdern. Doch inzwischen zeigt sich, dass fallende Gaspreise zu einer wachsenden Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit von Erdgas fuehren. Interventionen in das EU-ETS oder auf nationaler Ebene mit dem Ziel, den Gaseinsatz im Stromsektor zu foerdern, machen daher keinen Sinn und wuerden lediglich den Wettbewerbsdruck auf die Gasproduzenten mindern sowie fuer diese zu einer Monopolrente fuehren.

  8. More fleet adjustments seen needed for drilling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian oil and gas industry has been in a mode of restructuring since the late 1980s as it became increasingly apparent that the natural gas boom which was to replace activity previously generated by high oil process was not going to materialize. This paper reports that the production companies operating in Canada are concentrating on rationalization of land holdings and corporate downsizing and realignment rather than exploration and development of petroleum resources. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in a substantial downturn of the contract drilling and well servicing sectors in both western Canada, where the majority (95%) of the industry activity takes place, and in the frontier and East Coast offshore arenas. The persistently low levels of utilization throughout this period and prior to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries price shocks in the '70s illustrate that the high levels achieved in the late '70s and early '80s were an aberration. The rig fleet, which was expanded to meet this abnormally high demand, must continue to rationalize if profitability is to return on an on an industrywide basis

  9. Field data provide estimates of effective permeability, fracture spacing, well drainage area and incremental production in gas shales

    KAUST Repository

    Eftekhari, Behzad

    2018-05-23

    About half of US natural gas comes from gas shales. It is valuable to study field production well by well. We present a field data-driven solution for long-term shale gas production from a horizontal, hydrofractured well far from other wells and reservoir boundaries. Our approach is a hybrid between an unstructured big-data approach and physics-based models. We extend a previous two-parameter scaling theory of shale gas production by adding a third parameter that incorporates gas inflow from the external unstimulated reservoir. This allows us to estimate for the first time the effective permeability of the unstimulated shale and the spacing of fractures in the stimulated region. From an analysis of wells in the Barnett shale, we find that on average stimulation fractures are spaced every 20 m, and the effective permeability of the unstimulated region is 100 nanodarcy. We estimate that over 30 years on production the Barnett wells will produce on average about 20% more gas because of inflow from the outside of the stimulated volume. There is a clear tradeoff between production rate and ultimate recovery in shale gas development. In particular, our work has strong implications for well spacing in infill drilling programs.

  10. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  11. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of the...

  12. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management...

  13. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  14. Instellar Gas Experiment (IGE): Testing interstellar gas particles to provide information on the processes of nucleosynthesis in the big bang stars and supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Don

    1985-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) is designed to collect particles of the interstellar gas - a wind of interstellar media particles moving in the vicinity of the solar system. These particles will be returned to earth where the isotopic ratios of the noble gases among these particles will be measured. IGE was designed and programmed to expose 7 sets of six copper-beryllium metallic collecting foils to the flux of neutral interstellar gas particles which penetrate the heliosphere to the vicinity of the earth's orbit. These particles are trapped in the collecting foils and will be returned to earth for mass-spectrographic analysis when Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) on which IGE was launched, is recovered.

  15. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  16. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  17. Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by using...

  18. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  19. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  20. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  3. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  4. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  5. Multi-objective decision-making model based on CBM for an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Lin, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Modern production management patterns, in which multi-unit (e.g., a fleet of aircrafts) are managed in a holistic manner, have brought new challenges for multi-unit maintenance decision making. To schedule a good maintenance plan, not only does the individual machine maintenance have to be considered, but also the maintenance of the other individuals have to be taken into account. Since most condition-based maintenance researches for aircraft focused on solely reducing maintenance cost or maximizing the availability of single aircraft, as well as considering that seldom researches concentrated on both the two objectives: minimizing cost and maximizing the availability of a fleet (total number of available aircraft in fleet), a multi-objective decision-making model based on condition-based maintenance concentrated both on the above two objectives is established. Furthermore, in consideration of the decision maker may prefer providing the final optimal result in the form of discrete intervals instead of a set of points (non-dominated solutions) in real decision-making problem, a novel multi-objective optimization method based on support vector regression is proposed to solve the above multi-objective decision-making model. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the schedule requirements.

  6. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  7. The strategies of development of electricity and natural gas providers in France. High gross prices, tariff maintenance...: how do alternate operators come through?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing key figures of the electricity and natural gas markets, at assessing the actual degree of opening to competition of these French markets, at comparing the position and offers of providers, at identifying the best commercial and marketing practices, and at assessing the impact of the GDF Suez merge and of the arrival of E.ON and Enel in France. A first volume addresses the strategic perspectives for electricity and natural gas providers on the French market: current status and perspectives of the French markets of electricity and natural gas, strategic orientations of operators, scenarios of reconfiguration of French markets of electricity and natural gas by 2012. The second volume proposes a deep analysis of position and perspectives of 22 electricity and natural gas providers: Alterna, Atel Energie, Direct Energie, Distrigaz, EDF, Electrabel, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel, Enercoop, E.ON, Endesa, Gas Natural, Gaz de France, Gazprom, Gaz Electricite de Grenoble, HEWenergies, Poweo, Soregies, Tegaz, Usine d'Electricite de Metz, Vialis

  8. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  9. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  10. Saildrone fleet could help replace aging buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-03-01

    In April, two semiautonomous drones, developed by Saildrone, a marine tech startup based in Alameda, California, in close collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Washington, D.C., are set to return from an 8-month tour of the Pacific Ocean. This the first scientific test for the drones, which are powered only by the wind and sun, in the Pacific Ocean. The voyage is an important step in showing that such drones, carrying 15 different sensors, could help replace an aging and expensive array of buoys that are the main way scientists sniff out signs of climate-disrupting El Niño events. If successful, scientists envision fleets of similar drones spreading across the ocean, inviting thoughts of what it could be like to do oceanography without a ship.

  11. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  12. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P.; Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  13. Municipal green fleet management in Ontario: best practices manual 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, M.

    2008-07-01

    When households, institutional and commercial buildings, industry, and especially auto transportation use fossil fuel based energy, they generate carbon dioxide emissions. Considering the environmental concerns and the soaring fuel prices, this could be the opportunity for the municipal fleet operator to assume a leadership position regarding environmental issues and look for new cost efficiencies. To begin, a meticulous examination of the fuel expenditures, a good management approach of fleet operations and a clearly defined system or guidance for lowering fleet fuel costs would be helpful for municipal fleet managers. This document is involved in a pilot program aimed at helping Ontario municipalities understand and promote fleet efficiencies and obtain related environmental benefits. Existing and cost-effective automotive fleet management policies and practices that can mitigate pollution causing global warming are given in this guide. These policies and practices also allow money savings and contribute to a better workplace health and livability of the community. This document is based on the experience of fleet management experts and local governments in Ontario. 54 refs.

  14. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  15. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management...

  17. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet management...

  19. Japanese and Taiwanese pelagic longline fleet dynamics and the impacts of climate change in the southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. E.; Wilcox, C.; Tuck, G. N.; Hobday, A. J.; Strutton, P. G.

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is projected to continue shifting the distribution of marine species, leading to changes in local assemblages and different interactions with human activities. With regard to fisheries, understanding the relationship between fishing fleets, target species catch per unit effort (CPUE), and the environment enhances our ability to anticipate fisher response and is an essential step towards proactive management. Here, we explore the potential impact of climate change in the southern Indian Ocean by modelling Japanese and Taiwanese pelagic longline fleet dynamics. We quantify the mean and variability of target species CPUE and the relative value and cost of fishing in different areas. Using linear mixed models, we identify fleet-specific effort allocation strategies most related to observed effort and predict the future distribution of effort and tuna catch under climate change for 2063-2068. The Japanese fleet's strategy targets high-value species and minimizes the variability in CPUE of the primary target species. Conversely, the Taiwanese strategy indicated flexible targeting of a broad range of species, fishing in areas of high and low variability in catch, and minimizing costs. The projected future mean and variability in CPUE across species suggest a slight increase in CPUE in currently high CPUE areas for most species. The corresponding effort projections suggest a slight increase in Japanese effort in the western and eastern study area, and Taiwanese effort increasing east of Madagascar. This approach provides a useful method for managers to explore the impacts of different fishing and fleet management strategies for the future.

  20. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  1. CERN’s automobile fleet turns a brighter shade of green

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    CERN is partnering with Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) in an environmentally friendly initiative to acquire cars running on natural gas. The first forty vehicles will arrive at CERN around mid-February, and enter service in March.   On 3 February 2011 CERN, represented by Steve Myers at the FEDRE Forum, was awarded the mobility prize. CERN currently has approximately 800 vehicles in use at its different sites. Véronique Marchal, head of Site Services in the GS Department, explains: “Our fleet includes a great variety of vehicles, from small Category A cars for staff to utility/transport vehicles. The decision to acquire cars running on natural gas is part of our strategy of diversifying CERN's automobile fleet so as to make it more environmentally friendly.” The new cars are actually bi-fuel, which means that they will have two tanks: one for regular fuel and one for compressed natural gas (CNG). “This kind of car is a little more exp...

  2. Risk Management of an Aging KC-130 Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    .... For the aging USMC KC-130 F/R fleet, a damage-tolerant approach ensured that safety would be maintained but it presented a problem in forecasting readiness, aircraft remaining in the inventory...

  3. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  4. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  5. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  6. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  7. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  8. TQL in the Fleet: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    distribution is unlimited. BEST-AVAILABLE Copy 94-04214 Total Quality Leadership , TQL, Total Quality Kanaginent, 191, i lo of pilo quality management ...703-602-8942). LINDA M. DOHERTY Director Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office TOL In the Fleet: From Theory to Practice...the Fleet: From Theory to Practice ix OVERVIEW ) ver the past year, the Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office (DON TQL Office) has

  9. Solvation theory to provide a molecular interpretation of the hydrophobic entropy loss of noble-gas hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irudayam, Sheeba Jem; Henchman, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    An equation for the chemical potential of a dilute aqueous solution of noble gases is derived in terms of energies, force and torque magnitudes, and solute and water coordination numbers, quantities which are all measured from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Also derived are equations for the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of hydration for the Henry's law process, the Ostwald process, and a third proposed process going from an arbitrary concentration in the gas phase to the equivalent mole fraction in aqueous solution which has simpler expressions for the enthalpy and entropy changes. Good agreement with experimental hydration free energies is obtained in the TIP4P and SPC/E water models although the solute's force field appears to affect the enthalpies and entropies obtained. In contrast to other methods, the approach gives a complete breakdown of the entropy for every degree of freedom and makes possible a direct structural interpretation of the well-known entropy loss accompanying the hydrophobic hydration of small non-polar molecules under ambient conditions. The noble-gas solutes experience only a small reduction in their vibrational entropy, with larger solutes experiencing a greater loss. The vibrational and librational entropy components of water actually increase but only marginally, negating any idea of water confinement. The term that contributes the most to the hydrophobic entropy loss is found to be water's orientational term which quantifies the number of orientational minima per water molecule and how many ways the whole hydrogen-bond network can form. These findings help resolve contradictory deductions from experiments that water structure around non-polar solutes is similar to bulk water in some ways but different in others. That the entropy loss lies in water's rotational entropy contrasts with other claims that it largely lies in water's translational entropy, but this apparent discrepancy arises because of different

  10. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  11. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. Is LNG the way ahead for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.; Dhellemmes, J.; Hosanski, J.M.; Goy, A.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the last 2004 meeting of the French gas association (AFG) was the liquefied natural gas (LNG) which takes a growing up share in the international gas trade. The number of liquefaction plants and re-gasification terminals have increased and liquefied natural gas tanker fleets grown to match the development of world trade. The three major French players in the LNG field are Total, which produces gas and LNG in several countries, Gaz de France (GdF) which buys in a significant quantity of LNG, and GTT which provides engineering services for shipping. To get a better inside view of the LNG question, four specialists were invited to the last AFG meeting. This paper summarizes their opinion about the following points: the world potential LNG offer and the growing up capacities (LNG development, markets, supply and demand, companies strategy), the shipping by tanker ships (membrane insulation technology, fleet uses and perspectives), convergence of LNG markets and the role of Middle-East (shipping, increase of Middle-East LNG share in the world market, major stakes for the international companies), and the constraints and opportunities of re-gasification (terminals optimization, competition for re-gasification, terminals setting up problems, technical solutions). A summary of the questions and answers with the public concludes the article. (J.S.)

  16. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Battery electric buses are seen as a well-suited technology for the electrification of road-based public transport. However, the transition process from conventional diesel to electric buses faces major hurdles caused by range limitations and required charging times of battery buses. This work...... addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...... in a joint process. Vehicle schedule adjustments are monetized and evaluated together with the investment and operational costs of the bus system. The resulting total cost of ownership enables a comparison of technical alternatives on a system level, which makes this approach especially promising...

  17. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  18. Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G; Garzella, D; Labat, M; Carre, B; Bougeard, M; Salieres, P; Merdji, H; Gobert, O [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, Serv. Photons Atomes Mol., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, (France); Lambert, G; Hara, T; Tanikawa, T; Kitamura, H; Shintake, T; Tanaka, Y; Tahara, K [RIKEN SPring Centre, Harima Inst., Hyogo 679-5148, (Japan); Lambert, G; Labat, M; Chubar, O; Couprie, M E [Groupe Magnetisme et Insertion, Synchrotron Soleil, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette, (France); Hara, T; Kitamura, H; Shintake, T; Inoue, S; Tanaka, Y [XFEL Project Head Office, RIKEN, Hyogo 679-5148, (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Conventional synchrotron radiation sources enable the structure of matter to be studied at near-atomic spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Free-electron lasers promise to extend this down to femtosecond timescales. The process by which free-electron lasers amplify synchrotron light-known as self-amplified spontaneous emission - is only partially temporally coherent, but this can be improved by seeding it with an external laser. Here we explore the use of seed light produced by high-order harmonic generation in a gas, covering wavelengths from the ultraviolet to soft X-rays. Using the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator, we demonstrate an increase of three orders of magnitude in the intensity of the fundamental radiation at 160 nm, halving of the free-electron laser saturation length, and the generation of nonlinear harmonics at 54 nm and 32 nm. The low seed level used in this demonstration suggests that nonlinear harmonic schemes should enable the generation of fully coherent soft X-rays at wavelengths down to the so-called 'water window', vital for the study of biological samples. (authors)

  19. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  20. Gas markets: A promising tomorrow starts today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safrance, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The current state of the natural gas market and the new opportunities provided by the high availability and low price in Ontario are reviewed. Direct purchase opportunities have stimulated renewed interest in natural gas for large-volume users, and aggressive promotion by brokers in central markets has seen expanded use of natural gas by clients who would otherwise be using alternative energy sources. New market segments expected to realize significant gains are outlined. These include gas-fired cogeneration or combined cycle power generation, which could represent an incremental gas load of 100-150 billion ft 3 in the short to medium term. Such a development will be aided by a recently announced Ontario Hydro target of increasing non-utility generation from 2,100 MW to 3,100 MW by the year 2000, and by a government policy to replace electric heating in social housing projects with gas heating. Other market opportunities are in natural gas cooling systems and in the transportation sector, where natural gas fuelled vehicles are being introduced to urban transit systems, taxis, and courier fleets

  1. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  2. Detailed analysis of costs of historical providers to be taken into account in natural gas regulated prices from the 1 July 2017. Report, 24 May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication first proposes an analysis of Engie costs regarding gas sale regulated prices. This comprises a presentation of the Engie cost structure, an analysis of coverage of costs by sales incomes, a presentation of supply costs and conditions for Engie, an analysis of supply-excluded provisional costs (distribution costs, transport costs, storage costs, commercial costs). The second part proposes a brief cost analysis for 5 other historical providers regarding regulated prices

  3. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  4. Sodium fast reactor: an asset for a PWR UOX/MOX fleet - 5327

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiphine, M.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Grosman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its low fissile content, Pu from spent MOX fuels is sometimes regarded as not recyclable in LWR. Based on the existing French nuclear infrastructure (La Hague reprocessing plant and MELOX MOX manufacturing plant), AREVA and CEA have evaluated the conditions of Pu multi recycling in a 100% LWR fleet. As France is currently supporting a Fast Reactor prototype project, scenario studies have also been conducted to evaluate the contribution of a 600 MWe SFR in the LWR fleet. These scenario studies consider a nuclear fleet composed of 8 PWR 900 MWe, with or without the contribution of a SFR, and aim at evaluating the following points: -) the feasibility of Pu multi-recycling in PWR; -) the impact on the spent fuels storage; -) the reduction of the stored separated Pu; -) the impact on waste management and final disposal. The studies have been conducted with the COSI6 code, developed by CEA Nuclear Energy Direction since 1985, that simulates the evolution over time of a nuclear power plants fleet and of its associated fuel cycle facilities and provides material flux and isotopic compositions at each point of the scenario. To multi-recycle Pu into LWR MOX and to ensure flexibility, different reprocessing strategies were evaluated by adjusting the reprocessing order, the choice of used fuel assemblies according to their burn-up and the UOX/MOX proportions. The improvement of the Pu fissile quality and the kinetic of Pu multi-recycling in SFR depending on the initial Pu quality were also evaluated and led to a reintroduction of Pu in PWR MOX after a single irradiation in SFR, still in dilution with Pu from UOX to maintain a sufficient fissile quality. (authors)

  5. Trends in the development and updating of the fishing fleet in the Northern Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranov Yu. F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice and need to update and form the production and technical base of fishery enterprises have an increasing impact on performance of the fisheries complex and become decisive when considering the prospects for its development on an innovative basis. The paper examines the current state and development trends of the Northern Basin fishing fleet, its production capabilities in developing available bioresources, the need and prospects for renewal. During the research the influence of the main factors determining the formation of the quantitative and structural composition of the fishing fleet has been shown. The most stable and long-term impact is the state of commercial stocks of aquatic biological resources, their variability under the influence of natural factors and anthropogenic load. The second important factor is institutional changes. Initially, since the beginning of the 1990s, this took place due to the transformation of economic relations, and later – to institutional changes in the legislatively approved principles of granting fishing enterprises the right to access water biological resources. The following data have been presented: adaptation of the fleet's production capacities for specialization of fishing activities, ways of modernization and re-equipment, construction of new vessels, acquisition of vessels being in operation in the countries with developed fisheries. These changes had reduced the fleet's production potential raising its qualitative indicators (productivity, depth of processing of raw materials at sea. At the same time, the noted positive trends have been accompanied by some increase in the aging indicators for all groups and types of vessels. The institutional and economic instruments for supporting and stimulating the construction of new fishing vessels have been justified. Nowadays, in the Northern Basin the priority areas of support should be the construction of ships for pelagic fishing and coastal

  6. Real-driving emissions of circulating Spanish car fleet in 2015 using RSD Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas, M; Domínguez-Sáez, A; De la Fuente, J

    2017-01-15

    In this paper we present the results corresponding to on-road traffic emissions measurements obtained during two field campaigns developed in the Madrid region (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 in the framework of the CORETRA project. The experimental strategy was based on the use of a RSD 4600 remote sensor in interurban roads. These measurements have produced a global database of >190,000 vehicles with their associated emission data (NO/CO 2 , HC/CO 2 and CO/CO 2 ), which can be considered representative of the current Spanish circulating fleet. The results of M1 vehicles were analysed according to their distribution by Euro Standard and engine model. One of the relevant findings is that, despite the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards, no NO emission reduction is observed for diesel vehicles with time, although this behavior shows significative differences among brands and engine models. We have also investigated the presence of "high emitter" (HE) vehicles in the Spanish M1 circulating fleet and most of the HE detected corresponded to diesel vehicles with very high NO/CO 2 values. With these results at hand, we strongly propose the future incorporation of the "high emitter vehicle" definition into the European environmental legislation, as well as the establishment of specific strategies in each country/region in order to identify these anomalous vehicles. Identification and repair of HE vehicles within the European circulating fleets, although are not easy tasks, should be considered very important for the improvement of air quality in the EU. The use of non-intrusive optical technologies (i.e. RSD) is an excellent option to provide instantaneous real emission data of each individual vehicle without disturbing traffic and for on-road fleet monitoring. In summary, it is a good strategy to obtain valuable information about the long term surveillance of real vehicle emission trends, specially after the introduction of new standard. Copyright

  7. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  8. Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Hahn, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required

  9. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  10. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  11. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered.......Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...

  12. Fleet Sizing of Automated Material Handling Using Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Radinal; Ai, The Jin; Ratna Yuniartha, Deny

    2018-03-01

    Automated material handling tends to be chosen rather than using human power in material handling activity for production floor in manufacturing company. One critical issue in implementing automated material handling is designing phase to ensure that material handling activity more efficient in term of cost spending. Fleet sizing become one of the topic in designing phase. In this research, simulation approach is being used to solve fleet sizing problem in flow shop production to ensure optimum situation. Optimum situation in this research means minimum flow time and maximum capacity in production floor. Simulation approach is being used because flow shop can be modelled into queuing network and inter-arrival time is not following exponential distribution. Therefore, contribution of this research is solving fleet sizing problem with multi objectives in flow shop production using simulation approach with ARENA Software

  13. 2005 nonroad engine fleet characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.; Chan, N.; Campbell, K.; Preston, K.; Bolechowsky, K.

    2007-12-01

    Metro Vancouver conducts an emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley on a five year basis. This report presented an estimate of the nonroad engine fleet population and emissions in the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley (CLFV). The nonroad engine fleet includes internal combustion engines of different fuel types used in mobile equipment such as on-road vehicles, aircraft, locomotives and ocean-going marine vessels. Some examples of nonroad equipment that were estimated included agricultural tractors; airport ground equipment; forklifts; excavators; generator sets; lawn mowers; railroad maintenance equipment; pleasure boats; and off-road motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to assist Metro Vancouver and other levels of government in determining what progress has been made in improving air quality, as well as the effect of policies and regulations on the environment in terms of nonroad vehicles. The report presented the objectives of the nonroad engine fleet characterization project which were to review the current data on nonroad engine populations and associated information, and confirm or improve the data through appropriate means; prepare estimates of 2005 emissions in the CLFV based on the revised engine counts using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's nonroad 2005 model; and prepare backcasts and forecasts of the 2005 nonroad engine emission estimates for 1990 to 2030 in five-year increments. Results were presented and analysed into the following 9 equipment type categories: agricultural, airport ground support, commercial, construction, industrial, lawn and garden, railway maintenance, recreational marine and recreational off-road vehicle. Four fuel types were considered for each type of equipment, notably gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gases and compressed natural gas. The report described the methodologies and sources and presented the equipment population data. Emission results for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  14. Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5 are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003, a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab continuously sampled exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emissions. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 240 000±50 000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 27% higher, and 25% higher, respectively. The

  15. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  16. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  19. The Potential Impact of Collaborative and Three-Dimensional Imaging Technology on SHIPMAIN Fleet Modernization Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seaman, Nathan L; Housel, Thomas; Mun, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance and modernization of the US Navy fleet is big business. The Navy has invested substantial fiscal and human resources to standardize the processes used to accomplish maintenance modernization and repair for its fleet of ships...

  20. A Qualitative Examination of the Administrative Process of Fleet Enlisted Personnel in Various Medical Categories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherford, Lenora

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the medical management process of placing and monitoring active duty fleet enlisted personnel in a temporary medical duty status and its impact on fleet readiness...

  1. Risk Assessment and Analysis of the M109 Family of Vehicles Fleet Management Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitz, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    ...) Fleet Management Pilot Program. The objective of this program is to reengineer the fleet's logistical support system by outsourcing those functions which make sense and that can be performed more efficiently by private industry...

  2. The Fleet Support Community: Meeting Its Mission in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdy, Deanna

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet Support community's management practices in meeting the dynamic changes in the complex fleet support arena, while increasing its value to the Navy in the future...

  3. The Retrofit Puzzle Extended: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior over Multiple Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-04

    In "The Retrofit Puzzle: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior in the Context of Diesel Retrofit Incentive Programs" (1) an integer program was developed to model profit-maximizing diesel fleet owner behavior when selecting pollution reduction retrofits. Flee...

  4. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  5. Fuel operation of EDF nuclear fleet presentation of the centralized organization for operational engineering at the nuclear generation division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The main feature of EDF Nuclear Fleet is the standardization, with 'series' of homogeneous plants (same equipment, fuel and operation technical documents). For fuel operation, this standardization is related to the concept of 'fuel management scheme' (typical fuel reloads with fixed number and enrichment of fresh assemblies) for a whole series of plants. The context of the Nuclear Fleet lead to the choice of a centralized organization for fuel engineering at the Nuclear Generation Division (DPN), located at UNIPE (National Department for Fleet Operation Engineering) in Lyon. The main features of this organization are the following: - Centralization of the engineering activities for fuel operation support in the Fuel Branch of UNIPE, - Strong real-time link with the nuclear sites, - Relations with various EDF Departments in charge of design, nuclear fuel supply and electricity production optimization. The purposes of the organization are: - Standardization of operational engineering services and products, - Autonomy with independent methods and computing tools, - Reactivity with a technical assistance for sites (24 hours 'hot line'), - Identification of different levels (on site and off site) to solve core operation problems, - Collection, analysis and valorization of operation feedback, - Contribution to fuel competence global management inside EDF. This paper briefly describes the organization. The main figures of annual engineering production are provided. A selection of examples illustrates the contribution to the Nuclear Fleet performance. (authors)

  6. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garafonova Olga I.; Svynarchuk Anastasiia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies wit...

  7. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  8. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers from...

  10. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  11. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The security zone encompasses all navigable waters within 100 feet of the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a...

  13. Evolution of the deep-sea fleet that supports Canada's international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This study identifies the flag-related trends of fleets used in Canada's international sea-borne trade relative to the world fleet during the 15-year period from 1985 to 1999. The goal is to determine if there is any indication that fleets that serve...

  14. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone is necessary as these events have historically resulted... the safety of life and property on navigable waters during the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival...

  15. Simulating the impact of policy, energy prices and technological progress on the passenger car fleet in Austria-A model based analysis 2010-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloess, Maximilian; Mueller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of policy, fuel prices and technological progress on the Austrian passenger car fleet in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To analyse these effects a simulation model is used. We model the car fleet from a bottom-up perspective, with a detailed coverage of vehicle specifications and propulsion technologies. The model focuses on the technological trend toward electrified propulsion systems and their potential effects on the fleet's energy consumption and GHG emissions. To represent the impact of prices and income on the development of the fleet, we combine the fleet model with top-down demand models. We developed two scenarios for the time frame 2010-2050, using two different sets of assumptions for regulatory development and conditions of increasing fossil fuel prices and continuous technological progress in vehicle propulsion technologies. The results indicate that material cuts in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be achieved with changes to the political framework for passenger cars. Appropriate taxation of fuels and cars can stabilise demand for individual motorised transport and lead to an improvement in vehicle efficiency by fostering the adoption of efficient vehicle propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels. - Highlights: → We present a simulation model for future energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. → We develop scenarios up to 2050 assuming two different policy schemes. → Policy strongly affects energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. → Policy can slow down growth in demand for passenger car transport. → Policy can promote the diffusion of more efficient propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels.

  16. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  17. Scenario tree airline fleet planning for demand uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repko, M.G.J.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative multi-period modeling approach to solve the airline fleet planning problem under demand uncertainty. The problem is modeled using a scenario tree approach. The tree is composed of nodes, which represent points of decision in multiple time stages of the planning

  18. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  19. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  20. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  1. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  2. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  3. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  4. Applying Column Generation to the Discrete Fleet Planning Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation that describes the problem of planning the use of domestic distributed generators, under individual as well as fleet constraints. The planning problem comprises the assignment of time intervals during which the local generator must

  5. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  6. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  7. Planning and forecasting demand for aircraft engines airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Кучер

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The questions of air-engines supply system processes analysis on the basis of order planning and air-engine demand forecasting of airline’s air fleet with the use of imitating simulation methods are considered.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  9. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  10. Layup practices at EDF PWR fleet and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Olga Alos; Pablo, Sergio De Maria; Wintergerst, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    A proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. The layup control practices are necessary to prevent corrosion damage during shutdown and are an important part of the life time extension of a nuclear power plant. EDF operational experience in this area confirms that damage to plant equipment from improper layup procedures is a cause of reduced plant reliability and availability and can increase the corrosion products ingress into the SG during start-up. The plant preservation strategy applied across the EDF fleet is based on the following principles: Anticipated time frame of the required layup: short-term outages can become long-term outages, and can necessitate the use of unplanned preservation techniques. Dry layup for a long-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: condenser vacuum assisted draining at high temperature, estimation of air requirements (flow rate, humidity...) to guarantee the optimum conditions inside the system. Wet lay up for a short-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: system filled with operating medium, avoiding air ingress into the system, injection of chemical agents if necessary. Dry lay-up or wet lay up for the steam generators depending on maintenance work or radiation protection needed. This article presents the EDF layup program and the improvements in layup practices. It provides information on the layup procedures, best practices and recommendations, operating experience, considerations for different durations of outages; the implementation of a preservation working group, the selection of the systems that will be included in the lay-up program. Finally, future developments will be presented, such as the development of a 'convective model' to determine air requirements (humidity, flow rate...) and the drying rate to dry a heat exchanger. (author)

  11. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF RUSSIAN INNOVATIVE AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kryazhkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of tractors park and its perspective development are carried out on the basis of realization and improvement of the scientifically based types range constructed on a traction classification sign which conforms to requirements of agricultural production when performing two main conditions: full meeting the requirements for various standard sizes of tractors applicable to conditions of the corresponding zones of Russia and continuous reproduction and development of tractor fleet, both by quantity of efficient machinery and its structure. The developed types range practically runs the gamut of organizational and economic and climatic conditions, and also all range of forms of the organizations using machinery, beginning from individual consumers, small and large rent and contract collectives and finishing large-scale enterprises and their associations. Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat information about a steady tendency of fleet reduction was used for studying of regularities of development of tractor fleet. This information was added by analytical synthesis of data about the annual brand purchases in the Russian market of agricultural tractors. The developed database shows a share of the tractors in fleets of agricultural organizations, which are used over depreciation term, and also minimum necessary number of new machines introduction for formation of volume of tractors with limit age and the total quantity of tractors necessary for minimization of set of expenses. It was established that it is possible to estimate visually the developed quantitative and age structure of tractors fleet and to predict its development on prospect by worked out database representing set of annual tractors brand lines purchasing.

  12. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  13. Information Technology Management System: an Analysis on Computational Model Failures for Fleet Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayr Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an information technology model to evaluate fleet management failure. Qualitative research done by a case study within an Interstate Transport company in a São Paulo State proposed to establish a relationship between computer tools and valid trustworthy information needs, and within an acceptable timeframe, for decision making, reliability, availability and system management. Additionally, the study aimed to provide relevant and precise information, in order to minimize and mitigate failure actions that may occur, compromising all operational organization base functioning.

  14. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  15. Transition to a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus fleet for Canadian urban transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a preview of its report to the CTFCA, due for October 2004. The planned table of contents includes: TOMORROW'S FUEL CELL (FC) URBAN TRANSIT BUS - Powertrain, on-board fuel technologies - FC engine system manufacturers - Bus technical specifications, performances, operating characteristics - FC bus manufacturers TOMORROW'S FC TRANSIT PROPERTY - Added maintenance, facilities and fuelling infrastructure requirements - Supply chain implications - Environmental and safety issues - Alternative operational concepts PATHWAYS TO THE FUTURE - Choosing the future operational concept - 'Gap' assessment - how long from here to there? - Facilities and fleet adjustments, including fuelling infrastructure - Risk mitigation, code compliance measures TRANSITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - Cost implications - Transition schedule (author)

  16. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  18. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  19. GeoTrac -- Producing fleet communications, asset control solutions and logistic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-04-01

    GEOTrac, a Calgary-based company, that offers innovative solutions utilizing GPS, satellite and geomatic data technology in the areas of asset and fleet management, logistic tools and integrated solutions, is reviewed. The two-year-old company with a development staff of 12, has contracts with major energy companies in the Middle East, North America, Africa, China and Mexico. By integrating 30 low-earth orbit satellites, operated by Orbcomm, with GPS, leading -edge mapping and geomatic data technologies, GEOTrac provides world class communications and control solutions for assets in both urban and rural locations. The system is capable of providing up-to-the minute location data about every remote asset or vehicle in a fleet, including status reports, dispatch instructions and driving directions. Logistic tools and integrated solutions available from GEOTrac enable the simple management and visibility of equipment, vessels, containers and cargo within and into remote countries, as well as making possible remote diagnostic and storage tank level readings. In another development, advanced digital map solutions provide a suite of maps and geographic technologies for on-road and off-road driving directions, for identifying the location of services and destinations, and for creating strategic advantages by keeping up-to-date with specific company or other oilfield locations and activities.

  20. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  1. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  2. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  3. Expression and phylogenetic analyses of the Gel/Gas proteins of Tuber melanosporum provide insights into the function and evolution of glucan remodeling enzymes in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillo, Fabiano; Gissi, Carmela; Chignoli, Daniele; Ragni, Enrico; Popolo, Laura; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2013-04-01

    The β(1,3)-glucanosyltransferases of the GH72 family are redundant enzymes that are essential for the formation and dynamic remodeling of the fungal wall during different stages of the life cycle. Four putative genes encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored β(1,3)-glucanosyltransferases, designated TmelGEL1, TmelGEL2, TmelGEL4 and TmelGAS4, have been annotated in the genome of Tuber melanosporum, an ectomycorrhizal fungus that also produces a hypogeous fruiting body (FB) of great commercial value (black truffle). This work focuses on the characterization and expression of this multigene family by taking advantage of a laser microdissection (LMD) technology that has been used to separate two distinct compartments in the FB, the hyphae and the asci containing the ascospores. Of the four genes, TmelGEL1 was the most up-regulated in the FB compared to the free-living mycelium. Inside the FB, the expression of TmelGEL1 was restricted to the hyphal compartment. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gel/Gas protein family of T. melanosporum was also carried out. A total of 237 GH72 proteins from 51 Ascomycotina and 3 Basidiomycota (outgroup) species were analyzed. The resulting tree provides insight into the evolution of the T. melanosporum proteins and identifies new GH72 paralogs/subfamilies. Moreover, it represents a starting point to formulate new hypotheses on the significance of the striking GH72 gene redundancy in fungal biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2012-01-01

    While supposing the lifetime of all present PWR reactors would be extended to sixty years, the author compares two scenarios regarding the renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors: the first one over 40 years and the second one over 20 years. This renewal is based on the construction of EPR reactors at different rhythms. The author compares the associated production costs and assesses the exploitation costs. A renewal scenario over 40 years seems to give better results

  5. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  6. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Ji, Qingkai; Chiu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS) to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP), where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this proble...

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  8. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  9. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  10. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs. James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, North America, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, James J. Peters VA Medical Center (VA - Bronx) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  12. Strategies to Sustain an Aging Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    faculty member, Dr. John Gordon , whom was always willing to provide assistance throughout this process. A special thank you to Colonel Jim Howe, Air...39Dixon, 42. 40Tom Ramsay , Carl French, and Kenneth R. Sperry, “Airframe Maintenance Trend Analysis,” (briefing presented at Oklahoma City ALC, OK, 1998

  13. Instruments to reduce pollutant emissions of the existing inland vessel fleet. Position paper for international workshop 'Emissions from the Legacy Fleet'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.

    2011-11-15

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) has a key performance on the GHG emissions per tonne kilometre shipped. Due to its potential to limit climate change, the recent EU Transport White Paper has set high goals for the non-road modes. The Ports of Rotterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE) and others strive to increase the use of IWT in their hinterland transport. The Port of Rotterdam authority has imposed a modal split on the newly built container terminals, thus increasing the use of rail and IWT. The growth is estimated to result in a quadrupling of inland barge container traffic on the Rhine corridor in the timeframe 2010-2035. Local air quality is another environmental issue, however, that plays a key role. Due to reasons of long ship engine lifetimes and progress made in road transport emissions, IWT needs to improve its air pollution profile. To turn the potential of IWT into real growth, it is important to: improve the air pollutant profile of inland shipping; take responsibility to maintain the air quality levels along inland waterway corridors over Europe, especially in urban areas where road transport, industry and IWT contribute to levels that will need to be in accordance with the EU air quality directive 2008/51. A new set of standards for new engines will shortly be proposed by the European Commission to be introduced in 2016. However, these will probably not be as tight as the Euro-VI standards for road transport. In addition, the long lifetime of inland barge engines (30,000 to over 200,000 hours, depending on the engine type) will result in a slow uptake of the phase-IV engines in the fleet. The German and Dutch authorities have the opinion that not only the air pollutant emissions of new engines need to be curbed, but deliberate over the development of instruments that will reduce the pollutant emissions of the existing fleet (legacy fleet), in addition to the limitedly effective subsidy schemes applied in recent years. This paper demonstrates the need for measures

  14. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, Elizabeth; Hendrickson, Chris; Klampfl, Erica; Liu, Yimin; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrified vehicles can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG reduction potential depends on vehicle design, adoption, driving and charging patterns, charging infrastructure, and electricity generation mix. We construct an optimization model to study these factors by determining optimal design of conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with optimal allocation of vehicle designs and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over a range of scenarios. We focus on vehicles with similar body size and acceleration to a Toyota Prius under government 5-cycle driving conditions. We find that under the current US grid mix, PHEVs offer only small GHG emissions reductions compared to HEVs, and workplace charging is insignificant. With grid decarbonization, PHEVs and BEVs offer substantial GHG emissions reductions, and workplace charging provides additional benefits. HEVs are optimal or near-optimal for minimum cost in most scenarios. High gas prices and low vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost-optimal fleet. Carbon prices have little effect. Cost and range restrictions limit penetration of BEVs. - Highlights: ► We pose an MINLP model to minimize cost and GHG emissions of electrified vehicles. ► We design PHEVs and BEVs and assign vehicles and charging infrastructure in US fleet. ► Under US grid mix, PEVs provide minor GHG reductions and work chargers do little. ► HEVs are robust; PEVs and work charging potential improve with a decarbonized grid. ► We quantify factors needed for PEVs to enter and dominate the optimal fleet.

  15. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  16. Flight Dynamics Operations Management of the Large and Heterogeneous Eutelsat Fleet of Commercial Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, E.

    The EUTELSAT FDU (Flight Dynamics Unit) manages the resources to perform the typical activities of the large satellite operators and faces the usual difficulties raising from a vast and heterogeneous fleet. At present 20 satellites from 9 different platforms/sub-platforms are controlled from our Satellite Control Centre. The FDU was created in 2002 with the aim to respond to the operational needs of a growing fleet in terms of number of satellites and activities. It is at present composed of 6 engineering staff with the objective to provide operations service covering the whole lifecycle of the satellites from the procurement phase till the decommissioning. The most demanding activity is the daily operations, which must ensure maximum safety and continuity of service with the highest efficiency. Solutions have been applied from different areas: management, structure, operations organisation, processes, facilities, quality standards, etc. In addition to this, EUTELSAT is a growing communications operator and the FDU needs to contribute to the global objectives of the company. This paper covers our approach.

  17. A Column Generation for the Heterogeneous Fixed Fleet Open Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the heterogeneous fixed fleet open vehicle routing problem (HFFOVRP, in which the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing a service. In this new problem, the demands of customers are fulfilled by a heterogeneous fixed fleet of vehicles having various capacities, fixed costs and variable costs. This problem is an important variant of the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP and can cover more practical situations in transportation and logistics. Since this problem belongs to NP-hard Problems, An approach based on column generation (CG is applied to solve the HFFOVRP. A tight integer programming model is presented and the linear programming relaxation of which is solved by the CG technique. Since there have been no existing benchmarks, this study generated 19 test problems and the results of the proposed CG algorithm is compared to the results of exact algorithm. Computational experience confirms that the proposed algorithm can provide better solutions within a comparatively shorter period of time.

  18. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  19. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  20. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-12-01

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas-fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than 2% of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50%. Although fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas-fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas-fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet-wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas-fueled vehicles, and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "pump-to-wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete wells-to-wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emissions projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emissions reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Newly collected pump-to-wheels methane emissions data for current natural gas technologies

  1. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing U.S. cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. It assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  2. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Qiang; Li, Songjie; Sun, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance...

  3. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  4. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  5. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  6. A Framework for Creating Value from Fleet Data at Ecosystem Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sini-Kaisu; Hanski, Jyri; Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Kärri, Timo

    2017-09-01

    As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambition of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal - to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possible, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  7. A FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING VALUE FROM FLEET DATA AT ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini-Kaisu KINNUNEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambi-tion of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal – to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possi-ble, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  8. Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Concept Integration: New-Employee Orientation and Communication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemmons, Francini R; Falconieri, Holly M

    2007-01-01

    Fleet Readiness Center Southwest has embraced integration of personnel and processes from Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Departments and Naval Aviation Depots supporting Naval Aviation Maintenance...

  9. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  10. Multiobjective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freynet David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of various fleet evolution options on material inventories and flux in fuel cycle and waste can be analysed by means of transition scenario studies. The COSI code is currently simulating chronologically scenarios whose parameters are fully defined by the user and is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. As the interactions among reactors and fuel cycle facilities can be complex, and the ways in which they may be configured are many, the development of optimization methodology could improve scenario studies. The optimization problem definition needs to list: (i criteria (e.g. saving natural resources and minimizing waste production; (ii variables (scenario parameters related to reprocessing, reactor operation, installed power distribution, etc.; (iii constraints making scenarios industrially feasible. The large number of scenario calculations needed to solve an optimization problem can be time-consuming and hardly achievable; therefore, it requires the shortening of the COSI computation time. Given that CESAR depletion calculations represent about 95% of this computation time, CESAR surrogate models have been developed and coupled with COSI. Different regression models are compared to estimate CESAR outputs: first- and second-order polynomial regressions, Gaussian process and artificial neural network. This paper is about a first optimization study of a transition scenario from the current French nuclear fleet to a Sodium Fast Reactors fleet as defined in the frame of the 2006 French Act for waste management. The present article deals with obtaining the optimal scenarios and validating the methodology implemented, i.e. the coupling between the simulation software COSI, depletion surrogate models and a genetic algorithm optimization method.

  11. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  12. Pathways to Decarbonise the European Car Fleet: A Scenario Analysis Using the Backcasting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Höltl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses decarbonisation scenarios for the European passenger car fleet in 2050. The scenarios have been developed using the backcasting approach and aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of passenger cars to a level defined in the Transport White paper that is 60% below 1990 levels. Considering the emission levels of 2010, a yearly reduction of 1.7% is required in order to achieve the target. Car emissions were decomposed into the main emission factors of mobility, efficiency and carbon intensity. How these factors change over time depends on various external factors: the pace of technological improvements, the future role of cars in society’s mobility system and the priority given to decarbonising energy demand. The analysis showed that if car mobility and ownership continue to increase as expected in a ‘business as usual’ case, a share of 97% plug-in hybrid or battery electric vehicles might be required by 2050, together with a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emission from electricity production. A transition to more advanced car technology such as automated driving, advanced batteries or lightweight materials in vehicle production would raise vehicle efficiency. Should car mobility continue at a high level, an early technology transition will be required.

  13. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  15. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  16. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  17. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  18. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  1. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime...

  3. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of...-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets... regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel...

  4. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  5. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  6. Fleet servicing facilities for testing and maintaining rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Preston, M.K.; Keith, D.A.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of Fleet Servicing Facilities (FSF). Such facilities are intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the waste handling plants in the United States presently receiving radioactive wastes have an onsite FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing all of these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the transport system is placed into service. Thus a need is indicated for FSFs or their equivalent at various radioactive materials receiving sites. This paper also compares the respective capital costs and operating characteristics of the following three concepts of a spent fuel cask transportation FSF; integrated FSF, colocated FSF, and independent FSF

  7. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters [it

  8. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  9. Hybrid CNG propulsion for fleet vehicles: emission reduction potential and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, P. [BC Research Institute, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A project (1) to build an experimental hybrid electric vehicle to be used as a test bed for the development of EZEV-oriented technologies, (2) to develop a control system to manage the energy use in a series hybrid vehicle, (3) to evaluate the suitability of valve regulated lead acid batteries for hybrid propulsion, and (4) to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid propulsion for medium duty fleet vehicles was discussed. In this context, the electric G-Van, the BCRI hybrid G-Van battery, the hybrid power unit, and the electronic control unit were described. The concept of hybrid vehicle control, and the control system software were explained, and a summary of the hybrid system efficiency test was provided.

  10. A trial of retrofitted advisory collision avoidance technology in government fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James P; Mackenzie, Jamie R R; Dutschke, Jeffrey K; Baldock, Matthew R J; Raftery, Simon J; Wall, John

    2018-06-01

    In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety. The evaluation consisted of three components: (1) analysis of objective data to examine effects of the technology on driving behaviour, (2) analysis of video footage taken from a sample of the vehicles to examine driving circumstances that trigger headway monitoring and forward collision warnings, and (3) a survey completed by 122 of the 199 individuals who drove the trial vehicles to examine experiences with, and attitudes to, the technology. Analysis of the objective data found that the system resulted in changes in behaviour with increased headway and improved lane keeping, but that these improvements dissipated once the warning alerts were switched off. Therefore, the system is capable of altering behaviour but only when it is actively providing alerts. In-vehicle video footage revealed that over a quarter of forward collision warnings were false alarms, in which a warning event was triggered despite there being no vehicle travelling ahead. The surveyed drivers recognised that the system could improve safety but most did not wish to use it themselves as they found it to be distracting and felt that it would not prevent them from having a crash. The results demonstrate that collision avoidance technology can improve driving behaviour but drivers may need to be educated about the potential benefits for their driving in order to accept the technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fossil fleet transition with fuel changes and large scale variable renewable integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Revis [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hesler, Stephen [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Variability in demand as seen by grid-connected dispatchable generators can increase due to factors such as greater production from variable generation assets (for example, wind and solar), increased reliance on demand response or customer-driven automation, and aggregation of loads. This variability results a need for these generators to operate in a range of different modes, collectively referred to as “flexible operations.” This study is designed to inform power companies, researchers, and policymakers of the scope and trends in increasing levels of flexible operations as well as reliability challenges and impacts for dispatchable assets. Background Because there is rarely a direct monetization of the value of operational flexibility, the decision to provide such flexibility is typically dependent on unit- and region-specific decisions made by asset owners. It is very likely that much greater and more widespread flexible operations capabilities will be needed due to increased variability in demand seen by grid-connected generators, uncertainty regarding investment in new units to provide adequate operational flexibility, and the retirement of older, uncontrolled sub-critical pulverized coal units. Objective To enhance understanding of the technical challenges and operational impacts associated with dispatchable assets needed to increase operational flexibility and support variable demand. Approach The study approach consists of three elements: a literature review of relevant prior studies, analysis of detailed scenarios for evolution of the future fleet over the next 35 years, and engineering assessment of the degree and scope of technical challenges associated with transformation to the future fleet. The study approach integrated two key elements rarely brought together in a single analysis—1) long-term capacity planning, which enables modeling of unit retirements and new asset investments, and 2) unit commitment analysis, which permits examination of

  12. Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight

  13. How green can black be? Assessing the potential for equipping USA's existing coal fleet with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrizio, Piera; Leduc, Sylvain; Mesfun, Sennai; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2017-04-01

    The mitigation of adverse environmental impacts due to climate change requires the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions - also from the U.S. energy sector, a dominant source of greenhouse-gas emissions. This is especially true for the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants, accounting for roughly two-thirds of the U.S. energy sectors' total CO2 emissions. With this aim, different carbon mitigation options have been proposed in literature, such as increasing the energy efficiency, co-firing of biomass and/or the adoption of carbon capturing technologies (BECCS). However, the extent to which these solutions can be adopted depends on a suite of site specific factors and therefore needs to be evaluated on a site-specific basis. We propose a spatially explicit approach to identify candidate coal plants for which carbon capture technologies are economically feasible, according to different economic and policy frameworks. The methodology implies the adoption of IIASA's techno economic model BeWhere, which optimizes the cost of the entire BECCS supply chain, from the biomass resources to the storage of the CO2 in the nearest geological sink. The results shows that biomass co-firing appears to be the most appealing economic solution for a larger part of the existing U.S. coal fleet, while the adoption of CCS technologies is highly dependent on the level of CO2 prices as well as on local factors such as the type of coal firing technology and proximity of storage sites.

  14. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  15. Deployable nuclear fleet based on available quantities of uranium and reactor types – the case of fast reactors started up with enriched uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baschwitz Anne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International organizations regularly produce global energy demand scenarios. To account for the increasing population and GDP trends, as well as to encompass evolving energy uses while satisfying constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, long-term installed nuclear power capacity scenarios tend to be more ambitious, even after the Fukushima accident. Thus, the amounts of uranium or plutonium needed to deploy such capacities could be limiting factors. This study first considers light-water reactors (LWR, GEN III using enriched uranium, like most of the current reactor technologies. It then examines the contribution of future fast reactors (FR, GEN IV operating with an initial fissile load and then using depleted uranium and recycling their own plutonium. However, as plutonium is only available in limited quantity since it is only produced in nuclear reactors, the possibility of starting up these Generation IV reactors with a fissile load of enriched uranium is also explored. In one of our previous studies, the uranium consumption of a third-generation reactor like an EPR™ was compared with that of a fast reactor started up with enriched uranium (U5-FR. For a reactor lifespan of 60 years, the U5-FR consumes three times less uranium than the EPR and represents a 60% reduction in terms of separative work units (SWU, though its requirements are concentrated over the first few years of operation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of U5-FRs in a nuclear fleet deployment configuration. Considering several power demand scenarios and assuming different finite quantities of available natural uranium, this paper examines what types of reactors must be deployed to meet the demand. The deployment of light-water reactors only is not sustainable in the long run. Generation IV reactors are therefore essential. Yet when started up with plutonium, the number of reactors that can be deployed is also limited. In a fleet deployment

  16. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  17. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  18. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  19. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  20. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A characteristic feature of the measurement methodology applied is that the data is collected outside the vehicles, with a CCTV camera used per access point. Demand for the public transportation service are calculated using the image processing. Results: The derived demand characteristics allow not only an estimation of the magnitude of traffic streams in public transportation but also their qualitative description. Such an approach permits a flexible design of the transportation offer to adapt to the demand. This allows matching the timetables to the density functions describing the demand for public transportation within the space of transportation networks. In addition, based on the results of this type of research, a public transportation operator may despatch the vehicle base in a flexible way. For each run of a bus or tram fleet, basing on the registered passenger traffic streams, it is possible to rationally despatch the vehicles with suitable capacity. Conclusions: A system of this type is capable of determining the quality of work of the public transportation. With the ITS systems being introduced still more widely, the proposed methodology allows the design and implementation of dynamic timetables.

  1. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  2. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  3. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  4. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  5. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  6. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  7. Insurance issues and natural gas vehicles. Final report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    GRI has been funding research on natural gas vehicle (NGV) technology since 1986. To support the activity, GRI is evaluating a number of NGV issues including fuel storage, tank inspection, system safety, refueling, U.S. auto and truck use characteristics, and the fleet vehicle infrastructure. In addition, insurance and leasing companies will require new regulations and policies to address clean-fueled vehicle fleets' emergence into the marketplace. These policies may influence and partially determine the structure of the alternatively fueled vehicle industry, and the requirements, if any, imposed upon vehicle technologies. The report asseses the insurance and leasing industries' infrastructure/institutional barriers as they relate to the introduction of natural gas fueled vehicle fleets

  8. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  9. Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J R

    1979-12-01

    One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government agency. The primary data source is a questionnaire that was distributed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Six sectors of the fleet market were sampled: police, state and local government, utilities, taxi, rental, and business. The questionnaire was specifically designed to uncover factors limiting market penetration of unconventional vehicles, although no attempt was made to determine price elasticities. Emphasis is on vehicle attributes that are readily quantifiable and relatively projectable, including seating capacity, range, battery recharging characteristics, availability of power options, and ability to use interstate highways.

  10. Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator: CPEN user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates of alternative passenger cars that can be described in terms of specific physical and economic attributes. The data were derived from questionnaires distributed to fleet operators affiliated with National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Besides the NAFA data, CPEN uses 48 variables that are interactively inserted. Complete data-input descriptions are included in the manual along with algorithm and application flowcharts. Examples of complete successful simulator runs are included for alternative program paths. A listing of the computer program and a glossary for CPEN are included.

  11. Optimal Scheduling and Operating Target (OPTAR) Cost Model for Aircraft Carriers in the Fleet Response Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    York, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    .... This capability is developed through the Fleet Readiness Training Plan (FRTP) where the Navy's carriers are scheduled in staggered 32-month cycles consisting of four phases of progressive readiness levels...

  12. A Study of Fleet Surgical Teams Readiness Posture in Amphibious Readiness Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tennyson, Ruby

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes and evaluates Fleet Surgical Teams (FSTs). It examines how Navy Medicine adapted FSTs to changing support requirements associated with the Total Health Care Support Readiness Requirement (THCSRR...

  13. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  14. PROBLEMS OF ROUTE NETWORK AND AIRCRAFT FLEET OPTIMIZATION AS A SPECIFIC TASK OF AIRLINE STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karakuts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems of route network and aircraft fleet optimization and its role in airline strategic planning are considered. Measures to improve the methods of its implementation are proposed.

  15. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  16. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  17. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fleet Composition Current & Future Work FoodBank Cape Town First in South Africa Launched on 2 March 2009 Warehouse located in Philippi East [1] Majority of food sourced from DCs and retail sector Distributing to approximately 200 agencies... & Future Work Figure: Sourcing & distributing ow diagram EJ Lanz 40th Annual ORSSA Conference 11 of 36 Background Project Focus Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Data Demand Site...

  18. A New Formulation for the Combined Maritime Fleet Deployment and Inventory Management Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bo; Bektas, Tolga; Chandra, Saurabh; Christiansen, Marielle; Fagerholt, Kjetil

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet deployment problem and in particular the treatment of inventory in the maritime case. A new model based on time-continuous formulation for the combined maritime fleet deployment and inventory management problem in Roll-on Roll-off shipping is presented. Tests based on realistic data from the Ro-Ro business show that the model yields good solutions to the combined problem within reasonable time.

  19. An evaluation and implementation study of the Zenith 120 microcomputer in West Coast Fleet Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Austere funding and the increased administrative burdens being placed on fleet units will ultimately take their toll on performance, morale and combat readiness. Applying low cost microcomputer technology presents one method to alleviate many of these burdens. However, the current implementation process being used is not sufficient to meet the needs of the Fleet. Empirical evidence indicates that expenditures on computers are not ac...

  20. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Sun; Qiang Feng; Songjie Li

    2012-01-01

    According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules) based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negoti...

  1. Inspection Program Development for an Aircraft Fleet and an Airline on the Basis of the Acceptance Fatigue Test Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramonov Yuri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An inspection interval planning is considered in order to limit the probability of any fatigue failure (FFP in a fleet of N aircraft (AC and to provide an economical effectiveness of airline (AL under the limitation of fatigue failure rate (FFR. A solution of these two problems is based on the processing of the result of acceptance fatigue test of a new type of aircraft. During this test an estimate of the parameter ϴ, of a fatigue crack growth trajectory has been obtained. If the result of this acceptance test is too bad then this new type of aircraft will not be used in service. A redesign of this project should be done. If the result the acceptance test is pretty good then the reliability of the aircraft fleet and the airline will be provided without inspections. For this strategy there is a maximum of FFP (a maximum of FFR as a function of an unknown parameter ᶿ. This maximum can be limited by the use of the offered here procedure of the choice of the inspection number. The economic effectiveness of the AL operation is considered using the theory of Markov process with rewords.

  2. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  3. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  4. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  5. Implications of energy use for fishing fleet-Taiwan example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jian; Wu Yihusan

    2011-01-01

    Commercial fisheries rely heavily on fossil fuel combustion and contribute heavily to the emission of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Propulsion output of fishing vessels has continually increased from 30 kW in 1959 to nearly 320 kW in 2000, indicating that the Taiwanese fishing fleet tended to voyage farther and faster, and to adjust for the heavier loads demanded by more powerful fishing gear. Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. The marine fishery is unlikely to grow in the future as the government is implementing measures to ensure the development of sustainable fishing practices. There has been a rising trend in pollution to production ratios during the study period between 1959 and 2008. The ratio increased by 47% in the first decade, followed by fluctuations within the range of 50%-58% for the remainder of the statistical period. There is a need to investigate the possibility of reductions in all categories of fishing with regard to energy use and emissions through the subsidization of fishing vessels to encourage operators to switch to more energy efficient equipment and cleaner fuels. - Highlights: → Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. → We reported a steady increase in pollution to production ratio in Taiwan fishing industry. → We urged government and industry work together to ensure a transition to low carbon fishing.

  6. The Insufficient Issues In Development Of Vietnamese Ship Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration in 2015 the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons an increase of 9.5 compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8 of total cargo through the port more than 70 of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017 the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding PSC of the Asia-Pacific Region Tokyo-MOU comprising 20 members Australia Canada Chile China Fiji Hong Kong China Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Marshall Islands New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russian Federation Singapore Thailand Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly in 2016 members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31678 PSC inspections of 17503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31678 PSC inspections 18943 defect detection ships affected safety security maritime labor conditions environmental pollution prevention and 1090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects the average retention of the entire region was 3.44 down from 3.67 in 2015 and 3.96 in 2014.

  7. B612 plans asteroid hunt with fleet of small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Last week, an asteroid the size of Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza whizzed by Earth, missing it by half the distance to the moon. The concern that we may one day not be so lucky has long preoccupied the B612 Foundation, a private organization in Mill Valley, California, dedicated to finding asteroids that cross Earth's orbit and could devastate humanity. B612 itself had a near-death experience 3 years ago, when its bold plans for an asteroid-hunting space telescope fell apart. But now, its ambitions are rising again with a new technique for finding menacing objects. On 10 May, B612 announced a partnership with York Space Systems to investigate building a fleet of small asteroid hunters. For many years, B612 aimed to build and launch a much larger craft, Sentinel, a $450 million space telescope with a 50-centimeter mirror. But fundraising stalled and, in 2015, NASA ended an agreement to help B612 because it wasn't meeting mileposts, essentially killing the telescope. Now, B612 has developed a new technique, called synthetic tracking, that can produce similar results at a far lower cost with small space telescopes. Ed Lu, B612 co-founder and CEO, expects the first telescope to cost about $10 million and believes a full constellation "would be a factor of many, many cheaper" than Sentinel.

  8. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  9. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  10. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  11. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Kellie; Richard Cassady, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  13. Technical and Feasibility Analysis of Gasoline and Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Chasos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is recent interest for the utilisation of natural gas for empowering the internal combustion engines (ICE of vehicles. The production of novel natural gas ICE for vehicles, as well as the conversion of existing gasoline fuelled ICE of vehicles to natural gas fuelled ICE are new technologies which require to be analysed and assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the adaptation of natural gas as vehicle fuel and carry out a technical analysis and an economical feasibility analysis of the two types of ICE vehicles, namely gasoline and natural gas fuelled vehicles. The technical model uses the physical properties of the two fuels and the performance factors of internal combustion engines including brake thermal efficiency. The resulting exhaust gas emissions are also estimated by the technical model using combustion calculations which provide the expected levels of exhaust gas emissions. Based on the analysis with the technical model, comparisons of the two types of engines are performed. Furthermore, the estimated performance characteristics of the two types of engines, along with local statistical data on annual fuel imports and annual fuel consumption for transportation and data on the vehicles fleet for the case study of Cyprus are used as input in the economical model. For the base year 2013, data of natural gas price is also used in the economical model. The economical model estimates the capital cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance of fines, the net present value and the internal rate of return of the investment of large scale adaptation of natural gas fuelled vehicles for the case study. From the results and comparisons, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are provided for the adaptation of natural gas vehicles which can provide improved performance with reduced pollutant emissions.

  14. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  15. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  16. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil

  17. Control and management of the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection across French nuclear fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, Mersiha; Dzemidzic Aida; Dijoux, Michel; Pages, Danielle; Rigal, Jean-Francois; Boize, Magali

    2012-09-01

    Across the EDF nuclear fleet, the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection has received much attention in the past decades. Since 1997, continuous investigation into the substitution of dangerous and carcinogenic chemicals has been conducted and regularly updated by EDF. As a downstream user of hydrazine hydrate, EDF is concerned by REACH legislation, in force since 1 June 2007. As part of the compliance process with REACH, EDF provided its hydrazine hydrate suppliers with information regarding the uses of the chemical. This was done by the end of 2008, as per REACH deadline. On the other hand, EDF contributed throughout European Chemicals Agency consultation phase by submitting data relating to hydrazine hydrate uses across nuclear sites. The absence of a suitable hydrazine hydrate replacement product, able to satisfy the entirety of technical requirements, entails rigorous arrangements to be implemented in order to segregate the zones where use of hydrazine is made and therefore eradicate the risk to personnel regarding hydrazine effects. Consequently, a number of engineering changes and modifications are to be carried out on the chemical injection systems of 58 French nuclear power plants over the next few years as part of the EDF Hydrazine Fleet Programme. (authors)

  18. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  19. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  20. Heuristic hybrid game approach for fleet condition-based maintenance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qiang; Bi, Xiong; Zhao, Xiujie; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The condition-based maintenance (CBM) method is commonly used to select appropriate maintenance opportunities according to equipment status over a period of time. The CBM of aircraft fleets is a fleet maintenance planning problem. In this problem, mission requirements, resource constraints, and aircraft statuses are considered to find an optimal strategy set. Given that the maintenance strategies for each aircraft are finite, fleet CBM can be treated as a combinatorial optimization problem. In this study, the process of making a decision on the CBM of military fleets is analyzed. The fleet CBM problem is treated as a two-stage dynamic decision-making problem. Aircraft are divided into dispatch and standby sets; thus, the problem scale is significantly reduced. A heuristic hybrid game (HHG) approach comprising a competition game and a cooperative game is proposed on the basis of heuristic rule. In the dispatch set, a competition game approach is proposed to search for a local optimal strategy matrix. A cooperative game method for the two sets is also proposed to ensure global optimization. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet comprising 20 aircraft is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the mission risk-oriented schedule requirement. - Highlights: • A new heuristic hybrid game method for fleet condition-based maintenance is proposed. • The problem is simplified by hierarchical solving based on dispatch and standby set. • The local optimal solution is got by competition game algorithm for dispatch set. • The global optimal solution is got by cooperative game algorithm between two sets.

  1. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  2. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  3. Long-term energy and climate implications of carbon capture and storage deployment strategies in the US coal-fired electricity fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric

    2012-09-04

    To understand the long-term energy and climate implications of different implementation strategies for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the US coal-fired electricity fleet, we integrate three analytical elements: scenario projection of energy supply systems, temporally explicit life cycle modeling, and time-dependent calculation of radiative forcing. Assuming continued large-scale use of coal for electricity generation, we find that aggressive implementation of CCS could reduce cumulative greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O) from the US coal-fired power fleet through 2100 by 37-58%. Cumulative radiative forcing through 2100 would be reduced by only 24-46%, due to the front-loaded time profile of the emissions and the long atmospheric residence time of CO(2). The efficiency of energy conversion and carbon capture technologies strongly affects the amount of primary energy used but has little effect on greenhouse gas emissions or radiative forcing. Delaying implementation of CCS deployment significantly increases long-term radiative forcing. This study highlights the time-dynamic nature of potential climate benefits and energy costs of different CCS deployment pathways and identifies opportunities and constraints of successful CCS implementation.

  4. To sink or burn? A discussion of the potential contributions of forests to greenhouse gas balances through storing carbon or providing biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, M.U.F.

    2003-01-01

    Forests can affect net CO 2 emissions by increasing or decreasing the amount of stored carbon, or by supplying biofuels for power generation to substitute for fossil fuels. However, forests store the most carbon when they remain undisturbed and are allowed to grow to maturity, whereas using wood for bioenergy requires wood removal from forests, which reduces on-site carbon storage. Hence, it is difficult to manage a forest simultaneously for maximum carbon storage and supplying fuelwood. For developing optimal strategies for the use of vegetation sinks, it is necessary to consider the feedbacks via the inherent natural adjustments in the global carbon cycle. Increased atmospheric CO 2 currently provides a driving force for carbon uptake by natural carbon reservoirs, such as the world's oceans. When carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored in biomass, it lowers the concentration gradient between the atmosphere and these other reservoirs. This reduces the subsequent inherent rate of CO 2 removal from the atmosphere. This means that transferring a quantity of CO 2 from the atmosphere to a biomass pool lowers the atmospheric concentration the most immediately after the initial removal, but subsequently, the atmospheric concentration trends back towards the values without biospheric removal. The optimal timing for the use of vegetation sinks therefore depends on a number of factors: the length of time over which forest growth can be maintained, whether biomass is used for energy generation and on the nature of the most detrimental aspects of climate-change impacts. Climate-change impacts related to the instantaneous effect of temperature are mitigated less by vegetation sinks than impacts that act via the cumulative effect of increased temperature. It also means that short-term carbon storage in temporary sinks is not generally beneficial in mitigating climate change

  5. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  6. The Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations and its Potential Impact on Neighboring Countries. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport

  7. The Effect of Converting to a U.S. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet on Emissions and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    This study analyzes the potential change in emissions and energy use from replacing fossil-fuel based vehicles with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This study examines three different hydrogen production scenarios to determine their resultant emissions and energy usage: hydrogen produced via 1) steam reforming of methane, 2) coal gasification, or 3) wind electrolysis. The atmospheric model simulations require two primary sets of data: the actual emissions associated with hydrogen fuel production and use, and the corresponding reduction in emissions associated with reducing fossil fuel use. The net change in emissions is derived using 1) the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI) that incorporates several hundred categories of on-road vehicles and 2) a Process Chain Analysis (PCA) for the different hydrogen production scenarios. NEI: The quantity of hydrogen-related emission is ultimately a function of the projected hydrogen consumption in on-road vehicles. Data for hydrogen consumption from on-road vehicles was derived from the number of miles driven in each U.S. county based on 1999 NEI data, the average fleet mileage of all on-road vehicles, the average gasoline vehicle efficiency, and the efficiency of advanced 2004 fuel cell vehicles. PCA: PCA involves energy and mass balance calculations around the fuel extraction, production, transport, storage, and delivery processes. PCA was used to examine three different hydrogen production scenarios: In the first scenario, hydrogen is derived from natural gas, which is extracted from gas fields, stored, chemically processed, and transmitted through pipelines to distributed fuel processing units. The fuel processing units, situated in similar locations as gasoline refueling stations, convert natural gas to hydrogen via a combination of steam reforming and fuel oxidation. Purified hydrogen is compressed for use onboard fuel cell vehicles. In the second scenario, hydrogen is derived from coal, which is extracted from

  8. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  9. Assessing the potential of different charging strategies for electric vehicle fleets in closed transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Eisel, Matthias; Kolbe, Lutz M.

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for the low sales volumes of electric vehicles is their significantly higher purchasing price in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, various charging strategies can be applied to make these vehicles more profitable. In this paper, controlled charging concepts are transferred to commercial fleets operating in closed transport systems, as we found this field of application particularly well suited for the implementation of charging strategies. We analyzed data gathered in a field experiment conducted in a European port using electric vehicles in combination with a battery-swapping station to calculate the economic potentials of three charging scenarios: (1) optimizing energy procurement (2) trading load-shifting potential on control markets, and (3) a combination of the two. The findings indicate that all approaches are appropriate for reducing economic disadvantages of electric transport vehicles. Furthermore, we find that adjusting charging processes to avoid price peaks is more profitable than offering control reserve. Finally, focusing on the combination of both strategies seems to be most promising from an economic perspective. In this context, operational cost savings of more than 65% can be achieved compared to a similar dieselpowered vehicle when applying this strategy. - Highlights: • We model various charging strategies for electric transport vehicles. • The economic assessment is based on a field experiment with a port operator. • We consider the special market design of spot and ancillary service markets. • All charging strategies presented provide substantial cost-saving potentials. • Optimizing energy procurement is more profitable than offering control reserve

  10. Designing a Softwarized Network Deployed on a Fleet of Drones for Rural Zone Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Rametta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the differences in the information communication technology (ICT infrastructures between urban and rural areas have registered a tremendous increase. ICT infrastructures could strongly help rural communities where many operations are time consuming, labor-intensive and expensive due to limited access and large distances to cover. One of the most attractive solutions, which is widely recognized as promising for filling this gap, is the use of drone fleets. In this context, this paper proposes a video monitoring platform as a service (VMPaaS for wide rural areas not covered by Internet access. The platform is realized with a Software-Defined Network (SDN/Network Functions Virtualization (NFV-based flying ad-hoc network (FANET, whose target is providing a flexible and dynamic connectivity backbone, and a set of drones equipped with high-resolution cameras, each transmitting a video stream of a portion of the considered area. After describing the architecture of the proposed platform, service chains to realize the video delivery service are described, and an analytical model is defined to evaluate the computational load of the platform nodes in such a way so as to allow the network orchestrator to decide the backbone drones where running the virtual functions, and the relative resources to be allocated. Numerical analysis is carried out in a case study.

  11. How Talisman Energy implemented oilfield fleet safety using event driven AVL technologies from TELUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, D. [Telus Energy Sector Organization, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This conference presentation provided information on how Talisman Energy implemented oilfield fleet safety using event driven automated vehicle location (AVL) technologies from TELUS. Background information on Telus in the energy sector, Telus geomatics, Telus mobile resource management (MRM) application modules, as well as Talisman Energy was first provided. Talisman looked to Telus for AVL technologies because it had a need to identify where employees were working, when they arrived and how long they were there. Prior to meeting with TELUS, Talisman Energy had implemented a system consisting of a trunk radio network to transmit data to the control room on the employee's location, however, it was unable to use the radio network to dispatch orders and communicate on an as-needed basis. TELUS had implemented a customized solution that tracks vehicles and provides an easy method of communication for employees to track how long they are working at a site. The service provides the control centre with the tools to monitor the location of the vehicles on a map, and communicate to the employee via a horn when their time has expired at the site. If the employee does not respond, the control room can call the nearest personnel to check on the worker's status. The integrated TELUS solutions uses Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Wireless communication over the Internet. The presentation provided numerous Talisman specific maps. It concluded with several issues to consider such as cross platform cellular communications supported on a single hardware platform; additional support for Satellite communications utilizing the same GIS platform; the need for extensive support for peripheral devices; and, the need for extensive roaming capabilities. tabs., figs.

  12. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  13. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  14. Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized

  15. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  16. Uranium in phosphate rocks and future nuclear power fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2014-01-01

    phosphoric acid. Uranium recovery as a by-product of phosphate rocks could be competitive for the moment, but limited at the most to 10 kt U per year, i.e. less than 20% of current world demand. The only way to lift the constraint of capacity production is to produce uranium as a primary product of phosphates. Unfortunately, this solution is very unlikely due to its high unit cost. In line with these considerations, the correspondence between the estimated resources and the forecast energy scenarios is examined, first with the current type of light water reactors which burn uranium, and secondly with a mixed fleet with both light water reactors and fast reactors which use plutonium. (author)

  17. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  18. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  19. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet; Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development (R and D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  20. Increased sharing of renewable energies in the electricity production system: what impact on the reactor fleet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the flexibility of an individual reactor and of the complete fleet of reactors as a means to cope with the variability of renewable energies like solar or wind energies. Flexibility means the ability for load following and this ability is limited by both safety rules and limits on the release of radionuclides in the environment. The flexibility of the fleet depends on individual reactor flexibility but also on organisational and economic constraints. The participation of a reactor to load following depends on: its availability (not in maintenance or testing phase), its position in the cycle, the positioning of its scheduled shutdowns and the minimization of the volume of effluents. The study presents the future need of flexibility for the reactor fleet as the shares of wind and solar energies increase in the French energy mix. (A.C.)

  1. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  2. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the large number of technical interactions between various fishing activities, the English Channel (ICES divisions VIId and VIIe) fisheries may be regarded as one large and diverse multi-country, multi-gear and multi-species artisanal fishery, although rarely studied as such. A whole...... of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...... and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical interactions...

  3. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF A FLEET OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Korotchenya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator for an integral assessment of efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors is proposed. Its calculating consists in multiplying partial efficiencies together: technical and price efficiency of agricultural production, and eco-efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors. Using an axiomatic method, the concept of efficiency of fleet was studied within broader category of productivity and in wider scales - within agriculture. The most general and obvious statements according to which efficiency of machine and tractor fleet is considered as indirectly settlement size counted proceeding from efficiency of agricultural production, were accepted as axioms. In general, efficiency is a ratio between productivity of an object in question and that of the theoretical ideal or an object with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted equal to unity or 100%. Technical efficiency of agricultural production characterizes the ability of an agricultural sector to produce the technically maximum output of agricultural produce obtained from the available resources (land, labor, machines, etc.. Price efficiency evaluates the ability of an agricultural sector to produce output of agricultural produce with regard to employing the optimal mix of resources given their prices. Because the theoretical ideal does not exist, efficiency of an agricultural sector, e.g. in Russia and of its fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors, is measured against agriculture of another country with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted as equal to unity or 100 percent. The calculation can be made on the basis of the Data Envelopment Analysis method. It is possible to calculate price and economic efficiency of Russian agriculture (fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors due to use its domestic prices.

  4. CEMENT TRANSPORTATION LIMITED-FLEET MODELING AND ASSIGNING TO RATED DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes MASHHADI BANDANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is an inseparable part of the supply chain, with a key role in product distribution. This role is highlighted when ratio of “the cost of transportation” to “the value of goods” such as cement is significant. Iran has recently become one of the main centers of cement production in the world. However, transportation is the most important challenge in cement distribution because of weak structure of the transportation fleet and its independent action. Independence of and lack of commitment on the part of transportation fleets to cement companies as well as lack of timely delivery due to shortage of transportation in some routes and seasons lead to customers` dissatisfaction and even market loss or lack of market development. One of the significant differences between the transportation system in Iran and that in developed countries is lack of complete productivity of the transportation fleet. It means that trucks are driver-based in Iran. This paper introduces a model considering some issues such as driver-based trucks, size of the transportation fleet based on the number of active trucks, and demand priorities in the cement company. Taking the relation between the number of active trucks and the cement company into account, this model assigns weekly demands to the transportation fleet. It also tries to minimize the delay to respond to demands and increases the efficiency of the transportation fleet. Finally, this current condition-based model is compared with two other models including “no constraints on different routes of trucks” as well as single-route model for trucks.

  5. External laundry service. A tool for fleet management and flexible decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, Guenter; Schmitt, Burkhard; Micklinghoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    While it is common in other countries such as the USA or Sweden to send out contaminated garments to an external laundering facility, this is not the case in Germany, where the preferred tendency in the nuclear industry is to remain independent from an external service provider. After the US based company 'UniTech' built a laundering facility for controlled area garment in Coevorden, Netherlands, in 1996, German operators began testing this service for decommissioning work. At the time, their justification for this choice was based on the following: - In case of a disrupted delivery the consequences would not be as severe for a nuclear power plant in the process of decommissioning. - Additional investments (evaporators) would have been necessary to install in the laundries of the individual nuclear power plants. - The existing on-site laundries and waste treatment equipment were often not suited to deal with nuclides, specific to decommissioning. It quickly became evident that a specialized service provider could conduct the necessary tasks more effectively, more flexibly, and with higher quality than an ancillary on-site facility. In addition, it became evident that central fleet management tasks are facilitated by contracting an external service provider. Business and technical processes, and requirements agreed upon in a framework agreement, supported the introduction of unified standards. The road map for future decommissioning projects in Germany is impacted by many uncertainties. Therefore, planning requires a great deal of flexibility. Here, as with other related operations, it is critical that enough protective garments are in the right place at the right time. If this does not happen, delays, additional costs and changes to process planning result. For these reasons, an external laundering and garment management service is the most reliable solution. Industry experience shows that even very short-term requests for large quantities of protective garments

  6. Nuclear power fleet replacement: an opportunity for the French energy mix? - 5044

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.; Duquesnoy, T.; Baschwitz, A.; Da Costa, P.

    2015-01-01

    In France, 27% of the electricity is to be produced by renewable resources by 2020. This share is intended to grow up to 2050. The recent European agreement and the French 'energy transition law' will promote such a development. The French power system is characterized by high nuclear penetration and nuclear power is meant to remain a significant contributor in the medium and long term, as a low-carbon power source. More than half the French nuclear power fleet was installed in the late seventies / early eighties. Thus, the issue of its replacement is at the core of the French power mix issue. The objective of this paper is to provide some insights about the opportunity it enables for the energy mix. Two plausible replacement scenarios are developed and analyzed as regards to the energy cost provided by nuclear power. For a given target level of nuclear installed capacities, the penetration of non-dispatchable renewable energies with dispatch priority will increase the need for nuclear power modulation at reduced average load factor. The impact of modulation on the nuclear levelized cost of electricity is assessed, according to the considered replacement scenario and for different renewable and nuclear energy penetration scenarios. Results show that, according to the selected assumptions, implementing a progressive shut-down (based on an increased operation lifetime of Nuclear Power Plants) appears a relevant choice since it both provides a lowest power production cost even at reduced average load factor to participate to load following and allows the possibility of 'waiting' for choosing most sustainable technologies. (authors)

  7. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  8. MPC and A enhancements for the Murmansk shipping company icebreaker fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoch, O.; Bondarev, N.; Caskey, D.; Forehand, M.; Lambert, D.; Maltsev, V.; O'Brien, M.; Gardner, B.; Tittemore, G.

    1999-01-01

    The United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative agreement in 1994 that resulted in a nuclear weapons non-proliferation program within the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) currently known as the Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Material Security Task Force. In 1996, a project was initiated with the Murmansk Shipping Company to enhance material protection, control, and accounting of highly enriched nuclear fuel assemblies used for the Icebreaker Fleet. The commissioning ceremony for this project is scheduled for August 1999. This paper describes the physical protection, material control, and accounting measures implemented for the Icebreaker Fleet

  9. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  10. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  11. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  12. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  13. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  14. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  15. On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration – An analysis of the Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the level of wind power penetration beyond the present level in the Danish power system implies large challenges when it comes to energy management and system stability. Plug-in electric vehicles promise to contribute to the flexibility of the energy system by creating a link between...... the power system and the transportation sector and provide the possibility to make use of the inherent energy storage of a large electric vehicle (EV) fleet. The present work investigates the effects of different EV charging strategies on the balance between wind power production and consumption in a future...... batteries are used as backup at times with little wind power production) will have very limited effects on the overall energy management and is more likely to be used only for regulation and reserve services, also in the longer perspective....

  16. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effective method to solve this problem. Furthermore, the effects of price of electricity, price of battery package, life cycle of battery package, cost of battery-swapping devices and infrastructure, and driving mileage per day on the benefits of value holders are analyzed, which provide theoretical and practical reference for the deployment of electric vehicles, for the national subsidy criteria adjusment, technological innovation instruction, commercial mode selection, and infrastructure construction.

  17. Unconventional Gas. A Game Changer for Transport Too?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2011-01-01

    A new technology trend, the development of natural gas vehicles, is emerging in the transport sector. While not new this technology is now being simultaneously revived by the discovery of significant amounts of unconventional gas, by the rise of oil prices, and by the decreased confidence in the sustainability of nuclear technology (and subsequent rising electricity prices in Europe). Natural gas could provide a path to a lower carbon intensive transport sector in both developed and developing countries. Gas is cheaper and less polluting than oil. It emits significantly less local pollutants than diesel and less CO 2 than gasoline. Historically present in Italy, South America, Iran and Pakistan natural gas vehicles are emerging in other countries: in some European countries, in the United States, in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi and Henan, and in India. Asia and developing countries are expected to be responsible for a large share of the car market growth in the next years and consequently for a significant share of transport CO 2 emissions. The adoption of a given technology there could impact global markets and global CO 2 emissions significantly. While the trend is still loose, this paper responds to the possibility that this technology will expand: what would it imply? would it compete with the development of the electric vehicle? is it desirable? It appears that the advantages of natural gas vehicles are not as clear cut as they seem. Environmentally, they are beneficial only to countries with little -if no- CO 2 emissions standards. Several issues including the development of costly infrastructures are likely to raise costs. Natural gas vehicles development could also slow down the roll out of electric vehicles, hence delaying hopes of smoothing the integration of renewables into the power grid through the use of car batteries' storage capacity. But the main concern is the availability of cheap gas itself, on the basis of which this technology shift could

  18. The great refit of the EDF nuclear fleet and post-Fukushima actions. An ambition to extend to 50 or 60 years the exploitation of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The great refit of the EDF nuclear fleet aims at extending the service lifetime of nuclear reactors. If the extension to 40 years is well undertaken, an extension to 50 or 60 years could only be approved after a return on experience of the Fukushima accident and possible additional requests made by the ASN in reference to facilities ageing. The authors first recall some elements related to the Fukushima accident and outline the fact that the possibility of such a strong tsunami had not been taken in to account by the operator (as it had been for a neighbouring nuclear power station, Onagawa). They also highlight the differences between Japan and France in terms of organisation of the nuclear industry. They also outline technical differences in the design of power stations. Thus, the first lessons learned from the accident seem to support French options. They discuss the evolutions which however are planned for the French nuclear stations after the Fukushima accident. Then, the authors present the great refit and the issue of the extension of the service lifetime of the EDF nuclear fleet. This project is presented as a major challenge for EDF, and implies a management of expenses. They outline the good level of French energy production with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, and briefly discuss the issue of competitiveness for renewable energies

  19. Natural gas fuelling stations installation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrigar, C; Burford, G; Adragna, M; Hawryn, S

    2004-07-01

    This Canadian Standard applies to natural gas fuelling stations that can be used for fleet and public dispensing operations. This document is divided into 11 sections that address the scope of the Standard; definitions and reference publications; general requirements; compressors; storage; dispensing; flow control devices; storage vessel dispatch and receiving; design, installation and testing of piping, tubing and fittings; and installation of vehicle refuelling appliances (VRAs) connected to storage piping. The most recent revision to the Standard includes requirements for indoor fuelling of natural gas vehicles. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2004. tabs., figs.

  20. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  1. Using Discrete Event Simulation To Analyze Personnel Requirements For The Malaysian Armys New Utility Helicopter Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    HELICOPTER FLEET Hasnan bin Mohamad Rais Major, Malaysian Army B.S., University Technology of Malaysia , 2000 Submitted in partial...HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE POLICY B. The objective of MAA helicopter maintenance activities is to preserve helicopter safety and mission reliability to

  2. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-road or non-road vehicle. \\2\\ The definition of the term ``low-speed electric vehicle,'' as used... alternative fuel used in Federal fleet motor vehicles. This report also would include the alternative fuel...-- (1) a motor vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel; or (2) a low-speed electric vehicle. (g...

  3. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  4. Something To Rely On : The Influence of Stable and Fleeting Drivers on Moral Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. van Houwelingen (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In virtually any situation we are bound to encounter short-lived influences that lure us to act in a certain way. The influence of such ‘fleeting drivers’ may or may not be in line our long-term goals and commitments (‘stable drivers’). Moral behaviour in particular

  5. Aging Military Aircraft Landscape : A Case for End-of-Life Fleet Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Military aircraft fleets are continuing to age despite increased structural integrity concerns and rising maintenance costs. Aircraft are not being replaced or retired in large numbers but are instead having their lives extended beyond their original design service lives. Because aging aircraft cost

  6. Towards the implementation of an integrated ecosystem fleet-based management of European fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascuel, D.; Merino, G.; Döring, R.D.; Druon, D.N.; Goti, L.; Guénette, S.; Macher, C.; Soma, K.; Travers-Trolet, M.; Mackinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Celtic Sea and the North Sea as case studies, the fleet-based approach is shown to be the pathway to implement an effective ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in European seas. First, a diagnostic on the health of each ecosystem is proposed based on the reconstruction of

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  8. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... (NCSM 710) which include all waters within 100 yards from the vessels while underway in the Puget Sound... authorized by the COTP, Puget Sound or Designated Representative. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 a.m...

  9. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... temporary rule, call or email Lieutenant Junior Grade Anthony P. LaBoy, Sector Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6323, email SectorPugetSound[email protected] . If you...

  10. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children...-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...

  11. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  12. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  13. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... efficiency credits earned according to the provisions of § 86.1866-12(c); (iii) Off-cycle technology credits... change Selective Enforcement Auditing or in-use testing failures from a failure to a non-failure. The.... (l) Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average CO...

  15. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2007-01-01

    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  16. 76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses may send... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0505] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington AGENCY...

  17. Status of the French photovoltaic fleet on the 30 September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication first present some key data regarding photovoltaic energy production in France (connected and to be connected), and then presents the photovoltaic fleet (geographical distribution, installed power in metropolitan France, Corsica and ultramarine territories). It gives an overview of the evolution of connection request and queuing management in France and at the regional level

  18. Off-wing fleet maintenance study of a CFM56-3B turbofan engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An off wing fleet maintenance study of the CFM56-3B Turbofan engine that propels the Boeing 737-300 aircraft is presented. The engine performance and deteriorating behavior was modeled with a view to estimate the creep life consumption and operating severity. The predicted severity factor of each degradation was ...

  19. Fuzzy usage pattern in customizing public transport fleet and its maintenance options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husniah, H.; Herdiani, L.; Kusmaya; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we study a two-dimensional maintenance contract for a fleet of public transport, such as buses, shuttle etc. The buses are sold with a two-dimensional warranty. The warranty and the maintenance contract are characterized by two parameters – age and usage – which define a two-dimensional region. However, we use one dimensional approach to model these age and usage of the buses. The under-laying maintenance service contracts is the one which offers policy limit cost to protect a service provider (an agent) from over claim and to pursue the owner to do maintenance under specified cost in house. This in turn gives benefit for both the owner of the buses and the agent of service contract. The decision problem for an agent is to determine the optimal price for each option offered, and for the owner is to select the best contract option. We use a Nash game theory formulation in order to obtain a win-win solution – i.e. the optimal price for the agent and the optimal option for the owner. We further assume that there will be three different usage pattern of the buses, i.e. low, medium, and high pattern of the usage rate. In many situations it is often that we face a blur boundary between the adjacent patterns. In this paper we look for the optimal price for the agent and the optimal option for the owner, which minimizes the expected total cost while considering the fuzziness of the usage rate pattern.

  20. Intrepid: Exploring the NEA population with a Fleet of Highly Autonomous SmallSat explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Chesley, Steven R.; Ehlmann, Bethany; Raymond, Carol Anne

    2017-10-01

    The Intrepid mission concept calls for phased deployment of a fleet of small highly autonomous rendezvous spacecraft designed to characterize the evolution, structure and composition of dozens of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Intrepid represents a marked departure from conventional solar system exploration projects, where a single unique and complex spacecraft is typically directed to explore a single target body. In contrast, Intrepid relies on the deployment of a large number of autonomous spacecraft to provide redundancy and ensure that the project goals are achieved at a small fraction of the cost of typical missions.The Intrepid science goals are threefold: (1) to understand the evolutionary processes that govern asteroid physical, chemical and dynamical histories and relate these results to solar system origins and evolution; (2) to facilitate impactor deflection scenarios for planetary defense by statistically characterizing relevant asteroid physical properties; (3) to quantify the presence and extractability of potentially useful resources on a large sample of asteroids. To achieve these goals, the baseline architecture includes multiple modular instruments including cameras, spectrometers, radar sounders, and projectiles that could interact with the target asteroid. Key questions to be addressed are: what is the total quantity of water in each object? How is the water incorporated? Are organics present? What is the asteroid physical structure? How would the object respond to impact/deflection?We have begun development of a miniature infrared point spectrometer, a cornerstone of the Intrepid payload, covering both shortwave infrared (SWIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral bands. The spectrometer is designed with a compact 2U form-factor, making it both relevant to Intrepid and implementable on a CubeSat. The combination of SWIR and MIR in a single integrated instrument would enable robust compositional interpretations from a single dataset combining both

  1. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Factors that influence fuel consumption include environmental conditions, maintenance, poor driving techniques, and driving speed. Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the SmartDriver training programs were designed to help fleet managers, drivers, and instructors to learn methods of improving fuel economy. This fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles provides drivers with a method of calculating fuel consumption rates when driving. It includes a log-book in which to record odometer readings and a slide-rule in which to determine the litres of fuel used during a trip. The scale showed the number of kg of GHGs produced by burning a particular amount of fuel for both biodiesel and diesel fuels. 1 fig.

  2. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  3. Renewable gas French panorama 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboul-Proust, Catherine; Nayral, Raphaelle; Pinel, Julie; Rabetsimamanga, Ony; Singly, Bertrand de; Garret, Mathilde; Saurin, Alice; Apolit, Robin; Billerey, Elodie; Flajollet-Millan, Johanna; Jouet, Francoise; Bock, Roger; Marron, Didier

    2018-03-01

    This publication first describes how biomethane is a gaseous renewable source of energy, by outlining how biogas production and biomethane injection into the network represent a solution for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and by describing the different types of biomethane injection sites and the different types of inputs used to supply these sites. Then, after a presentation and a brief discussion of some key data regarding production and consumption, this publication presents the economic context, the regulatory framework, and a map of biomethane injection in Europe. The third part presents the fleet of biomethane injection installations in France, the characteristics of the connected sites, the regional distribution of the biomethane injection sector, and the production of biomethane injection installations. The fourth part discusses the growth perspectives of this sector by proposing an overview of planned injection projects, by assessing the potential production of methanization, and by addressing prospective issues on other ways of production of renewable gas

  4. Renewable gas French panorama 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Singly, Bertrand; Pinel, Julie; Garret, Mathilde; Schmit, Julien; Apolit, Robin; Bock, Roger; Pisani, Olivier; Marron, Didier

    2017-01-01

    This publication first describes how biomethane is a gaseous renewable source of energy, by outlining how biogas production and biomethane injection into the network represent a solution for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and by describing the different types of biomethane injection sites and the different types of inputs used to supply these sites. Then, after a presentation and a brief discussion of some key data regarding production and consumption, this publication presents the economic context, the regulatory framework, and a map of biomethane injection in Europe. The third part presents the fleet of biomethane injection installations in France, the characteristics of the connected sites, the regional distribution of the biomethane injection sector, and the production of biomethane injection installations. The fourth part discusses the growth perspectives of this sector by proposing an overview of planned injection projects, by assessing the potential production of methanization, and by addressing prospective issues on other ways of production of renewable gas

  5. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  6. Wholesale gas market indicators - 4. Quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  7. Wholesale gas market indicators - December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  8. Wholesale gas market indicators - September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  9. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Natural Gas Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (NGCC-CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CO2 intensity of electricity produced by state-of-the-art natural gas combined-cycle turbines (NGCC) isapproximately one-third that of the U.S. fleet of existing coal plants. Compared to new nuclear plants and coal plantswith integrated carbon capture, NGCC has a lower invest...

  10. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. 77 FR 6080 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet... research activities conducted within the AFAST Study Area under regulations issued on January 22, 2009 (74... [[Page 6082

  12. Causes and consequences of fleet diversity in fisheries: The case of the Norwegian Barents Sea cod fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Eide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fisheries operate under fluctuating environmental conditions, targeting fish stocks that appear in varying densities in different areas, often with abrupt and unexpected local changes. Physical conditions, markets and management regulations constrain vessels in different and varying ways. These factors all contribute to forming the fleet diversity we find in most fisheries. Here, a simulation model of the Northeast Arctic cod fishery is used in order to investigate how this diversity is formed and maintained, assuming rational economic behaviour under varying combined constraints. The study also focuses on how the ability of vessels to find fish influences fleet diversity, profitability, stock development and seasonal profiles of the fishery. Results indicate that an increased ability to target the most profitable fishing grounds may influence fleet diversity positively or negatively, depending on overall exploitation level. High exploitation rates also increase the temporal fluctuations in fleet diversity and profits, which are amplified as the fish-finding ability increases.

  13. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Big Data and Standard Services for the Fleet Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Stocks, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program curates underway environmental sensor data from the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet, ensuring data sets are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. Currently 25 in-service vessels contribute 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a full suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. To accommodate this large volume and variety of data, R2R has developed highly efficient stewardship procedures. These include scripted "break out" of cruise data packages from each vessel based on standard filename and directory patterns; automated harvest of cruise metadata from the UNOLS Office via Web Services and from OpenXML-based forms submitted by vessel operators; scripted quality assessment routines that calculate statistical summaries and standard ratings for selected data types; adoption of community-standard controlled vocabularies for vessel codes, instrument types, etc, provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server, in lieu of maintaining custom local term lists; and a standard package structure based on the IETF BagIt format for delivering data to long-term archives. Documentation and standard post-field products, including quality-controlled shiptrack navigation data for every cruise, are published in multiple services and formats to satisfy a diverse range of clients. These include Catalog Service for Web (CSW), GeoRSS, and OAI-PMH discovery services via a GeoNetwork portal; OGC Web Map and Feature Services for GIS clients; a citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each dataset; ISO 19115-2 standard geospatial metadata records suitable for submission to long-term archives as well as the POGO global catalog; and Linked Open Data resources with a SPARQL query endpoint for Semantic Web clients. R2R participates in initiatives such as the Ocean Data

  14. Methodology implementation for multi objective optimisation for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynet, David

    2016-01-01

    The issue of the evolution French nuclear fleet can be considered through the study of nuclear transition scenarios. These studies are of paramount importance as their results can greatly affect the decision making process, given that they take into account industrial concerns, investments, time, and nuclear system complexity. Such studies can be performed with the COSI code (developed at the CEA/DEN), which enables the calculation of matter inventories and fluxes across the fuel cycle (nuclear reactors and associated facilities), especially when coupled with the CESAR depletion code. The studies today performed with COSI require the definition of the various scenarios' input parameters, in order to fulfil different objectives such as minimising natural uranium consumption, waste production and so on. These parameters concern the quantities and the scheduling of spent fuel destined for reprocessing, and the number, the type and the commissioning dates of deployed reactors.This work aims to develop, validate and apply an optimisation methodology coupled with COSI, in order to determine optimal nuclear transition scenarios for a multi-objective platform. Firstly, this methodology is based on the acceleration of scenario evaluation, enabling the use of optimisation methods in a reasonable time-frame. With this goal in mind, artificial neural network irradiation surrogate models are created with the URANIE platform (developed at the CEA/DEN) and are implemented within COSI. The next step in this work is to use, adapt and compare different optimisation methods, such as URANIE's genetic algorithm and particle swarm methods, in order to define a methodology suited to this type of study. This methodology development is based on an incremental approach which progressively adds objectives, constraints and decision variables to the optimisation problem definition. The variables added, which are related to reactor deployment and spent fuel reprocessing strategies, are chosen

  15. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  16. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  17. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  19. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  20. Application of FLEET Velocimetry in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Halls, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Naibo

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) velocimetry is demonstrated in a large-scale transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Test conditions include total pressures, total temperatures, and Mach numbers ranging from 15 to 58 psia, 200 to 295 K, and 0.2 to 0.75, respectively. Freestream velocity measurements exhibit accuracies within 1 percent and precisions better than 1 m/s. The measured velocities adhere closely to isentropic flow theory over the domain of temperatures and pressures that were tested. Additional velocity measurements are made within the tunnel boundary layer; virtual trajectories traced out by the FLEET signal are indicative of the characteristic turbulent behavior in this region of the flow, where the unsteadiness increases demonstrably as the wall is approached. Mean velocities taken within the boundary layer are in agreement with theoretical velocity profiles, though the fluctuating velocities exhibit a greater deviation from theoretical predictions.

  1. Gas and coal competition in the EU power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    According to a new report by CEDIGAZ, the International Centre for Natural Gas Information, gas has lost its attractiveness against coal in the EU power sector. Its demand by the sector decreased by one third during the past three years and its prospects are very weak in this decade. The Association warns that un-profitability of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and the retirement of old coal plants due to stringent air regulation may lead to the closure of one third of the current fleet and poses a serious security of supply issue that has to be addressed urgently

  2. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) Jack Benfer Senior Materials...Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Rinse Black Oxide Rinse CRES Passivation Chrome Plating Cadmium Plating Cadmium Brush Plating Class N (TRL 9) Class N (TRL 7) Class N (TRL 6

  3. Wave theory analysis of the Hungarian vehi-cle fleet especially focusing on emission categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor SZENDRO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarity means the improvement of quality, decrease of production costs and production time, increase of safety and morale. With the help of tools of toyotarity strategic factors can be determined, production or service problems can be revealed. In this paper tools of toyotarity are obtained to analyse the driving factors of Hungarian vehicle fleet and car renewal. Product analysis was conducted on the basis of wavetheory.

  4. A comparative analysis of performance and cost metrics associated with a diesel to biodiesel fleet transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrake, Scott O.; Landis, Amy E.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Collinge, William O.; Xue Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    With energy security, economic stabilization, and environmental sustainability being at the forefront of US policy making, the development of biodiesel production and use within the United States has been growing at an astonishing rate. According to the latest DOE energy report, biodiesel production and consumption in the US has decreased since its peak in 2008, but still remains an important factor in the US energy mix. However, despite recent studies showing that B5 has similar performance qualities to that of the currently used ultra-low-sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) fleet managers and corporations still remain hesitant regarding a switch to B5. This research examined the major areas of concern that arise with transitioning fleets from ULSD to B5 with the goal of alleviating those concerns with quantitative results from an actual fleet implementation and transition. In conjunction with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) a comparison of cost, cold weather fuel properties, engine performance, fuel economy, and maintenance and repairs was conducted using data obtained over 3 years from a pilot study. The results found that B5 performed as well or better than ULSD in all performance metrics. - Research Highlights: →Conducted multi-year study of a DOT fleet transition from ULSD to biodiesel (B5)→No significant difference in cold weather performance, engine power output, or torque→No significant difference in fuel economy→No resulting increase in maintenance and repair costs or frequency→Life-cycle costing revealed no hidden costs as a result of B5 implementation

  5. Tail swing performance of the South African car-carrier fleet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PERFORMANCE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN CAR-CARRIER FLEET Obtained BSc and currently completing MSc at the University of the Witwatersrand. Researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) through the CSIR?s Studentship programme.... Obtained BSc and MSc from the University of the Witwatersrand and PhD from the University of Cambridge. Senior Lecturer in the School of Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand. C. DE SAXE...

  6. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  7. How to bring the nuclear share to 50 pc without stopping any reactor, nor increasing CO2 emissions. The issue of renewal of the French nuclear reactor fleet is also part of the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2013-01-01

    In a first article, after having recalled the present situation of the French energy mix, the author analyses the consequences of the shutting down of 22 nuclear reactors by 2025 to bring the nuclear share down from 75 to 50 per cent. Different options are discussed: fossil energy (but CO 2 emissions would be impacted), renewable energy (hydroelectricity cannot be further developed, biomass can be useful for heat networks, and wind energy is limited). The author examines the possibilities of decreasing electricity consumption, and of a significant contribution of gas plants. He compares direct gas- and fuel oil-based heating with heating with electricity produced by gas plants. A second article addresses the issue of renewal of the French nuclear reactor fleet. It discusses how to choose the right renewal pace, and an assessment of exploitation losses

  8. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  9. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  10. Transport fleet sizing by using make and buy decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Đurđica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction is among the main quoted reasons for logistics outsourcing, while transport capacities and operations are among the most outsourced logistics areas. However, according to transaction costs theory, there is often room for transport insourcing. Furthermore, nowadays many authors stress that mixed solutions can give better results than “make” or “buy” alternatives. “Make or buy” decision-making normative models, methods, and procedures in transport planning are not much explored. Instead, research is rather focused on carrier selection techniques, whereby it is supposed that outsourcing transport capacities is the most suitable solution. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of literature on classical “makeor-buy” decision-making in transport fleet sizing in a non-logistics enterprise. It goes beyond the basic “make or buy” decisionmaking, and intermediate solutions (i.e., “make and buy” are explored. Practical directions are given according to theoretical principles, and a case study is used to exemplify the main deductions. The research also has practical implications. Many enterprises in transition economies have faced the question of what to do with their in-house transport fleets. The obtained results are of interest to merchants and manufacturing enterprises that already have a private transport fleet and are considering how to rationalize it.

  11. Multi-objective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI - 5187

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynet, D.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Eschbach, R.; Krivtchik, G.; Merle-Lucotte, E.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of strategic choices on material inventories and flux in the fuel cycle can be analysed with the COSI code. Indeed COSI enables to compare various fleet evolution options (e.g. new reactor systems deployment) and different nuclear materials management (e.g. plutonium multi-recycling). COSI is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. In this paper a methodology for the nuclear fleet evolution scenarios optimization using COSI is introduced. A large number of scenario calculations is needed to solve an optimization problem, which makes infeasible an optimization calculation using the COSI/CESAR version. Given that CESAR calculations represent about 95% of the COSI computation time, CESAR irradiation surrogate models carrying out with ANN regression method and cooling analytic models have been coupled with COSI. An example of optimization study is presented involving 2 discrete variables related to the number of deployed SFR to renew the French PWR fleet and 2 criteria: minimizing the natural uranium consumption and the number of produced HLW vitrified packages

  12. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  13. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane U. Keogh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm. Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number and particle mass inventories in other developed countries.

  14. Not fully charged: Welfare effects of tax incentives for employer-provided electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitropoulos, A.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Koster, P.R.; Rietveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    More than 15 million cars are provided as fringe benefits by employers in Europe. The company car market is the driving force of changes in European car fleets and one of the main channels for the penetration of low emission vehicles. Policies in support of low emission vehicles through this channel

  15. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, F.; Fowler, M.; Wan, D.; Maniyali, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  16. Web-Based Naval Fleet Logistics Information System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yanfeng

    2007-01-01

    ... and execution, and as an information system for corporate knowledge management. The capability of a Web-based system will optimize Naval supply chain operations, significantly reduce man-hours, provide a mechanism for continuous process improvement, and enable the Naval supply system to become a learning organization.

  17. Effective Manning of the U.S. Merchant Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    operators, union leaders, government administrators, and researchers in England, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Norway , and the Netherlands. A list of...reorganization of billets, and integration of trade skills in ratings. Research efforts were undertaken in the United Kingdom, Norway , and other countries...innovations in design have been increasingly employed. Companies have supplanted worklife improvement experiments with efforts that will provide

  18. Multi-Year On-Road Emission Factor Trends of Two Heavy-Duty California Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, M.; Bishop, G.

    2017-12-01

    New heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations have resulted in the development of advanced exhaust after-treatment systems that specifically target particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). This has resulted in significant decreases in the emissions of these species. The University of Denver has collected three data sets of on-road gaseous (CO, HC, NO and NOx) and PM (particle mass, black carbon and particle number) emission measurements from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017 at two different locations in California. One site is located at the Port of Los Angeles, CA (1,150 HDVs measured in 2017) and the other site is located at a weigh station in Northern California near Cottonwood, CA (780 HDVs measured in 2017). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement Setup measures individual HDV's fuel specific emissions (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06172). Vehicles drive under a tent-like structure that encapsulates vehicle exhaust and 15 seconds of data collection is integrated to give fuel specific information. The measurements obtained from these campaigns contain real-world emissions affected by different driving modes, after-treatment systems and location. The Port of Los Angeles contributes a fleet that is fully equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the San Pedro Ports Clean Air Action Plan enforced since 2010 that allows only vehicles model year 2007 or newer on the premises. This fleet, although comprised with relatively new HDVs with lower PM emissions, has increased PM emissions as it has aged. Cottonwood's fleet contains vehicles with and without after-treatment systems, a result of a gradual turnover rate, and fleet PM has decreased at a slower rate than at the Port of Los Angeles. The decrease in PM emissions is a result of more HDVs being newer model years as well as older model years being retrofit with DPFs. The complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, have given the University of Denver

  19. New gas turbine technology 2012-2014 - Gas Turbine Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [LTH, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    an important verification that the plant fulfills the expectations. One important thing, however, is not to accept the test uncertainty as a test tolerance since it will provide the manufacturer overwhelming and unfair odds. Nowadays, it is common to have a maintenance agreement at some level for risk mitigation. There are different levels of contractual services ranging from parts agreement to full coverage 'bumper-to-bumper' LTSA services. One can chose to use either the OEM or another (third party) service provider. In many cases, the financing organs or insurer requires an LTSA (or better) for risk mitigation to level the insurance cost at a reasonable level. There are ways of potentially reducing the maintenance spending and one should always avoid lumped methods with equivalent hours. The word 'lumped' is used in a sense that the two different ageing mechanisms (creep, oxidation, regular wear and tear and stresses related to thermal gradients during start and stop) are evaluated as equivalent time by e.g. assuming that a start consumes time rather being a low cycle. A competent monitoring system can be a good investment - even if only a single failure can be avoided. The total world-wide gas turbine fleet is in the order of 47 000 units and the total value of the gas turbine after market was 2009 13.8 BEuro (13.8x10{sup 9} Euro). The after-market is, indeed, valuable to the manufacturers since all 47 000 units requires maintenance on a regular basis. Certain in-house produced parts may be offered with several hundred percent's margin - in contrast to about ten percent for a complete new turn-key power plant. The reward for the user, by having a LTSA, is discounted parts and prioritized treatment by the supplier. The combined cycle has about half the carbon dioxide emission compared to a coal fired plant. The large difference is driven by the higher efficiency and the higher hydrogen content in natural gas. This in combination with the

  20. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  1. A haptic sensing upgrade for the current EOD robotic fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The past decade and a half has seen a tremendous rise in the use of mobile manipulator robotic platforms for bomb inspection and disposal, explosive ordnance disposal, and other extremely hazardous tasks in both military and civilian settings. Skilled operators are able to control these robotic vehicles in amazing ways given the very limited situational awareness obtained from a few on-board camera views. Future generations of robotic platforms will, no doubt, provide some sort of additional force or haptic sensor feedback to further enhance the operator's interaction with the robot, especially when dealing with fragile, unstable, and explosive objects. Unfortunately, the robot operators need this capability today. This paper discusses an approach to provide existing (and future) robotic mobile manipulator platforms, with which trained operators are already familiar and highly proficient, this desired haptic and force feedback capability. The goals of this technology are to be rugged, reliable, and affordable. It should also be able to be applied to a wide range of existing robots with a wide variety of manipulator/gripper sizes and styles. Finally, the presentation of the haptic information to the operator is discussed, given the fact that control devices that physically interact with the operators are not widely available and still in the research stages.

  2. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  3. Companies which maintain the nuclear fleet - Information note 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication first recalls the reasons for subcontracting the maintenance of French nuclear plants (need of specialised expertise and abilities) even though EDF keeps an industrial and technical control. It describes the framework of these subcontracted activities (a long lasting collaboration, implementation of requirements), and how multi-annual markets are subcontracted to support the development of specialised companies. It outlines to which extent the selection and certification process is rigorous, that subcontractor salaried personnel is to be specifically trained, that radiation protection is performed under the same conditions for everybody. It indicates some specific measures which have been implemented to take subcontractor personnel working conditions into account. The updating of abilities for future activities is discussed. Some key data are provided regarding jobs, contracts, training, medical expenses, and fields of activity of subcontracting companies

  4. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  5. Survey for the development of compressed natural gas systems (CNG) for vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abulamosha, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, resulting in fewer air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In Europe, the adoption of CNG among consumers has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This investigation addresses the current situation of the CNG vehicle at the manufacturing level and the consumer level in Europe. Bas...

  6. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  7. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.; Qin, Guan; Collier, Nathan; Gong, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even

  8. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  9. Distributed multi-level supervision to effectively monitor the operations of a fleet of autonomous vehicles in agricultural tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-03-05

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  10. Metroplex Optimization Model Expansion and Analysis: The Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Hoffman, Karla; Donohue, George; Beradino, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM) that is designed to provide insights into airline decision-making with regards to markets served, schedule of flights on these markets, the type of aircraft assigned to each scheduled flight, load factors, airfares, and airline profits. The main inputs to the model are hedged fuel prices, airport capacity limits, and candidate markets. Embedded in the model are aircraft performance and associated cost factors, and willingness-to-pay (i.e. demand vs. airfare curves). Case studies demonstrate the application of the model for analysis of the effects of increased capacity and changes in operating costs (e.g. fuel prices). Although there are differences between airports (due to differences in the magnitude of travel demand and sensitivity to airfare), the system is more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than capacity. Further, the benefits of modernization in the form of increased capacity could be undermined by increases in hedged fuel prices

  11. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  12. The Model Of One-Type Aircraft Fleet Behaviour While Service And Advantages SHM V. NDT Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewitowicz Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the essence of durability characteristics of the designing structure of an airframe in terms of flight safety. Particular attention is drawn to one of the main factors influencing the durability characteristics of the airframe – diagnostics system for the health assessment of the airframe during the process of operation. The effectiveness of the use of integrated solutions to the structure of the airframe providing a continuous assessment of the technical condition is presented. Continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is classified as an intelligent solution. This paper presents a model of the behavior of one-type aircraft operating in the air operator’s fleet in terms of susceptibility to failure. Justified assumption in the description of this behavior, in the form of a “bathtub curve”. The analysis is supported by real data of failures. The benefits of using a continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is interpreted in relation to the classical approach with the use of non-destructive testing, NDT, for the three phases of the bathtub curve.

  13. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  14. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  16. Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

    2013-04-01

    Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

  17. On the road to fossil-free public transport: The case of Swedish bus fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Public transport is important for Sweden to acquire a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The aim of this paper is to assess the status of Swedish public bus fleets towards decarbonization, and explore factors affecting regional performance variations and fuel choices. Environmental performance indicators such as renewable fuel shares, CO 2 emissions, and energy efficiency are analyzed nationally and regionally. Fuel preferences and best practices are investigated through a survey and interviews with experts working with strategic planning at Public Transport Authorities. Almost 60% of the bus transport volume ran on renewables in 2014 compared to 8% in 2007, but regional variations are significant, partly due to factors such as driving conditions, bus and fuel types, typical trip lengths, and climatic conditions. However, there is no strong correlation between population densities or bus transport volume and the share of renewables achieved. This places political will, strategic planning and policies to promote public transport as key factors affecting renewable fuel deployment. Environmental factors are a priority when choosing fuels, while barriers to renewable fuels are mainly economic and political. Meanwhile, despite the overall progress, achievements in energy efficiency improvement are falling short in comparison to emissions reduction and adoption of renewable fuels, thus requiring further attention. - Highlights: • The penetration of renewables in Swedish public bus fleets reached ca. 60% in 2014. • Public bus emissions per vehicle-km have decreased by 43% between 2007 and 2014. • Efforts are needed to improve energy efficiency in bus transport. • Electricity is likely to receive increased attention according to expert survey.

  18. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  19. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada's healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers.

  20. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.